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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0772-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155577

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmaniasis is a tropical infectious disease caused by Leishmania spp. protozoa and is transmitted by insects from the Phlebotominae subfamily. It can manifest as cutaneous leishmaniasis, a painless ulcer that can develop into a more serious systemic affliction as the protozoa spreads lymphatically or hematogenously, depending on the host's immunity. In this case series, the authors present a rare form of genital mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, with consideration of epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and treatments offered.


Subject(s)
Animals , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmania , Ulcer , Diagnosis, Differential , Genitalia
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200040, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136884

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is a chronic infection that can affect the skin and mucous membranes. We report a case of oral, nasopharyngeal, and penile lesions in a 35-year-old cocaine user. The patient presented with ulcerated lesions in 2014. Histopathologic analysis revealed amastigotes, and serological test results were positive for leishmaniasis. Systemic therapy with meglumine antimoniate was administered; however, the patient failed to present for follow-up. In 2018, he returned with nasal collapse, and another histopathologic test confirmed MCL. This case illustrates the importance of careful differential diagnosis of skin and mucous ulcers to identify the particular pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Meglumine Antimoniate/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/complications , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/drug therapy
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 342-347, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114904

ABSTRACT

La Leishmaniasis es un grupo de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores y causada por la Leishmania, un parásito intracelular, que se presenta de preferencia en regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Se manifiesta mediante un amplio rango de formas clínicas como la cutánea, mucocutánea, y visceral, dependiendo de la especie y respuesta inmunológica del paciente. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 35 años que acudió derivado a Unidad de Estomatología del Hospital Señor del Milagro, Salta, Argentina, presentando en la cavidad oral lesión, granulomatosa, ulcerada, dolorosa a la palpación, única, en paladar blando, de tres meses de evolución. Se realizaron estudios serológicos, parasitológicos y PCR. Los ELISAs lisados, PCRs y cultivos de materiales de lesiones fueron positivos, confirmando diagnóstico de leishmaniasis mucocutánea. El paciente fue derivado al Servicio de Dermatología donde recibió tratamiento con Antimoniato de Meglumina, con repuesta clínica favorable. El conocimiento de las manifestaciones orales puede llevar al diagnóstico clínico de leishmaniasis mucocutánea por parte del odontólogo, pudiendo entregar un tratamiento oportuno y a la vez ayudar al paciente, evitando complicaciones de esta enfermedad.


Leishmaniasis is a group of vector-borne diseases caused by Leishmania, an intracellular parasite, which occurs preferentially in tropical and subtropical regions. It manifests itself through a wide range of clinical forms such as cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral, depending on the species and the patient's immune response. We present a case of a 35-year-old man who was referred to the Stomatology Unit of the Señor del Milagro Hospital, Salta, Argentina, presenting in the oral cavity lesion, granulomatous, ulcerated, painful on palpation, unique, soft palate with three months of evolution. Serological, parasitological and PCR studies were performed. Lysed ELISAs, PCRs and cultures of lesion materials were positive, confirming diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The patient was referred to the Dermatology Service where he received treatment with Meglumine Antimony, with favorable clinical response. The knowledge of the oral manifestations can lead to the clinical diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis by the dentist, being able to provide timely treatment and at the same time help the patient, avoiding complications of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/parasitology , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Mouth Diseases/parasitology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Diagnosis, Differential , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Mouth Mucosa/parasitology
4.
Rev. Fed. Argent. Soc. Otorrinolaringol ; 24(2): 58-62, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908139

ABSTRACT

La leishmaniasis es una zoonosis parasitaria causada por protozoos. Puede afectar la piel y las mucosas o presentarse como una enfermedad visceral. La variedad mucocutánea conduce a la destrucción parcial o completa de las membranas mucosas de la nariz, las fauces y la faringe. Aproximadamente un 90% de los casos con afectación mucocutánea se producen en Brasil, Bolivia y Perú. En nuestro país afecta en forma endémica a las provincias del norte desde principios del siglo XX. Se relata el caso de un paciente de 53 años con odinodisfagia de aproximadamente 6 meses de evolución, asociado a formaciones granulomatosas medio- faciales, en el que se diagnosticó leishmaniasis cutaneomucosa mediante el rescate de amastigotes en muestras tomadas de lesiones de paladar blando para estudio anatomopatológico con tinción de Giemsa. Se realizó tratamiento con meglumina antimoniato con buena evolución clínica a partir de los quince días de instaurado el mismo.


Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoa. It can affect skin, mucous membranes or presented as visceral disease. Mucocutaneous variety leads to partial or complete destruction of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and pharynx. Approximately, 90% of cases with mucocutaneous involvement occurs in Brazil, Bolivia and Peru. In our country it affects endemic to the northern provinces since the beginning of the century. The case of a 53-year-old patient with odinodisphagia of approximately 6 months of evolution, associated with mid-facial granulomatous formations in which cutaneomucous leishmaniasis was diagnosed by rescue of amastigotes in samples taken from lesions of soft palate for anatomopathological study with Staining of Giemsa. Treatment with meglumina antimonia was carried out with good clinical evolution from the fifteen days of the same establishment.


A leishmaniose é uma zoonose parasitária causada por protozoários. Ele pode afectar a pele e membranas mucosas ou presente como doença visceral. variedade mucocutânea conduz à destruição parcial ou completa das membranas mucosas do nariz, boca e faringe. Aproximadamente 90% dos casos com envolvimento mucocutânea ocorrem no Brasil, Bolívia e Peru. Em nosso país que afeta endêmica para as províncias do norte, desde o início do século XX. O caso de um odinodisfagia 53 anos, aproximadamente, 6 meses evolução associada com formações granulomatosas mediofaciais em que a leishmaniose mucocutânea foi diagnosticada por resgatar amastigotas em amostras tomadas a partir de lesões do palato mole para estudo histopatológico contou Giemsa. O tratamento foi realizado com antimoniato de meglumina com boa evolução clínica a partir de quinze dias introduzidas ele.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/drug therapy , Antimony/therapeutic use , Granulomatosis, Orofacial/diagnosis , Granulomatosis, Orofacial/therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(4): 343-347, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761162

ABSTRACT

SUMMARYIn this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensisand L. (Leishmania) amazonensis(3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensisin Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting.


RESUMOO presente estudo caracterizou as espécies de Leishmaniapela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR). Também descreveu os aspectos epidemiológicos de pacientes com suspeita de leishmaniose tegumentar americana do município de Assis Brasil, Estado do Acre, Brasil, localizado na tríplice fronteira Brasil/Peru/Bolívia. A PCR detectou DNA de Leishmaniaem 100% dos casos (37 amostras) e a PCR- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorfism(RFLP) do gene hsp 70identificou as espécies em 32 amostras: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65,6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28,1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3,1%) e infecção mista L. (V.) guyanensise L. (Leishmania) amazonensis(3,1%)Esse é o primeiro registro de L. (V.) shawie L. (L.) amazonensisno Acre. As duas espécies predominantes foram encontradas em indivíduos residentes em áreas rurais e urbanas. O maior número de casos foi notificado entre indivíduos de áreas rurais, sexo masculino, de ocupação rural e tempo de residência maior que três anos. Esses dados sugerem possível transmissão da doença em ambiente rural/florestal na maioria dos casos, no entanto alguns pacientes não tinham envolvimento com atividades relacionadas com a permanência na floresta, indicando possível adaptação de flebotomíneos no ambiente periurbano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Leishmania/classification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Urban Population
6.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2014. xii,67 p. graf, ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-762316

