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1.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(3): 301-308, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285055

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Leprosy still represents a negleted public health problem in Brazil. Early and adequate treatment of leprosy, carried out in a primary health network is essential to reduce morbidity and sequelae. Objective: To analyze the therapeutic management of leprosy patients referred from primary healthy services to a specialized service. Methods: An analytical retrospective study using medical records and the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Patients diagnosed with leprosy, referred to a specialized outpatient clinic, between 2016 and 2017, in Goiás state, were included. The treatment carried out in the primary health services was compared to the Ministry of Health guidelines. Results: Two-hundred twenty-five leprosy patients were included, of whom 33.3% were referred by leprosy reactions, 27.1% by sequelae, and 10.2% by suspected recurrence or reinfection. Reviewing the therapeutic management, 123 (54.7%) were considered inadequate, 92 (40.9%) adequate, and 10 (4.4%) inconclusive. Of the 200 multibacillary patients, 39.5% had adequate management. In contrast, 12 (85.1%) out of 14 paucibacillary patients had adequate management (χ2= 11.43 and p < 0.001). Regarding the leprosy reactions and sequelae management, 56.9% and 19.5% were considered inadequate, respectively. There was no difference between the percentage of adequate or inadequate management when considering the Goiás health macroregions (χ2= 7.23; 4 degrees of freedom; p = 0.12). Study limitations: Use of recorded data, with incomplete medical records and lack of patient follow-up. Conclusions: The study demonstrated the equivocal multibacillaryleprosy management conducted in healthy primary care, with an emphasis on leprosy reactions and sequelae. Training and monitoring the medical staff in the primary healthy services could reduce the morbidity and sequelae of leprosy.


Subject(s)
Leprosy/diagnosis , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 79-85, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151426

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O diagnóstico da hanseníase possui números significativos que causam preocupação à saúde pública. Os casos de resistência medicamentosa nessa doença se iniciaram em meados dos anos 60 e diante do problema, a Organização Mundial da Saúde instituiu em 1981 a poliquimioterapia, associação dos antibióticos rifampicina, dapsona e clofazimina, tratamento atual de escolha. A resistência aos fármacos na hanseníase é reportada pela literatura, desvelando um obstáculo à sua eliminação. Apresentamos nessa revisão os principais aspectos da resistência medicamentosa no tratamento para hanseníase e seus impactos. Metodologia: Revisão sistemática sobre os aspectos da resistência medicamentosa utilizando a pesquisa exploratória como metodologia de abordagem. Foram pesquisados os termos resistência medicamentosa, hanseníase, recidiva, alterações genéticas e os operadores booleanos "and" e "or" na busca. Resultados e discussão: A dificuldade de tomar a medicação corretamente foi um dos principais fatores que acarretaram resistência do bacilo Mycobacterium leprae aos fármacos. Homens de países norte e sul-americanos e asiáticos foram os mais atingidos por episódios de resistência. A resistência medicamentosa é uma das principais causas de recidivas em hanseníase. O principal fármaco causador de resistência medicamentosa descrito nos trabalhos foi a dapsona (46,6%) e a maioria das alterações genéticas encontradas estão no gene rpoB; 23,2% dos registros relatados foram de resistência secundária aos fármacos e, também, sete casos de resistência múltipla a esses medicamentos. Conclusão: Os principais aspectos da resistência medicamentosa na hanseníase são os equívocos ao ingerir os medicamentos e as alterações genéticas na bactéria. Os impactos causados estão na dificuldade de refazer o tratamento, a possibilidade de nova transmissão e o aparecimento de sintomas mais graves.


