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Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200428, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154875


BACKGROUND Dogs are the main peridomiciliary reservoir of Leishmania infantum thus the correct diagnosis of infection is essential for the control of the transmission and treatment as well. However, the diagnosis is based on serological assays that are not fully effective. OBJECTIVE We aimed to establish an effective serological assay for the diagnosis of L. infantum infected dogs using Leishmania-derived recombinant antigens. METHODS Leishmania derived rK39-, rK28-, rKR95-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized using symptomatic and asymptomatic L. infantum-infected dogs. Then 2,530 samples from inquiry in endemic areas for VL were evaluated and the results compared with recommended assays by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MH algorithm). Further samples from a cohort of 30 dogs were searched. FINDINGS For rK39-, rK28- and rKR95-ELISA the sensitivity was around 97% and specificity 100%. The positivity of these three ELISA in the inquiry samples was 27-28%, around 10% higher than the assays currently in use. When cohort samples were searched, we observed likely false-negative results (> 65%) with supposedly negative samples that turned positive six months later with the assays in use (MH algorithm). MAIN CONCLUSIONS For the diagnosis of L. infantum-infected dogs, rK39-based ELISA showed better diagnostic performance than other assays in use in Brazil and worldwide.

Animals , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Serologic Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Antigens, Protozoan/biosynthesis
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e016919, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138076


Abstract Dogs have been implicated as main reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. Therefore, studies on this species provide important data for public health. Thus, the objective of the present study was to ascertain the seroprevalence of canine VL (CVL) and the associated factors in the Brejo Paraibano microregion, northeastern Brazil. A total of 409 dogs were sampled from the eight municipalities of the microregion: Alagoa Grande, Alagoa Nova, Areia, Bananeiras, Borborema, Matinhas, Pilões and Serraria. The diagnosis of CVL was made using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA S7®), through which the prevalence observed was 29.3%. By robust Poisson regression analysis two factors were associated with seroprevalence: illiterate/incomplete elementary owner's education level (prevalence ratio = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.05-2.34; p-value = 0.027) and tick infestation (prevalence ratio = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.27-2.61; p-value = 0.001). It is concluded that the seroprevalence of CVL in the Brejo Paraibano microregion is high. The factors associated with seroprevalence indicated the importance to develop socioeducational actions on the population, and the finding that tick infestation was associated with seroprevalence shows that there is a need for investigation regarding the role of ticks in the epidemiology of CVL.

Resumo Os cães são apontados como principais reservatórios da leishmaniose visceral (LV) em áreas urbanas. Portanto, estudos com essa espécie fornecem dados importantes para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a soroprevalência da leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) e os fatores associados na microrregião do Brejo Paraibano, Nordeste do Brasil. Foram amostrados 409 cães dos oito municípios da microrregião: Alagoa Grande, Alagoa Nova, Areia, Bananeiras, Borborema, Matinhas, Pilões e Serraria. O diagnóstico de LVC foi realizado com o ensaio imunoenzimático (kit ELISA S7®), no qual a prevalência observada foi de 29,3%. Pela análise de regressão de Poisson robusta, dois fatores foram associados à soroprevalência: proprietário analfabeto ou com ensino fundamental incompleto (razão de prevalência = 1,57; IC 95% = 1,05-2,34; p-valor = 0,027) e infestação de carrapatos (razão de prevalência = 1,82; IC 95% = 1,27-2,61; p-valor = 0,001). Conclui-se que a soroprevalência da LVC na microrregião Brejo Paraibano é alta. Os fatores associados à soroprevalência indicaram a importância do desenvolvimento de ações socioeducativas na população, e a associação da infestação de carrapatos com a soroprevalência mostra que há necessidade de investigação sobre o papel dos carrapatos na epidemiologia da LVC.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/blood , Educational Status , Animal Distribution , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(2): 211-217, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959176


Abstract The aim of this study was to find correlations between haematological and rheological parameters in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CLV). Enrolled dogs with CVL (n=31) had a confirmed diagnosis using the rapid test Dual Path Platform (TR DPP®) kit and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay. A control group (n=31) comprised healthy dogs with negative results for the TR DPP® kit and PCR assay. Haematological parameters and total protein, albumin, globulin, and antibody were assessed. The rheological properties of the blood samples were also determined. Erythrocytes, haematocrit and platelet values of dogs in the CVL group were found to be lower than those of the control group. The total protein, globulin and IgG concentrations were higher in serum samples from the CVL group. The blood flow curve demonstrated increased shear rates in the CVL group. The viscosity of the blood from the infected animals was lower than in the healthy dogs. A positive correlation was found between erythrocyte numbers and blood viscosity. These data suggest that changes in the flow curve and viscosity of blood as well as the erythrocyte values may be a viable low-cost alternative for the monitoring of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi encontrar correlações entre parâmetros hematológicos e reológicos na leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC). Cães com LVC (n=31) tiveram diagnóstico confirmado de LVC pelo teste rápido imunocromatográfico (TR DPP®) e o ensaio de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR). Cães saudáveis ​​ negativos para o TR DPP® e PCR foram alocados no grupo controle (n=31). Foram avaliados parâmetros hematológicos, proteínas totais, albumina, globulina, anticorpos e as propriedades reológicas do sangue. Os valores de eritrócitos, hematócrito e plaquetas de cães do grupo LVC foram menores do que os encontrados no grupo controle. As concentrações de proteína total, globulina e imunoglobulina G (IgG) foram maiores em amostras de soro do grupo LVC. A curva do fluxo sanguíneo apresentou maior taxa de cisalhamento no grupo LVC. A viscosidade sanguínea dos animais infectados foi menor do que a viscosidade do sangue dos animais do grupo controle. Uma correlação positiva foi encontrada entre o número de eritrócitos e a viscosidade do sangue. Esses dados sugerem que as mudanças na curva de fluxo e viscosidade do sangue, bem como os valores de eritrócitos, podem ser uma alternativa viável e de baixo custo para o monitoramento de cães com leishmaniose visceral.

Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Dog Diseases/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Hemorheology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(5): 545-549, Sept.-Oct. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039201


Abstract The present study was aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms of improper renal function in Leishmania donovani infection that causes VL. Mice (BALB/c) were infected with L. donovani and different parameters for proteinuria were assessed. The levels of superoxide anion (O2 -), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation (MDA), inflammatory cytokines, and toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 expression were found significantly elevated at 60th day in these animals and declined at 90th day post infection. However, TGF-β and caspase 3 activities were higher at 90th day in comparison to 60th day post infection. These findings suggested that exacerbated inflammatory conditions correlate with abnormal renal functions in L. donovani infection, which is further augmented by activated TLRs expressions by circulating leishmanial antigens. Further, the increased levels of TGF-β and caspase 3 at 90th day suggested TGF-β mediated apoptotic cell death of renal and other cells during later stages of disease that may eventually result in release of host and parasitic factors in urine during visceral leishmaniasis.

Animals , Female , Rats , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood , Toll-Like Receptor 2/blood , Toll-Like Receptor 4/blood , Kidney/parasitology , Kidney/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Leishmania donovani , Apoptosis , Disease Models, Animal , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(2): 244-247, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785153


Abstract Leishmania infantum chagasi liver parasite load was compared to hemostatic abnormalities, as well as to clinical, laboratorial, and histopathological findings in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. The liver parasite load of 30 dogs L. infantum chagasi naturally-infected was evaluated by quantitative real- time PCR and the results were compared with serum biochemistry and primary and secondary hemostasis findings. Moreover, hepatic histological lesions were described in these dogs. Prolonged bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), were observed in the group with visceral leishmaniasis. Eleven dogs presented inflammatory liver lesions, with predominance of mild multifocal mononuclear periportal hepatitis. No association between the presence of parasites and abnormalities in screening tests was observed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The clinical progression in leishmaniasis is associated with the occurrence of hemorrhagic diathesis, which depends not only on the presence of the parasite but also the inflammatory process, compromised immunological response, hepatic and renal failure in symptomatic dogs.

Resumo A carga parasitária de Leishmania infantum chagasi do fígado foi comparada às anormalidades hemostáticas, bem como aos achados clínicos, laboratoriais e histopatológicos em cães com leishmaniose visceral. A carga parasitária do fígado de 30 cães naturalmente infectados por L. infantum chagasi foi avaliada por PCR quantitativo em tempo real e os resultados foram comparados com bioquímica sérica e achados de hemostasia primária e secundária. Além disso, foram descritas as lesões hepáticas nestes cães. Prolongado tempo de sangramento, tempo de protrombina (TP) e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA) foram observados no grupo com leishmaniose visceral. Onze cães apresentaram lesões inflamatórias no fígado, predominando hepatite periportal mononuclear multifocal. Não foi observada associação entre a presença de parasitos e as anormalidades nos testes laboratoriais por correlação de Spearman. A progressão clínica na leishmaniose está associada com a ocorrência de diátese hemorrágica, que depende não só da presença do parasito, mas também do processo inflamatório, do comprometimento da resposta imunológica e da falência renal e hepática em cães sintomáticos.

Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/blood , Parasite Load/veterinary , Hemostasis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(3): 168-173, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777366


In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused byLeishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL.