ABSTRACT

A leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA) é uma doença infecciosa, não contagiosa, que afeta a pele e mucosas, e que constitui um problema de saúde pública pela capacidade de produzir deformidades. A leishmaniose mucosa (LM) acredita - se ocorrer mesmo vários anos após a cicatrização da lesão cutânea primária. A mucosa nasal, isolada ou associada a outras localizações, está envolvida na quase t otalidade dos casos de LM, sendo lesões em cavidade oral, faringe e laringe, menos frequentes. As queixas mais comuns na LM são obstrução nasal, epistaxe, rinorreia, odinofagia, rouquidão e tosse, dependendo da localização da lesão mucosa. [...] Esta tese é composta por dois artigos e teve como objetivo descrever as alterações vocais na LM e avalia r os efeitos da fonoterapia na reabilitação destas. No primeiro artigo, foi realizado um estudo transversal em uma coorte de 26 pacientes com LM em atividade, acompanhados no Laboratório de Vigilância em Leishmanioses (Vigileish) do Instituto de Pesquisa C línica Evandro Chagas - Fiocruz, no período entre 2010 a 2013. Nestes, a idade média foi de 54,5 + 15 anos sendo 81 por cento do sexo masculino. As lesões encontravam - se distribuídas nas seguintes estruturas, 88,5 por cento cavidade nasal, 38,5 por cento cavidade oral, 34,6 por cento faringe e 19,2 por cento laringe. A principal queixa referida foi obstrução nasal (73,1 por cento), seguida de disfonia (38,5 por cento), odinofagia (30,8 por cento) e disfagia (26,9 por cento). Verificou - se que 23 pacientes (84,6 por cento) apresentaram alteração da qualidade vocal...


American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a non-contagious infectious disease wich affects the skin and mucous membranes , that disease is a public health problem in many countries. It has high potencial to cause deformities. The mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) can occur even years after the primary cutaneous lesion healing . The nasal mucosa, isolated or associated with other locations, is involved in almost 100% of ML cases. Lesions in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx are less frequent. The most common complaints in ML are nasal obstruction, epistaxis, rhinorrhea, odynophagia, hoarseness and cough, depending on the location of mucosal injury. Those affected structures plays an important role in vocal production and are speech therapy focus of study, which is dedicated to preventing and rehabilitating functional sequelae. This thesis has two articles describing the voice changes in ML and evaluates the effects of speech therapy in the rehabilitation. The first one is a cross-sectional study cohort of 26 patients with active ML, treated by the Laboratory of Leishmaniasis Surveillance (Vigileish) of the Clinical Research Institute Evandro Chagas - Fiocruz , in the period 2010-2013 . The patients average age was 54.5 years, with 81 % male. The lesions were distributed in the following structures, 88.5 % nasal cavity, 38.5 % oral cavity, 34.6 % pharynx and 19.2 % larynx. The most frequent complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1 %), followed by hoarseness (38.5 %), odynophagia, (30.8 % ) and dysphagia (26.9 %) . Voice quality problems were found in 23 patients (84.6 %). The second article is a prospective longitudinal study of speech therapy effects, between 2010 and 2012, treating 16 patients who had good response for ML treatment at Vigileish, between 2005 and 2009 . The perforation of the nasal septum was observed in 43.8 % of patients . In 25% of patients, scars were also observed on...


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Speech Therapy , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences , Voice Disorders , Voice Quality
7.
Dermatol. peru ; 23(1): 37-42, ene.-mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-765195

ABSTRACT

Las leishmaniasis son un grupo de enfermedades tropicales causadas por par sitos protozoarios del g‚nero Leishmania. Hayal menos 20 especies de Leishmania, cada una puede causar una enfermedad espec¡fica relacionada a la especie ya la respuesta inmunol gica del hu‚sped. Se presenta el caso de un paciente var¢n de 87 a¤os, con el diagn¢stico de leishmaniasis mucocut nea, setenta a¤os despu‚s de la primoinfecci n, cuya presentaci¢n se inicia en la zona cut nea y compromete la mucosa nasal por extensi¢n. Tiene antecedente de hace 70 a¤os de lesi¢n ulcerativa que se resolvi¢ espont neamente en un viaje a  rea end‚mica de leishmaniasis en Per£, desde entonces nunca viaj¢ fuera de Lima. El paciente fue diagnosticado de leishmaniasis por histopatologia y PCR de las lesiones. Fue tratado con estibogluconato de sodio, 20 mglkgld, intramuscular, cada 12 horas, por 28 d¡as, con per¡odos de descanso de 7 d¡as. Present¢ curaci¢n cl¡nica completa de las lesiones infiltradas y ulcerativas.