Introduction: The diagnosis of leprosy has significant numbers causing public health concern. Reports of drug resistance in this disease begun in the mid-1960s and due to this problem, the World Health Organization instituted a multidrug therapy with rifampicin, dapsone, and clofazimine antibiotic association in 1981, which is currently the first-choice treatment for leprosy. Cases of drug resistance have been reported in literature, revealing an obstacle to the eradication of the disease. This paper has the purpose of presenting the key aspects and impacts of drug resistance in the treatment for leprosy. Methods: Systematic review of the drug resistance aspects using exploratory research as an approach methodology. The authors searched the terms drug resistance, leprosy, recurrence, genetic alterations, and the Boolean operators "and" and "or" between them. Results and discussion: The difficulty in taking the medication correctly was one of the key factors that led to drug resistance for Mycobacterium leprae. Men from North and South American, as well as from Asian countries, were the most affected by episodes of resistance. Drug resistance is one of the main causes of leprosy recurrences. Dapsone was the most frequently identified drug resistance in the studies (46.6%), while most of the genetic alterations were found in the rpoB gene; 23.2% of the cases were from secondary resistance episodes, and seven cases of multiple resistance were reported. Conclusion: The misconceptions when taking the treatment and the Mycobacterium leprae genetic alterations have been described as the key aspects of drugs resistance in leprosy and the impacts caused are the difficulty in redoing the treatment, the possibility of new transmission, and the appearance of more severe symptoms.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Mycobacterium leprae/drug effects , Rifampin/adverse effects , Bacteria/genetics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Clofazimine/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/adverse effects , Dapsone/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Leprosy/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 224-227, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leprosy is one of the neglected diseases in the world and Brazil is the second country with more cases. A retrospective study was conducted based on the medical records of 196 leprosy patients diagnosed during the course of 13 years at a university hospital. The aim was to describe the adverse effects of polychemotherapy, as well the most prevalent and most vulnerable populations. In the study, dapsone was the most implicated drug, especially in women, and the risk increased with age. The authors conclude that with this patient profile, greater vigilance should be taken regarding possible adverse effects, especially anemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Leprostatic Agents/adverse effects , Leprosy/drug therapy , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Dapsone/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(1): 97-99, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152798

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and, depending on the host immune status, presents different clinical forms. This report describes the case of a 46-year-old man who had hypoesthetic lesions in the infrahyoid region for 30 days. The bacilloscopy was negative. The anatomopathological examination showed alterations corresponding to the tuberculoid pole (epithelioid histiocytes) and virchowian pole (foamy histiocytes), compatible with borderline-virchowian leprosy (Ridley and Jopling classification). Rapid tests for HIV I, II, and syphilis were positive, with a CD4 count of 223. The patient started treatment with multibacillary multidrug therapy, antiretroviral therapy, and benzathine penicillin, with marked clinical improvement in two months.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Leprosy, Borderline/drug therapy , Leprosy/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium leprae
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0375-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155553

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leprosy recurrence is the reappearance of the disease after treatment with current schemes and discharged for cure and may have variable incubation periods. METHODS: This is a descriptive observational study of leprosy recurrence in Espírito Santo diagnosed between January 2018 and January 2020. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-two cases were available, of which 30 were diagnosed with leprosy recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: In 25 cases, the incubation period was 5-15 years after the first treatment, favoring bacillary persistence. In the remaining 5 cases, the disease had recurred after 15 years, pointing to reinfection as none of them exhibited drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leprosy/drug therapy , Recurrence , Brazil , Drug Resistance , Tertiary Care Centers
6.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(12): e00045321, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355960

