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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1407246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The Loxicha Region of Oaxaca, Mexico, has been historically important for the study of Nymphalidae, second in the Papilionoidea for species richness. Describing the diversity patterns of this butterfly clade in Loxicha can improve our understanding of the evolutionary history of the Sierra Madre del Sur, the Mexican Pacific slope, and Mexico in general. Objective: To describe the temporal and spatial patterns of Nymphalidae diversity along an elevational gradient (80-2 600 m), and to compare Loxicha's fauna with other regions in Mexico. Methods: We obtained 28 756 records from 21 sites in the Loxicha Region, representing seven years of sampling. We estimate and analyze the diversity, endemism, and distributional patterns for three elevational levels and five vegetation types. We estimated species composition and similarity with other regions of the Pacific and Atlantic slopes. Results: We identified 189 taxa, including species and subspecies, from 85 genera and ten subfamilies of Nymphalidae. Loxicha contains 46 % of the species in the family recognized for Mexico, including ten endemic species and 56 endemic subspecies. Cloud forest and low elevations were the most diverse habitats for this family. There is a clear divergence between the Atlantic and Pacific faunas, and the Sierra Madre del Sur has two faunal components. High-elevation sites in Oaxaca, and in the neighboring state of Guerrero, have a distinctive fauna, apparently isolated from low-elevation sites, revealing an archipelagic distribution for cloud forest Nymphalidae. Conclusions: The Loxicha Region is one of the richest areas for Nymphalidae in Mexico. Distribution on the Pacific slope is determined by geographical history and ecological conditions, including elevation. Nymphalidae can be used to test hypotheses of biogeographic regionalization in Mexico.


Resumen Introducción: La Región Loxicha de Oaxaca, México, ha sido históricamente importante para el estudio de Nymphalidae, segunda en riqueza de especies en Papilionoidea. Describir los patrones de diversidad de este taxón de mariposas en Loxicha puede mejorar nuestra comprensión de la historia evolutiva de la Sierra Madre del Sur, la vertiente del Pacífico mexicano y México en general. Objetivo: Describir los patrones temporales y espaciales de la diversidad de Nymphalidae a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal (80-2 600 m), y comparar la fauna de Loxicha con otras regiones de México. Métodos: Obtuvimos 28 756 registros de 21 sitios de la Región Loxicha, que representan siete años de muestreo. Estimamos y analizamos la diversidad, el endemismo y los patrones de distribución para tres niveles altitudinales y cinco tipos de vegetación. Estimamos la composición de especies y la similitud con otras regiones de las vertientes del Pacífico y Atlántico de México. Resultados: Identificamos 189 taxones, incluyendo especies y subespecies, de 85 géneros y diez subfamilias de Nymphalidae. Loxicha contiene 46 % de las especies de la familia reconocidas para México, incluidas diez especies endémicas y 56 subespecies endémicas. El bosque mesófilo y las elevaciones bajas fueron los hábitats más diversos para esta familia. Existe una clara divergencia entre las faunas del Atlántico y del Pacífico, y la Sierra Madre del Sur tiene dos componentes faunísticos. Los sitios de elevaciones altas en Oaxaca, y en el estado vecino de Guerrero, tienen una fauna distintiva, aparentemente aislada de los sitios de elevaciones bajas, lo que revela una distribución archipelágica para los Nymphalidae del bosque mesófilo. Conclusiones: La Región Loxicha es una de las zonas más diversas para Nymphalidae en México. La distribución en la vertiente del Pacífico está determinada por la historia geográfica y las condiciones ecológicas, incluida la elevación. Nymphalidae puede usarse para probar hipótesis de regionalización biogeográfica en México.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lepidoptera/classification , Mexico
2.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0832018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118050

