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1.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 372-380, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126134

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study describes the development of mixed flour added of maca for gluten-free bread (GFB) employing a Simplex Centroid Design. Four pseudo-components were evaluated in order to improve the GFB specific volume and texture profile analysis: maca (MC; 0.25 to 0.75), potato starch (PS; 0.25 to 0.75), sweet manioc flour (SEM; 0 to 0.25), and sour manioc flour (SOM; 0 to 0.25). The best GFB formulation - by desirability results - was evaluated regarding physio-chemical, microbiological aspects, and sensory acceptance. The responses specific volume and hardness were adjusted with a special cubic model (R2= 0.973 and 0.913), while cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness was adjusted with a linear model. The significant contribution of maca into GFB dough was evident in the models, and the desirability results indicated an appropriate mixed flour composed by MC (0.25), PS (0.5), and SEM (0.25). The GFB elaborated with this mixed flour generated a product well accepted (acceptability index higher than 73.9%) for attributes of aroma, colour, texture, flavour, and overall acceptance. The values of physio-chemical parameters obtained in the present article was in the range described for GFB in the literature. In addition, the processing method applied allowed for obtaining a GFB that was microbiologically stable.


RESUMEN Este estudio describe el desarrollo de la harina mezclada (MF) agregada de maca para la elaboración de pan sin gluten (GFB) empleando un Diseño Centroide Simplex. Se evaluaron cuatro pseudo-componentes para mejorar el volumen específico y el perfil de textura de GFB: maca (MC; 0,25 a 0,75), almidón de patata (PS; 0,25 a 0,75), harina de yuca dulce (SEM; 0 a 0,25), y harina de yuca agrio (SOM; 0 a 0,25). La mejor formulación de GFB - por la deseabilidad - se evaluó en relación con los aspectos fisicoquímicos, microbiológicos, y sensoriales. El volumen específico y la dureza se ajustaron a un modelo cúbico especial (R2= 0,975 y 0,913). La cohesión, elasticidad y masticabilidad se ajustaron a un modelo lineal. La contribución de la maca a la masa de GFB fue evidente en los modelos, y los resultados indican una MF apropiada compuesta por MC (0,25), PS (0.5) y SEM (0,25). El GFB elaborado con esta MF genera un producto aceptado (índice de aceptabilidad mayor que 73,9%) para aroma, color, textura, sabor y aceptación general. Los parámetros físico-químicos obtenidos estaban en el rango descrito para GFB en la literatura y GFB se mostró microbiológicamente estable.


Subject(s)
Bread/analysis , Celiac Disease , Lepidium , Diet, Gluten-Free , Taste , Solanum tuberosum , Bread/microbiology , Manihot
2.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 183-190, jan./feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049240

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of traditionally used antibacterial plants (Euphorbia prostrata, Schinus molle, Brickellia veronicaefolia and Lepidium virginicum) in Santa Rosa Range in Guanajuato against major mastitis-causing pathogens. The selected plants were phytochemically screened for alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins, anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, steroids and terpenoids. Moreover, to achieve the main purpose of the present research, extracts of selected plants were tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Bacillus subtilis, Clavibacter spp., Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella spp. All these bacterial were isolated from clinical mastitis in dairy cows. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of the aerial part of L. virginicum exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity, and it could be potential candidate specie for the development of novel veterinary drugs with low cost and fewer side effects.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a eficácia de plantas antibacterianas tradicionalmente usadas (Euphorbia prostrata, Schinus molle, Brickellia veronicaefolia e Lepidium virginicum) na cordilheira Santa Rosa, em Guanajuato, contra os principais patógenos causadores de mastite. As plantas selecionadas foram rastreadas fitoquimicamente quanto a alcalóides, flavonóides, polifenóis, saponinas, antraquinona, glicosídeos cardíacos, esteróides e terpenóides. Além disso, para atingir o objetivo principal da presente pesquisa, extratos de plantas selecionadas foram testados quanto à atividade antibacteriana in vitrocontra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Bacillus subtilis, Clavibacter spp., Proteus vulgaris e Salmonella spp. Todas essas bactérias foram isoladas de mastite clínica em vacas leiteiras. Os resultados indicaram que o extrato etanólico da parte aérea de L. virginicum exibia a atividade antimicrobiana mais forte e poderia ser uma espécie potencial candidata ao desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos veterinários com baixo custo e menos efeitos colaterais.


