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Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 821-831, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349997


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on biomarkers of inflammation and their relationship with fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) concentrations in women with overweight and obesity. Subjects and methods: Thirty-one women were enrolled in a 12-week interdisciplinary weight loss program delivered by a team comprising an endocrinologist, nutritionist and exercise physiologist. Body composition; anthropometric measures; metabolic and inflammatory markers including adiponectin, leptin, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were assessed at baseline and post-therapy. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the homeostasis model assessment of adiponectin (HOMA-AD) were calculated. The participants were divided into two groups: those with increased FGF21, and those with decreased FGF21. Results: The sample comprised women aged 32 ± 5 years with a body mass index of 33.64 ± 3.49 kg/m2. Body weight, waist circumference and leptin concentration were decreased in the whole sample after therapy. However, only the group with an increase in FGF21 concentration presented significant improvements in adiponectin concentration and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Moreover, although there was a reduction of leptin in both groups, it was greater in the increased FGF21 groups. There was a reduction in ANP in the decreased FGF21 group. Conclusions: Changes in FGF21 concentrations were different among the women participating in the weight loss program, with some having increased levels and some reduced levels. Furthermore, improvements in adiponectin and the adiponectin/leptin ratio were found only in the group with increased FGF21 concentration.

Humans , Female , Adult , Weight Reduction Programs , Obesity/therapy , Insulin Resistance , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , Leptin , Adiponectin , Fibroblast Growth Factors/blood
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1217-1224, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345258


This work aimed to assess the effect of the probiotic strain, Lactobacillus plantarum, on the levels of leptin, IGF-1 and their receptors on the hepatopancreatic tissues of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and then correlate fish growth performance and gut microbiological parameters. Fish juveniles (±23g) were reared in a recirculation system with constant aeration and temperature (25°C). They were distributed into six polyethylene tanks (45L) and fed twice a day at 5% of the tank biomass with the respective diets: control (commercial diet without probiotic) and supplemented with L. plantarum inoculum (1 x 108 CFU mL-1), both in triplicate. After 30 days of feeding, L. plantarum-fed fishes showed greater weekly growth rate, final weight, and feed conversion rate, in addition to higher count of lactic-acid bacteria and lower count of pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal tract, when compared to the control group. The immunostaining intensity for IGF-1 and leptin hormones was lower after L. plantarum supplementation than in the control group, with no change in the level for receptors. This reduction could implicate important changes in fish metabolism and homeostasis.(AU)

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da cepa probiótica Lactobacillus plantarum sobre os níveis de leptina, IGF-1 e seus receptores no tecido hepatopancreático de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e correlacionar com o desempenho zootécnico e os parâmetros microbiológicos intestinais dos peixes. Juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo (±23g) foram distribuídos em seis tanques de polietileno (45L) conectados a um sistema de recirculação, com aeração e temperatura constantes (25°C). Os peixes foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia, a 5% da biomassa do tanque, com as respectivas dietas: controle (dieta comercial sem probiótico) e suplementada com L. plantarum (1 x 108 UFC mL-1), ambas em triplicata. Após 30 dias de cultivo, os peixes alimentados com L. plantarum apresentaram maiores ganho de peso semanal, peso final e conversão alimentar, bem como maior contagem de bactérias ácido-láticas e menor contagem de bactérias patogênicas no trato intestinal das tilápias alimentadas com dieta probiótica, em comparação ao grupo controle. A intensidade da imunomarcação para os hormônios IGF-1 e leptina foi menor com a suplementação de L. plantarum do que no grupo controle, sem alterar os níveis de seus receptores. Essa redução pode implicar mudanças importantes no metabolismo e na homeostase dos peixes.(AU)

Animals , Cichlids/growth & development , Hepatopancreas/chemistry , Lactobacillus plantarum , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Animal Feed , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Dietary Supplements , Leptin
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190643, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249204