ABSTRACT

Ichneumonidae are solitary parasitoids that mainly attack larvae and pupae of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, which constitute important agricultural pests. The objective of the present paper was to characterize the assemblage of Ichneumonidae associated to the conventional and organic cultivation of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) crop in Manaus City (Amazonas State, Brazil) with faunistic analysis. The samples were collected at Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), using Malaise and Moericke traps, between September 2012 and February 2013. We collected 296 specimens of Ichneumonidae, represented by 14 subfamilies, 41 genera and 63 morphospecies. The faunistic analysis revealed the predominance of rare and less frequent genera (54.2% in conventional and 47.1% in organic crop management). Venturia Schrottky was highlighted as superabundant, super frequent and constant (46.4% of the specimens) in conventional cultivation. In organic cultivation, Eiphosoma Cresson (15.6% of the specimens), Venturia (15.1%), Polycyrtidea Viereck (7%), Stethantyx Townes (6%), Enicospilus Stephens and Diapetimorpha Viereck (both 5.5%), Polycyrtus Spinola and Podogaster Brullé (both 5%) were more abundant, more frequent and constant. The observed differences reflect the type of crop management. Considering that organic crop management do not use agrochemicals, there is a greater diversification of the landscape. On the other hand, a reduction in richness and abundance has been observed in conventional crop management, due to its greater alteration and uniformity of the landscape. This study evidences a high number of rare, less frequent and accidental genera, and reveals the predominant groups in each crop cultivation system.(AU)


Ichneumonidae são parasitoides solitários e atacam principalmente larvas e pupas de Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Hymenoptera, que constituem importantes pragas agrícolas. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar a assembleia de Ichneumonidae associada ao cultivo de guaraná (Paullinia cupana) de manejo convencional e orgânico, em Manaus (Amazonas, Brasil) por meio de análise faunística. As coletas foram realizadas na EMBRAPA, com o uso de armadilhas Malaise e Moericke, entre setembro de 2012 e fevereiro de 2013. Foram coletados 296 exemplares de Ichneumonidae, em 14 subfamílias, 41 gêneros e 63 morfoespécies. A análise faunística revelou predominância de gêneros raros e pouco frequentes (54,2% no manejo convencional e 47,1% no orgânico). Venturia Schrottky destacou-se no manejo convencional como superabundante, superfrequente e constante (46,4% dos exemplares). No manejo orgânico, Eiphosoma Cresson (15,6% dos exemplares), Venturia (15,1%), Polycyrtidea Viereck (7%), Stethantyx Townes (6%), Enicospilus Stephens e Diapetimorpha Viereck (ambos 5,5%), Polycyrtus Spinola e Podogaster Brullé (ambos 5%) foram muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes. As diferenças observadas refletem o tipo de manejo da cultura. No manejo orgânico, por não utilizar agroquímicos, há uma maior diversificação da paisagem. Já no manejo convencional há uma redução da riqueza e abundância, por possuir maior perturbação e uniformidade da paisagem. Este estudo evidenciou o elevado número de gêneros raros, pouco frequentes e acidentais e expôs os grupos predominantes em cada sistema de manejo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Paullinia/parasitology , Hymenoptera/classification , Lepidoptera/classification , Pupa , Coleoptera , Brazil , Pest Control, Biological , Agricultural Pests , Larva
3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(2): 503-558, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977327

ABSTRACT

Resumen La familia Riodinidae es muy diversa en la región Neotropical; en México aún es escaso el conocimiento acerca de la biología de la mayoría de sus especies. Para el presente trabajo, se realizaron recolectas exhaustivas y sistemáticas de Riodinidae en varias localidades de la región Loxicha, Oaxaca, México, particularmente en dos con bosque tropical subcaducifolio. Además se examinaron los registros previos para esa región, en un gradiente altitudinal de los 70 a 2 500 m; la mayoría recolectados por personal del Museo de Zoología (Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM). A partir de la revisión de la base de datos MARIPOSA y del trabajo de campo, se alcanzó la cifra de 4 029 ejemplares de esta región; de los cuales, 2 306 se obtuvieron del bosque tropical subcaducifolio (bts) durante el presente estudio. El total de especies para la región, arrojó un total de 52 especies, distribuidas en 22 géneros y dos subfamilias; la subfamilia Riodininae la más diversa (50 spp.). Mediante estimadores paramétricos se calculó la riqueza de esta familia para las dos localidades de bts estudiadas y en el total de la región; alcanzando valores teóricos mayores al 80 %. Al comparar los resultados con otras listas de especies del Pacífico mexicano, se concluye que en la región Loxicha se encuentra la mayor riqueza de la familia Riodinidae. En el bosque tropical subcaducifolio se efectuaron transectos por dos años, que permitieron distinguir los microhábitats de más de 40 especies, lo cual se ilustra y describe en dibujos y fotografías in situ. En este tipo vegetacional se registra la mayoría de especies de la región Loxicha.


