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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Models, Statistical
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238383, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249217

ABSTRACT

Abstract In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) has become a public health concern due to its high incidence and lethality. This study aimed to analyze the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory aspects of AVL in a state of Brazil. This descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, and quantitative study of notified cases of AVL was carried out in Alagoas between 2008 and 2017 from data obtained from DATASUS/SINAN. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed using absolute values ​​and valid percentages, using tables and/or graphs. Data processing was performed using Stata 12.0®. Results with P <0.05 were considered statistically significant. During the study period, 352 cases of AVL were reported, of which 6.82% died and 38.92% had met a cure criterion. Male patients were predominant (66.76%). Of the total infected patients, 16.76% had attended only the 1st to the 4th grades, with those most affected aged 1 to 4 years (28.69%). Laboratory diagnostic criteria were most commonly used to confirm the notified cases (76.42%), whereas 51.70% and 8.52% of the cases had positive parasitological and immunofluorescence diagnoses, respectively. Finally, the study showed a higher prevalence of the disease in children, men and in rural residents. Although with low lethality, the expressive frequency of AVL in the State of Alagoas was still verified, since there was an increase in the number of cases during the years of the study.


Resumo No Brasil, a leishmaniose visceral americana (LVA) tornou-se uma preocupação de saúde pública devido à sua alta incidência e letalidade. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar os aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e laboratoriais da AVL em um estado brasileiro. Este estudo descritivo, transversal, retrospectivo e quantitativo dos casos notificados de AVL foi realizado em Alagoas entre 2008 e 2017 a partir de dados obtidos do DATASUS/SINAN. Foram analisadas variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais. Foi realizada uma análise descritiva utilizando-se valores absolutos e percentuais válidos, utilizando tabelas e/ou gráficos. O processamento dos dados foi realizado por meio do Stata 12.0®. Os resultados com P<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Durante o período de estudo, foram notificados 352 casos de LVA, dos quais 6,82% morreram e 38,92% atenderam a um critério de cura. Os pacientes do sexo masculino foram predominantes (66,76%). Do total de pacientes infectados, 16,76% tinham sido atendidos apenas do 1º ao 4º ano, com os mais afetados entre 1 e 4 anos (28,69%). Os critérios de diagnóstico laboratorial foram mais utilizados para confirmar os casos notificados (76,42%), enquanto 51,70% e 8,52% dos casos apresentaram diagnósticos positivos parasitológicos e imunofluorescência, respectivamente. Por fim, o estudo demonstrou maior prevalência da doença em crianças, homens e nos residentes em zona rural. Embora com letalidade baixa, constatou-se ainda a expressiva frequência da LVA no Estado de Alagoas, uma vez que houve aumento do número de casos durante os anos do estudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , United States , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Laboratories
3.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(1, cont.): e2409, jan-jun. 2021. mapas, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1283535

ABSTRACT

Leishmanioses são causadas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania, parasitos que infectam grande número de mamíferos, incluindo o homem. A Leishmaniose Visceral (LV) é a forma mais severa da doença e invariavelmente leva ao óbito, se não diagnosticada e tratada precocemente. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise de natureza documental, descritiva e analítica, de abordagem quantitativa das informações contidas no banco de dados Fundação Ezequiel Dias/Gerenciador de Ambientes Laboratoriais (FUNED/GAL), da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de Minas Gerais. Os dados epidemiológicos que compõe este estudo são registros de casos positivos e negativos da cidade de Patos de Minas-MG e 18 municípios das mesorregiões do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Noroeste de Minas e Norte de Minas. No período compreendido entre janeiro de 2010 e junho de 2019 foram notificados um total de 1170 indivíduos suspeitos de Leishmaniose Visceral Canina e/ou Humana. 304 (25,98%) indivíduos receberam o resultado positivo, enquanto 866 foram negativos, e em alguns casos, inconclusivos. Os dados obtidos no estudo revelaram a tendência temporal crescente e alta prevalência da doença, mostrando que a doença está em expansão na região estudada onde o cão é o principal reservatório doméstico da doença, permanecendo como principal elo de ligação entre o protozoário e o hospedeiro humano.(AU)


Leishmaniasis are caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, parasites that infect a large number of mammals, including humans. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of the disease and invariably leads to death if not diagnosed and treated early. The objective of this study was to carry out a documentary, descriptive and analytical analysis, with a quantitative approach to the information contained in the Fundação Ezequiel Dias/Manager of Laboratory Environments (FUNED/GAL) database from the Minas Gerais State Health Secretariat. The epidemiological data that make up this study are records of positive and negative cases in the city of Patos de Minas - MG and of 18 municipalities in the mesoregions of the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba, Northwest of Minas and North of Minas. In the period between January 2010 and June 2019, a total of 1170 individuals suspected of Canine and/or Human Visceral Leishmaniasis were notified. A total of 304 (25.98%) individuals received a positive result, while 866 were considered negative, and in some cases, inconclusive. The data obtained in the study revealed the growing temporal trend and high prevalence of the disease, showing that the disease is expanding in the studied region where the dog is presented as the main domestic reservoir of the disease, remaining as the main link between the protozoan and the human host.(AU)