Abstract The aim of this study was to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies of markers in the leptin (LEP), pituitary transcription factor (PIT-1) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) genes and evaluate their effects on reproductive traits and milk yield of Holstein cattle. Data from 147 cows from department of Francisco Morazán, Honduras, were collected and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assays were performed to characterize the PIT-1-HinfI, LEP- A59V and LHR-rs41256848 polymorphisms. To estimate the effect of genotypes on reproductive traits and milk yield fixed and mixed linear models were fitted. The frequencies of the genotypes CC, CT and TT of A59V, AA, AB and BB of HinfI, and CC, CG and GG of rs41256848 were 0.46, 0.33 and, 0.21; 0.09, 0.32 and 0.58; and 0.37, 0.61 and 0.02, respectively. The genotypes of LEP and LHR showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The A59V polymorphism was significantly associated with the calving to conception interval (CCI) (p=0.01), being the C allele favorable. The HinfI and rs41256848 polymorphism were significantly associated (p=0.08 and p=0.04) with age to first calving (AFC), being the A and G the alleles favorable associated, respectively. The results suggest that LEP, PIT and LHR polymorphisms can probably act as candidate to be used in marker-assisted selection for AFC and CCI traits.

Luteinizing Hormone , Leptin , Genetic Profile , Gene Frequency/physiology , Reproduction , Cattle , Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e11116, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249338


The interplay between obesity and gastrointestinal (GI) motility is contradictory, and the transgenerational influence on this parameter is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the GI function in a model of paternal obesity and two subsequent generations of their male offspring. Newborn male rats were treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG) and composed the F1 generation, while control rats (CONT) received saline. At 90 days, male F1 were mated with non-obese females to obtain male offspring (F2), which later mated with non-obese females for obtaining male offspring of F3 generation. Lee Index analysis was adopted to set up the obesity groups. Alternating current biosusceptometry (ACB) technique was employed to calculate GI transit parameters: mean gastric emptying time (MGET), mean cecum arrival time (MCAT), mean small intestinal transit time (MSITT), and gastric frequency and amplitude of contractions. Glucose, insulin, and leptin levels and duodenal morphometry were measured. F1 obese rats showed a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of gastric contractions, while obese rats from the F2 generation showed accelerated MGET and delayed MCAT and MSITT. Glucose and leptin levels were increased in F1 and F2 generations. Insulin levels decreased in F1, F2, and F3 generations. Duodenal morphometry was altered in all three generations. Obesity may have paternal transgenerational transmission, and it provoked disturbances in the gastrointestinal function of three generations.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Paternal Exposure , Obesity/etiology , Gastrointestinal Transit , Leptin , Gastrointestinal Motility , Insulin
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(5): e20210166, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340148


RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a cinética diafragmática, a função respiratória e a dosagem sérica de leptina e citocinas inflamatórias (IL-6 e TNF-α) em três grupos clínicos: obeso, asmático e saudável. Métodos Estudo clínico-exploratório realizado com 73 jovens (12-24 anos, sendo 42,5% do sexo masculino) alocados em três grupos: obesidade (GO, n = 33), índice de massa corporal (IMC z-score) ≥ + 2 e asmáticos leves controlados (GA, n = 26), classificados pela GINA, e grupo controle saudável (GC, n = 14). Os participantes foram submetidos à ultrassonografia diafragmática, espirometria, pressão respiratória máxima, níveis séricos de leptina e níveis de IL-6 e TNF-α em hemocultura total. Resultados A espessura do diafragma foi maior no GO em comparação ao GA e GC (2,0 ± 0,4 vs 1,7 ± 0,5 e 1,6 ± 0,2, respectivamente, com p < 0,05). A ventilação voluntária máxima (VVM) foi significativamente menor no GO e GA em relação ao GC (82,8 ± 21,4 e 72,5 ± 21,2 vs 102,8 ± 27,3, respectivamente, com p < 0,05). O GO tem a maior taxa de leptina entre todos os grupos (com os outros dois grupos, p < 0,05). Os três grupos tinham níveis semelhantes de TNF-α e IL-6. Conclusão A hipertrofia muscular encontrada no diafragma de indivíduos obesos pode ser justificada pelo aumento do trabalho respiratório imposto pela condição crônica da doença. Esse aumento de espessura não ocorreu em asmáticos leves controlados. Os marcadores IL-6 e TNF-α não detectaram evidências de inflamação muscular, embora fosse esperado que a leptina estivesse alterada em indivíduos obesos. Pacientes obesos e asmáticos apresentaram menor resistência pulmonar do que os saudáveis.