Abstract Riodinidae is very diverse in the Neotropical region; in Mexico the knowledge about the biology of most of its species is still scarce. For the present work, exhaustive and systematic collections of Riodinidae were carried out in 14 localities of the Loxicha region, Oaxaca, Mexico, particularly in two with tropical semi-deciduous forest. In addition, previous records for this region were examined, in an altitude range of 70 to 2 500 m; the majority collected by the staff of the Museo de Zoología (Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM). We obtained 4 029 specimens from the fieldwork and MARIPOSA database, 2 306 of them are present in the tropical semi-deciduous forest (TSF). The total number of species for the region is 52, distributed in 22 genera and two subfamilies; the most diverse subfamily was Riodininae (50 species). Using parametric estimators the richness of the family was calculated for the two locations of TSF studied and the entire region, reaching theoretical values greater than 80 %. When comparing the results with other lists of species of the Mexican Pacific, it is concluded that the Loxicha region harbours the greatest richness of Riodinidae. In the tropical semi-deciduous forest, transects were carried out for two years, allowing microhabitats to be distinguished from more than 40 species, which are described and illustrated with drawings and in situ photographs. In this vegetation type most species of the Loxicha region are recorded. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 503-558. Epub 2018 June 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropods/classification , Soil Analysis , Growth and Development , Insecta/anatomy & histology , Larva , Lepidoptera/classification , Plant Leaves , Mexico
4.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2955-2969, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886855

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The host acceptance behavior and environmental factors as temperature affect the feeding behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Thus, they must be considered in studies about the risk potential of resistance evolution. The current study sets the differences in the feeding behavior of neonate Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae exposed to Bt and non-Bt cotton plants, under different temperatures and time gap after hatching. Two cotton cultivars were used: the Bt (DP 404 BG - bollgard) and the non-transformed isoline, DP 4049. We found that the feeding behavior of neonate A. argillacea is significantly different between Bt and non-Bt cotton. Based on the number of larvae with vegetal tissue in their gut found on the plant and in the organza as well as on the amount of vegetal tissue ingested by the larvae. A. argillacea shows feeding preference for non-Bt cotton plants, in comparison to that on the Bt. However, factors such as temperature and exposure time may affect detection capacity and plant abandonment by the larvae and it results in lower ingestion of vegetal tissue. Such results are relevant to handle the resistance of Bt cotton cultivars to A. argillacea and they also enable determining how the cotton seeds mix will be a feasible handling option to hold back resistance evolution in A. argillacea populations on Bt cotton, when it is compared to other refuge strategies. The results can also be useful to determine which refuge distribution of plants is more effective for handling Bt cotton resistance to A. argillacea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Temperature , Gossypium/parasitology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Lepidoptera/physiology , Biological Assay , Pest Control, Biological , Plants, Genetically Modified , Gossypium/genetics , Lepidoptera/classification
5.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e24, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842777

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Patients envenomed by Lonomia sp caterpillars initially experience a mild burning pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, and skin and mucosal hemorrhages. Some patients can rapidly progress to a severe coagulopathy that presents as visceral or intracerebral hemorrhaging. We studied the hemostatic alterations that occurred in 14 patients who were envenomed by Lonomia obliqua in Southern Brazil and presented at the Hospital São Vicente de Paulo (Passo Fundo, RS), Brazil during the summers of 1993 and 1994 when Lonomia antivenom was not yet available for treatment. The patients were classified into to 4 clinical groups: 0 (two patients), I (eight patients), II (two patients), and III (two patients). The patients were admitted to the hospital between 4 hours and five days after contact with the caterpillars. In this study, the coagulation parameters of the patients were followed up for up to 172 hours after the accidents. The patients received no treatment with the exceptions of two patients who received blood transfusions and antifibrinolytic treatment. The observed abnormalities related to blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors were similar regardless of the severity of the bleeding symptoms. These findings suggest that alterations in hemostatic parameters without thrombocytopenia are not predictors of the seriousness of such accidents. Thus, consumptive disorder and reactive fibrinolysis are not proportional to mild coagulopathy. Furthermore, these patients recovered. The hemostatic parameters of most of the patients normalized between 96 and 120 h after the accident.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arthropod Venoms/poisoning , Antivenins/administration & dosage , Hemostatic Disorders/chemically induced , Lepidoptera/classification , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Hemostatic Disorders/prevention & control
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 787-795, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785051

ABSTRACT

Abstract Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera).