Leishmaniosis son causadas por protozoos del género Leishmania, parásitos que infectan a un gran número de mamíferos, incluyendo el hombre. La Leishmaniosis Visceral (LV) es la forma más grave de la enfermedad e invariablemente conduce a la muerte, si no se la diagnostica y la trata a tiempo. El objetivo de ese estudio fue realizar un análisis de naturaleza documental, descriptivo y analítico, de enfoque cuantitativo de las informaciones contenidas en la base de datos Fundação Ezequiel Dias/Gerente de Ambientes de Laboratorio (FUNED /GAL), de la Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Minas Gerais. Los datos epidemiológicos que conforman este estudio son registros de casos positivos y negativos en la ciudad de Patos de Minas-MG y 18 municipios de las mesorregiones del Triângulo Mineiro y Alto Paranaíba, Noroeste de Minas y Norte de Minas. En el período comprendido entre enero de 2010 y junio de 2019, se notificó a un total de 1170 personas sospechosas de Leishmaniosis Visceral Canina y/o Humana. 304 (25,98%) individuos recibieron un resultado positivo, mientras que 866 fueron negativos y, en algunos casos, no concluyentes. Los datos obtenidos en el estudio revelaron la tendencia creciente temporal y la alta prevalencia de la enfermedad, mostrando que la enfermedad se está expandiendo en la región estudiada donde el perro es el principal reservorio doméstico de la enfermedad, permaneciendo como principal conexión entre el protozoo y el hospedero humano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Time , Records , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Mammals/microbiology , Leishmania/pathogenicity
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(3): e00041320, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285819

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle of visceral leishmaniasis, and the diagnosis is essential for the effectiveness of the control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. We assessed the diagnostic performance of the ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN prototype with serum samples from 200 dogs, in triplicate, including symptomatic, oligosymptomatic, asymptomatic, and healthy dogs, originated by two distinct panels (A and B) characterized by parasitological tests as the reference standard. In this study, the prototype kit showed a 99% sensitivity (95%CI: 94.5-100.0) and a 100% specificity (95%CI: 96.4-100.0). The sensitivity of the prototype kit did not vary significantly with the clinical status of the dogs. Considering the final result classification (positive or negative), agreement between the results of repeated tests was almost perfect (kappa = 0.99; 95%CI: 0.98-1.00). ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN is a promising option for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.


Resumo: Os cães são os principais reservatórios do ciclo de transmissão domiciliar da leishmaniose visceral, e o diagnóstico é essencial para a efetividade das medidas de controle recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde. Os autores avaliam o desempenho diagnóstico do protótipo da ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN em amostras sorológicas de 200 cães, em triplicata, incluindo cães sintomáticos, oligossintomáticos e saudáveis, com dois painéis distintos (A e B) caracterizados por testes parasitológicos enquanto referência. No estudo, o kit-protótipo mostrou sensibilidade de 99% (IC95%: 94,5-100,0) e especificidade de 100% (IC95%: 96,4-100,0). A sensibilidade do kit-protótipo não variou de maneira significativa de acordo com o estado clínico dos cães. Considerando a classificação final dos resultados (positivo ou negativo), a concordância entre os resultados dos testes em triplicata foi quase perfeita (kappa = 0,99; IC95%: 0,98-1,00). O protótipo ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN tem o potencial de ser utilizada para o diagnóstico sorológico da leishmaniose visceral canina no Brasil.


Resumen: Los perros son los principales reservorios en el ciclo de transmisión doméstica de la leishmaniasis visceral, por ello el diagnóstico es esencial para la efectividad de las medidas de control recomendadas por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil. Evaluamos el desempeño diagnóstico de ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN prototipo con muestras de sérum de 200 perros, en triplicado, incluyendo sintomático, oligosintomático, asintomático y perros sanos, originadas por dos paneles distintos (A y B), caracterizados por test parasitológicos como referencia estándar. En este estudio, el kit prototipo mostró un 99% de sensibilidad (IC95%: 94,5-100,0) y un 100% de especificidad (IC95%: 96,4-100,0). La sensibilidad del kit prototipo no varió significativamente con el estatus clínico de los perros. Considerando la clasificación final del resultado (positiva o negativa), el acuerdo entre los resultados de los tests repetidos fue casi perfecto (kappa = 0,99; IC95%: 0,98-1,00). ELISA-Vetlisa/BIOCLIN tiene potencial para ser usado para el diagnóstico serológico de la leishmaniasis visceral canina en Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200428, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Dogs are the main peridomiciliary reservoir of Leishmania infantum thus the correct diagnosis of infection is essential for the control of the transmission and treatment as well. However, the diagnosis is based on serological assays that are not fully effective. OBJECTIVE We aimed to establish an effective serological assay for the diagnosis of L. infantum infected dogs using Leishmania-derived recombinant antigens. METHODS Leishmania derived rK39-, rK28-, rKR95-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized using symptomatic and asymptomatic L. infantum-infected dogs. Then 2,530 samples from inquiry in endemic areas for VL were evaluated and the results compared with recommended assays by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MH algorithm). Further samples from a cohort of 30 dogs were searched. FINDINGS For rK39-, rK28- and rKR95-ELISA the sensitivity was around 97% and specificity 100%. The positivity of these three ELISA in the inquiry samples was 27-28%, around 10% higher than the assays currently in use. When cohort samples were searched, we observed likely false-negative results (> 65%) with supposedly negative samples that turned positive six months later with the assays in use (MH algorithm). MAIN CONCLUSIONS For the diagnosis of L. infantum-infected dogs, rK39-based ELISA showed better diagnostic performance than other assays in use in Brazil and worldwide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Serologic Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Antigens, Protozoan/biosynthesis
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e015021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351876