ABSTRACT

O manejo clínico de pacientes com hanseníase apresenta um desafio particular que são as reações. O objetivo deste estudo de coorte não concorrente foi analisar o tempo e fatores associados à ocorrência da primeira reação durante e após o tratamento da poliquimioterapia (PQT). Avaliou-se 1.621 pacientes paucibacilares (PB = 8,9%) e multibacilares (MB = 91,1%) de 2008 a 2016 notificados no Sistema de Estados Reacionais em Hanseníase/Rondônia (SisReação/RO). Prevaleceu a ocorrência durante o tratamento da PQT = 997 (61,5%), e 624 (38,5%) somente após o PQT. A precocidade da reação, a partir do diagnóstico, foi analisada por meio de curvas de sobrevida de Kaplan-Meier e comparadas entre os grupos PB e MB, usando o teste de log-rank de Mantel-Cox; e foram construídos modelos de regressão de Cox univariada e multivariada para identificar os fatores associados à ocorrência da reação (hazard ratio) e os correspondentes IC95%. No modelo multivariado foram incluídas variáveis com valores de p < 0,2 na análise univariada. Os PB desenvolveram reação de forma mais precoce do que os MB. Outras características associaram-se à reação em menor tempo: sexo feminino e baciloscopia negativa. No período agregado (durante e após a PQT), os pacientes PB apresentaram risco 24% maior de reação do que os MB e aqueles com baciloscopia negativa aumentaram este risco em 40% comparado à baciloscopia positiva. Durante e após a PQT, os PB apresentaram 1,3 e 1,6 vezes maior risco de ocorrência da reação dos pacientes MB. Dessa forma, recomendamos priorizar ações de vigilância para reações hansênicas durante e após a PQT como medidas de prevenção de incapacidades físicas e de melhoria na qualidade de vida das pessoas acometidas pela hanseníase.


The clinical management of leprosy patients poses a specific challenge, namely lepra reactions. This non-concurrent cohort study aimed to analyze the timing of the first lepra reaction during and after polychemotherapy (PCT) and associated factors. A total of 1,621 patients were assessed (PB = 8.9% and MB = 91.1%) from 2008 to 2016, reported to the System of Reaction States in Leprosy (SisReação/RO) database. Reactions occurred predominantly during PCT (997; 61.5%) and less frequently only after PCT (624; 38.5%). Earliness of the reaction after diagnosis was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier survival curves, with comparison between the PB and MB groups using the Mantel-Cox log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were constructed to identify factors associated with occurrence of lepra reactions (hazard ratio) and the corresponding 95%CI. The multivariate model included variables with p-values < 0.20 in the univariate analysis. PB patients developed reactions earlier than MB patients. Other characteristics were associated with earlier reactions: female gender and negative smear microscopy. In the aggregate period (during and after PCT), PB presented 24% higher risk of lepra reaction than MB patients, and negative smear microscopy increased this risk by 40% compared to positive smear microscopy. During and after PCT, PB presented 1.3 and 1.6 times the risk, respectively, of reactions when compared to MB patients. We thus recommend prioritizing surveillance of lepra reactions during and after PCT as measures to prevent physical disabilities and to improve quality of life for persons with leprosy.


La gestión clínica de pacientes con hanseniasis presenta un desafío particular que son las reacciones. El objetivo de este estudio de cohorte no concurrente fue analizar el tiempo y factores asociados a la ocurrencia de la primera reacción durante y tras el tratamiento de la poliquimioterapia (PQT). Se evaluó a 1621 pacientes (PB = 8,9% y MB = 91,1%) de 2008 a 2016, notificados en el Sistema de Estados Reaccionarios en Lepra (SisReação/RO). Prevaleció la ocurrencia durante la PQT = 997 (61,5%), y 624 (38,5%) solamente tras la PQT. La precocidad de la reacción a partir del diagnóstico se analizó mediante curvas de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier y se compararon entre los grupos PB y MB, usando el test de log-rank de Mantel-Cox; asimismo, se construyeron modelos de regresión univariada y multivariada de Cox para identificar los factores asociados con la ocurrencia de la reacción (cociente de riesgos) y los correspondientes IC95%. En el modelo multivariado se incluyeron las variables con valores de p < 0,2 en el análisis univariado. Los PB desarrollaron una reacción de forma más precoz que los MB. Otras características se asociaron a la reacción en menor tiempo: sexo femenino y baciloscopia negativa. En el período agregado (durante y tras PQT), los PB presentaron un riesgo un 24% mayor de reacción que los multibacilares y la baciloscopia negativa aumentó este riesgo en un 40%, comparado con la baciloscopia positiva. Durante y tras el tratamiento PQT, los PB presentaron 1,3 y 1,6 veces el riesgo de ocurrencia de la reacción de los pacientes MB. De esa forma, recomendamos priorizar acciones de vigilancia para reacciones hansénicas durante y tras PQT, como medidas de prevención de discapacidades físicas, así como de mejoría en la calidad de vida de personas afectadas por la hanseniasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Quality of Life , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/epidemiology , Brazil , Proportional Hazards Models , Cohort Studies
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(5): 652-654, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130942