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to assess the diaphragm kinetics, respiratory function, and serum dosage of leptin and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in three clinical groups: obese, asthmatic, and healthy. Methods This is a clinical exploratory study performed on 73 youths (12-24 years of age, 42.5% male) allocated into three groups: obesity (OG, n=33), body mass index (BMIz-score) ≥ +2, asthmatic (AG, n=26) controlled mild asthmatics, classified by GINA, and Healthy Control Group (CG, n=14). The participants were subjected to diaphragmatic ultrasound, spirometry, maximal respiratory pressure, serum leptin levels, and IL-6 and TNF-α whole blood cell culture levels. Results Diaphragm thickness was higher in OG in comparison to AG and CG (2.0±0.4 vs 1.7±0.5 and 1.6±0.2, both with p<0.05). Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) was significantly lower in OG and AG in relation to the CG (82.8±21.4 and 72.5±21.2 vs 102.8±27.3, both with p<0.05). OG has the highest leptin rate among the groups (with the other two groups had p<0.05). All groups had similar TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Conclusion The muscular hypertrophy found in the diaphragm of the obese individuals can be justified by the increase in respiratory work imposed by the chronic condition of the disease. Such increase in thickness did not occur in controlled mild asthmatics. The IL-6 and TNF-α markers detected no evidence of muscle inflammation, even though leptin was expected to be altered in obese individuals. Both obese and asthmatic patients had lower pulmonary resistance than the healthy ones.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Asthma , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Kinetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Leptin , Obesity/complications
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2315-2329, 01-11-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148395


Assess the nutritional and biochemical state of patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) compared to a control group. This is an observational, case-control and descriptive type study, based on the recruiting of 22 elderly individuals with a clinical diagnosis of AD considered as the case group, and 22 other elderly individuals considered as the control group. Evaluations were made using the results from the following scales Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), anthropometric measurements for obtaining the body mass index (BMI) and biochemical analyses. The analyses were performed on the program SPSS version 20.0, using absolute and relative measures, T test for independent samples for measurement comparisons and the Spearman correlation test. In the cognitive evaluation MMSE, those participants with AD present higher risk of cognitive decline (81.8%), greater risk of malnutrition according to MNA (45.5%) and altered levels of leptin (90.9%). Upon performing the comparison analysis between the group with AD and the control group, there existed noteworthy differences between the means for the variables MNA (4.40; BMI95% 2.75 ­ 6.06), MMSE (10.54; BMI95% 7.09 ­ 13.99) and doses of HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) (14.53; BMI95% 6.18 ­ 22.88). As well as differences in the p-value < 0.09 in the leptin doses (11.54; BMI95% (-24.98 ­ 1.89) and transferrin dose (-72.31; BMI95% -159.48 ­ 14.84). The Spearman correlation demonstrated that the cognitive decline in the group of senior citizens with AD was strongly associated with nutritional conditions MNA (R 0.484) and the leptin dose (R 0.590). Senior citizens with AD present worse nutritional conditions, cognitive decline and biochemical alterations when compared to senior citizens in the control group. As such, the study demonstrated the need for an integrated healthcare assistance concerning senior citizens with AD.

Avaliar o estado nutricional e bioquímico de pacientes com Doença de Alzheimer (DA) comparando com um grupo controle. Materiais e métodos: trata-se de um tipo observacional, caso-controle e descritivo a partir do recrutamento de 22 idosos diagnosticados clinicamente com DA considerados grupo caso e outros 22 idosos considerados controle, foi utilizado a escala Mini Avaliação nutricional (MNA), Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MMSE), medidas antropométricas para obtenção do índice de massa corporal (IMC) e análises bioquímicas. As análises foram realizadas no programa SPSS versão 20.0, utilizou-se de medidas absolutas e relativas, teste T para amostras independentes para comparação de médias e o teste de correlação de Spearman. Na avaliação cognitiva MMSE os participantes com DA apresentaram maior prevalência de declínio cognitivo (81,8%), maior prevalência de risco para desnutrição segundo MNA (45,5%) e níveis alterados de leptina (90,9%). Ao se realizar a análise de comparação o grupo com DA e o controle observou-se diferenças significativas entre as médias das variáveis MNA (4,40; IC95% 2,75 ­ 6,06), MMSE (10,54; IC95% 7,09 ­ 13,99) e dosagens de HDL (14,53; IC95% 6,18 ­ 22,88). E diferenças com o p-valor < 0,09 nas dosagens de leptina (11,54; IC95% (-24,98 ­ 1,89) e dosagem de transferrina (-72,31; IC95% -159,48 ­ 14,84). A correlação de Spearman demonstrou que o declínio cognitivo no grupo de idosos com DA, esteve associado significativamente às condições nutricionais MNA (R 0,484) e dosagem de leptina (R 0,590). Idosos com DA apresentaram piores condições nutricionais, declínio cognitivo e alterações bioquímicas, ao compara-los com idosos controles. Desta forma, o estudo demonstra a necessidade de uma assistência integral a esses idosos.