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis that mainly affects poorest and most vulnerable populations, and domestic dogs are considered to be the main source of infection to the vector and therefore humans. However, several studies have investigated the role of other vertebrate hosts in the disease cycle. In this context, the aim of the present study was to conduct a survey of Leishmania infantum infection in donkeys and mules living in a semiarid region of Brazil. Whole blood sampled from 72 equids (65 donkeys and 7 mules) was used to perform molecular diagnosis using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique. A total of 25% of the samples (18/72) were positive through qPCR, but there were no significant differences between the species (donkeys or mules), sex (male or female) and abandonment situation of the animals (yes or no). Donkeys and mules living under semiarid conditions have high frequency of L. infantum infection. It is therefore worth assigning importance to these species in the epidemiological cycle of visceral leishmaniasis, either as potential reservoirs or just as an abundant food source for vectors.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral é uma zoonose parasitária que afeta principalmente populações mais pobres e vulneráveis, e os cães domésticos são considerados as principais fontes de infecção para o vetor e, portanto, para os humanos. Porém diversos estudos têm pesquisado o papel de outros hospedeiros vertebrados no ciclo da doença. Neste contexto, objetivou-se realizar um levantamento da infecção por Leishmania infantum em asininos e muares, vivendo em região semiárida do Brasil. Foi utilizado sangue total de 72 equídeos (65 asininos e 7 muares) para a realização de diagnóstico molecular por meio da técnica de Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase em Tempo Real (qPCR). Um total de 25% das amostras (18/72) resultaram positivas na qPCR, porém não houve diferença significativa entre as espécies (asininos e muares), sexo (macho e fêmea) e situação de abandono dos animais (sim ou não). Asininos e muares, vivendo em condições semiáridas, apresentam alta frequência de infecção por L. infantum, sendo válido atribuir importância a essas espécies no ciclo epidemiológico da leishmaniose visceral, seja como um reservatório em potencial, seja apenas como uma fonte alimentar abundante para os vetores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Equidae
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e011021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351874

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmaniases are zoonotic diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The disease has two clinical manifestations described in humans: visceral (VL) and cutaneous (CL) leishmaniasis. In Brazil, there has been an expansion of human VL. The participation of the dog as a reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the agent of VL, is important for the epidemiology of the disease since canine cases generally precede human cases. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs in the municipality of Ji-Paraná by PCR assays using blood samples. Leishmania DNA was detected in two of the 105 studied dogs. The PCR products were sequenced and confirmed that the two samples (1.90%) correspond to L. infantum. The dogs had allochthonous history. Therefore, the positive results found here should serve as a warning to public health agencies. This is because Ji-Paraná is the third municipality to register cases of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Rondônia state. Thus, reinforcing the importance of expanding studies on the epidemiology and surveillance of VL in the region.


Resumo As leishmanioses são doenças causadas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania. A doença apresenta duas manifestações clínicas: leishmaniose visceral (LV) e cutânea (LC). No Brasil, a LV está em expansão. A participação do cão como reservatório é importante para a epidemiologia da doença, pois os casos caninos geralmente precedem os humanos. O presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência de LV em cães (LVC) do município de Ji-Paraná por meio de ensaios de PCR, utilizando-se amostras de sangue. O DNA de Leishmania foi detectado em dois dos 105 cães estudados. Os produtos da PCR foram sequenciados e confirmaram que duas amostras (1,90%) eram Leishmania infantum. Os cães tinham histórico alóctone. Os resultados positivos encontrados servem de alerta aos órgãos públicos de saúde. Isso porque Ji-Paraná é o terceiro município a registrar casos de LVC no estado de Rondônia. Dessa forma, reforça-se a importância da ampliação dos estudos sobre a epidemiologia e vigilância da LV na região.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e022620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251390

ABSTRACT

Abstract Efforts to control a zoonotic disease such as visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum can be successful if they rely on comprehensive data on animal infection. In Bahia state, Brazil, human VL is endemic, yet some areas have no epidemiological data on canine L. infantum infection and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) to date. We aimed to perform an epidemiological study describing the spatial distribution and characterizing canine L. infantum infection in two districts of the municipality of Muritiba, where human cases have occurred. Brazilian official serodiagnostic protocol (ELISA and immunochromatographic tests), PCR and clinical examination were performed in 351 owned dogs. A seroprevalence of 15.7% (55/351) was found, and L. infantum identified in 88.8% (32/36) of PCR tested samples. Spatial distribution of positive dogs indicated infection in both urban and rural districts. There was no association between seropositivity and sex or breed, but dogs older than 2 years were 3.8 times more likely to be seropositive (95% CI 1.57 - 9.18) than younger dogs. Among seropositive dogs, 80% (44/55) had clinical manifestations of CanL: 75% (33/44) presented dermatopathy, 50% (22/44) emaciation, and 29.5% (13/44) ophthalmopathy. This is the first report on canine seroprevalence and natural L. infantum infection in Muritiba, Bahia.


