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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 99-104, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041441

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Corticosteroids and/or thalidomides have been associated with thromboembolism events (TBE) in multibacillary (MB) leprosy. This report aimed to determine genetic and laboratory profiles associated with leprosy and TBE. METHODS Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), coagulation-related exams, prothrombin and Leiden's factor V mutations, and ß2-glycoprotein-I (ß2GPI) Val247Leu polymorphism were assessed. RESULTS Six out of seven patients with leprosy were treated with prednisone and/or thalidomide during TBE and presented at least one positive aPL. All patients presented ß2GPI polymorphism, and one showed prothrombin mutation. CONCLUSIONS Corticosteroid or thalidomide adverse effects and aPL and ß2GPI polymorphisms may cause TBE in patients with MB leprosy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Aged , Thalidomide/administration & dosage , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/genetics , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/drug therapy , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/blood , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Leprosy, Multibacillary/immunology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Thalidomide/adverse effects , Factor V/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Prothrombin/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/drug effects , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/genetics , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , beta 2-Glycoprotein I/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Leprosy, Multibacillary/genetics , Leprosy, Multibacillary/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Mutation
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 208-215, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842843

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Currently, there are no laboratory tests or sensitive and specific molecular markers for the early diagnosis of leprosy. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with leprosy and investigate their immunological profile, comparing this with the type of lesion and the presence or absence of a Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination scar. METHODS: Statistical analyzes were performed by employing comparative tests (Pearson´s chi-square) to evaluate the variables in different clinical forms, considering significance at the 5% level. RESULTS: The study identified a predominance of lepromatous leprosy (26.9%) in patients aged between 34-53 years. Caucasians predominantly had borderline tuberculoid (BT) clinical forms (42%); a predominance of males with borderline lepromatous (19%) and lepromatous leprosy (26.9%) forms was observed; and the presence of BCG vaccination scars (27.5%) and lower limb nerves were more affected (38%) predominantly in the BT clinical form. Significant differences were identified, which included hypochromic lesions predominantly in the BT clinical form (24%); diffuse-type lesions predominantly in the tuberculoid (TT) clinical form (28%); ill-defined lesion border dominance in lepromatous leprosy (LL) clinical forms (30%); an irregular lesion limit predominantly in LL clinical forms (32%); and a predominant Th1 immune response in the BT clinical form (41.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of the immunological profile in leprosy patients may contribute to the more detailed diagnosis and possibly better characterization of the prognosis for these individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Leprosy, Multibacillary/diagnosis , Leprosy, Multibacillary/immunology , Leprosy, Paucibacillary/diagnosis , Leprosy, Paucibacillary/immunology , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Leprosy, Multibacillary/classification , Leprosy, Paucibacillary/classification , Middle Aged
3.
Hansen. int ; 39(2): 70-74, 2014. ilus
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-831071

ABSTRACT

A reação reversa maculosa consiste no aparecimento abrupto de máculas hipocrômicas, ocorrendo em pacientes hansenianos dimorfos que completaram o tratamento com poliquimioterapia para hanseníase multibacilar. Em geral, surgem entre 6 a 12 meses da alta, com baciloscopia negativa e boa resposta a corticoterapia sistêmica. Ressaltamos a dificuldade em diferenciar recidiva de um episódio reacional, já que não existem critérios clínicos bem estabelecidos que possibilitem este diagnóstico, além de existirem poucos relatos em literatura. Relatamos um caso clínico com diagnóstico de reação reversa macular após período variável de alta do tratamento de hanseniase dimorfa-dimorfa. Foi feita investigação por meio de anamnese rigorosa, exame dermatológico, exame histopatológico da lesão e baciloscopia, excluindo-se os critérios de recidiva, além de analisados dados anteriores do prontuário.O paciente foi submetido a corticoterapia sistêmica,apresentando melhora das lesões. Conclui-seque a reação reversa maculosa deve ser lembrada nos diagnósticos diferenciais com hanseníase recidivada e episódios reacionais clássicos, evitando retratamentos desnecessários.


Macular reversal reaction is the abrupt onset of hypochromic lesions, occurring in borderline leprosy patients who completed treatment with multidrugtherapy for multibacillary leprosy. In general, these reactions appear 6 to 12 months after medical discharge, showing negative skin smear and good response to systemic corticosteroid therapy. We emphasize the difficulty in differentiating relapse cases from leprosy reactions, as there are no well-established clinical criteria that allow this diagnosis, and moreover there are few reports about it in the literature. We report a borderline leprosy case diagnosed with macular reversal reaction after variable period of discharge from treatment. Detailed anamnesis, dermatological and histopathological examination and bacilloscopy, analysis of previous medical records, excluding the relapse criteria, were used for the investigation. The patient was submitted to systemic corticosteroid therapy, with improvement of the lesions. It is concluded that macular reversal reaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of relapsed leprosy and classic reactional episodes, avoiding unnecessary retreatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leprosy, Multibacillary/complications , Leprosy, Multibacillary/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Leprosy, Multibacillary , Remission Induction , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination
4.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(3): 173-177, May-Jun/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674680

ABSTRACT

Leprosy is a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that carries a high risk of disability, making early diagnosis mandatory. This study aimed to determine the applicability of anti-PGL-1 IgM antibody detection, using the ML FLOW technique, as an assistant tool for the detection of leprosy infection in asymptomatic household contacts (AHHC) of multibacillary leprosy index cases from Midwest Brazil. Serological changes induced by the prophylaxis of these household contacts with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) were also verified. A total of 91 AHHC were assessed, among which, 18.68% (n = 17) presented both positive bacilloscopy and positive anti-PGL-1 IgM serology. Positivity concordance between these two laboratorial exams (Kappa Index = 1; p < 0.001) was indicated, however, one case did not demonstrate concordance between the semiquantitative assessment of anti-PGL-1 IgM and the bacilloscopy index (Kappa Index = 0.96; p < 0.001). Among the 17 AHHC with positive bacilloscopy, eight were reassessed after prophylaxis with BCG and two of them presented negative anti-PGL-1 IgM serology, being these patients who had presented a bacilloscopy index of < 2[+] in the initial assessment. This study shows that anti-PGL-1 IgM detection may be used as a tool to determine the bacillary load in AHHC and to detect immune changes related to prophylaxis by nonspecific vaccination.