Aged , Biomarkers , Nutrition Assessment , Leptin , Alzheimer Disease
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(1): 61-70, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131256


Resumo Fundamento A obesidade é um fator de risco para complicações médicas, incluindo o sistema cardiovascular. Há informações limitadas sobre o colágeno no coração obeso. Nosso estudo anterior demonstrou uma redução dos níveis proteicos de colágeno miocárdico tipo I em ratos obesos alimentados com uma dieta com alto teor de gordura durante 34 semanas. No entanto, os mecanismos responsáveis pelos níveis baixos não estão completamente elucidados. Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a hipótese de que a redução do colágeno tipo I está associada ao aumento da atividade da metaloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a qual está ligada à elevação de leptina no miocárdio de ratos obesos. Métodos Ratos Wistar machos com 30 dias de idade foram randomizados em dois grupos: controle (dieta padrão) e obeso (dieta com alto teor de gordura), e alimentados durante 34 semanas. Foram avaliados as características gerais dos animais e os perfis metabólicos e endócrinos. Foram avaliados as expressões proteicas miocárdicas de colágeno tipo I, leptina e inibidores teciduais de metaloproteinases (TIMP), bem como a atividade da MMP-2. O teste de correlação de Pearson foi aplicado para determinar as associações entre variáveis. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados Os animais obesos apresentaram índice de adiposidade mais elevado em comparação ao controle. Foram observadas comorbidades como intolerância à glicose, hiperinsulinemia, resistência à insulina, hiperleptinemia e hipertensão nos ratos obesos. A obesidade reduziu o colágeno tipo I, TIMP-1 e TIMP-2, e aumentou a leptina e a MMP-2 no miocárdio. Houve uma correlação negativa entre o colágeno tipo I e a MMP-2 e uma correlação positiva entre a leptina e a MMP-2. Conclusão Foi confirmada a hipótese de que a redução do colágeno tipo I está associada ao aumento da atividade da MMP-2 e da expressão de leptina no miocárdio de ratos obesos. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(1):61-70)

Abstract Background Obesity is a risk factor for medical complications, including the cardiovascular system. There is limited information on collagen in the heart in obesity. Our previous study showed decreased protein levels of myocardial collagen type I in obese rats fed a high-fat diet for 34 weeks. However, the mechanisms responsible for low levels are not fully elucidated. Objective The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in collagen type I is associated with increased metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity, which is linked to elevated leptin in the myocardium of obese rats. Methods Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, control (standard diet) and obese (high-fat diet), and fed for 34 weeks. The general animal characteristics and metabolic and endocrine profiles were evaluated. Myocardial protein expressions of collagen I, leptin, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP), and MMP-2 activity were assessed. Pearson correlation was employed to determine the associations between variables. The level of significance was 5%. Results The obese animals had increased adiposity index compared to control. Comorbidities such as glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, and hypertension were observed in obese rats. Obesity reduced collagen I, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, and it increased leptin and MMP-2 in the myocardium. There was a negative correlation between collagen I and MMP-2 and a positive correlation between leptin and MMP-2. Conclusion The hypothesis was confirmed; the reduction in collagen type I is associated with increased MMP-2 activity and leptin expression in the myocardium of obese rats. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(1):61-70)

Animals , Male , Rats , Leptin , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Rats, Wistar , Collagen Type I , Myocardium , Obesity/complications
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(3): 276-281, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131081