Resumo O sucesso dos esforços para controlar uma doença zoonótica como a leishmaniose visceral (LV), causada por Leishmania infantum, depende de dados abrangentes sobre a infecção animal. Na Bahia, Brasil, embora a LV humana seja endêmica, diversos municípios, como Muritiba, ainda não dispõem de dados epidemiológicos sobre infecção por L. infantum e leishmaniose canina (LCan). Objetivou-se realizar um estudo epidemiológico para descrever a distribuição espacial e caracterizar a infecção canina por L. infantum em dois distritos de Muritiba, onde notificam-se casos humanos. Foi aplicado o protocolo sorodiagnóstico oficial brasileiro (ELISA e imunocromatografia), PCR e exame clínico em 351 cães domiciliados. Encontrou-se uma soroprevalência de 15,7% (55/351) e positividade de 88,8% (32/36) na PCR para L. infantum. A distribuição espacial dos cães positivos indicou infecção em ambos os distritos, urbano e rural. Não houve associação entre soropositividade e sexo ou raça, mas cães com idade acima de 2 anos foram 3,8 vezes mais soropositivos (IC 95% 1,57 - 9,18). Dentre os cães soropositivos, 80% (44/55) apresentavam manifestações clínicas de LCan: 75% (33/44) apresentavam dermatopatia; 50% (22/44) emagrecimento e 29,5% (13/44) oftalmopatia. Este é o primeiro estudo a determinar a soroprevalência e confirmar a circulação natural de L. infantum e LCan em cães de Muritiba.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cities , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e027920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251376

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate a methodology for active surveillance of visceral leishmaniasis by detecting Leishmania DNA in organs of wild road-killed animals from November 2016 to October 2018 in the North of Paraná, Brazil. The collection points of road-killed wild animals were georeferenced. The animals were autopsied and samples of bone marrow, lymph node, liver, spleen, and ear skin were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR for amplification of Leishmania spp. 18S, kinetoplastic DNA (kDNA), HSP70, and ITS1 genes, and DNA sequencing was performed. The primers used for the amplification of kDNA, ITS1, and HSP70 genes presented non-specific results. Of the 66 mammals collected from 24 different municipalities, one Southern Tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) presented DNA of Leishmania spp. in lymph nodes by 18S PCR. DNA sequencing confirmed the results of the subgenus, Viannia, identification. We suggest using the methodology showed in the present study in the active and early surveillance of visceral leishmaniasis in a non-endemic area.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar uma metodologia de vigilância ativa da leishmaniose visceral por meio da detecção de DNA de Leishmania em órgãos de animais silvestres atropelados, de novembro de 2016 a outubro de 2018, no Norte do Paraná, Brasil. Os pontos de coleta dos animais silvestres atropelados foram georreferenciados. Os animais foram autopsiados e amostras de medula óssea, linfonodo, fígado, baço, e pele de orelha foram coletados. DNA genômico foi extraído e submetido à PCR para amplificação de quatro diferentes regiões de Leishmania spp.: 18S, kDNA, HSP70 e ITS1, sequenciamento de DNA foi realizado. Os iniciadores utilizados para a amplificação dos genes kDNA, ITS1 e HSP70 apresentaram resultados inespecíficos. Dos 66 mamíferos coletados em 24 diferentes municípios, um tamanduá-mirim (Tamandua tetradactyla) apresentou DNA de Leishmania spp. em linfonodo na PCR, que amplificou o gene 18S. O sequenciamento de DNA confirmou o resultado e demonstrou a presença do subgênero Viannia. Sugere-se o uso da metodologia apresentada no presente estudo na vigilância ativa e precoce da leishmaniose visceral em área não endêmica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Leishmaniasis/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmaniasis/epidemiology , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Mammals
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e023620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251372

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution that has a major impact on public health. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of canine infection by Leishmania infantum, the factors associated with the infection and its spatial distribution in the municipality of Mãe D'Água, in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 150 dogs for diagnosis by the DPP®, ELISA-S7®, ELISA-EIE® and qPCR assays. The prevalence was calculated considering the positivity in at least two tests. SaTScan® was used for spatial analysis. The prevalence of canine infection with Leishmania was 18.6% (28/150), with the rural area being identified as a risk factor (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.93). The permanence of the dog loose during the night (OR = 0.33) and deworming (OR = 0.30) were identified as protective factors. A risk cluster was formed in the northern region of the urban area. Mãe D'Água showed a pattern of active transmission in the rural area, but VL control measures also need to be carried out in the urban area to prevent human cases and the spread of the disease in the risk zone.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma zoonose com distribuição mundial de grande impacto na saúde pública. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência da infecção canina por Leishmania infantum, os fatores associados à infecção e sua distribuição espacial no município de Mãe D'Água, na região do Sertão da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 150 cães para diagnóstico pelos ensaios DPP®, ELISA-S7®, ELISA-EIE® e qPCR. A prevalência foi calculada considerando-se a positividade em pelo menos dois testes. O SaTScan® foi utilizado para a análise espacial. A prevalência da infecção canina com Leishmania foi de 18,6% (28/150), sendo a zona rural identificada como fator de risco (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2,93). A permanência do cão solto durante a noite (OR = 0,33) e a vermifugação (OR = 0,30) foram classificadas como fatores de proteção. Um cluster de risco foi formado na região Norte da área urbana. Mãe D'Água apresentou um padrão de transmissão ativa na área rural, porém medidas de controle da LVC também precisam ser realizadas na área urbana para evitar casos humanos e a dispersão da doença na zona de risco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e020320, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251361

ABSTRACT

Abstract In São Luís, Maranhão, northeastern Brazil, the notification of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases intensified in 1982, showing endemic and epidemic patterns. In this city, the Center for Zoonoses Control (CZC) was an organization in charge of the control and prevention of the disease. However, technical and political reasons have led to a significant decline in the periodicity of its activities. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the epidemiological scenario of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and the prevalence of the disease in dogs after the cessation of the CZC activities, covering the period of 2007 to 2016. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was determined based on clinical and serological profiles. HVL cases were notified using data provided by the Municipal Health Department of São Luís. A seropositivity rate of 45.8% (p = 0.0001) was found among dogs, 54% (p = 0.374) of which were asymptomatic. As for human cases, there were 415 notifications, with an increase in the incidence of the zoonosis observed during the aforementioned period. Thus, it can be inferred that after the control and surveillance activities were curtailed, there was an increase in the number of seropositive animals in circulation, acting as reservoirs of infection for dogs and humans.