Subject(s)
Schinus molle , Lepidium , Euphorbia , Mastitis, Bovine , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Bacterial Agents
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(5): 304-307, May 2019. graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1012745

ABSTRACT

Three outbreaks of osseous malformation in claves born of cows fed apple pomace throughout pregnancy are described. This study was carried out from historical surveys on properties where apple pomace was used in cattle feeding. The outbreaks occurred in the municipalities of Lages, Santa Catarina state, from 2007 to 2012, and Ipê, Rio Grande do Sul state, from 2011 to 2012. These calves presented bone deformity characterized mainly by arthrogryposis and chondrodysplasia of the anterior limbs. At necropsy, the observed changes were restricted to bending and thickening of the anterior limbs and skull. Microscopically, a disorganized, irregular, misaligned hypertrophic zone was observed in the humeral-radio-ulnar joints, in addition to absence of growth zone, thin bone trabeculae, and closed epiphyseal growth plate.(AU)


Descrevem-se 3 surtos de malformações ósseas em bezerros, nascidos de vacas prenhes alimentadas com bagaço de maçã. Estudos foram realizados a partir de levantamento de históricos em propriedades onde bagaço de maçã foi utilizado na alimentação de bovinos. Os surtos ocorreram nos municípios de Lages em Santa Catarina, de 2007 a 2012, e Ipê em Rio Grande do Sul, de 2011 a 2012. Dentre 20 e 69,2% dos bezerros apresentavam deformidade de membros, caracterizada principalmente por membros anteriores curvos e curtos. Na necropsia as alterações observadas restringiam-se ao encurvamento e engrossamento dos membros e do crânio. Microscopicamente nas articulações úmero-radio-ulnar, foi observado zona hipertrófica desorganizada, irregular e sem alinhamento, além de ausência da zona de crescimento e trabéculas ósseas finas e placa epifisária fechada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Infant , Pregnancy, Animal/physiology , Cattle/abnormalities , Lepidium
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771543

ABSTRACT

Lepidium meyenii(maca)was a herbaceous plant of the family Cruciferae. It is native to the andes region of South America where the local people had been growing and consuming maca for centuries. The unique chemical composition and physiological function of maca were widely concerned worldwide. It was introduced to China in 2002, and were cultivated successfully in Yunnan, Tibet, Sichuan, Jilin and other places with a certain size. Maca contained not only rich nutrition such as protein, vitamin and mineral matter, but also lots of secondary metabolites as maca alkaloids, glucosinolates, volatile oils, sterols polyphenols and macaenes. Numerous studies suggested that maca may serve effects in resisting oxidation, fatigue resistance, raising fertility, regulating endocrine, enhancing immunity, tumour suppression, treating osteoporosis, regulate blood sugar and protection of nervous system. Maca was approved by the Ministry of Health as a new resource food in 2011, and its related products include food, health foods, cosmetics, etc. Certain exploratory researches were carried to take better advantage of maca's medicinal value. This paper briefly reviewed the research and application progress of maca in recent years from the aspects of botany, chemical composition, function, resources situation and related products development, which was supposed to provide reference for scientific research and utilization of maca.


Subject(s)
China , Lepidium , Plant Extracts
5.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 3(2): 63-70, 2018. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145635

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Demostrar el efecto antifibrótico de Lepidium peruvianum (maca), ecotipo morado, en la fibrosis pulmonar inducida con nanopartículas de sílice en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Estudio experimental, descriptivo, analítico, transversal, realizado en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Se utilizaron ratas de la cepa Sprague Dawley, estos animales fueron divididos aleatoriamente en cinco grupos: Blanco (B), Control (C), Prednisona (P), Dosis 1 (D1) y Dosis 2 (D2). En los últimos cuatro grupos, se indujo la fibrosis pulmonar (20 mg de nanosílice/rata). Luego de 7 días se inició el tratamiento, durante 4 semanas se administró el extracto metanólico de Lepidium peruvianum ecotipo morado (D1: 150 mg/kg/d y D2: 1500 mg/kg/d) y prednisona (P: 6,5 mg/kg/d). El análisis estadístico fue realizado usando la prueba ANOVA seguida de la prueba de comparación múltiple Tukey-Kramer. Los estudios realizados incluyeron el análisis del lavado broncoalveolar (recuento celular y actividad de LDH) y del tejido pulmonar (concentración de malondialdehído y evaluación histopatológica). Resultados. El grado de fibrosis en el grupo D2 fue significativamente menor (P<0,01) al grupo C y P. La concentración de malondialdehído fue significativamente mayor (P<0,01) en el grupo C en comparación a los otros grupos. Además, la concentración en el grupo D2 fue significativamente menor (P<0,01) que en el grupo P. La actividad de LDH fue significativamente menor (P<0,01) en D2 en comparación a C y D1. No hubo diferencias significativas del número de células del lavado broncoalveolar entre el grupo D2 y B. Conclusiones. Lepidium peruvianum posee un efecto antifibrótico en la fibrosis pulmonar inducida con nanopartículas de sílice en ratas.