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leprosy is an infectious disease with chronic evolution, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an acid-fast bacillus that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nervous tissue. Many of the clinical manifestations of leprosy can mimic connective tissue diseases. The authors present the case of a 49-year-old woman who had been treated for four years for systemic lupus erythematosus in a rheumatological service. Skin biopsy of a plaque on the inguinal region was compatible with borderline lepromatous leprosy associated with a type 1 lepra reaction. The patient is undergoing treatment with multibacillary multidrug therapy, showing clinical improvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Leprosy, Borderline/drug therapy , Leprosy, Lepromatous/diagnosis , Leprosy, Lepromatous/drug therapy , Leprosy/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium leprae
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200114, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136865

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Although supervised doses are essential for reducing leprosy treatment failure, the impact of specific drug interactions has rarely been assessed. This study aimed to estimate the risk of leprosy treatment suspension in patients receiving polypharmacy. METHODS We performed this case-control study in which the primary outcome was defined as the need to discontinue multibacillary leprosy treatment for at least one supervised dose, and the main risk factor was the detection of polypharmacy. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression was used for calculating odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: This study included 103 patients, of whom 43 needed to discontinue leprosy treatment (hemolysis = 26, hepatitis = 2, hemolysis associated with hepatitis = 6, and suspected treatment resistance = 9) and the rest did not. The severity of drug interactions had no effect on treatment discontinuation. Patients who used five or more drugs in addition to leprosy treatment had almost a 4-fold greater risk of treatment suspension (OR, 3.88; 95% confidence interval: 1.79-9.12; p < 0.001). The number of drugs used also positively influenced the occurrence of hemolysis (p < 0.001). No patient presented evidence of molecular resistance to rifampicin, dapsone, or ofloxacin treatment, as evidenced by genetic sequencing detection of rpoB, folp1, and gyrA mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Polypharmacy has deleterious effects on the already difficult-to-adhere-to treatment of leprosy and polypharmacy induces hemolysis. Additional measures must be taken to avoid the undesirable effects of inadequate polypharmacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Polypharmacy , Drug Interactions , Leprostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Leprosy/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Leprostatic Agents/adverse effects , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190468, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057303

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Histoid leprosy (HL) is a rare variant of lepromatous leprosy with unique clinical, histopathological, and microbiological features. A 32-year-old man from Malawi who immigrated to Johannesburg 1-year-ago, presented with a 4-month history of flesh-colored nodules on the face and trunk and hyperpigmented plaques on the chest and limbs. Skin slit smears confirmed multibacillary leprosy, and skin punch biopsies showed proliferation of spindled cells containing a large number of acid-fast bacilli. The prevalence of de novo HL is increasing in the era of leprosy elimination. HL cases may act as reservoirs and negatively affect the global control of leprosy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leprosy/parasitology , Biopsy , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Leprosy/drug therapy
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(5): 346-351, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011339

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Neuropathic pain is a chronic syndrome that is difficult to treat and often affects patients with leprosy. Recommended treatment includes the the use of analgesic drugs, codeine, tricyclic antidepressants, neuroleptics, anticonvulsants and thalidomide, but without consensus on uniform dose and fully satisfactory results. Objective: To analyze botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) effectiveness in treatment of chronic neuropathic pain in refractory leprous patients, as well as evaluate and compare the quality of life of patients before and after using the medication. Methods: We used a specific protocol including clinical, demographic, DN4 protocol, analogue scale (VAS), sensory evaluation and evaluation of the WHOQOL-BREF. Therapeutic intervention was performed with BOTOX® BTX-A 100U administered subcutaneously. Fifteen patients were evaluated on days 0, 10 and 60. Results: Patients on VAS showed pain between 5 and 10, in one case there was complete pain relief in 60 days, while others showed improvement in the first week with the return of symptoms with less intensity after this period. WHOQOL-BREF's domains Quality of Life and Physical to have a significant increase in QOL. Conclusion: BoNT-A proved to be a good therapeutic option in relieving pain with improved quality of life for these patients.