Resumo Em São Luís, Maranhão, região Nordeste do Brasil, a notificação de casos de Leishmaniose Visceral (LV) intensificou-se em 1982, com padrão epidêmico e endêmico. Nessa cidade, o Centro de Controle de Zoonoses (CCZ) era uma entidade que realizava ações de controle e prevenção da doença, mas, nos últimos anos, a periodicidade de suas atividades reduziram-se significativamente, devido a diversos fatores técnico-políticos. Portanto, neste estudo avaliou-se o cenário epidemiológico da leishmaniose visceral humana (LVH) e a prevalência da doença em cães, após a descontinuidade das atividades do CCZ, no período de 2007-2016. A soroprevalência canina foi determinada de acordo com o perfil clínico e a sorologia. Os casos notificados de LVH foram realizados a partir de dados da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Luís. Observou-se frequência de 45,8% (p = 0,0001) de cães soropositivos, dos quais 54% (p = 0,374) eram assintomáticos. Em relação aos casos humanos, ocorreram 415 notificações, com aumento na incidência das zoonoses observada no período. Assim, pode-se inferir que, com a interrupção das atividades de controle e vigilância, houve um grande número de animais circulantes positivos, atuando como fonte de infecção tanto para cães quanto para humanos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cities
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e018620, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156226

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis is a widely distributed zoonosis and canine infection is an important indicator of risk for the occurrence of the disease in humans. The goal of this analysis was to study the spatial clustering of canine leishmaniasis (CL) in the municipality of Santa Luzia, state of Paraíba. For this, 749 samples of canine plasma were tested using three serological tests. The dog was considered positive if it reacted in two serological tests. The location of the residences was performed with a Global Positioning System receiver (GPS Garmin® eTrex 30), and used to perform georeferencing and spatial analysis. The prevalence of CL was 15.49% and it was observed that most cases of the urban area were concentrated in the Frei Damião neighborhood, on the outskirts of the city, where a high-risk cluster for the occurrence of the disease was formed (p = 0.02; RR = 2.48). No statistically significant cluster was observed in rural areas. CL is widely distributed in the municipality of Santa Luzia in a heterogeneous manner and with a tendency to urbanization. The areas identified with high prevalence and highest risk should be prioritized to maximize the efficiency of the Visceral Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control Program and minimize the chance of new canine and human cases.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral é uma zoonose amplamente distribuída, e a infecção canina é um importante indicador de risco para a ocorrência da doença em humanos. O objetivo foi estudar o comportamento espacial da leishmaniose canina (LC) no município de Santa Luzia, estado da Paraíba. Para tal, 749 amostras de plasma canino foram testadas por meio de três técnicas sorológicas. O cão seria considerado positivo se apresentasse duas sorologias reagentes. A localização das residências foi realizado pelo receptor de Sistema de Posicionamento Global (GPS Garmin® eTrex 30) e usado para a realização do georreferenciamento e análise espacial. A prevalência da LC foi de 15,49% e observou-se que a maioria dos casos de LC da zona urbana estava concentrada no bairro Frei Damião, localizado na periferia da cidade, onde se formou um cluster de alto risco para ocorrência da doença (p = 0,02; RR = 2,48). Nenhum cluster estatisticamente significativo foi observado na zona rural. A LC está amplamente distribuída no município de Santa Luzia, porém de forma heterogênea e com tendência à urbanização. As áreas identificadas com intensa prevalência e maior risco devem ser priorizadas para maximizar a eficiência do Programa de Vigilância e Controle da Leishmaniose Visceral e minimizar a chance de novos casos caninos e humanos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Spatial Analysis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Cities/epidemiology , Desert Climate
13.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e524, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156542

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a tropical and subtropical disease highly reported in Southeast Asia, East Africa, Latin America, and the Mediterranean basin, with an incidence of two million new cases by year and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. One of the more severe and rare complications of visceral leishmaniasis is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with visceral leishmaniasis Methods: We performed a literature review based on the case reports indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed. Results: Twenty-five cases were included; 52 percent under two years of age. All cases presented splenomegaly and 84 percent hepatomegaly. Cytopenias were described in all patients: 100 prcent thrombocytopenia, 96 percent anemia, and 84 percent leukopenia or neutropenia. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia were found in 68 percent and 32 percent, respectively, and hyperferritinemia in 80 percent. Additionally, hemophagocytosis was documented in 84 percent, with Leishmania detection in 92 percent. All patients were treated against Leishmania: 80% with liposomal amphotericin B. regarding the treatment for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; corticosteroid were used in 36 percent, endovenous immunoglobulin in 28 percent, cyclosporine in 28 prcent and etoposide in 16 percent The complications reported included gastrointestinal hemorrhage (8 percent), disseminated intravascular coagulation (8 percent), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (12 percent), multiple-organ dysfunction/septic shock (12 prcent), petechial rash (16 percent), and four patients deceased. Variables such as fever (p=0.031), hemoglobin level (p=0.031), platelet count (p=0.0048), and ferritin (p=0.0072) were associated with mortality Conclusions: During visceral leishmaniasis, the hemophagocytic syndrome is a rare condition that mainly affects pediatric patients, but with excellent outcomes using liposomal amphotericin B. However, there is a lack of strong evidence to make a recommendation(AU)