Objective. To demonstrate the antifibrotic effect of Lepidium peruvianum (maca), purple ecotype, on lung fibrosis induced with silica nanoparticles in rats. Materials and methods. Experimental, descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study. Done in the Faculty of Medicine, San Marcos University, Lima, Peru. Rats of the Sprague Dawley strain were used, these animals were randomly divided into 5 groups: Blank (B), Control (C), Prednisone (P), Dose 1 (D1), and Dose 2 (D2). The pulmonary fibrosis was induced (nanosilica 20 mg/rat) in the last four groups. After 7 days the treatment was started, for 4 weeks the methanol extract of Lepidium peruvianum purple ecotype (D1: 150 mg/kg/d and D2: 1500 mg/kg/d) was administered and Prednisone (P: 6.5 mg/kg/d). The degree of inflammation and fibrosis was quantified by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (cell count and LDH activity) and lung tissue (malondialdehyde concentration and histopathologic evaluation). Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test. The main outcome measures were the analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (cell count and LDH activity) and lung tissue (malondialdehyde concentration and histopathological evaluation). Results. The degree of fibrosis in the D2 group was significantly lower (P <0.01) than group C and P. The malondialdehyde concentration was significantly higher (P <0.01) in group C compared to the others. In addition, the concentration in the D2 group was significantly lower (P <0.01) than group P. LDH activity was significantly lower (P <0.01) in D2 compared to C and D1. There were no significant differences in cell number of BAL between D2 and B. Conclusions. Lepidium peruvianum has an antifibrotic effect in pulmonary fibrosis induced by silica nanoparticles in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Lepidium , Peru , Complementary Therapies , Plant Extracts , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Medicine, Traditional
6.
Lima; s.n; 2017. 66 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-877264

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La osteoporosis es un trastorno del metabolismo óseo que predispone a fracturas con una alta carga de morbilidad asociada. Otros autores han comprobado experimentalmente la propiedad antiresortiva del extracto etanólico de los ecotipos rojo y negro de Lepidium meyenii, "maca", el cual incluye diversos metabolitos. Por ello, hace falta estudios que determinen el efecto de la fracción alcaloidal en la osteoporosis. Objetivo: Demostrar el efecto protector del extracto alcaloidal de Lepidium meyenii ecotipo amarillo sobre la osteoporosis inducida en ratas ovariectomizadas. Diseño: analítico, experimental incompleto. Participantes: 50 ratas. Lugar: Instituto de Patología de UNMSM, 2015. Método: división aleatoria en 5 grupos de 10 cada uno: operación simulada (sham) y ovarectomizadas con tratamiento: estradiol (40µg/Kg), extracto alcaloidal (EA) a dosis de 75mg/k y 100mg/k (maca I y II respectivamente), y sin tratamiento protector. Dosis diarias vía orogástrica por 8 semanas. Posteriormente se determinó densidad mineral ósea (DMO), marcadores óseos: fosfatasa alcalina (FA), osteocalcina, telopéptido amino terminal del colágeno (NTX), estradiol, calcio y fósforo en suero; y histomorfometría. Resultados: No se evidenciaron cambios significativos en la densitometría vertebral, a nivel del fémur se evidenció disminución en el grupo maca II. La FA (141,90 ± 33,58UI/L) y la osteocalcina (38,578 ± 10,403ng/ml) mostraron niveles superiores no significativos, el nivel de estradiol con el grupo maca II fue superior no significativo. Los niveles de calcio y fósforo no mostraron variación. En la histomorfometría el grupo maca II (58,030 ± 4683) mostró mayor grosor trabecular significativamente. Conclusiones: se evidenció efecto protector antiresortivo parcial en los cambios inducidos por la ovariectomización, sin embargo, no se indujo osteoporosis al no encontrarse variación en los niveles de DMO.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Lepidium , Osteoporosis/therapy , Protective Agents , Alkaloids , Plant Extracts
7.
Lima; s.n; 2017. 42 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-910769