Animals , Dogs , Humans , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Serologic Tests/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Public Health/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Zoonoses/blood , Zoonoses/diagnosis
Salvador; s.n; 2016. 98 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-870326


A Leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença infecciosa e parasitária que se encontra em expansão no Brasil. A espécie que causa a doença no Brasil é a Leishmania infantum. O cão é o principal reservatório do parasita. Uma vacina contra leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) pode favorecer o controle da doença. Este trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir para o desenvolvimento de uma vacina contra LVC.OBJETIVO: O estudo do primeiro capítulo visou o desenvolvimento de um modelo para a avaliação de antígenos candidatos à vacina contra LVC. METODOLOGIA: Um experimento foi realizado para obtenção de cães resistentes a LVC. Os linfócitos dos animais deveriam ser capazes de reconhecer antígenos otencialmente úteis para o desenvolvimento de uma vacina. Para isso, uma cepa de L.infantum foi isolada de cão naturalmente infectado e doente (Camaçari, Bahia). Seis cães adultos e sadios foram inoculados com 1x108 formas promastigotas em fase estacionária de cultura por via dérmica e acompanhados por dois anos.RESULTADOS: Os animais apresentaram: 1) área de induração e ulceração rasa no local da inoculação do parasita com cura espontânea em um período inferior a três meses, 2) ausência de manifestações clínicas e de alterações hematológicas e bioquímicas séricas, 3) produção baixa e flutuante de anticorpos da classe IgG reativos a antígenos de Leishmania, 4) resposta linfoproliferativa (em 4 de 6 cães) frente a estimulação com antígenos de Leishmania, 5)produção baixa de IFN-γ em um ensaio realizado com sangue total incubado por 24h com antígenos de Leishmania (4 de 5 cães), 6) carga parasitária baixa em aspirado de baço,detectada por PCR em tempo real. CONCLUSÃO: Os animais desenvolveram uma forma subclínica da infecção ao lado de resposta imune humoral e celular fracas.OBJETIVO: No segundo capítulo foi testado um ensaio de avaliação da produção de citocinas por células de sangue de cães naturalmente infectados por Leishmania infantum. O quantiFERON modificado permite a avaliação in vitro e de maneira rápida da produção de citocinas contra Leishmania em animais de área endêmica. METODOLOGIA: Antígeno solúvel e antígenos recombinantes de L. infantum (rLci2-NT-5R-CT e rLci2-NT-CT) foram produzidos e utilizados no ensaio para a estimulação do sangue total de27 cães de área endêmica e não endêmica para LVC por 24h. O plasma foi coletado e a produção das citocinas caninas IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 e TNF-α foram quantificadas. RESULTADO:Devido a problemas técnicos não foi possível avaliar os dados obtidos e,consequentemente,não foi possível caracterizar grupos de animais susceptíveis e resistentes.OBJETIVO: No terceiro capítulo, a carga parasitária e aspectos histológicos em diferentes regiões do baço de cães com LVC foi analisada.METODOLOGIA: A carga parasitária e alterações histológicas no baço de 6 cães com LVC foram avaliados por amostragem de três secções inferior, média e superior do órgão...

INTRODUCTION: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious parasitic disease which is increasing in Brazil. The species that causes the disease in Brazil is Leishmaniainfantum. The dog is the main reservoir of the parasite. A canine visceral leishmaniasis vaccine (CVL) may favor the control of the disease. This paper aims to contribute to the development of a vaccine against CVL. OBJECTIVE: The first chapter study aimed the development of a model for the evaluation of candidate antigens for a vaccine against CVL. An experiment was conducted to obtain resistant dogs to CVL. Lymphocytes of these animals should be able to recognize potentially useful antigens for a vaccine development. METHODOLOGY: For this, a strain of L. infantum was isolated from naturally infected and sick dog (Camaçari, Bahia). Six dogs and healthy adults were intradermally inoculated with 1 x 108 promastigotes in the stationary phase culture and were followed for two years. RESULTS: The animals showed: 1) induration area and shallow ulceration in parasite inoculation site with spontaneous healing in a period of less than three months, 2) absence of clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical changes, 3) low and floating production of antibodies IgG reactive to Leishmania antigens, 4) lymphoproliferative response (in 4 of 6 dogs) compared to stimulation with leishmanial antigens, 5) low IFN-γ in a test performed on whole blood incubated for 24 h with antigen Leishmania (4 of 5 dogs), 6) a low parasite load in spleen aspirates, detected by realtime PCR. CONCLUSION: These animals developed a subclinical form of the infection alongside with a weakspecific humoral and cellular immune response and weak cell. OBJECTIVE: The second section was tested in a trial evaluating cytokine production by blood cells of dogs naturally infected with Leishmaniainfantum. The modified QuantiFERON allows evaluation both in vitro and quickly production of cytokines against Leishmania in animals in an endemic area. METHODOLOGY: Soluble antigen and recombinant antigens of L. infantum (rLci2-5R-NT-CT and rLci2-NT-CT) were produced and used in the assay for the stimulation of whole blood of 27 animals from endemic and nonendemic area for LVC for 24h. Plasma was collected and cytokine production of canine IFNγ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α cytokines were quantified. RESULTS: Due to technical some problems, it was not possible to characterize groups of animals susceptible and resistant in relation to modified QuantiFERON assay results. OBJECTIVE: In the third chapter, the parasite load and histological aspects in different regions of the spleen of dogs with CVL were analyzed. METHODOLOGY: The parasite load and histological changes in the spleen of 6 dogs with CVL were evaluated by sampling three sections of the spleen (lower, middle and upper section of the organ)...