Leishmaniasis is a tropical disease witli a wide clinical spectrum caused by protoioan parasites of the genus Leishmania. There are at least 20 species of Leishmania, each may cause a disease specific to the species and the host immunological response. We present the case of a 87 year old male patient, We found he had an ulcerative lesion on his left arm 70 years prior, that spontaneously heal, while he traveled to an endemic area for leishmaniasis in Peru. Since then he had never traveled outside his city. The patient was diagnosed of leishmaniasis by histopathology and PCR from the lesions. He was treated with systemic sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/d) for 28 days with complete clinical healing of the ulcerative lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Medical Illustration , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/therapy
8.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 16(4): 523-526, out.-dez. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-655981

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is classified into three clinical presentations: visceral, coetaneous and mucocutaneous. The latter is usually secondary to hematogenous spread after months or years of skin infection and can manifest as infiltrative lesions, ulcerated or vegetating in nose, pharynx, larynx and mouth, associated or not with ganglionics infarction. Laryngeal involvement is part of the differential diagnosis of lesions in this topography as nonspecific chronic laryngitis, granulomatosis and even tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract presenting atypical evolution. Sometimes it is difficult for the correct diagnosis of Leishmaniasis, with description of cases in the literature were conducted improperly. Objective: The objective of this study is to report a case of laryngeal Leishmaniasis addressing the difficulty of diagnosis, complications and treatment applied. Case Report: A patient with pain throat, dysphagia, odynophagia, dysphonia and weight loss, with no improvement with symptomatic medication. At telelaringoscopy, infiltrative lesion showed nodular supraglottis. He underwent a tracheotomy for airway obstruction and biopsy with immunohistochemical study for a definitive diagnosis of laryngeal Leishmaniasis. The patient was referred to the infectious diseases that initiated treatment with N-methylglucamine antimoniate with satisfactory response to therapy. Final Comments: Faced with a clinical suspicion of granulomatous diseases, it is essential to follow protocol laboratory evaluation associated with histological injury, to get a precise definition etiological without prolonging the time of diagnosis. Medical treatment for mucosal Leishmaniasis, recommended by the World Health Organization, was adequate in the case of laryngeal disorders, with complete resolution of symptoms...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Diagnosis, Differential , Dysphonia/etiology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Larynx/surgery , Larynx/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/pathology , Preoperative Period , Deglutition Disorders/etiology
10.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 52(1): 15-19, jun. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659196

ABSTRACT

Se registra, en un paciente masculino de 48 años, la detección de Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis en muestra de lesión mucosa crónica con 16 años de evolución clínica. El caso presentado cursa con perforación del tabique nasal no evidenciándose lesión cutánea primaria sugestiva de leishmaniasis. Por su ocupación el paciente ha frecuentado, por largos períodos, bosques en áreas endémicas para leishmaniasis en el occidente de Venezuela. Continuas evaluaciones clínicas, inmunológicas e histopatológicas realizadas durante varios años fallaron en establecer un diagnóstico certero incrementando la severidad del caso. Exámenes recientes realizados en nuestro laboratorio revelan la presencia de amastigotes en muestras de la lesión nasal activa en extendidos coloreados con tinción de Giemsa. La identificación del parásito como L. braziliensis y la verificación de la infección por este parásito en el paciente, fue lograda por ensayos de PCR y Western Blot, respectivamente. Se concluye que el caso presentado sufre una leishmaniasis mucocutánea de vieja data con una baja respuesta inmunológica, a juzgar por la frecuente negatividad en pruebas de IDR y/o la detección de anticuerpos circulantes anti-Leishmania. Se discute sobre la imprecisión diagnóstica en el caso presentado y se advierte sobre el riesgo epidemiológico potencial de casos similares.