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El consumo de hipocótilos de Lepidium meyenii (Maca), una planta nativa de los Andes centrales del Perú, tiene importantes efectos en la fertilidad. El motivo del presente trabajo es evaluar el efecto de las diferentes categorías (catalogadas así desde la primera calidad hasta la cuarta calidad de acuerdo al tamaño de los hipocótilos); el efecto de diferentes pH (ácido, natural y alcalino) y el efecto de las vías de administración (orogástrica vs intraperitoneal). Como respuesta biológica se evaluará el recuento espermático en ratones de la cepa Swiss. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron cuatro tamaños diferentes de maca amarilla provenientes del distrito de Huallanca, Departamento de Ancash, ubicado a 4250 msnsm. Se realizaron tres bioensayos considerando el pH acidificado con ácido clorhídrico (pH=4), el pH normal, y alcalinizado con hidróxido de sodio (pH=8). Para cada bioensayo se utilizaron 35 ratones, los cuales fueron administrados con agua destilada (control), un extracto atomizado estandarizado de maca negra (control positivo) y extractos acuosos de las cuatro categorías con una cantidad de 5mg de maca durante 3 días en un volumen de 0.5mL por animal y también se evaluó el efecto de dos vías de administración (orogástrica e intraperitoneal). Después del tratamiento los ratones fueron sacrificados evaluándose la producción diaria de espermatozoides en testículo, y el conteo espermático en epidídimo y conducto deferente. Se consideró un P<0.05 como significante. RESULTADOS: La primera y segunda categoría, ambas tuvieron los valores más ácidos de pH y la mejor actividad biológica. Los extractos acuosos de maca de primera y segunda categoría con el pH acidificado presentaron un efecto significativo sobre el conteo de espermatozoides en todos los órganos estudiados, seguido del extracto acuoso de pH natural, mientras el extracto acuoso alcalinizado no presentó efecto (P>0.05). La vía de tratamiento más efectiva fue la orogástrica, obteniéndose un elevado recuento espermático (P<0.05) a diferencia de la vía intraperitoneal (P>0.05). CONCLUSIÓN: El extracto acuoso de maca amarilla acidificado de primera categoría mostró el mejor efecto sobre el recuento de espermatozoides en los diferentes órganos reproductivos y la mejor vía de administración fue la orogástrica, lo que sugiere que el pasaje gastro-intestinal promueve la producción de principios activos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Fertility Agents , Hypocotyl , Lepidium , Sperm Count , Drug Administration Routes , Models, Animal , Peru
8.
Lima; s.n; 2017. 48 p.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-912285

ABSTRACT

La maca (Lepidium meyenii) es una planta andina con diferentes propiedades terapéuticas que varían según su fenotipo. Hasta el momento no se conoce el principio activo responsable de su efecto terapéutico. Por ello, en base a los datos obtenidos del proyecto "Metabolómica, aceptabilidad y seguridad alimentaria al consumo de maca (Lepiidum Meyenii) en varones y mujeres adultas de Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) y de Lima (150m)" (SIDISI 61697) en el cual se realizó un estudio clínico, doble ciego, controlado por placebo donde se administró tres tratamientos (placebo, maca roja y maca negra) en treinta personas que vivían a nivel del mar durante tres meses; se realizó un análisis secundario de datos para evaluar si el consumo de maca aumenta o disminuye metabolitos de la ruta de los aminoácidos en seres humanos. El consumo de maca negra por tres meses disminuyó significativamente los niveles de aminoácidos esenciales (leucina e histidina); mientras que la maca roja disminuyó los niveles de aminoácidos esenciales (arginina, triptófano e isoleucina), no esenciales (glutamato y aspartato) e intermediarios (n-acetiltaurina) y aumentó aminoácidos no esenciales como cisteína y glutamina. Al comparar los deltas de cada grupo se observó que la maca negra aumentaba n-acetiltaurina y glutamato a diferencia del placebo, mientras que la maca roja aumentaba de ß-hidroxiisovalerato a diferencia del placebo. También se evidenció el efecto del sexo en los distintos tratamientos, las mujeres presentaron cambios más significativos en aminoácidos esenciales (leucina, lisina, metionina), no esenciales (cisteína, alanina, glutamina, glutamato) e intermediarios (ß-hidroxiisovalerato) en comparación con los hombres. Este estudio demuestra que el consumo por tres meses de maca de dos fenotipos distintos (roja y negra) altera los niveles de metabolitos de la ruta de los aminoácidos en personas que viven a nivel del mar y representa una novedosa forma de estudiar la medicina tradicional/complementaria mediante un enfoque (metabolómico) que permite integrar datos previos sobre sus propiedades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Plasma Volume , Lepidium , Amino Acids , Peru , Medicine, Traditional
9.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (1): 29-36
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185736

ABSTRACT

The effects of Lipidium meyenii [maca, LM] and Epimidium sagittatum [horny goat weed, ES] have been investigated due to their involvement in fertilization. Both of the drugs showed good results before, during and after fertilization in male and female mice. The results revealed that the crude extract of Lipidium meyenii caused a significant decrease in the no. of writhes at 300 and 500mg/kg [p<0.05] as compare to control, Epimidium sagittatum and standard drug. The gross behavioral, open field, exploratory behaviour, forced swimming test for stress, diuretic activity, chronic toxicity with the effect on reproduction of both male and female and change in body weight were also studied. The phytochemical study showed the presence of tannin, alkaloid, carbohydrate, rich protein and absence of sterol in LM, whereas ES shows presence of sterol and less protein. LS improve in muscle activity and exploratory behaviours without any toxic effects on mice and their pups. It does not have diuretic effect for first two hour but act normally after initial phase of drug therapy. Epimidium sagittatum has dual action that is at low dose it has slight stimulation action and at high dose little depressive effect. ES also has some diuretic effect. Overall these results suggest that LM is highly effective remedy for treatment of impotency and reduces stress and depression, because of dual effect ES not only suggested as an anxiolytic medicine but also effective in female hormonal disorder