Animals , Spleen/growth & development , Spleen/injuries , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 24(3): 309-316, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761134


This study aimed to express a recombinant A2 family protein of Leishmania chagasi, Jaboticabal strain; test this protein as an antigen in serological assays; and investigate its antigenicity and immunogenicity. A protein coded by an allele of the A2 gene isolated from L. chagasi was expressed in three different strains of Escherichia coli. We used 29 sera samples from Leishmune-vaccinated dogs, 482 sera samples from dogs from endemic areas (positive controls), and 170 sera samples from dogs from non-endemic areas (negative controls) in ELISA tests using soluble Leishmaniaantigen (SLA) and His-A2 as antigen. Expressed proteins showed, by western blotting, the expression of an 11 KDa protein. Sixty-three percent (303/482) of the samples from endemic areas were positive by ELISA His-A2, whereas 93.1% (27/29) of Leishmune®-vaccinated animals were negative by His-A2-ELISA. Anti-A2 antibodies from mice inoculated with the A2 protein were detected in slides containing amastigote forms, but not in slides containing promastigote forms. The A2 recombinant protein from L. chagasi may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of CVL, and further tests regarding the infection stage and the specie of parasite at which the dogs are sampled should provide a better understanding of our results.

Este estudo teve como objetivos expressar uma proteína recombinante da família A2 de Leishmania chagasi, amostra de Jaboticabal-SP; testar essa proteína como antígeno em testes sorológicos; e investigar a antigenicidade e imunogenicidade dessa proteína. Uma proteína codificada por um alelo do gene A2 isolado de L. chagasi foi expressa em três diferentes amostras de Escherichia coli. Foram utilizadas 29 amostras de soro de cães vacinados com Leishmune, 482 amostras de soro de cães de áreas endêmicas (controles positivos), e 170 amostras de soro de cães de áreas não-endêmicas (controles negativos) no ELISA-teste utilizando-se antígeno solúvel total de Leishmania (AST) e His-A2 como antígenos. As proteínas expressas, detectadas pelo western blotting, mostraram a expressão de uma proteína de 11 KDa. Sessenta e três por cento (303/482) das amostras de áreas endêmicas foram positivas pelo ELISA-teste, utilizando-se antígeno His-A2; e 93,1% (27/29) dos animais vacinados com a Leishmune foram negativos. Anticorpos anti-A2 de camundongos inoculados com a proteína A2 foram detectados em lâminas contendo formas amastigotas, enquanto em lâminas contendo formas promastigotas não houve detecção de anticorpos anti-A2. A proteína recombinante A2 pode ser uma ferramenta útil no diagnóstico da LVC, e maiores estudos sobre o estágio de infecção e a espécie de parasita dos cães amostrados devem prover melhor entendimento dos resultados encontrados.

Animals , Dogs , Protozoan Proteins/biosynthesis , Protozoan Proteins/blood , Leishmania infantum/metabolism , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Recombinant Proteins/analysis , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Serologic Tests , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Antigens, Protozoan/blood
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50467


Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were randomly collected from 1,007 children under 10 years of age in the clusters. A total of 37 (3.7%) of the studied population showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of > or =1:800. There was a significant association between positive sera and various parts of the rural areas of Alborz Province (P or =1:3,200 indicated kala-azar clinical features and treated with anti-leishmaniasis drugs in pediatric hospital. The findings of this study indicated that Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Alborz Province. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the awareness and alertness among physicians and public health managers, particularly in high-risk rural areas of the province in Iran.

Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Male , Rural Health , Seroepidemiologic Studies
Salvador; s.n; 2014. 98 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000939


A leishmaniose visceral é considerada um sério problema de saúde pública, encontrando‐se disseminada por todo o Brasil. Em áreas urbanas, o cão é considerado a principal fonte de infecção para o agente etiológico Leishmania infantum. A identificação de áreas e fatores de risco associados com a infecção por L. infantum, é primordial para o planejamento de medidas efetivas de prevenção e controle. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo identificar a prevalência, distribuição e prováveis fatores de risco para leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) em Camaçari-BA. Foi realizado um estudo de corte transversal compreendendo 36 bairros do município. O cálculo do tamanho da amostra de cada bairro incluido no estudo, foi baseado no censo da campanha antirrábica canina,considerando-se 20% como prevalência esperada para LVC, 5% de erro esperado e nível de confiança de 95%, totalizando 800 cães a serem avaliados. As residências incluídas no estudo foram selecionadas aleatoriamente. Os proprietários dos animais foram submetidos a um questionário contendo variáveis epidemiológicas relevantes para LVC. Os animais foram avaliados clinicamente e foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas e esplênicas.O diagnóstico de LVC foi determinado por sorologia (ELISA)...