The detection of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis from a chronic mucosal lesion with 16 years of clinical evolution in a 48 years old male patient is reported. The patient showed destruction of the nasal septal cartilage with no evidence of primary leishmanial lesion. Due to his professional work he frequently visited areas of western Venezuela where leishmaniasis is endemic. Frequent clinical, immunologic and histopathologic evaluations carried out during several years failed to establish a right diagnosis, increasing the severity of the mucosal lesion. The finding of a sparse number of amastigotes in a sample from the mucosal lesion stained by Giemsa stain, suggested a mucosal infection by Leishmania. The identification of the parasite as L. braziliensis and the verification of the infection by this parasite in the reported case were carried out using a PCR assay and a Western Blot test, respectively. It is concluded that the patient was suffering a long-lasting, reluctant to heal and severe lesion with a low immunological response due to infection by L. braziliensis causing mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). The fail in the diagnosis of this particular case of MCL and the potential epidemiological risk in similar cases are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leishmania braziliensis/growth & development , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/ethnology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/physiopathology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/drug therapy , Parasitology/methods , Venezuela
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(6): 1141-1144, nov.-dez. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Amazon region corresponds to approximately 40 percent of the cases of leishmaniasis in Brazil. We report a prospective study with 180 patients conducted in a health care unit that diagnoses 10 percent of the cases of leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazon. The study addresses how a combination of procedures improves diagnosis in areas with high prevalence of Leishmania guyanensis. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate diagnostic methods in areas with high prevalence of Leishmania guyanensis. METHODS: All subjects were amastigote-positive by direct microscopic examination of lesion scarifications. We conducted skin biopsy and histopathology, polymerase chain reaction and parasite cultivation. RESULTS: Polymerase chain reaction detected almost ninety percent of infections when two amplification protocols were used (mini-exon and HSP-70). HSP-70 specific polymerase chain reaction matched the sensitivity of parasite cultivation plus histopathology. CONCLUSION: The best combination was polymerase chain reaction plus histopathology, which increased diagnostic sensitivity to 94 percent. Species discrimination by polymerase chain reaction disclosed prevalence of human infections with Leishmania guyanensis of 94 percent and with Leishmania braziliensis of 6 percent for this region.


FUNDAMENTOS: O Amazonas corresponde a aproximadamente 40 por cento dos casos de leishmaniose do país. Nós reportamos um estudo prospectivo com 180 pacientes de uma unidade de saúde que diagnostica 10 por cento dos casos de leishmaniose da amazônia brasileira, com combinação de métodos diagnóstico em área de alta prevalência de Leishmania guyanensis. OBJETIVOS: avaliar métodos diagnóstico da Leishmaniose em área endêmica para Leishmania Amazonensis. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes tiveram exame direto positivo com presença de amastigotas. Foi feita também biópsia cutânea, com realização de exame histológico, reação em cadeia da polimerase e cultura. RESULTADO: A reação em cadeia da polimerase detectou aproximadamente 90 por cento de infecção quando foram usados duas técnicas de amplificação (mini-exon and HSP-70). A reação em cadeia da polimerase com HSP-70 foi mais sensível que a cultura associada à histopatologia. CONCLUSÃO: A melhor combinação foi a reação em cadeia da polimerase com histopatologia, com sensibilidade de 94 por cento. A discrimanação das espécies causadoras de infecção humana nessa região mostrou Leishmania guyanensis em 94 por cento dos casos e Leishmania brasiliensis em 6 por cento.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Leishmania guyanensis/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Biopsy , Brazil , Leishmania braziliensis/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 71(5): 420-428, oct. 2011. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633890