ABSTRACT Objective Climacterium is associated with elevated leptin levels and increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. Conflicting data diverge on whether high leptin levels in climacterium reflect increasing adipose mass or, at least partially, age-related hormonal changes. This study addresses this issue in women from a Brazilian state with a low human development index. Subjects and methods A case-control study was conducted, enrolling 136 women from the state of Maranhão, 52 (38.2%) climacteric and 84 (61.8%) non-climacteric. Biometric, biochemical, hormonal and immunological parameters were analyzed. Results Climacteric women showed a moderately increased waist/hip ratio (0.894 versus 0.834, p < 0.05), sustained body mass index (27.46 versus 28.68, p > 0.05) increased leptin levels (9.59 versus 7.13, p < 0.05) and no evidence of metabolic syndrome. No other parameters were altered. The climacteric cohort didn't show significant body fat gains but displayed a typical age-related redistribution of adipose tissue. Even so, leptin levels were significantly elevated compared with non-climacteric women. Conclusions Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that leptin is elevated, at least partially, as a function of age and climacterium and is not necessarily correlated with metabolic dysfunction and systemic inflammation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of higher leptin levels on postmenopausal women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):276-81

Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Climacteric/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiposity/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Climacteric/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Middle Aged
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088773


ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to explore the relationship between body fat percentage and metabolic markers. Subjects and methods Sedentary women were assigned to PCOS (N = 60) and CONTROL (N = 60) groups. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to body fat percentage (22-27%, 27-32% and 32-37%). The protocol consisted of assessments of glucose, insulin, androgens, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results The PCOS subgroups showed higher concentrations of androgens, LH and 17-OHP. Leptin showed direct relationship with increased body fat percentage, whereas adiponectin showed the inverse effect. However, both were unaffected by PCOS. TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in PCOS women and showed a direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Glucose showed direct relationship with body fat percentage, whereas insulin presented higher values in PCOS women and direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Conclusions Our findings indicate that PCOS and body fat percentage directly influence concentrations of insulin, TNF-α and IL-6, whereas leptin and adiponectin are influenced only by the increase in body fat percentage in these women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):4-10

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Adipose Tissue/anatomy & histology , Metabolic Diseases/blood , Insulin Resistance , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Glucose/analysis , Androgens/blood , Insulin/blood
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(1): 20-25, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144396


ABSTRACT Introduction: Several studies have documented the statistical association between leptin and osteoarthritis (OA) especially in joints that support weight, such as hips and knees, demonstrating high concentrations of plasma leptin and synovial fluid. Few studies address the possible relationship between leptin and obesity/overweight with OA hand. Objectives: To determine the relationship between serum leptin levels and the severity of OA in hands. Establish the association between obesity/overweight with the severity of OA, using radiographic scales. Methods: Measurement of leptin levels by ELISA technique to 44 patients with primary OA of hand and 30 healthy controls. Analysis of hand radiographs using the classification system of Kellgren and Lawrence, and anthropometric measurements for the calculation of body mass index. Results: Serum leptin levels in the group of patients with primary hand OA were higher compared to healthy controls (P = 0.046). No significant associations were found between the different degrees of severity of the disease measured by radiological scale of de Kellgren and Lawrence with the average leptin levels (P = 0.94) as well as the obesity/overweight categorization according to the body mass index (P = 0.88). Conclusions: Serum leptin levels in the group of patients with primary hand OA in this study were higher compared to healthy controls, with a significant statistical difference. This difference was not maintained in relation to gender, as well as in the subgroup of patients with obesity or overweight.

RESUMEN Introducción: Varios estudios han documentado la asociación estadística entre leptina y osteoartritis (OA), en especial en las articulaciones que soportan peso, como caderas y rodillas, y han demostrado concentraciones elevadas de leptina en plasma y líquido sinovial. Pocos estudios abordan la posible relación entre leptina y obesidad/sobrepeso con la OA de mano. Objetivos: Determinar la relación entre el nivel sérico de leptina y la severidad de la OA en manos. Establecer la asociación entre obesidad/sobrepeso con la severidad de OA mediante escalas radiográficas. Métodos: Medición del nivel de leptina por técnica de ELISA en 44 pacientes con OA primaria de mano y 30 controles sanos. Análisis de radiografías de manos mediante el sistema de clasificación de Kellgren y Lawrence y toma de medidas antropométricas para el cálculo del índice de masa corporal. Resultados: El nivel sérico de leptina en el grupo de pacientes con OA primaria de manos fue mayor que el de los controles sanos (p = 0,046). No se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre los diferentes grados de severidad de la enfermedad medidos por escala radiológica de Kellgren y Lawrence y los niveles medios de leptina (p = 0,94), ni tampoco con la categorización de obesidad/sobrepeso de acuerdo con el índice de masa corporal (p = 0,88). Conclusiones: El nivel sérico de leptina en el grupo de pacientes con OA de manos primaria de este estudio fue mayor que el de los controles sanos, con una diferencia estadística significativa. Esta diferencia no se mantuvo con relación al género, como tampoco en el subgrupo de pacientes con obesidad o sobrepeso.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Osteoarthritis , Leptin , Radiography , Body Mass Index , Obesity
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190388, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057271