Introducción: La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad tropical y subtropical con una elevada incidencia, dos millones de casos nuevos por año y 500 000 de leishmaniasis visceral. La linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica es una complicación grave y rara de la leishmaniasis visceral. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas de la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica asociada con leishmaniasis visceral. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica basada en los informes de casos indexados en MEDLINE/PubMed. Se identificaron 34 publicaciones; después de analizarlas en función de los criterios de inclusión se trabajó con 22 trabajos. Resultados: En los trabajos incluidos se informaron 25 casos; el 52 por ciento fueron pacientes menores de 2 años. Todos presentaron esplenomegalia y 84 por ciento hepatomegalia. Se describieron citopenias en todos los pacientes: 100 por ciento trombocitopenia, 96 por ciento anemia y 84 por ciento leucopenia o neutropenia. Se encontró hipertrigliceridemia e hipofibrinogenemia en 68 por ciento y 32 por ciento, respectivamente, e hiperferritinemia en 80 por ciento. Todos los pacientes fueron tratados contra leishmania, 80 por ciento con anfotericina B liposomal. Las complicaciones incluyeron: hemorragia gastrointestinal, coagulación intravascular diseminada, anemia hemolítica autoinmune, falla multiorgánica/shock séptico, erupción petequial y cuatro pacientes fallecieron. Conclusiones: En la leishmaniasis visceral, el síndrome hemofagocítico es una afección poco frecuente que afecta principalmente a pacientes pediátricos. Para el tratamiento, usando la anfotericina B liposomal se obtienen excelentes resultados; sin embargo, la evidencia es insuficiente para hacer una recomendación(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
14.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(3): e771, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126765

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La leishmaniosis visceral es la más grave de las formas clínicas de la leishmaniosis, afecta principalmente a los niños y es potencialmente fatal. Objetivo: Exponer la caracterización clínico-epidemiológica de la leishmaniosis visceral en población pediátrica y su respuesta terapéutica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo en el Hospital Italiano, Ciudad de Djibouti en el período septiembre 2016-agosto 2017. El universo lo conformaron 166 menores de 15 años que ingresaron con diagnóstico de fiebre prolongada sin foco de localización, la muestra fue de 22 niños con diagnóstico confirmado de leishmaniosis visceral. La información se obtuvo de las historias clínicas. Se operacionalizaron 20 variables: sociodemográficas, clínicas, analíticas, terapéuticas y evolutivas. Se utilizó el procesador Epidat 3.1. Los resultados se expresaron en valores absolutos y porcentajes. Resultados: Se diagnosticó leishmaniosis visceral en 13,2 por ciento de niños hospitalizados por fiebre prolongada, 90,9 por ciento de procedencia rural y 59,1 por ciento desnutridos. El 77,3 por ciento de los casos recibió antimoniales, 90,9 por ciento tuvo estadía hospitalaria mayor de 21 días y el 36,4 por ciento se complicó con neumonía. Conclusiones: La leishmaniosis visceral es una entidad relativamente frecuente en niños admitidos por fiebre prolongada en el Hospital Italiano, predominan los varones desnutridos, mayores de cinco años de edad, procedentes de zonas rurales. La fiebre y la esplenomegalia son manifestaciones clínicas constantes, la anemia y la leucopenia los principales hallazgos de laboratorio. La aplicación de antimoniales es el tratamiento electivo, con larga estadía hospitalaria y la neumonía es la complicación más frecuente(AU)


Introduction: Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe clinical form of leishmaniasis that mainly affects children and is potentially fatal. Objective: To explain the clinical-epidemiological characterization of visceral leishmaniasis in the pediatric population and its therapeutic response. Methods: It was conducted a retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive study in the Italian Hospital, Djibouti City in the period from September 2016 to August 2017. The sample group was formed by 166 children under 15 years old that were admitted with a diagnosis of prolonged fever without localization focus and the sample was of 22 children with confirmed diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. The information was obtained from the clinical records. Twenty variables were operationalized: sociodemographic, clinical, analytical, therapeutic and evolutive ones. Epidat 3.1 proccessor was used. The results were expressed in absolute values and percentages. Results: Visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed in 13.2 percent children that were admitted in hospital due to prolonged fever, 90.9 percent of them were from rural areas and 59.1 percent were undernourished. 77,3 percent of the cases had antimonial treatment, 90.9 percent had hospital stay for more than 21 days and the 36.4 percent had complications due to pneumonia. Conclusions: Visceral leishmaniasis is a relatively frequent entity in children admitted in the Italian Hospital due to prolonged fever with a predominance of undernourished males, older that five years and from rural areas. Fever and splenomegaly are constant clinical manifestations, and anemia and leucopenia are the main laboratory findings. The use of antimonials is the election treatment with long hospital stay, and pneumonia is the most frequent complication(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Antimony/therapeutic use
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 103-110, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125049