RESUMO A dor neuropática é uma síndrome crônica que é difícil de tratar e freqüentemente afeta pacientes com hanseníase. O tratamento recomendado inclui o uso de drogas analgésicas, codeína, antidepressivos tricíclicos, neurolépticos, anticonvulsivantes e talidomida, mas sem consenso sobre dose uniforme e resultados plenamente satisfatórios. Objetivo: Busca-se analisar a efetividade da toxina botulínica tipo A no tratamento da dor neuropática crônica hansênica refratária. Método: Estudo de intervenção do tipo ensaio clínico em portadores de dor neuropática crônica hansênica. Foram coletados dados epidemiológicos, protocolo DN4, escala analógica da dor (EVA), avaliação sensitiva, motora a avaliação do WHOQOL-Bref. Realizado intervenção terapêutica com toxina botulínica tipo A 100U. Os pacientes foram avaliados nos dias de 0, 10 e 60. A dor neuropática foi mais frequente no sexo masculino, na faixa etária de 40 à 49 anos. Resultados: Da forma Dimorfa, multibacilar com baciloscopia positiva e incapacidades presentes. Os escores EVA variam entre 5 e 10, todos os pacientes apresentaram alterações sensoriais. O WHOQOL-Bref apresentou melhora após o tratamento com TxBA. A TxBA foi bem tolerada o único efeito adverso notável foi dor leve. E com apenas uma única aplicação de TxBA promoveu efeitos analgésicos a longo prazo em pacientes com dor associada à alodinia, sugerindo que a analgesia observada pode ser causada por um efeito periférico da TxBA em terminações nociceptivas. Conclusão: O estudo sugere que a TxBA é uma boa opção para os casos de dor neuropática crônica hansênica, no entanto, novos estudos são necessários para confirmar estes resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Leprosy/drug therapy , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Time Factors , Pain Measurement , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Leprosy/physiopathology , Neuromuscular Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 52(1)jan.-mar.,2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024797

ABSTRACT

Modelo do estudo: Estudo observacional, longitudinal, retrospectivo e descritivo de uma coorte de pacientes. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico dos pacientes com diagnóstico de hanseníase, atendidos em um centro de referência no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Metodologia: Foram incluídos todos os pacientes com diagnóstico de hanseníase atendidos no Hospital Universitário Gaffrée e Guinle entre os anos de 2008 a 2017. Os dados foram coletados através da revisão de prontuários e analisados através de estatística descritiva, utilizando-se o software SPSS 22.0 database. Resultados: Um total de 112 pacientes foi incluído no estudo, sendo que 54,5% eram do sexo masculino. A média de idade foi de 49,9 anos, 62,4% eram moradores do município do Rio de Janeiro e 69,9% apresentaram formas clínicas multibacilares da hanseníase. Foi possível avaliar o grau de incapacidade inicial de 36 (32,1%) dos pacientes incluídos. Desses, 25% apresentaram grau de incapacidade inicial II. Durante o tratamento poliquimioterápico, 21 (18,8%) pacientes apresentaram algum efeito colateral, sendo o mais comum a anemia relacionada à dapsona. Cinquenta e nove (52,7%) pacientes apresentaram algum tipo de estado reacional da hanseníase e 10 (8,9%) apresentaram complicações sistêmicas graves durante o acompanhamento. Conclusões: O presente estudo evidenciou um perfil clínico-epidemiológico diferente do descrito na literatura, com uma grande porcentagem de pacientes com grau de incapacidade inicial II, uma alta frequência de estados reacionais e de complicações advindas do curso clínico da doença ou dos tratamentos implementados.(AU)