Resumo Foram encontrados 31 morfotipos de galhas de insetos e dois danos em flores em 16 famílias, 22 gêneros e 24 espécies de plantas, na Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae e Myrtaceae foram as famílias de plantas com maior riqueza de galhas (4 e 6 morfotipos, respectivamente) e maior número de espécies com galhas (quatro e três espécies, respectivamente). As galhas predominaram nas folhas e caules (77% e 10%, respectivamente). Os insetos galhadores estão representados por Diptera, Lepidoptera e Hemiptera. A maioria das galhas (81%) foi induzida por Cecidomyiidae (Diptera).


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Plants/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Plant Tumors/classification , Brazil , Plant Stems/parasitology , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Myrtaceae/parasitology , Diptera/classification , Diptera/physiology , Hemiptera/classification , Hemiptera/physiology , Insecta/classification , Fabaceae/parasitology , Lepidoptera/classification , Lepidoptera/physiology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(4): 983-990, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732322

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the nocturnal fauna of Noctuidae in a pasture area in Altamira, Pará. Samples were collected monthly for two nights at the new moon period, from August 2007 to July 2008. We collected a total of 345 specimens (N) of 66 species (S). The most abundant species were Ptichodes basilans (Guenée) (n = 87), Leucania jaliscana (Schaus), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (n = 28) and Argidia palmipes Guenée (n = 21). For the entire period, the following indexes were found: Shannon diversity H′= 3.20 and Brillouin H = 2.94, evenness of Shannon E′= 0.76 and Brillouin E= 0.76, and Berger-Parker dominance BP= 0.252. The greatest diversity was found in the dry season. According to the estimates of species richness, it is possible that between 14 to 72 more species exist in the region.


A diversidade de Noctuidae noturnos foi estudada em área de pastagem em Altamira, Pará. As coletas foram feitas com armadilha luminosa, mensalmente durante duas noites no período de lua nova, entre agosto de 2007 a julho de 2008. Foi coletado um total de 345 espécimes (N) de 66 espécies (S). As espécies mais abundantes foram Ptichodes basilans (Guenée) (n=87), Leucania jaliscana (Schaus), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (n=28) e Argidia palmipes Guenée (n=21). Para todo o período de estudo foram encontrados os seguintes índices: diversidade de Shannon H′= 3,20 e de Brillouin H= 2,94, uniformidade de Shannon E′= 0,76 e Brillouin E= 0,76, e dominância Berger-Parker BP= 0,252. A estação menos chuvosa apresentou maior diversidade. As estimativas de riqueza apresentaram a possibilidade de se encontrar entre 14 a 72 espécies a mais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lepidoptera/classification , Brazil , Population Density , Seasons
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(3): 919-928, jul.-sep. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753662

ABSTRACT

Measurements of species richness and species abundance can have important implications for regulations and conservation. This study investigated species richness and abundance of butterflies in the family Nymphalidae at undisturbed, and disturbed habitats in Tirimbina Biological Reserve and Nogal Private Reserve, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. Traps baited with rotten banana were placed in the canopy and the understory of three habitats: within mature forest, at a river/forest border, and at a banana plantation/forest border. In total, 71 species and 487 individuals were caught and identified during May and June 2011 and May 2013. Species richness and species abundance were found to increase significantly at perturbed habitats (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively). The edge effect, in which species richness and abundance increase due to greater complementary resources from different habitats, could be one possible explanation for increased species richness and abundance. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3): 919-928. Epub 2014 September 01.


La medición de la riqueza y abundancia de especies puede indicar la salud de un ecosistema y tener implicaciones importantes para la conservación y su regulación. Este estudio investigó la riqueza y abundancia de mariposas de la familia Nymphalidae en hábitats alterados y no alterados, primordialmente en la Reserva Biológica Tirimbina y en la Reserva Privada Nogal, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. Se colocaron trampas cebadas con banano podrido en el dosel y sotobosque de tres hábitats: en un bosque primario, en el lindero entre un río y un bosque y en el lindero entre una plantación de bananos y un bosque. Se atrapó e identificó un total de 71 especies y 487 individuos durante mayo y junio 2011 y en mayo 2013. Se encontró que la riqueza y la abundancia de especies aumentaron significativamente en los hábitats de los linderos (p<0.0001, p<0.0001 respectivamente). El efecto de borde, según el cual la riqueza y la abundancia de especies aumentan a causa de la existencia de más recursos complementarios provenientes de dos hábitats distintos, podría ser una posible explicación del aumento en la riqueza y la abundancia de especies en hábitats alterados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Lepidoptera/classification , Costa Rica , Forests , Population Density , Tropical Climate
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(1): 205-211, 2/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715597