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Female , Male , Lepidium , Infertility/drug therapy , Erectile Dysfunction/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations , Mice
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(3): 144-150, May. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907530

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effect of maca (Lepidium meyenii) supplementation on the sexual capacity of males, 40 rams were classified as high (HP) and low performers (LP). Within each category (n = 20), ten rams were supplemented with 233 mg of dry maca/kg of body weight/day during four weeks, followed by four weeks of a control diet (residual), while the rest of the animals remained as controls during the eight-weeks period. LP rams increased (P < 0.05) all sexual behaviors during maca supplementation up to HP levels, decreasing to control planes one week after the supplementation ceased. In contrast, in HP rams, maca supplementation only increased genital sniffs and nudging, while mounts and ejaculations remained unaffected during both supplementation and residual phases. It was concluded that maca supplementation affects males differently, according to their original sexual capacity.


Con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con maca (Lepidium meyenii) en la capacidad de servicio de los machos, 40 carneros se clasificaron como de alto (HP) y bajo desempeño sexual (LP). Dentro de cada categoría (n = 20), diez carneros se suplementaron con 233 mg de maca seca/kg de peso corporal/día durante cuatro semanas, seguidos de cuatro semanas de dieta control (residual), mientras que el resto de los animales permanecieron como testigos durante las ocho semanas. Los carneros LP incrementaron (P<0.05) todas sus conductas sexuales durante la suplementación hasta niveles similares a los mostrados por carneros HP, disminuyendo a niveles del grupo control una semana después de terminada la suplementación. En contraste, en los carneros HP, la suplementación con maca sólo incrementó las conductas de olfateo genital y cortejo, sin embargo montas y eyaculaciones permanecieron sin cambios tanto durante la fase de suplementación como la residual. Se concluye que la suplementación con maca actúa diferente en machos de acuerdo a su capacidad de servicio.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Lepidium/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Sheep , Aphrodisiacs , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Reproduction
11.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2015. 238 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834146

ABSTRACT

O aumento da demanda por alimentos saudáveis está estimulando inovações e o desenvolvimento de novos produtos na indústria de alimentos. O amaranto (Amaranthus cruenthus L.) e a quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) são pseudocereais que apresentam proteínas de elevado valor biológico e ácidos graxos insaturados além de outros compostos que atuam como antioxidantes. A maca (Lepidium meyenii W.), uma raiz anual ou bienal, é usada como ingrediente alimentar devido ao seu valor nutricional e conteúdo de fitoquímicos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adição das farinhas destas cullturas em diferentes níveis sobre as propriedades físico-químicas, reológicas e sensoriais de panetone. Farinhas mistas de trigo e amaranto, quinoa ou maca nas porcentagens de 10 %, 20 %, 30 % e 40 % de adição, foram avaliadas durante as diferentes etapas de produção: misturas de farinhas, massa fermentada, massa assada e produto acabado. A adição favoreceu o escurecimento gradual das farinhas e variação no tamanho médio das partículas. Nas massas, foi observada a diminuição gradativa dos valores de estabilidade ao amassamento e tempo de desenvolvimento com diminuição da extensibilidade e aumento da resistência das massas. Nas massas fermentadas, a adição de 10 e 20 % de farinha de amaranto ou quinoa e 30 % de farinha de amaranto, não incrementou significativamente (p > 0,05) a firmeza da massa. No entanto, as formulações contendo farinha de maca mostraram aumento significativo (p < 0,05) no ponto de quebra, firmeza, consistência, coesividade e viscosidade da massa. O aumento da resistência com diminuição gradativa da extensibilidade das massas também foi observado. Nas massas assadas, houve diminuição da área total de células com aumento no número de células de gás de menor tamanho em amostras com adição de farinha de maca e amaranto. As formulações com 10 % de farinha de maca, 10 e 20 % de farinha de amaranto ou quinoa e 30 % de farinha de amaranto, apresentaram os melhores resultados, com valores de volume, altura, cor e firmeza próximos à formulação controle. A análise sensorial mostrou que o produto elaborado com adição de 30 % de farinha de amaranto apresentou a melhor aceitabilidade e intenção de compra. Dentro das condições experimentais, o panetone contendo 30 % de farinha de amaranto foi o mais promissor pela boa aceitabilidade do consumidor, podendo contribuir para incrementar a qualidade do produto. O panetone com 10 % de adição de farinha de maca também apresentou valores interessantes com pouca diferença se comparado com aquele enriquecido com farinha de amaranto. Na amostra contendo farinha de quinoa, a substituição com menos de 20 % de adição melhoraria a aceitabilidade do panetone enriquecido