Introduction: This was an observational, longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study of a cohort of patients. Objectives: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of the patients diagnosed with leprosy admitted to a reference medical center in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: All leprosy patients admitted to the dermatology clinic from the Hospital Universitário Gaffrée and Guinle between 2008 and 2017 were included. Pertinent patients' data were collected through medical charts review. Data were then analyzed through descriptive statistics using SPSS 22.0 software. Results:a total of 112 patients were included in the study. Among them, 54.5% were male, the median age was 49.9 years old, 62.4% were residents in the city of Rio de Janeiro and 69.9% presented multibacillary leprosy clinical forms. We evaluated the initial disability grade of 36 from the 112 included patients, and out of them, 25% had grade II disability. During multidrug therapy, 21 (18.8%) patients presented an adverse effect, which the most common was anemia related to dapsone. Fifty-nine (52.7%) patients presented leprosy reaction and 10 (8.9%) patients presented severe systemic complications during the follow-up. Conclusions: In the present study, it was observed a distinctive clinical and epidemiological leprosy profile. There was a high frequency of grade II initial disability, leprosy reaction and severe clinical complications due to the progression of the disease or as adverse effects of leprosy treatment. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Neglected Diseases , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/epidemiology
13.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 40: e20180258, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1004084

ABSTRACT

Resumo OBJETIVO Analisar as relações contextuais da atenção à saúde na alta em hanseníase. MÉTODO Estudo analítico pautado no referencial teórico de análise do contexto, elaborado mediante revisão integrativa de literatura nas bases de dados SCOPUS, PUBMED, LILACS, SCIELO e BDENF, com descritores Hanseníase e Alta do Paciente, obtendo-se 14 publicações. RESULTADOS O contexto imediato aborda a atenção em saúde na alta em hanseníase; o contexto específico trata da hanseníase como problema de saúde pública; as concepções simbólicas que envolvem a hanseníase são abarcadas pelo contexto geral; e no metacontexto estão descritos programas e políticas de saúde que subsidiam o atendimento à pessoa com hanseníase. CONCLUSÃO Os elementos contextuais ressaltam a necessidade de garantir a atenção em saúde para os casos de hanseníase, do diagnóstico até o pós-alta, reconhecendo a hanseníase como problema de saúde pública. Apesar das limitações dos estudos bibliográficos, estes possuem relevância para a área da saúde.


Resumen OBJETIVO Analizar las relaciones contextuales de la atención a la salud en el alta en lepra. MÉTODO Estudio analítico, pautado en el referencial teórico de análisis del contexto, elaborado mediante revisión integrativa de literatura en las bases de datos SCOPUS, PUBMED, LILACS, SCIELO y BDENF, con descriptores Lepra y Alta del Paciente, obteniendo 14 publicaciones. RESULTADOS El contexto inmediato aborda la atención en salud en el alto en lepra; el contexto específico trata de la lepra como problema de salud pública; las concepciones simbólicas que envuelven la lepra son abarcadas por el contexto general; y en el metacontexto se describen los programas y políticas de salud. CONCLUSIÓN Los elementos contextuales resaltan la necesidad de garantizar cobertura universal casos de lepra, del diagnóstico hasta el post-alta, reforzando la hanseniasis como problema de salud. A pesar de las limitaciones de los estudios bibliográficos, éstos tienen relevancia para el área de la salud.


Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze contextual relations of health care in the discharge of leprosy. METHOD An analytical, reflexive study based on the theoretical framework of context analysis, elaborated through an integrative review of literature in the databases SCOPUS, PUBMED, LILACS, SCIELO and BDENF, with uncontrolled descriptors Leprosy and Patient Discharge, obtaining 14 publications. RESULTS The immediate context addresses health care at discharge in leprosy; the specific context treats leprosy as a public health problem; the symbolic conceptions and marks involving leprosy are encompassed by the general context; and in the metacontext are described the health programs and policies that subsidize the care of leprosy patients. CONCLUSION The contextual elements emphasize the need to guarantee universal coverage of cases of leprosy, from diagnosis to the post-discharge, reinforcing leprosy as a public health problem. Despite the limitations of the bibliographic studies, these have relevance for the health area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patient Discharge , Public Health , Delivery of Health Care , Leprosy/drug therapy , Brazil , Delayed Diagnosis , Health Promotion , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Leprosy/diagnosis , Leprosy/prevention & control
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180385, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041594

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Thalidomide, used to treat erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), is associated with severe adverse events (AEs) and is highly teratogenic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on thalidomide-treated patients with ENL. AEs and selected variables were investigated through interviews and assessment of medical records. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated via logistic regression. RESULTS: Peripheral neuropathy symptoms and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were the most common AEs reported. Although women of reproductive age used contraceptives, <50% of patients reported using condoms. Polypharmacy was associated with all endpoints, except DVT. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacovigilance is crucial to prevent harmful thalidomide-associated AEs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thalidomide/adverse effects , Leprostatic Agents/adverse effects , Leprosy/drug therapy , Thalidomide/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
15.
Medisan ; 22(7)jul.-ago. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-955056

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 34 años de edad, quien acudió a consulta de Dermatología por presentar máculas eritematosas pruriginosas generalizadas. A los 3 meses con tratamiento específico comenzó a presentar febrículas vespertinas y adenopatías cervicales dolorosas, por lo que se indicó una baciloscopia en ambos codos y pabellones auriculares, pero no se halló el Mycobacterium leprae; además se realizó biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina de un ganglio cervical, cuyo resultado reveló una tuberculosis ganglionar. Finalmente se diagnosticó una coinfección por lepra y tuberculosis ganglionar, dos enfermedades producidas por el Mycobacterium, cuya coexistencia es rara.


The case report of a 34 year-old patient is described who came to the Dermatology Service due to disseminated pruritic erythematous stains. After 3 months with specific treatment he began to present evening low fevers and painful cervical adenopathies, reason why a baciloscopy was indicated in both elbows and ear pavilions, but the Mycobacterium leprae was not found; besides aspiration biopsy with fine needle of a cervical ganglion was also carried out, which result revealed a ganglionar tuberculosis. Finally a leprosy and tuberculosis ganglionar coinfection was diagnosed, two diseases emerging due to the Mycobacterium, which coexistence is strange.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Leprosy/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/drug therapy , Leprosy/drug therapy , Mycobacterium
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 377-384, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949891

ABSTRACT

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Clinical Trial for Uniform Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy Patients in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR), designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a six-months regimen, assessed the adverse effects caused by the drugs. OBJECTIVE: Describe adverse effects due to MDT in U-MDT/CT-BR, comparing the uniform regimen (U-MDT) to the current WHO regimen (R-MDT). Patients and methods: After operational classification, patients were randomly allocated to the study groups. U-MDT PB and U-MDT MB groups, received the U-MDT regimen, six doses of MB-MDT (rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine). R-MDT PB and R-MDT MB groups, received the WHO regimens: six doses (rifampicin and dapsone) for PB and 12 doses (rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine) for MB. During treatment, patients returned monthly for clinical and laboratorial evaluation. Patients with single lesion were not included in this trial. RESULTS: Skin pigmentation (21.7%) and xerosis (16.9%) were the most frequent complaints among 753 patients. Laboratory exams showed hemoglobin concentration lower than 10g/dL in 23.3% of the patients, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) above 40U/L in 29.5% and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) above 40U/L in 28.5%. Twenty-four patients (3.2%) stopped dapsone intake due to adverse effects, of whom 16.6% due to severe anemia. One case of sulfone syndrome was reported. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Loss of some monthly laboratory sample collection. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistical difference regarding adverse effects in the R-MDT and U-MDT groups but anemia was greater in patients from R-MDT/MB group, therefore adverse effects do not represent a constraint to recommend the six-month uniform regimen of treatment for all leprosy patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Rifampin/adverse effects , Clofazimine/adverse effects , Dapsone/adverse effects , Leprostatic Agents/adverse effects , Rifampin/administration & dosage , Brazil , Hemoglobins/analysis , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Clofazimine/administration & dosage , Dapsone/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Anemia/chemically induced , Anemia/blood , Leprostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Leprosy/complications , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/blood
17.
Hansen. int ; 43: 2362, 2018.
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, HANSEN, HANSENIASE, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1145827
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 761-773, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887114