ABSTRACT

We studied the biology of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae) at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photo phase. Three experiments, using 150 larvae each, were conducted for the larval stage. In the first, used to assess the duration and survival of all stages, insects were reared individually and fed an artificial diet (Grenee). In the second, individuals were also reared separately, but were fed leaves of 10 plants from different families. In the third, the larvae were not individualised, the food plants were rotated such as to provide three plant species every 48 hours. In the first experiment, the viability of the eggs, larvae, pupae and prepupae was 91.9, 94.7, 32.49 and 43.5%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adult were 6.0, 25.3, 25.7, 21.4 and 12.7 days, respectively. The prolonged prepupal period indicates that T. grandirena can develop larval (prepupal) diapause. The results of the experiments with different host plants showed that T. grandirena is polyphagous at species, population and individual level.


Estudou-se a biologia de Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae) em condições controladas de 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 14 horas. Na fase larval foram estabelecidos três experimentos empregando 150 larvas cada. No primeiro, os insetos foram criados individualmente, com dieta artificial de Grenee, cujos dados foram utilizados para avaliar a duração e a sobrevivência das larvas, pupas e adultos. No segundo, as larvas foram criadas individualmente, alimentadas com folhas de 10 plantas de famílias diferentes avaliando-se a sobrevivência e duração larval (fase ativa). No terceiro, as larvas foram mantidas em um mesmo recipiente, variando-se a alimentação vegetal, três espécies a cada 48 horas, avaliando-se apenas a sobrevivência larval. No primeiro experimento a viabilidade de ovo, larva, pré-pupa e pupa foi de 91,93; 94,67; 32,39 e 43,48%, respectivamente. A duração média de ovo, larva, pré-pupa, pupa e adulto foi de 6,00; 25,26; 25,76; 21,35 e 12,67 dias, respectivamente. O prolongado período de pré-pupa indicou que, nas condições em que foi criada T. grandirena pode desenvolver diapausa larval (pré-pupal). Os resultados dos experimentos com diferentes plantas hospedeiras demonstraram que T. grandirena é polífaga ao nível específico, populacional e individual.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Lepidoptera/physiology , Life Cycle Stages/physiology , Larva/growth & development , Lepidoptera/classification , Lepidoptera/growth & development , Survival Analysis
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(supl.1): 317-328, feb. 2014. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-753743

ABSTRACT

Gorgona is a continental island at the Pacific coast of Colombia. For 26 years it was a prison but in 1986 it was declared a National Park, and the land was left aside for natural succession. This study presents a list of its Lepidoptera, compares it to a former study and discusses some ecological factors that could promote in situ biodiversity. Butterflies and moths were collected during three trips from October 2010 to May 2011. Butterfly observations were carried out along the main island paths. Baited traps using decomposed fruit, fish and chicken, were installed for three days at each zone (two kinds of bait per site) and sweep net catches were also made between 09:00h and 18:00h. For moths, black and white light traps were located in open areas. Town lights were also checked daily. Percent canopy cover was measured at each collection point. A total of 52 species belonging to seven families were found, of which 30 butterfly and 11 moth species are new records for the island. Cerro Trinidad and Sendero Chonta (22 and 20 species, respectively) were the richest places. Species richness did not decrease with canopy cover. Heliconious sara and Aeria eurimedia were the dominant species, but their distribution did not overlap. Three species were the most widely distributed in the island: H. sara (11 sites, 166 individuals), Calycopis cerata (10 sites, 71 individuals) and Ae. eurimedia (nine sites, 72 individuals). Catoblepia xanthicles occidentalis was found 87 years after the last report. Most species accumulation curves were not asymptotic suggesting that the diversity of the island is higher than expected. This study found twice as much the number of butterflies species reported for Gorgona and is the first record of moths for the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1): 317-328. Epub 2014 February 01.