ABSTRACT

Es importante conocer si la variabilidad de especies de Leishmania circulantes en una región afecta la performance de las pruebas de ELISA estandarizadas para el diagnostico de la leishmaniasis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la reactividad de la prueba de ELISA utilizando homogenados de promastigotes de Leishmania (V.) braziliensis (ELISAb), L (L) amazonensis (ELISAa) y L (V.) guyanensis (ELISAg) frente a distintos grupos de sueros. Se estudiaron muestras de personas con leishmaniasis cutánea (n = 37), leishmaniasis mucocutánea (n = 8), no infectados (n = 52), infectadas por Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 11) e infecciones mixtas (n = 14). Se calcularon las sensibilidades, especificidades, cut off, valores predictivos, y se compararon las tres pruebas usando ANOVA, índice de concordancia kappa, comparación de curvas ROC e intervalos de confianza construidos por el método de bootstrap. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar los niveles de DO de los sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis cutánea respecto a los controles negativos, pero no se encontraron diferencias entre pruebas. Las sensibilidades calculadas fueron de 84.6% para ELISAb y ELISAa y de 88.5 para ELISAg, mientras que el valor de especificidad para las tres pruebas fue de 96.2. El índice de concordancia kappa y la comparación de curvas ROC mostraron performances similares para las tres pruebas (p = 0.225). La elevada reactividad obtenida para estas ELISAs frente a sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis mucocutánea indica un importante potencial de esta técnica como complemento en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad.


It is important to know whether the variability of species of Leishmania parasites circulating in a region affects the performance of the ELISA test for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the reactivity of the ELISA using homogenates of promastigotes of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis (ELISAb), Leishmania (L) amazonensis (ELISAa) and Leishmania (V.) guyanensis (ELISAg) against different sera groups. Samples from individuals with cutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 37), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 8), healthy controls (n = 52), persons infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 11) and mixed infections (n = 14) were included in the study. We calculated sensitivities, specificities, cut offs, and predictive values for the three tests and compared them using ANOVA, kappa index, ROC curves comparison, and confidence intervals calculated by the bootstrap method. Significant differences were found when comparing the OD levels of sera from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis against healthy controls, but there were no differences when comparing the different ELISAs. The sensitivities calculated for ELISAb and ELISAa were 84.6 and of 88.5% for ELISAg, while the value of specificity for the three tests was 96.2. The kappa index (0.87) and comparison of ROC curves showed similar performance for the three ELISAs (p = 0.225). The high reactivity obtained for these ELISAs in sera of patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis indicates this test as an important complement in the diagnosis of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Leishmania/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Protozoan Proteins/blood , Analysis of Variance , Confidence Intervals , Chagas Disease/immunology , Leishmania braziliensis/immunology , Leishmania guyanensis/immunology , Leishmania mexicana/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Trypanosoma cruzi/chemistry
14.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 77(3): 380-384, May-June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595776

ABSTRACT

Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (ML) can lead to serious sequela; however, early diagnosis can prevent complications. AIM: To evaluate clinical markers for the early diagnosis of ML. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series study of 21 cases of ML, which were evaluated through clinical interview, nasal endoscopy, biopsy and the Montenegro test. RESULTS: A skin scar and previous diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were reported in 8(38 percent) patients, and 13(62 percent) of them denied having had previous CL and had no scar. Nasal/oral symptom onset until the ML diagnosis varied from 5 months to 20 years, mean value of 6 years. In the Montenegro test, the average size of the papule was 14.5 mm, which did not correlate with disease duration (p=0.87). The nose was the most often involved site and the extension of the injured mucosa did not correlate with disease duration. The parasite was found in 2 (9.52 percent) biopsy specimens. CONCLUSIONS: ML diagnosis was late. Finding the parasite in the mucosa, cutaneous scar and/or previous diagnosis of CL were not clinical markers for ML. ML diagnosis must be based on the Montenegro test, chronic nasal and/or oral discharge and histological findings ruling out other granulomatous diseases.


A leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa (LM) pode deixar sequelas graves. O diagnóstico precoce evita complicações. OBJETIVO: Avaliar marcadores clínicos para o diagnóstico precoce da LM. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo de série de 21 casos avaliados com diagnóstico confirmado de LM por meio de entrevista, endoscopia nasal, biópsia e teste cutâneo de Montenegro. RESULTADOS: A cicatriz cutânea ou história de leishmaniose cutânea foram observadas em 8 (38 por cento) pacientes e 13(62 por cento) negaram terem tido forma cutânea e não tinham cicatriz. O início dos sintomas nasais/orais até a definição do diagnóstico variou de 5 meses a 20 anos, média de 6 anos. No teste de Montenegro, o tamanho médio da pápula foi de 14,5mm e não se correlacionou com a duração da doença (p=0,87). O comprometimento nasal predominou e a extensão da lesão não se correlacionou com a duração da doença. Parasitas foram encontrados em 2(9,52 por cento) espécimes de lesões biopsiadas. CONCLUSÃO: O diagnóstico da LM foi tardio. O encontro do parasito na mucosa, a cicatriz típica e leishmaniose cutânea prévia não foram marcadores para o diagnóstico de LM. O diagnóstico de LM pode se basear no teste de Montenegro alterado associado a sintomas nasais e/ou orais e exclusão de outras doenças granulomatosas.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Biomarkers , Biopsy , Cicatrix/pathology , Endoscopy , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/pathology , Skin Tests
17.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 77(1): 7-15, ene.-mar. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-564479

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas, incluyendo la respuesta terapéutica, de los pacientes con leishmaniasis atendidos en el Hospital Escuela en el período 2000 – 2008. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y longitudinal. Incluyó evaluaciones retrospectiva de pacientes hospitalizados (2000 – 2006) y prospectiva de pacientes ambulatorios en la Consulta Externa de Dermatología (2007 – 2008). Resultados: Se caracterizaron 57 pacientes hospitalizados y 69 pacientes ambulatorios. Del total de casos, 57 (45.2%) correspondieron a leishmaniasis cutánea no ulcerada (LCNU), 16 (12.7%) a leishmaniasis cutánea ulcerada (LCU), 10 (7.9%) a leishmaniasis mucocutánea (LMC) y 43 (34.1%) a leishmaniasis visceral (LV). En 105 casos (83.3%), el diagnóstico se sospechó clínicamente y se confirmó por laboratorio. En general, las características sociodemográficas y clínicas de los pacientes fueron similares a las ya descritas en Honduras. La evaluación de la respuesta terapéutica en los casos ambulatorios demostró curación clínica en 83.3% de los casos LCU y 94.4% de los casos LCNU. Se evidenció administración subóptima del tratamiento en los casos hospitalizados de LMC (30.0%) y LV (65.2%). Conclusiones: Se debe estandarizar y fortalecer el abordaje diagnóstico y terapéutico de los casos de leishmaniasis atendidos en el Hospital Escuela. Se recomienda realizar el diagnóstico parasitológico, incluyendo cultivo, para poder caracterizar las especies parasitarias circulantes en...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/complications , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/therapy , Skin Diseases
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 41(2): 135-141, mar.-abr. 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-484217

ABSTRACT

Total antigen from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and isolates from the Leishmania braziliensis complex, along with their respective antigenic fractions obtained by affinity chromatography on concanavalin-A-Sepharose and jacalin-agarose columns evaluated using immunoenzymatic ELISA assay. For this, serum samples from 229 patients were used, grouped as American tegmental leishmaniasis (nº=58), visceral leishmaniasis (nº=28), Chagas disease (nº=49), malaria (nº=32), tuberculosis (nº=13) and healthy volunteers (nº=49). Samples from American tegmentary leishmaniasis showed higher reactivity with antigens isolated from the Leishmania braziliensis complex than with antigens from Leishmania amazonensis (p<0.001). ELISA assays showed a sensitivity range from 60 percent to 95 percent with antigens isolated from the Leishmania braziliensis complex. There was marked nonspecific reactivity among serum samples with the use of antigenic fractions binding with concanavalin-A and jacalin from both Leishmania complexes, in comparison with other antigens (p<0.001). The results presented in this study suggest that the use of homologous antigens increases the efficiency of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin detection, which may be very valuable for diagnostic purposes.