ABSTRACT

To diagnose dogs infected by Leishmania infantum rK39 rapid diagnosis test is widely used in the Americas, while dual path platform (DPP) was recently adopted by Brazil. In this study we assessed the performance of rK39-RDT and DPP tests in recent urban transmission scenarios of Argentina. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated with a sera panel and field samples, taken as true infected those from parasitological and/or PCR positive tests. Since none of these tests can be taken as a gold standard, the performance was also evaluated using Latent Class Analysis, a statistical modeling technique which allows to estimating sensitivity and specificity defining a latent class variable as the reference standard. The sensitivity of both tests in the panel was around 92% (symptomatic dogs 96%, asymptomatic 83%), while the sensitivity in field samples of rK39-RDT was 77%, and DPP 98% (mean in symptomatic dogs 89%, asymptomatic 82%). The specificity was similar for both tests and samples, around 98%. Therefore, these tests are acceptable for program dog population-based studies, as spatial stratification, focus intervention and follow up, and they could be used for individual screening and confirmation of clinical presumptive diagnosis in polysymptomatic dogs. The inability to discriminate between immunity and actual infectiousness suggest that a combination with other non-immunological based tests will be required for highly sensitive/specific diagnosis in order to targeting control measures in individual reservoirs from public health perspective, as for individual management from animal health perspective.


Para diagnosticar perros infectados por Leishmania infantum, en las Américas se utiliza ampliamente la prueba rápida rK39, mientras que DPP fue adoptado recientemente por Brasil. En este estudio se evaluó el desempeño de las pruebas rK39-RDT y DPP en escenarios de transmisión urbana reciente en Argentina. La sensibilidad y especificidad se evaluaron con un panel de sueros y muestras de campo, considerando muestras infectadas verdaderas aquellas con pruebas parasitológicas y/o de PCR positivas. Como ninguna de estas pruebas puede considerarse estándar de oro, el desempeño también se evaluó mediante análisis de clases latentes, una técnica de modelado estadístico que permite estimar sensibilidad y especificidad definiendo una variable de clase latente como estándar. La sensibilidad de ambas pruebas en el panel fue de alrededor del 92% (perros sintomáticos 96%, asintomáticos 83%), mientras que la sensibilidad en muestras de campo fue rK39-RDT: 77%, y DPP 98% (media en perros sintomáticos 89%, asintomáticos 82%). La especificidad fue similar para ambas pruebas y muestras, cerca de 98%. Por lo tanto, estas pruebas son aceptables para estudios programáticos caninos de base-poblacional, como estratificación espacial, intervención de foco y seguimiento, y podrían utilizarse para el tamizaje individual y la confirmación del diagnóstico clínico presuntivo en perros poli-sintomáticos. La incapacidad de discriminar entre inmunidad e infectividad real sugiere que se requerirá una combinación con otras pruebas, de base no inmunológica, para un diagnóstico suficientemente sensible/específico que permita definir las medidas de control en reservorios individuales, tanto para salud pública, como para la gestión individual en salud animal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Argentina , Brazil , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity , Dog Diseases/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
16.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(2): 79-82, 20200000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1369318

ABSTRACT

La coinfección entre el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y la Leishmaniosis visceral (LV) ha sido descripta de manera reciente, en especial en Brasil y en ciertas áreas de la Europa del Mediterráneo. Los pacientes VIH positivos con fiebre de origen desconocido y/o citopenias tienen indicación de punción aspirativa de médula ósea para estudios microbiológicos e histopatológicos, estos últimos para descartar un síndrome linfoproliferativo. El diagnóstico de leishmaniosis visceral puede confirmarse por diversas técnicas microbiológicas y serológicas: detección de amastigotes de Leishmania en aspirados de médula ósea con tinción de Giemsa, detección de anticuerpos por aglutinación directa, inmunofluorescencia indirecta, detección del antígeno rK39, reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en extendidos de médula ósea y prueba de aglutinación del látex. La LV puede ser la primera manifestación del sida o ser una complicación grave en pacientes ya diagnosticados con VIH e inmunodeficiencia severa. La LV es una complicación grave y potencialmente fatal y debe sospecharse en todo sujeto VIH positivo con fiebre de etiología desconocida y/o citopenias.


The association between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and HIV is recent and has an increasing number of cases in Brazil and worldwide - especially in the Mediterranean region of Europe. HIV patients with cytopenias and/or fever of an unknown etiology, have indication of bone marrow aspirate for microbiological cultures and histopathological examination to rule out lymphoproliferative disorders. Diagnosis of VL can be confirmed by the following examinations: Leishmania amastigotes detection in bone marrow aspirate with Giemsa smear, direct agglutination test, indirect immunofluorescence, rK39 dipstick test, polymerase chain reaction and latex agglutination test. VL may be the first infection related with HIV or patients can be diagnosed with VL concomitantly with AIDS. HIV/AIDS-associated VL is an aggressive complication with a potentially fatal evolution in advanced HIV/AIDS patients, without specific symptoms, that should be suspected in all HIV subjects with fever of unknown etiology and cytopenias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , AIDS Serodiagnosis , Leishmaniasis/complications , Punctures , HIV Infections/complications , Endemic Diseases , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190525, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136829