The increased demand for healthy foods is stimulating innovation and new product development in the food industry. Amaranth (Amaranthus cruenthus L.) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) are pseudocereals which have proteins with high biological value and unsaturated fatty acids, as well as other compounds which act as antioxidants. Maca (Lepidium meyenii W.), an annual or biennial root, is used as a food ingredient for human consumption due to its nutritional value and phytochemical content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of amaranth, quinoa and maca flour addition at different levels on the physical-chemical, rheological and sensory properties of panettone. Composite flours of wheat and amaranth, quinoa or maca flours in percentages of 10 %, 20 %, 30 % and 40 % addition were evaluated during the different stages of production: flour blends, fermented dough, baked dough and finished product. The addition promoted a gradual flour darkening and tendency to yellow and red colors. In the dough, the gradual decrease in stability values to kneading and development time with decreased extensibility and increased dough resistance, were observed. In fermented doughs, the addition of 10 % - 20 % amaranth or quinoa flour and 30 % amaranth flour, did not increased significantly (p > 0.05) the dough firmness. However, formulations containing maca flour showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of break point, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity of the dough. Furthermore, it was also observed an increase in dough resistance with a gradual decrease in extensibility. In baked samples, there was a decrease of the total cell area with increased number of smaller gas cells in samples with maca and amaranth flour addition. Better results were observed in formulations with 10% maca flour, 10 - 20 % amaranth or quinoa flour and 30 % amaranth flour with values of volume, height, color and firmness close to the control. Sensorial analysis showed that sample containing 30 % addition of amaranth flour showed the better acceptability and purchase intention by consumers. Within these experimental conditions, panettone containing 30 % amaranth flour was the most promising for the good acceptability of the consumer and may contribute to improve the quality of the product. Sample with 10 % maca flour addition also showed interesting values with few differences when compared to that enriched with amaranth flour. In sample containing quinoa flour, wheat flour substitution with less than 20 % would improve the acceptability of the enriched panettone


Subject(s)
Amaranthus/classification , Chenopodium quinoa/classification , Flour Industry , Flour/analysis , Lepidium/classification , Rheology/methods , Whole Foods
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812499

ABSTRACT

Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an herbaceous plant that grows in high plateaus and has been used as both food and folk medicine for centuries because of its benefits to human health. In the present study, ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of forty-three maca samples, collected from different regions or vendors, were amplified and analyzed. The ITS sequences of nineteen potential adulterants of maca were also collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the ITS sequence of maca was consistent in all samples and unique when compared with its adulterants. Therefore, this DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence can be used for the molecular identification of maca and its adulterants.


Subject(s)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Intergenic , DNA, Plant , Drug Contamination , Humans , Lepidium , Genetics , Phytotherapy
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250458

ABSTRACT

Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomedical Research , Humans , Lepidium , Chemistry , Classification , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250457

ABSTRACT

To study the chemical constituents of Lepidium meyenii, the air-dried rhizome of L. meyenii was extracted with 70% EtOH. The extract was condensed to a small amount of volume and extracted with petroleum ether, EtOAc and n-BuOH, successively. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography, and identified based on spectral analyses (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HRESIMS). Eighteen compounds were isolated from L. meyenii, including 7 alkaloids and 4 fatty acids and 7 other compounds. They were characterized as (3-hydroxybenzyl) carbamic acid(1), phenylmethanamine(2), N-benzylformamide (3), N-benzylacetamide (4), pyridin-4-ylmethanamine(5), n-(4-methoxybenzyl) aniline(6), uracil(7), succininc acid(8), decanedioic acid(9), n-hexa- decanoic acid methyl ester(10), heptanoic acid(11), solerole(12), pyromucic acid methyl ester(13), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancar- boxadehyde(14), 5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde(15), 1,7-dihydroxy-2,3, 4-trimethoxyxanthone (16), 1,7-di- hydroxy-3,4- dimethoxy-xanthone(17), (+)-pinoresinol(18). Meanwhile, compounds 1-18 were obtained from L. neyenii for the first time.


Subject(s)
Lepidium , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250456

ABSTRACT

To control the quality of Maca, the quality standard was established in this study. According to the methods recorded in the Appendix of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 Edition), the water, extract, total ash, acid insoluble substance, and heavy metals inspections in Lepidium meyenii were carried out. N-benzyl-9Z, 12Z-octadecadienamide in L. meyenii was identified by TLC, and it was determined by HPLC. The results showed that the N-benzyl-9Z, 12Z-octadecadienamide identification of TLC was a strong mark and specificity. In content determination experiment, the linearity of N-benzyl-9Z, 12Z-octadecadienamide was in the range of 0.01-2 microg (r = 0.9998), and the average recovery (n=9) was 99.27% (RSD 2.0%). The methods were simple, accurate, with good reproducibility. It is suitable for quality control L. meyenii.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Methods , Lepidium , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250455