Antígeno total de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis e isolado do complexo Leishmania brazilienis, assim como suas respectivas frações antigênicas obtidas por cromatografia de afinidade em coluna de concanavalina-A ligada a sepharose e Jacalina ligada a agarose foram avaliadas por ensaio imunoenzimático ELISA. Para tanto, foram utilizadas amostras de soros de 229 pacientes agrupadas em leishmaniose tegumentar americana (nº=58), leishmaniose visceral (nº=28), doença de Chagas (nº=49), malaria (nº=32), tuberculose (nº=13) e voluntários saudáveis (nº=49). Houve maior reatividade das amostras de leishmaniose tegumentar americana com a utilização dos antígenos obtidos do isolado do complexo Leishmania braziliensis quando comparado com antígenos de Leishmania amazonensis (p<0,001). Observou-se ainda que a sensibilidade do teste ELISA variou de 60 a 95 por cento entre os antígenos obtidos do isolado do complexo Leishmania braziliensis. Houve acentuada reatividade inespecífica das amostras de soros com a utilização das frações antigênicas ligantes de Concanavalina-A e Jacalina de ambos os complexos Leishmania em comparação aos demais antígenos (p<0,001). Os resultados apresentados no presente trabalho sugerem que a utilização de antígenos homólogos aumentam a eficiência de detecção de imunoglobulina anti-Leishmania o que pode ser de grande valia para o propósito de diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antigens, Helminth , Leishmania braziliensis/immunology , Leishmania mexicana/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Antigens, Helminth/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Chromatography, Affinity , Cross Reactions , Chagas Disease/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , Malaria/immunology , Plant Lectins , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sepharose/analogs & derivatives , Sepharose , Tuberculosis/immunology
20.
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 73(6): 843-847, nov.-dez. 2007. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-474422

ABSTRACT

A leishmaniose tem sido documentada em diversos países, sendo estimada uma prevalência mundial de 12 milhões, com 400.000 casos novos de doença por ano. A leishmaniose tegumentar americana encontra-se situada entre as grandes endemias existentes no Brasil e na América Latina. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é complementar o conhecimento sobre leishmaniose mucosa, apresentando a experiência dos Serviços de Imunologia e de Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Universitário Professor Edgar Santos da Universidade Federal da Bahia. COMENTÁRIOS: A leishmaniose cutânea é a forma mais comum de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, contudo, concomitantemente ou após anos de doença cutânea podem ocorrer lesões mucosas. A leishmaniose mucosa é causada principalmente pela L. braziliensis braziliensis e, apesar de a mucosa nasal ser a área principalmente acometida, lesões podem também ser documentadas nos lábios, boca, na faringe e na laringe. Fatores do parasito, bem como da resposta imune do hospedeiro podem estar envolvidos na patogênese da lesão tissular na leishmaniose mucosa.


Leishmaniasis has been documented in several countries, with an estimated prevalence of 12 million people and an incidence at around 400,000 new cases per year. Leishmaniasis in the New World is one the major endemic diseases in Brazil and Latin America. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to add to the current knowdlegde on mucosal leishmaniasis, bringing the experience of the Imunology and Otolaryngology Departments in the Professor Edgar Santos University Hospital of the Federal University of Bahia. CONCLUSION: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of New World Leishmaniasis; mucosal legions may occur simultaneously or after years of disease. Mucosal leishmaniasis is caused mainly by L. braziliensis braziliensis; although the nasal mucosa is the most affected area, lesions may be found on the lips, mouth, pharynx and larynx. In addition to parasite-related factors, the host immune response may be involved in the pathogenicity of lesions in mucosal leishmaniasis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous , Brazil/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/microbiology
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