A hanseníase é doença causada pelo Mycobacterium leprae, apresentando elevado potencial incapacitante, o que torna indispensável seu diagnóstico precoce. O estudo visa determinar a aplicabilidade da detecção de anticorpos anti-PGL1-IgM por meio da técnica do ML FLOW como ferramenta adjuvante ao diagnóstico de hanseníase em contatos domiciliares assintomáticos (AHHC) de pacientes multibacilares procedentes da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, bem como, documentar o comportamento sorológico após a profilaxia com a vacina Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Foram avaliados 91 AHHC atendidos no Hospital Universitário de Brasília - Brasil, dos quais 18,68% (n = 17) apresentaram positividade para baciloscopia e anti-PGL1-IgM, totalizando uma concordância completa entre os dois grupos (Índice Kappa = 1; p < 0,001). Em apenas um dos casos não observou-se concordância entre a avaliação semi-quantitativa do anti-PGL1-IgM e índice baciloscópico (Índice Kappa = 0,96; p < 0,001). Oito dos 17 AHHC com baciloscopia positiva foram reavaliados após profilaxia com BCG e apenas dois apresentaram negativação dos títulos anti-PGL1-IgM, sendo tais casos correspondentes aos que haviam apresentado índice baciloscópico menor do que 2[+] na avaliação inicial. O estudo corrobora o potencial do anti-PGL1-IgM como ferramenta de predição da carga bacilar em AHHC da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, e surpreende alterações imunes relacionadas à profilaxia obtida pela vacinação não específica com BCG.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , BCG Vaccine/immunology , Glycolipids/immunology , Leprosy, Multibacillary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium leprae/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Family Characteristics , Leprosy, Multibacillary/immunology , Leprosy, Multibacillary/prevention & control , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 84(4): 355-359, jul.-ago. 2009. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-529080

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTOS - Anticorpos antifosfolípides (AAF), como antiβ2GP1 (β2-glicoproteína 1), são descritos na hanseníase multibacilar (MB) sem, contudo, caracterizar a síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide (SAF), constituída por fenômenos tromboembólicos (FTE). A mutação Val247Leu no V domínio da β2GP1 - substituição da leucina por valina - expõe epítopos crípticos com consequente formação de anticorpos antiβ2GP1. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação do polimorfismo Val247Leu do gene β2GP1 com títulos de anticorpos antiβ2GP1 na hanseníase. MÉTODO: O polimorfismo Val247Leu foi detectado por PCR-RFLP, e os títulos de anticorpos antiβ2GP1, por Elisa. RESULTADOS: O genótipo Val/Val estatisticamente predominou no grupo de hansênicos, em relação ao controle. Embora maiores títulos de anticorpos antiβ2GP1 IgM estivessem alocados no grupo MB com genótipos Val/Val e Val/Leu, não houve diferença estatística em relação ao genótipo Leu/Leu. Dos sete pacientes MB com FTE, quatro apresentaram heterozigose, e três Val/Val homozigose. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência do genótipo Val/Val no grupo de hansênicos pode justificar parcialmente a presença de anticorpos antiβ2GP1 na forma MB. A heterozigose ou homozigose Val/Val nos sete pacientes com hanseníase MB e FTE corroboram a implicação de expressão fenotípica anômala da β2GPl e formação de anticorpos antiβ2GPl, com consequente FTE e SAF.


BACKGROUND - Multibacillary (MB) leprosy may be manifested with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), among which anti-β2GP1 (β2-glycoprotein 1). High titers of aPL are associated with APS (Antiphospholipid Syndrome), characterized by thrombosis. The mutation Val247Leu in the domain V of β2GP1 exposes hidden epitopes with consequent development of anti-β2GP1 antibodies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Val247Leu polymorphism of β2GP1 gene and its correlation with anti-β2GP1 antibodies in leprosy patients. METHODS: The Val247Leu polymorphism was performed by PCR-RFLP and anti-β2GP1 antibodies were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The genotypic Val/Val was more prevalent in the leprosy group, compared to controls. Regarding the 7 MB patients with APS, four presented heterozygosis and three, Val/Val homozygosis. Although higher titrations of anti-β2GP1 IgM antibodies were seen in MB leprosy group with Val/Leu and Val/Val genotypes, there was no statistical difference when compared to Leu/Leu genotype. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Val/Val homozygosis in leprosy group can partially justify the presence of anti-β2GP1 IgM antibodies in MB leprosy. The description of heterozygosis and Val/Val homozygosis in 7 patients with MB leprosy and thrombosis corroborates the implication of anomalous phenotype expression of β2GP1 and development of anti-β2GP1 antibodies, with consequent thrombosis and APS.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/genetics , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/immunology , Autoantibodies/biosynthesis , Leprosy, Multibacillary/genetics , Leprosy, Multibacillary/immunology , Mutation , Polymorphism, Genetic , /genetics , /immunology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/blood , Leprosy, Multibacillary/blood
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