Gorgona es una isla ubicada en la costa Pacífica de Colombia. Durante 26 años fue una prisión, pero desde 1986 fue declarada Parque Nacional Natural, y desde entonces se encuentra en un proceso de sucesión natural. En este estudio se presenta una lista de los lepidópteros de isla Gorgona y se analizan algunos de los ecológicos que podrían promover la biodiversidad in situ de este grupo taxonómico. Se recolectaron mariposas y polillas durante tres viajes realizados entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011. Las observaciones de las mariposas se realizaron a lo largo de los principales senderos de la isla. Se instalaron trampas cebadas con fruta, pescado y pollo descompuestos, durante tres días en cada zona de trabajo (dos tipos cebos por sitio) como también capturas con redes de entomológicas entre las 09:00h y 18:00h. En el muestreo de las polillas se utilizaron trampas de luz blanca y luz negra en zonas abiertas, la luz se reflejó sobre una pantalla blanca para maximizar la atracción. Además, se realizaron revisiones diarias en los alrededores de las luces artificiales del poblado. Se registró la cobertura del dosel del bosque en cada punto de muestreo. En total, se identificaron 52 especies pertenecientes a siete familias, de las cuales 31 de mariposa y 11 de polillas fueron nuevos registros para la isla. El Cerro Trinidad y el Sendero de la Chonta fueron los sitios de muestreo con mayor riqueza de especies (22 y 20, respectivamente). La riqueza de especies de mariposas no disminuyó con la reducción de la cobertura del dosel. Heliconious sara y Aeria eurimedia fueron las especies dominantes en número, pero su distribución no se superpuso. Tres especies fueron las más ampliamente distribuidas en la isla: H. sara (11 siitios, 166 individuos), Calycopis cerata (10 sitios y 71 individuos) y Ae . eurimedia (9 sitios y 72 individuos). Se reporta Catoblepia xanthicles occidentalis después de 87 años. La mayoría de las curvas de acumulación de especies no fueron asintóticas lo que sugiere que la diversidad de la isla es más alta de lo esperado. Este estudio contribuyó a incrementar en más del doble el listado de especies de mariposas reportadas para isla Gorgona y contiene los primeros registros de Polillas para esta localidad.


Subject(s)
Butterflies/classification , Lepidoptera/classification , Moths/classification , Species Specificity , Colombia
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 71(2): 537-540, maio 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-592592

ABSTRACT

Euptychia soter Butler, 1877, the type species of Moneuptychia Forster, 1964, is compared to Satyrus paeon Godart, 1824, the type species of Carminda Dias, 1998. The male genitalia and wing design patterns of these species are dealt with. Some additional data from other species from both genera are also presented. The morphological comparisons carried out in this study indicate that Carminda is not a junior synonym of Moneuptychia. Thus, Carminda is revalidated.


Euptychia soter Butler, 1877, espécie-tipo de Moneuptychia Forster, 1964, é comparada com Satyrus paeon Godart, 1824, espécie-tipo de Carminda Dias, 1998. A genitália do macho e o padrão de desenho das asas dessas espécies são comparados. Alguns dados sobre outras espécies de ambos os gêneros são também incluídos. As comparações morfológicas ora apresentadas mostram que Carminda não é um sinônimo júnior de Moneuptychia. Portanto, Carminda é revalidado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Genitalia, Male/anatomy & histology , Lepidoptera/anatomy & histology , Lepidoptera/classification , Wings, Animal/anatomy & histology
14.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(1): 1-13, Jan.-Feb. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578828

ABSTRACT

We review the various proposals of evolutionary and classification schemes for Satyrinae and particularly Euptychiina butterflies, assessing progress and prospects of research for the group. Among the highlights is the proposal to include Morphini, Brassolini and Amathusiini as part of Satyrinae. Although it is clear that this hypothesis requires further investigation, phylogenetic studies recently conducted recover this clade as part of Satyrinae with high support. The phylogenetic analyses for Euptychiina carried out to date recover the monophyly of the group and have identified a variety of genera as non-monophyletic. Further work is necessary to resolve the position of the subtribe and the evolutionary relationships of several genera.