ABSTRACT

Abstract: In this review, the most relevant and current epidemiological data, the main clinical, laboratory and therapeutical aspects of leprosy are presented. Detailed discussion of the main drugs used for leprosy treatment, their most relevant adverse effects, evolution of the therapeutic regimen, from dapsone as a monotherapy to the proposed polychemotherapy by World Health Organization (WHO) can be found in this CME. We specifically highlight the drug acceptability, reduction in treatment duration and the most recent proposal of a single therapeutic regimen, with a fixed six months duration, for all clinical presentations, regardless of their classification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Leprosy/pathology , Leprosy/drug therapy , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Patient Satisfaction , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Dapsone/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination
20.
HU rev ; 43(2): 99-104, abr-jun 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-946418

ABSTRACT

A hanseníase é uma doença crônica, infectocontagiosa, causada pelo bacilo de Hansen (Mycobacterium leprae), que acomete peles e nervos periféricos, com alto poder incapacitante e forte estigma social, provocando um sofrimento aos seus portadores, para além de seus sintomas físicos. Tendo os indicadores sociais um papel determinante nesse processo, objetivou-se traçar o perfil socioeconômico dos pacientes atendidos pelo Centro de Referência em Reabilitação da Hanseníase da Zona da Mata Mineira. Para tanto, foram analisados 99 prontuários e suas respectivas fichas de abordagem social, dos usuários atendidos de janeiro de 2004 a junho de 2011. Os resultados apontam o predomínio de pacientes do sexo masculino (54,5%), advindos de áreas urbanas (84,8%), com baixa escolaridade (54,5%) e renda familiar igual ou inferior a dois salários mínimos (60,6%), em faixa etária que compreende a população economicamente ativa, residindo em casa própria (69,7%), com infraestrutura adequada (73,7%), porém convivendo com uma média de quatro ou mais pessoas neste mesmo espaço (24,2%). Tais resultados demonstram que os protocolos de intervenções clínicas devem integrar-se às medidas de melhoria das condições de vida da população para uma efetiva política de controle da doença, uma vez que sua ocorrência está diretamente relacionada às desigualdades sociais existentes.


Leprosy is a chronic disease, infectious contagious, caused by bacillus Mycobacterium leprae, that affects skins and peripheral nerves, with a high power disabling and strong social stigma, promoting suffering to patients beyond their physical symptoms. As the social indicators a key role in this process, it was aimed to trace the socioeconomic profile of the patients attended at the Reference Center for Rehabilitation of Leprosy of the Southeast of Minas Gerais State. For that, 99 patients records and their respective social approach files, from patients attended between January 2004 and June 2011, were analyzed. The results indicate most of men (54.5%), from urban areas (84.8%) with low education level (54.5%) and a familiar income equal to or less than two minimum wages (60,6%), in economically active age group, living in own home (69.7%) with a suitable infrastructure (73.7%) but living with an average of four or more people in the same house (24.2%). These results show that measures to improve people's living conditions should be integrated into clinical protocol interventions, for an effective disease control policy, since its occurrence is directly related to the existing social differences.


Subject(s)
Socioeconomic Factors , Leprosy , Mycobacterium leprae , Social Work , Stress, Psychological , Power, Psychological , Medical Records , Chronic Disease , Social Indicators , Social Stigma , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/rehabilitation
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