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leptin (LEP) is a peptide hormone that acts via leptin receptor (LEPR) binding. Genetic evidence from different human populations has implicated LEP/LEPR in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD), and suggests that certain LEP/LEPR gene polymorphisms may increase the risk of CAD. The aim of this study was to assess two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LEP genes (rs2167270 and rs7799039) and two in LEPR genes (rs6588147, rs1137100) for association with CAD. METHODS: We enrolled 271 North Chinese Han CAD patients, and 113 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood, and the four SNPs were assessed using a MassArray system. RESULTS: The G allele frequency at rs2167270 was significantly higher among CAD cases than among controls. The AG genotype at rs7799039 was associated with a significantly decreased risk of CAD unlike the AA genotype used as the reference. The A allele was significantly associated with the CAD patient group. Interestingly, statistically significant differences in genotype and allele frequency at LEP rs2167270 and rs7799039 existed among females but not among males. CONCLUSIONS: The current study detected a significant association between genetic variations at LEP rs7799039 and rs2167270 and the risk of CAD in a north Chinese population, and revealed that LEP rs2167270 and rs7799039 gene polymorphisms might act as predisposing factors for CAD.

Humans , Male , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Leptin/genetics , Receptors, Leptin/genetics , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Middle Aged
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811414


PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical and metabolic determinants of circulating soluble leptin receptor (CSLR) and free leptin index (FLI) in pre-pubertal obese male children.METHODS: We conducted a preliminary cross-sectional study at three tertiary hospitals and one public primary school. Eighty obese male children without growth and developmental abnormalities aged 5–9 years were recruited. In these children, obesity was solely caused by excessive food intake, and not by acute illness, medications, endocrine abnormalities, or any syndrome. Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass, carbohydrate intake, fat intake, high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglyceride level, and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance are the potential determinants for leptin regulation, which is represented by CSLR level and FLI.RESULTS: Carbohydrate was the main source of energy. BMI and body fat mass had negative weak correlation with CSLR and positive weak correlation with FLI. Furthermore, carbohydrate intake was found to be independently associated with CSLR based on the results of the multiple linear regression analysis. Following an increase in carbohydrate intake, CSLR level decreased progressively without any negative peak.CONCLUSION: Leptin regulation in prepubertal obese male children is associated with body composition and dietary intake. Carbohydrate intake is useful for predicting CSLR. Lipid profiles and insulin resistance are not related to both CSLR and FLI. Treatment and prevention of leptin resistance in obese children should focus on reducing BMI, fat mass, and carbohydrate intake.

Adipose Tissue , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Child , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Eating , Growth and Development , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Leptin , Linear Models , Male , Obesity , Receptors, Leptin , Tertiary Care Centers , Triglycerides
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 175-180, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827070


The present study was aimed to clarify the signaling molecular mechanism by which fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) regulates leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Differentiated 3T3-F442A adipocytes were used as study object. The mRNA expression level of leptin was detected by fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The phosphorylation levels of proteins of signal transduction pathways were detected by Western blot. The results showed that FGF21 significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression level of leptin in adipocytes, and FGF21 receptor inhibitor BGJ-398 could completely block this effect. FGF21 up-regulated the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and AMPK in adipocytes. Either ERK1/2 inhibitor SCH772984 or AMPK inhibitor Compound C could partially block the inhibitory effect of FGF21, and the combined application of these two inhibitors completely blocked the effect of FGF21. Neither PI3K inhibitor LY294002 nor Akt inhibitor AZD5363 affected the inhibitory effect of FGF21 on leptin gene expression. These results suggest that FGF21 may inhibit leptin gene expression by activating ERK1/2 and AMPK signaling pathways in adipocytes.