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a public health problem, and its prevalence is associated with the coexistence of vectors and reservoirs. CVL is a protozoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum that is endemic in the southeast region of Brazil. Thus, vector and canine reservoir control strategies are needed to reduce its burden. This study aimed to verify the CVL seroprevalence and epidemiology in a municipality in Southeast Brazil to initiate disease control strategies. METHODS: A total of 833 dogs were subjected to Dual Path Platform (DPP) testing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. For seropositive dogs, epidemiological aspects were investigated using a questionnaire and a global position system. The data were submitted to simple logistic regression, kernel estimation, and Bernoulli spatial scan statistical analysis. RESULTS: The overall CVL-confirmed seroprevalence was 16.08%. The 28.93% in the DPP screening test was associated with dogs maintained in backyards with trees, shade, animal and/or bird feces, and contact with other dogs and cats, with sick dogs showing the highest chances of infection (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.38-1.98), especially in residences with elderly people. A spatial analysis identified two hotspot regions and detected two clusters in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that residences with elderly people and the presence of trees, shade, feces, and pet dogs and cats increased an individual's risk of developing CVL. The major regions where preventive strategies for leishmaniasis were to be initiated in the endemic area were identified in two clusters.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Dogs , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Endemic Diseases , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Spatial Analysis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190421, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136807

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION In Bolivia, before 1982 there were no records of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases that would allow us to review and describe the temporospatial occurrence of VL by ecoregions in provinces and departments of Bolivia to evaluate its impact on public health, risk of outbreaks, or dispersion. METHODS This update on VL in Bolivia is based on research, reviews, and retrospective literature analyses of online data and libraries and institutional reports, from 1939 to the present. RESULTS In Bolivia, 56 cases of VL have been reported. Until 2014, only three endemic departments had been identified (La Paz, Santa Cruz, and Tarija). Since then, further cases have been recorded in Pando, Cochabamba, and Beni, and in Chuquisaca in 2015. In Yungas, a VL focus was confirmed by isolating and comparing parasites from human and dog cases, and from the Lu. longipalpis vector. VL cases from seven departments, involving 12 different ecoregions were located within the Amazon and Plata basins. CONCLUSIONS We confirmed that dogs are its primary reservoir, and Lutzomyia longipalpis is its main vector (currently dispersed in six departments). The primary vectors in areas where Lutzomyia longipalpis is absent are Migonemyia migonei and Lutzomyia cruzi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dogs , Young Adult , Psychodidae , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Bolivia/epidemiology , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Insect Vectors
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190349, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is relevant for human and animal public health. Several factors have been associated with the risk of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs. However, dog owner characteristics have been rarely explored. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and to identify the associated factors for VL infection including dog owners characteristics. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted including dogs from an endemic canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) region in the Federal District, Brazil. The infection was detected using parasitological, serological, and molecular methods. The associated factors were identified through Poisson regression modelling. FINDINGS The prevalence of infection was 26.25% [95% confidence interval (CI): 20.05 to 33.57]. The associated factors were: short coat prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.33 (95% CI: 1.02 to 5.22); presence of backyard with predominance of soil and/or vegetation PR = 4.15 (95% CI: 1.35 to 12.77); and highest gross family income score PR = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.16 to 3.54). MAIN CONCLUSION This is the first study that relates higher socioeconomic status of dog owners as an independent factor associated with higher prevalence of VL infection, along with other strongly associated factors related to receptive environment for phlebotomines. Our findings strengthen the need for exploration of the biological and behavioural bases linking dog owner characteristics to the risk of canine infection in prospective cohort studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
20.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e009819, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058019

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to confirm the emergence of canine visceral leishmaniasis among dogs in Foz do Iguaçu. The disease was diagnosed through the isolation and molecular identification of Leishmania infantum. In the first sample collection stage (2012), three lymph node aspirates and 46 buffy coat samples were obtained mostly from the dogs that were seroreagents for leishmaniasis. In the second sample collection stage (2013), the buffy coat samples were collected from 376 dogs located close to Paraguay, Paraná river, center and peripheral parts of the city. The DNA from the six isolates, four from the first sampling stage (4/49) and two from the second sampling stage (2/376), was subjected to polymerase chain reaction using the K26F/R primers. The isolate was confirmed as L. infantum by sequencing. As none of the dogs had ever left the city, the isolates were confirmed as autochthonous. Further, the study confirmed the emergence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Paraná through the identification of L. infantum among dogs in Foz do Iguaçu city. Hence, collaborative control measures should be designed and implemented by the public agencies and research institutions of Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay to control the spread of visceral leishmaniasis.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi confirmar a emergência da leishmaniose visceral canina em Foz do Iguaçu próximo à fronteira com a Argentina e ao Paraguai, por meio do isolamento e identificação molecular de Leishmania infantum. Em um primeiro estágio de coleta de animais (2012), três amostras de aspirados de linfonodos e 46 camadas leucocitárias foram obtidas de cães soropositivos para leishmaniose. Em um segundo estágio de coleta (2013), foram coletadas amostras de camada leucocitária de 376 cães de 20 localidades próximas à fronteira com o Paraguai, rio Paraná, centro e periferia da cidade. Seis isolados foram obtidos, quatro da primeira etapa (4/49) e dois da segunda etapa (2/376); estes isolados foram submetidos à amplificação com iniciadores K26F/R, e a análise de sua sequência confirmou a espécie como L. infantum. A autoctonia dos casos foi confirmada, pois 100% dos cães nunca haviam saído da cidade. O estudo confirma a emergência de leishmaniose visceral canina no Paraná com identificação de L. infantum em cães da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Assim, medidas de controle devem ser elaboradas e implementadas por órgãos públicos e instituições de pesquisa do Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai em parceria com o objetivo de controlar a disseminação de zoonoses e os casos humanos de LV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
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