Subject(s)
Animals , Butterflies/classification , Butterflies/anatomy & histology , Lepidoptera/classification , Phylogeny
15.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(1): 85-88, Jan.-Feb. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578838

ABSTRACT

Male and female adults of a new species of Alucita L. (Lepidoptera: Alucitidae) are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile. Immature stages are associated with fruit of "chuve", Tecoma fulva (Cav.) D. Don. (Bignoniaceae). This is the first species of Alucitidae described from Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Lepidoptera/classification , Chile , Lepidoptera/anatomy & histology
16.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 82(4): 1127-1136, Dec. 2010. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-567817

ABSTRACT

Chlosyne lacinia saundersii is one of the most important pests of sunflower and it is the main target of insecticides applications. Larvae were collected in Londrina (PR), Santa Maria (RS), Dourados (MS), Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brasília (DF), Barreiras (BA), Uberaba (MG) and Vilhena (RO). Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified with ten-mer primers, which produced 101 loci. The size of the RAPD amplicons ranged from 180 to 2564 bp. Polymorphism among populations ranged from 31 percent to 67 percent, with the highest polymorphisms of 57 percent and 67 percent being detected in Uberaba and Vilhena populations, respectively. Populations with the highest similarity determined with Dice coefficient were from Ribeirão Preto and Barreiras, while insects from Londrina showed the highest similarity among them. Gene flow of C. lacinia saundersii 1.1 was lower than those previously observed for the noctuid Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, suggesting that C. lacinia saundersii populations are more isolated than the ones of this noctuid. Through the Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA), RAPD variance was 33.64 percent among geographical populations and 66.36 percent within populations. These results suggest that populations of C. lacinia saundersii are genetically structured.


Chlosyne lacinia saundersii é uma das mais importantes pragas da cultura do girassol e o principal alvo das aplicações de inseticidas. As larvas foram coletadas em Londrina (PR), Santa Maria (RS), Dourados (MS), Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brasília (DF), Barreiras (BA), Uberaba (MG) e Vilhena (RO). O DNA genômico foi extraído e amplificado com dez primers, que produziram 101 locos. O tamanho das amplificações de RAPD variou de 180 a 2564 pb. O polimorfismo entre as populações variou de 31 por cento a 67 por cento, com maior polimorfismo 57 por cento e 67 por cento, detectado em populações de Uberaba e Vilhena, respectivamente. As populações com maior similaridade determinada com o coeficiente de Dice foram de Ribeirão Preto e Barreiras, enquanto os insetos coletados em Londrina apresentaram maior similaridade entre eles. O fluxo gênico de C. lacinia saundersii de 1,1 foi menor que o observado para a Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner Noctuidae, sugerindo que as populações de C. lacinia saundersii estão mais isoladas do que estes noctuideos. Através da análise de variância molecular (AMOVA), RAPD a variação foi de 33,64 por cento entre as populações geográficas e 66,36 por cento dentro das populações. Estes resultados sugere que as populações de C. lacinia saundersii são geneticamente estruturadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation/genetics , Helianthus/parasitology , Lepidoptera/genetics , Brazil , Genetic Markers/genetics , Lepidoptera/classification , Phylogeography , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Species Specificity
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 70(2): 373-380, May 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-548242

ABSTRACT

Aiming to contribute to knowledge of the immature instars of Neotropical Lepidoptera, this study details the morphology of the egg and last instar larvae of Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae), emphasising the structures of the corium and the chaetotaxy. There is also a report of the occurrence of entomopathogenic action of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson fungi on the larva.


Este estudo objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento dos estágios imaturos dos lepidópteros neotropicais. Nele é feito o detalhamento da morfologia das fases de ovo e de larva de Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae), dando ênfase ao estudo das estruturas do córion e da quetotaxia da larva de último ínstar. Além disso é relatada a ocorrência da ação entomopatogênica do fungo Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson sobre suas larvas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Hypocreales/isolation & purification , Lepidoptera/anatomy & histology , Ovum , Larva/anatomy & histology , Larva/microbiology , Lepidoptera/classification , Lepidoptera/microbiology
18.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(1): 83-90, Jan.-Feb. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-540937

ABSTRACT

This paper describes a new species of Moneuptychia Forster from the cerrado in the Federal District and Goiás region in central Brazil, and from highland open vegetation (campos de altitude) of Minas Gerais and Paraná. We provide details of the adult morphology and discuss the new species placement in the genus Moneuptychia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Lepidoptera/classification , Brazil , Lepidoptera/anatomy & histology
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 57(supl.1): 31-67, nov. 2009. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-637923