Visceral leishmaniasis is considered a serious harm to public health and it is spread throughout Brazil. In urban areas, dogs are considered the main source of infection for the etiologic agent Leishmania infantum. The identification of areas and risk factors associated with L. infantum infection is essential for planning effective measures to prevent and control this disease. This study aims to identify the prevalence, distribution and probable risk factors for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Camaçari, Bahia. A cross-sectional study was conducted encompassing 36 districts of the municipality. Sample size was calculatedusing the census of canine anti rabies campaign, and the residences included in the study were randomly selected. The owners of the animals were submitted to a questionnaire containing relevant epidemiological variables for CVL. The animals were clinically assessed and blood and splenic aspirate samples were collected. The CVL diagnosis was determined by serology (ELISA)...

Animals , Dogs , Dogs/parasitology , Dogs/blood , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
Recife; s.n; 2014. 124 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719856


A detecção precoce das leishmanioses e a rápida instituição do tratamento são de suma importância para os indivíduos e comunidades afetadas, visto que pacientes contribuem para a manutenção do ciclo da doença. Diante das limitações apresentadas pelos métodos tradicionais de diagnóstico, a PCR tem se apresentado como ferramenta promissora para a detecção dos casos. No entanto, perdas de DNA durante o processo de purificação podem afetar mais significativamente o material genético dos parasitos, gerando resultados falso-negativos. Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar dois protocolos de triplex PCR para investigar possíveis causas de negatividade no diagnóstico molecular das formas visceral (LV) e tegumentar (LT) das leishmanioses. Pares de primers para detecção de um controle interno (gene G3PD) e dois controles externos (DNA genômico de M. pachydermatis e plasmídeo comercial pUC18 foram adaptados a protocolos de PCR convencionais validados para a detecção de L. infantum e L.(V.) braziliensis e duas reações triplex foram otimizadas. Dados de sensibilidade (S), especificidade (E) e eficiência (e) dos novos sistemas foram calculados em 186 amostras de sangue coletadas de cães em áreas endêmicas, utilizando como referência protocolos de PCR e PCR em tempo real (qPCR) consagrados na literatura. A concordância entre os novos testes e os testes de referência foi determinada pelo cálculo do índice de Kappa. A tríplex PCR para o diagnóstico da LV mostrou S = 78.68 por cento, E= 85.29 por cento e e= 81.05 por cento com boa concordância (K = 0.60, p< 0.0001) com o conjunto de resultados PCR/qPCR. Para o diagnóstico da LT observou-se S = 97.29 por cento, E = 79.16 por cento, e = 90.16 por cento, com K = 0.78, (p<0.0001) indicando excelente nível de concordância entre os testes. As novas ferramentas apresentadas podem ser aplicadas para aumentar a acurácia no diagnóstico das leishmanioses, contribuindo para a rápida implementação do tratamento e, reduzindo a longo prazo os índices de mortalidade e morbidade das leishmanioses.

Humans , Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Quality Control , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , DNA, Kinetoplast/isolation & purification , DNA, Protozoan/isolation & purification , Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , Leishmania braziliensis/isolation & purification , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity
Recife; s.n; 2014. 69 p. ilus, graf, tab, mapas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719862


A leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) e uma doença parasitária causada por protozoários do gênero Leishmania, principalmente por Leishmania infantum. A epidemiologia da doença varia de região para região e o entendimento dos fatores associados à infecção em cães pode ajudar na elaboração de medidas de controle mais específicas. O diagnóstico sorológico da infecção sofreu mudanças importantes nos últimos anos com a introdução do TR-DPP® e do estabelecimento de novos critérios de diagnóstico (TR-DPP® + EIE-LVC) pelo Ministério da Saúde. Dentro desse contexto, no presente estudo objetivou-se estudar a epidemiologia da LVC no município de Goiana, estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. Para tal, realizaram-se testes sorológicos (TR-DPP® e EIE-LVC) e análise clínico-epidemiológica em 360 cães semi e domiciliados, de ambos os sexos, raças e idades variadas, nos distritos de Atapuz, Tejucupapo e Pontas de Pedra no referido município. No TR-DPP®47 (13,1 por cento) animais foram reagentes, onde se observou associação significativa dos resultados com os seguintes sinais clínicos: alopecia, lesões na pele paresia e linfonodomegalia. Já no EIE-LVC 21 (5,8 por cento) animais foram reagentes, havendo associação significativa entre a classificação clínica dos animais, condição corporal, alopecia, lesões na pele, secreção ocular, paresia e linfonodomegalia. Já de acordo com o critério do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, apenas 15 (4,2 por cento) animais foram classificados como positivos. De fato, verificou-se uma fraca concordância (Kappa = 0,39) entre os dois testes sorológicos. Conclui-se que a LVC encontra-se estabelecida em Goiana e que o uso do TR-DPP® como teste de triagem e do EIE-LVC como teste confirmatório pode levar a perda de cães infectados, uma vez que cães positivos do TR-DPP® são negativos no EIE-LVC e vice-versa.

Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Risk Factors , Signs and Symptoms , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/veterinary
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(4): 525-531, Oct.-Dec. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698007


Tick-borne pathogens affect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. To identify tick-borne pathogens among dogs from Campo Grande, MS, Brazil testing seropositive for Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi), a serological and molecular study was conducted to detect Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia vogeli in 60 serum and spleen samples. A confirmatory diagnosis of L. infantum based on serological and molecular assays was also performed, as was sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis to assess the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. IgG antibodies to Ehrlichia spp., B. vogeli and L. infantum were found, respectively, in 39 (65%), 49 (81.6%) and 60 (100%) of the sampled dogs. Twenty-seven (45%), fifty-four (90%), fifty-three (88.3%), two (3.3%) and one (1.6%) dog were positive, respectively, for E. canis, Leishmania spp., Leishmania donovani complex, Babesia sp. and Anaplasma sp. in PCR assays. After sequencing, the amplicons showed 99% of identity with E. canis, B. vogeli, A. platys and Leishmania chagasi isolates. The findings of this study indicate that L. infantum-seropositive dogs from Campo Grande are exposed to multiple tick-borne pathogens, which should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis.

Patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos atingem uma variedade de hospedeiros vertebrados. Para identificar os agentes patogênicos transmitidos por carrapatos entre cães soropositivos para Leishmania infantum no município Campo Grande-MS, foi realizado um estudo sorológico e molecular para a detecção de Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys e Babesia vogeli em 60 amostras de soro e baço, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, foi realizado o diagnóstico confirmatório de L. infantum por meio de técnicas sorológicas e moleculares. Também foi realizado o alinhamento e análise filogenética das sequências para indicar a identidade das espécies de parasitas que infectam esses animais. Anticorpos IgG anti-Ehrlichia spp., anti-B. vogeli e anti-L. infantum foram detectados em 39 (65%), 49 (81,6%) e 60 (100%) dos cães amostrados, respectivamente. Vinte e sete (45%), cinquenta e quatro (90%), cinquenta e três (88,3%), dois (3,3%) e um (1,6%) cães mostraram-se positivos na PCR para E. canis, Leishmania spp., Leishmania donovani complex, Babesia sp. e Anaplasma sp., respectivamente. Após o seqüenciamento, os amplicons mostraram 99% de similaridade com isolados de E. canis, B. vogeli e A. platys e Leishmania chagasi. Os resultados deste estudo indicaram que os cães soropositivos para L. infantum de Campo Grande, MS, são expostos a vários agentes transmitidos por carrapatos, e, portanto, devem ser incluídos no diagnóstico diferencial em cães com suspeita clínica de leishmaniose.

Animals , Anaplasma/immunology , Anaplasmosis/blood , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Babesia/immunology , Babesiosis/blood , Dog Diseases/blood , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dogs/parasitology , Ehrlichia canis/immunology , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Anaplasma/isolation & purification , Anaplasmosis/complications , Babesia/isolation & purification , Babesiosis/complications , Brazil/epidemiology , Ehrlichia canis/isolation & purification , Ehrlichiosis/blood , Ehrlichiosis/complications , Endemic Diseases , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/complications , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Serologic Tests , Ticks
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(6): 741-745, Nov-Dec/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698050


Introduction The relationship between severe clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and immune response profiles has not yet been clarified, despite numerous studies on the subject. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cytokine profiles and the presence of immunological markers associated with clinical manifestations and, particularly, signs of severity, as defined in a protocol drafted by the Ministry of Health (Brazil). Methods We conducted a prospective, descriptive study between May 2008 and December 2009. This study was based on an assessment of all pediatric patients with VL who were observed in a reference hospital in Maranhão. Results Among 27 children, 55.5% presented with more than one sign of severity or warning sign. Patients without signs of severity or warning signs and patients with only one warning sign had the highest interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels, although their interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels were also elevated. In contrast, patients with the features of severe disease had the lowest IFN-γ levels. Three patients who presented with more than two signs of severe disease died; these patients had undetectable interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IFN-γ levels and low IL-10 levels, which varied between 0 and 36.8pg/mL. Conclusions Our results showed that disease severity was associated with low IFN-γ levels and elevated IL-10 levels. However, further studies with larger samples are needed to better characterize the relationship between disease severity and cytokine levels, with the aim of identifying immunological markers of active-disease severity. .

Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Interferon-gamma/blood , /blood , /blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(6): 735-740, Nov-Dec/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698064


Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani complex. VL may be asymptomatic or progressive and is characterized by fever, anemia, weight loss and the enlargement of the spleen and liver. The nutritional status of the patients with VL is a major determinant of the progression, severity and mortality of the disease, as it affects the clinical progression of the disease. Changes in lipoproteins and plasma proteins may have major impacts in the host during infection. Thus, our goal was evaluate the serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glucose, albumin, globulin and total protein levels, as well as the body composition, of VL patients before and after treatment. Methods Nutritional evaluation was performed using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess body composition. Biochemical data on the serum total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glucose, albumin, globulin and total protein were collected from the medical charts of the patients. Results BIA indicated that both pre-treatment and post-treatment patients exhibited decreased phase angles compared to the controls, which is indicative of disease. Prior to treatment, the patients exhibited lower levels of total body water compared to the controls. Regarding the biochemical evaluation, patients with active VL exhibited lower levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and albumin and higher triglyceride levels compared to patients after treatment and the controls. Treatment increased the levels of albumin and lipoproteins and decreased the triglyceride levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that patients with active VL present biochemical and nutritional changes that are reversed by treatment. .

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Nutrition Assessment , Albumins/analysis , Body Mass Index , Globulins/analysis , Glucose/analysis , Lipids/blood , Proteins/analysis
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(2): 225-229, Apr.-June 2013. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-679426


The present study analyzed serum samples from 111 male and female dogs of various ages from the municipality of Araguaína in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was initially performed at the Central Laboratory (Laboratório Central ­ LACEN) of Araguaína, resulting in 61 positive samples by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) (≥1:40) and 50 non-reactive samples. The same samples were analyzed at the São Paulo Institute of Tropical Medicine (Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo ­ IMTSP) by an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA), resulting in 57 positive samples (51.35%) and 54 negative samples (48.64%). The Kappa coefficient of agreement between the tests was 0.74. The serum samples were also subjected to a diagnostic assay for Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypomastigote Excreted/Secreted Antigens -TESA-blot) that detected five suspect animals; three of those animals were positive for leishmaniasis by ELISA but negative by IIFA. These findings suggest that the canine population of Araguaína may be simultaneously infected with Leishmania chagasi and T. cruzi. The results obtained demonstrate the difficulty of using serology to detect CVL, thus emphasizing the necessity for a reference test to diagnose CVL, particularly in regions where the infection is endemic.

Neste estudo foram analisadas amostras de soros de 111 cães machos e fêmeas, de idades variadas, provenientes do município de Araguaína, estado do Tocantins, Brasil. O diagnóstico sorológico para leishmaniose visceral canina foi realizado, inicialmente, no Laboratório Central (LACEN) de Araguaína, resultando em 61 amostras positivas na Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta - RIFI (≥1:40) e 50 amostras não reativas. As mesmas amostras foram analisadas no Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP) pelo Enzyme-Linked-Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), sendo 57 amostras positivas (51,35%) e 54 amostras negativas (48,64%), com coeficiente de concordância entre os testes (Kappa = 0,74). Os soros foram submetidos também a um teste de diagnóstico para Trypanosoma cruzi (Trypomastigote Excreted/Secreted Antigens-TESA-blot), o qual detectou cinco animais suspeitos, dos quais três foram positivos para leishmaniose no ELISA, mas negativos na RIFI. Estas observações mostram que a população canina de Araguaína pode também estar infectada simultaneamente com Leishmania chagasi e T. cruzi. Estes resultados mostram a dificuldade da sorologia na detecção da Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC), reforçando a necessidade de um teste de referência para o diagnóstico da leishmaniose visceral canina, principalmente em regiões endêmicas para tais infecções.

Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Chagas Disease/veterinary , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Brazil , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/complications , Dog Diseases/blood , Leishmania donovani/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/complications , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(1): 162-166, Jan.-Mar. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-671614


Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, which infects dogs and humans in many regions of Brazil. The present study involved an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to analyze L. infantum, Ehrlichia spp., Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infection rates in serum samples from 93 dogs in a rural settlement in Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The seroprevalence rates of anti-L. infantum, anti-Ehrlichia, anti-B. canis, anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies were 37.6%, 75.3%, 72%, 47.3% and 6.4%, respectively. In addition to IFAT, direct microscopic examination of popliteal lymph node aspirates revealed 26.9% of CVL positive dogs. Serological tests revealed that 17.2% of the dogs were seropositive for a single parasite, 29% for two parasites, 33% for three, 16.1% for four, and 1.1% for five parasites, while 3.2% were seronegative for five parasites. The presence of antibodies against these parasites in serum samples from dogs confirmed their exposure to these parasites in this rural area. Because of the potential zoonotic risk of these diseases, mainly leishmaniasis, ehrlichiosis and toxoplasmosis, special attention should focus on programs for the improvement of diagnostic assays and control measures against these parasites.

Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) é causada pelo protozoário Leishmania infantum, podendo infectar cães e humanos em várias regiões do Brasil. O presente estudo teve por objetivo realizar a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI) para analisar os índices de infecção parasitária para L. infantum, Ehrlichia spp., Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum, em 93 amostras de soro de cães de um assentamento rural no município de Ilha Solteira, SP, Brasil. A taxa de soroprevalência de cães com anticorpos anti-L. infantum, anti-Ehrlichia, anti-B. canis, anti-T. gondii e anti-N. caninum foi de 37,6%, 75,3%, 72%, 47,3% e 6,4%, respectivamente. Pelo exame microscópico direto dos parasitas nos esfregaços de aspirados de linfonodos poplíteos dos cães, a positividade para LVC foi de 26,9%. Pelos exames sorológicos, 17,2% dos cães estavam positivos com um único parasita, 29% com dois, 33% com três, 16,1% com quatro e 1,1% com cinco parasitas. Além disso, 3,2% eram soronegativos para todos os cinco agentes parasitários. A presença de anticorpos aos parasitos em amostras sorológicas confirmam a exposição dos cães às doenças parasitárias nesse assentamento rural. Devido ao potencial risco zoonótico destas doenças, principalmente leishmaniose, erliquiose e toxoplasmose, atenção especial deve ser dada aos programas que objetivam o aprimoramento de testes diagnósticos e de medidas de controle dessas parasitoses.

Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Babesia/immunology , Dog Diseases/blood , Ehrlichia/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Neospora/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasma/immunology
IPMJ-Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2013; 12 (4): 504-510
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138030


Visceral Leishmaniasis [VL] is a systemic infection of the reticulo- endothelial system that could affect on immune system and biochemical parameters like the concentration of trace elements which may be significantly changed. Evaluating the level of cytokines [INF- gamma, IL-10] and concentration of Zn in Visceral Leishmaniasis in children after diagnosis. A total of [98] child their ages rang [6m-5y] were attending to the Central Public Health Laboratory and Teaching Laboratories of Medical City suspected to be infected with kala-azar, the diagnosis was done by both IFAT technique and Rapid Kala-azar [r-K39] detecting test and evaluating the level of cytokines [INF- gamma, IL-10] by ELISA and concentration of trace element [Zn] by Atomic Absorption Technique. The dipstick test [r-K39] showed a high sensitivity of [92.1%] compared to IFAT [73.6%] with a specificity of 100% for both tests. Serum samples of 56 child with positive results in IFAT and rK39 test were used for the investigation of IL-10, IFN- gamma. The mean levels of IL-10 [80.207 +/- 77.54 Pg/ml] and IFN- gamma [5.426 +/- 4.599 IU/ml] were highly significant increased in patients compared to healthy controls .The mean level of serum Zn [69.71 +/- 7.97 micro g/dl] was significantly low in VL patients compared to healthy controls. This study showed that the [r-K39] dipstick test could be more sensitive than IFAT technique in the diagnosis of VL with a specificity of 100% for both test according to clinical diagnosis. Both IFN- gamma and IL-10 were significantly increased in VL patients as compared to controls group. The concentration of Zinc was significantly lower in VL patients than healthy controls

Humans , Female , Male , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Interferon-gamma , Zinc , Child , Interleukin-10
Cad. saúde pública ; 28(12): 2306-2314, dez. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-661157


This study analyzed factors associated with asymptomatic Leishmania chagasi infection in family members and neighbors of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A cross-sectional study was conducted with 361 individuals in the counties comprising Ilha de São Luís (São Luís Island) in Maranhão State, Brazil. The Montenegro skin test (MST) and serology by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to detect infection. Odds ratios (OR) and prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated by multilevel logistic regression and Poisson regression, respectively. The rates of positive reactions were 71.3% for MST and 9.7% for ELISA. The variable associated with infection according to MST was living in the same household as the index case (PR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.03-1.78). According to ELISA, the statistically significant variables were: living in the county of Raposa (OR = 3.56; 95%CI: 1.24-10.19) and living in the same household as the index case (OR = 2.70; 95%CI: 1.19-6.08). Family members of individuals with LV are at increased risk of infection. Priority control measures should target these families.

Este estudo transversal analisou os fatores associados à infecção assintomática por Leishmania chagasi em familiares e vizinhos de pacientes com leishmaniose visceral (LV) e foi realizado com 361 indivíduos nos municípios que compõem a Ilha de São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil. Foram realizadas a Intradermorreação de Montenegro (IDRM) e a sorologia por Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) para detectar a infecção. Razões de chances (RC) e razões de prevalências (RP) e seus intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%) foram estimadas por meio de regressão logística multinível e regressão de Poisson, respectivamente. A proporção de positivos foi de 71,3% para a IDRM e de 9,7% para o ELISA. A variável associada à infecção segundo a IDRM foi residir no domicílio do caso índice (RP = 1,36; IC95%: 1,03-1,78). Pelo ELISA, as variáveis com significância estatística foram: residir no Município de Raposa (RC = 3,56; IC95%: 1,24-10,19) e no domicílio do caso índice (RC = 2,70; IC95%: 1,19-6,08). Familiares de indivíduos com LV têm maior risco de infecção. Medidas de controle devem ser efetivadas e direcionadas prioritariamente a essas famílias.

Adolescent , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Asymptomatic Infections , Family Health , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Leishmania infantum/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Serologic Tests