ABSTRACT

The content of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) which as the enzymatic hydrolysis product of benzyl glucosinolate through thioglucosidase was determined by HPLC. The content of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) which as the enzymatic hydrolysis product of benzyl glucosinolate through thioglucosidase was determined by HPLC. The chromatography condition was as follows: Kaseisorb LC ODS 2000 (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 min) column with the mobile phase of acetonitrile(A)-water( B) under gradient elution (0-5 min, 3%-8% A; 5-9 min, 8%-48% A; 9-23 min, 48%-62% A; 23-28 min, 62%-99% A); the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1) with 10 microL injection volume; detection wavelength was 246 nm and temperature of column was 40 degrees C. The content of benzyl glucosinolate was in the range of 10.76-17.91 g x L(-1). The method is simple, accurate and good reproducibility which can be used for the determination of benzyl glucosinolate in Lepidium meyenii, effectively.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Glucosinolates , Lepidium , Chemistry , Plant Extracts
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250454

ABSTRACT

An analysis method has been established to test 27 elements (Li, Be, B, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Hg, Pb, Bi) in Maca nationality's medicine with microwave digestion-ICP-MS. Sample solutions were analyzed by ICP-MS after microwave digestion, and the contents of elements were calculated according to their calibration curves, and internal standard method was adopted to reduce matrix effect and other interference effects. The experimental results showed that the linear relations of all the elements were very good; the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9994-1.0000 (Hg was 0.9982) ; the limits of detection were 0.003-2.662 microg x L(-1); the relative standard deviations for all elements of reproducibility were lower than 5% (except the individual elements); the recovery rate were 78.5%-123.7% with RSD lower than 5% ( except the individual elements). The analytical results of standard material showed acceptable agreement with the certified values. This method was applicable to determinate the contents of multi-elements in Maca which had a high sensitivity, good specificity and good repeatability, and provide basis for the quality control of Maca.


Subject(s)
Lepidium , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Microwaves , Reproducibility of Results , Trace Elements , Chemistry
18.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 31(4): 683-688, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, INS-PERU | ID: lil-733249

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Comparar el efecto de diferentes dosis de maca roja sobre los niveles de interferón gamma (IFN-y) en ratas ovariectomizadas (OVX). Materiales y métodos. Ratas hembras adultas fueron divididas al azar en los siguientes seis grupos: Grupo 1: ratas pesudo-ovariectomizadas (PO); Grupo 2: ratas OVX; Grupo 3: ratas OVX tratadas con 4 ug/kg de estradiol, y Grupo 4, 5 y 6: ratas OVX tratadas con extractos de maca con 2,15, 4,3 y 8,6 mg polifenoles/kilogramo de peso corporal, respectivamente. Resultados. Las ratas OVX mostraron niveles bajos de IFN-y en comparación con las ratas PO. El estradiol y la maca roja revirtieron el efecto de la ovariectomía sobre los niveles de IFN-y. La maca roja presenta un incremento dosis-respuesta de los niveles de IFN-y (r=0,57, p<0,05). Conclusiones. La administración de la maca roja incrementa los niveles de IFN-y en ratas ovariectomizadas.


Objectives. Compare the effect of different doses of red maca on gamma interferon (IFN-y) levels in ovariectomized rats (OVX). Materials and methods. Adult female rats were randomly divided into the following six groups: Group 1: pseudo-ovariectomized rats (PO); Group 2: OVX rats; Group 3: OVX rats treated with 4 ug/kg estradiol; and Group 4, 5 and 6: OVX rats treated with red maca extracts with 2.15, 4.3 and 8.6 mg polyphenols/body weight kilogram, respectively. Results. OVX rats showed low levels of IFN-y compared to PO rats. Estradiol and red maca reversed the effect of ovariectomy on the IFN-y levels. A positive dose-response effect of red maca on IFN-y levels was shown (r = 0.57, p <0.05). Conclusions. Red maca administration increases levels of IFN-y in ovariectomized rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Estradiol , Interferon-gamma , Lepidium , Ovariectomy , Epidemiology, Experimental , Peru
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(1): 70-78, Mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708725