ABSTRACT

Costa Rica’s most populated area, the Central valley, has lost much of its natural habitat, and the little that remains has been altered to varying degrees. Yet few studies have been conducted to assess the need for conservation in this area. We present preliminary inventories of plants, butterflies, and day-flying moths of the Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO), a small Premontane Moist Forest preserve within the University of Costa Rica campus, located in the urbanized part of the valley. Butterflies are one of the best bio-indicators of a habitat’s health, because they are highly sensitive to environmental changes and are tightly linked to the local flora. A description of the RELO’s physical features and its history is also presented with illustrations. Approximately 432 species of ca. 334 genera in 113 families of plants were identified. However, only 57 % of them represent species native to the Premontane Moist Forest of the region; the rest are either exotic or species introduced mostly from lowland. More than 200 species of butterflies in six families, including Hesperiidae, have been recorded. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1): 31-67. Epub 2009 November 30.


Por ser el área más poblada del país, el valle Central de Costa Rica perdió su hábitat natural; lo poco que queda ha sido alterado en grados variados. Sin embargo, se han realizado algunos estudios para evaluar la necesidad de conservación en esta área. Se presentan inventarios preliminares de plantas, mariposas y polillas diurnas de la Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO); una pequeña reserva de bosque húmedo premontano en del campus de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en la parte urbanizada del valle. Las mariposas diurnas son uno de los mejores bio-indicadores de la salud del hábitat, porque son muy sensibles a los cambios del ambiente y están estrechamente ligadas a la flora local. Se presenta también una descripción de los caracteres físicos y la historia de la RELO, con ilustraciones. Se identificaron aproximadamente 432 especies de ca. 334 géneros en 113 familias de plantas. Sin embargo, solamente 57% de ellas son especies nativas del bosque húmedo premontano de la región; el resto son especies exóticas o introducidas en su mayoría desde tierras bajas. Se han registrado más de 200 especies de mariposas diurnas en seis familias, incluyendo Hesperiidae.


Subject(s)
Plants/classification , Butterflies/classification , Lepidoptera/classification , Moths/classification , Universities , Costa Rica , Biodiversity , Rainforest , Conservational Biological Control
20.
Neotrop. entomol ; 38(4): 441-451, July-Aug. 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-525829

ABSTRACT

Faced by a growing need of identification and delimitation of new and established cryptic species that are being lost at an increasing rate, taxonomists can now more than ever take advantage of an enormous variety of new molecular and computational tools. At this moment they should be open to all new available technologies in the so called "technology-driven revolution" in systematics. The use of the "DNA barcode" has been discussed by those applying successfully this approach to identify and diagnose species and by those who believe that the flaws in the use of this molecular marker are as many as to negate the worth of its employment. For insects of the order Lepidoptera neither side seems totally correct orwrong, and although many groups of lepidopterans have been taxonomically resolved by using exclusively or additionally this marker for diagnoses, for others the "barcode" helped little to resolve taxonomic issues. Here we briefly present some pros and cons of using DNA barcode as a tool in taxonomic studies, with special attention to studies with groups of Lepidoptera developed in the last few years.


A necessida de crescente de identificação e delimitação de novas espécies, ou de espécies crípticas já estabelecidas, que estão sendo perdidas a uma taxa também crescente, tem levado diversos especialistas a utilizar em uma variedade de ferramentas moleculares e computacionais. Neste momento, taxonomistas devem estar atentos a toda nova tecnologia disponível na chamada "revolução dirigida pela tecnologia"na sistemática, que tem entre as novas ferramentas moleculares a utilização de"DNA barcodes". O uso de "DNA barcode" tem sido amplamente discutido por aqueles que aplicam essa abordagem com sucesso para identificar e diagnosticar espécies, e por aqueles que acreditam que são tantos os problemas no uso desse marcador molecular que não se justifica seu emprego. Para insetos da ordem Lepidoptera nenhum lado parece estar totalmente certo ou errado e, embora alguns grupos de lepidópteros tenham sido resolvidos taxonomicamente pelo uso exclusivo ou adicional desse marcador, para outros o "barcode" ajudou pouco a resolver problemas taxonômicos. Aqui nós apresentamos brevemente prós e contras do uso de "DNA barcode" como ferramenta em estudos taxonômicos, com atenção especial para estudos com grupos de Lepidoptera desenvolvidos nos últimos anos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lepidoptera/classification , Lepidoptera/genetics , Classification/methods
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