ABSTRACT

El estudio de la hipoxia hipobárica (HH) determina un problema de salud pública y laboral en poblaciones que habitan en zonas de altura. La disminución del oxígeno afecta a diferentes órganos, incluyendo el testículo. El organismo responde frente a la hipoxia estimulando la angiogénesis, el flujo sanguíneo testicular e incrementa la temperatura intraescrotal, lo cual produce un daño de la espermatogénesis. Nuestro estudio valoró el efecto que produce la HH sobre el testículo del ratón. Se utilizó una cámara hipobárica regulada a 4.200 metros sobre el nivel del mar (msnm), en periodos de hipoxia durante 8,3; 16,6 y 24,9 días, en comparación a un grupo control en normoxia (500 msnm). En estos tres grupos, a unos ratones se administró melatonina, a otros maca (Lepidium meyenii) y a otros la combinación de melatonina y maca. Los objetivos fueron evaluar si la ingesta de maca protege al testículo, reduciendo el daño generado por la hipoxia, y determinar un posible efecto sinérgico de la melatonina y de la maca. La exposición a HH continua produjo una disminución del diámetro de los túbulos seminíferos y del lumen tubular; además, el seminograma demostró una reducción del recuento espermático, un aumento de la teratozoospermia y una reducción de la calidad del ADN espermático. La administración de maca aislada o la combinación de maca y melatonina en animales sometidos a HH produjo una notable mejoría de los parámetros relacionados con la función de los espermatozoides, siendo significativos la disminución del número de espermatozoides con morfología anormal y de la compactación del DNA, alcanzando en algunos casos valores próximos a los de los animales normóxicos. Los datos del presente modelo de HH corroboran los excelentes beneficios que la ingesta de maca tiene sobre la capacidad reproductiva de poblaciones que viven en áreas geográficas de grandes alturas.


Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is a decisive factor in human health in populations that reside at high altitude levels. Low oxygen rate affects most tissues and organs, including the testis. In humans, hypoxia stimulates angiogenesis, testicular blood flow and increases intrascrotal temperature which determines negative effects on sperm production. Our study researched the effects of HH in mice testicle. Mice were housed in a hypobaric chamber with a setting at 4,200 m above sea level during three different periods of hypoxia (8.3, 16.6 and 24.9 days). Control groups were housed at normoxic conditions (500 m above sea level). Hypoxic mice were treated with melatonin, maca plant (Lepidium meyenii) and melatonin and maca combination. The aim of present study was to determine if maca consumption protects testis against harmful effects of hypoxia and to determine a possible synergistic effect between melatonin and maca administration. In this article we have demonstrated that hypoxia produces a considerable decrease of seminiferous tubules diameter and lumen diameter. Moreover, seminogram showed a reduced sperm count, increased teratozoospermia and a reduction of DNA quality. The HH mice treatment with maca or maca-melatonin combination showed statistically significant improvement at sperm function parameters, and in the reduction of sperm morphology abnormalities and DNA compaction, in some cases attaining rates closer to those registered in normoxic mice. Our experimental data corroborates that maca consumption improves reproductive capacity of populations that inhabit high altitude regions.


Subject(s)
Male , Testis/growth & development , Testis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Lepidium , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Hypoxia , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Altitude
20.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 31(1): 100-110, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-705972

ABSTRACT

La maca (Lepidium meyenii) es una planta que crece sobre los 4000 metros de altitud en los Andes Centrales del Perú, presenta diferentes variedades de acuerdo al color de su hipocótilo. La presente revisión resume los resultados de estudios sobre los efectos de la maca en la función sexual, la espermatogénesis, la función reproductiva femenina, la memoria, la depresión y la ansiedad, como energizante y contra la hiperplasia benigna de próstata, osteoporosis y síndrome metabólico. Se discute también su efecto antienvejecimiento y la seguridad en su consumo. Se han demostrado diferencias en el efecto de las variedades negra, amarilla y roja de maca. La maca negra es la que mejores resultados presenta sobre la espermatogénesis, la memoria y contra la fatiga, mientras que la maca roja es la variedad que mejor revierte la hiperplasia benigna de próstata y la osteoporosis inducida experimentalmente. Además, la maca reduce los niveles de glucosa, y su consumo se relaciona con la reducción de la presión arterial y un mejor puntaje de salud. Estudios experimentales han demostrado que el consumo a corto como a largo plazo no muestra toxicidad tanto in vivo como in vitro. A pesar que los estudios experimentales han demostrado que la maca presenta diversos efectos benéficos, son necesarios más estudios clínicos para confirmar estos resultados.


Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a plant that grows above 4000 altitude meters in Peru’s Central Andes; it has different varieties according to the color of the hypocotyl. This review summarizes the results of studies about the effects of maca on sexual function, spermatogenesis, female reproductive function, memory, depression and anxiety, and energy as well as effects on benign prostatic hyperplasia, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. Its anti-aging effect is also discussed as well as safety in consumption. Differences have been shown between the effects of the black, yellow and red maca varieties. Black maca shows the best results on spermatogenesis, memory and fatigue, while red maca is the variety that reverses the benign prostatic hyperplasia and experimentally induced osteoporosis. In addition, maca reduces the glucose levels, and its consumption is related to the lowering of blood pressure and an improved health score. Experimental studies have proven that short and long term consumption don’t show in vivo and in vitro toxicity. Although experimental studies have shown that maca has diverse beneficial effects, more clinical studies are needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Lepidium , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Prostatic Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Reproduction/drug effects
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