3T3 Cells , Adenylate Kinase , Adipocytes , Metabolism , Animals , Down-Regulation , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Metabolism , Leptin , Metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice , Phosphorylation , Signal Transduction
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(8): 1061-1066, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041062


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the potential association of foot pain and plasmatic adipocytes as physiological biomarkers of childhood obesity with the incidence of flatfoot in a cohort of Egyptian school children aged 6 -12 years. METHODS A total of 550 Egyptian schoolchildren (220 boys and 330 girls) aged 6-12 years were randomly invited to participate in this descriptive survey analysis. For all children, we assessed the diagnosis and severity of flatfoot as well as plasma adipocytes, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, and TNF-α, using the Dennis method and immunoassay techniques respectively. Foot pain was assessed by using a standard VAS of 100 mm and Faces Pain Scale, respectively. RESULTS Flat foot was predicted in 30.4% of school-age children, most of them showed a higher frequency of overweight (33.3%) and obesity (62.5%). Boys showed higher ranges of flat foot than girls. Foot pain significantly correlated with flat foot and obesity among the studied populations. In overweight-obese children, plasmatic adipocyte variables, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, TNF-α.; showed significant correlations with foot stance, especially in boys. Also, the studied adipocyte variables along with BMI, age, gender explained about~65% of the variance of flatfoot with pain among our school-age students. CONCLUSION Foot pain showed an association with flat foot and childhood obesity in 30.4% of school-age students (6-12 years). Foot pain was shown to correlate positively with the incidence of flat foot and changes in adiposity markers, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, Il-6, TNF-α

RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a potencial associação de dor no pé e adipócitos plasmáticos como biomarcadores fisiológicos da obesidade infantil com incidência de pé plano em uma coorte de escolares egípcios de 6 a 12 anos. MÉTODOS Um total de 550 escolares egípcios (220 meninos e 330 meninas) com idades entre 6 e 12 anos foram convidados aleatoriamente para participar desta análise descritiva. Para todas as crianças, diagnóstico e gravidade do flatfoot, bem como adipócitos plasmáticos; adiponectina, leptina, resistina, IL-6 e TNF-α; foram avaliados pelo método de Dennis e técnicas de imunoensaio, respectivamente. A dor no pé foi avaliada usando uma EVA padrão de 100 mm e a Faces Pain Scale, respectivamente. RESULTADOS O pé plano foi predito em 30,4% das crianças em idade escolar; a maioria apresentou maior frequência de sobrepeso (33,3%) e obesidade (62,5%). Os meninos apresentaram maiores faixas de pé plano do que as meninas. A dor no pé correlacionou-se significativamente com pé plano e obesidade entre as populações estudadas. Em crianças obesas com sobrepeso, variáveis adipocitárias plasmáticas; adiponectina, leptina, resistina, IL-6 e TNF-α; apresentaram correlação significativa com a postura do pé, em meninos e meninas. Além disso, as variáveis estudadas dos adipócitos, juntamente com o IMC, idade e sexo, explicaram cerca de 65% da variância do pé plano com a dor entre os nossos alunos em idade escolar. CONCLUSÃO A dor no pé mostrou associação com pé plano e obesidade infantil em 30,4% dos estudantes em idade escolar (6-12 anos). A dor no pé se correlacionou positivamente com a incidência de pé plano e a mudança nos marcadores de adiposidade; adiponectina, leptina, resistina, IL-6, TNF-α.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Aged, 80 and over , Pain/blood , Flatfoot/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Adipocytes/chemistry , Obesity/blood , Pain/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Pain Measurement , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flatfoot/complications , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Resistin/blood , Obesity/complications
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 438-447, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002240


Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for the development and progression of kidney disease. Obesity may harm kidneys in individuals without hypertension, diabetes, or pre-existing renal disease. Ginger, Zingiber officinale, has many beneficial pharmaceutical benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the Zingiber officinale protective effect against obesity complications which induced by high fat diet and caused renal dysfunctions. The study period was two months, and the experimental animals' groups were four, 80 Wistar rats were appropriated similarly 20 animals/group: control group; ginger extract group (GE); high-fat diet (HFD); and GE+HFD group. Body and fat weight, creatinine, leptin, TNF-α, total antioxidants, renal histopathological and ultrastructure were investigated. Rats in group of HFD showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the body and fat weights, creatinine, leptin and TNF-α, and significant decrease (P<0.05) in total antioxidants (TAS). Ginger administration significantly showed the protective restoring the altered parameters. Furthermore, rats co-treated with ginger extract improved the histopathological and ultrastructural renal injury induced by obesity. The study concluded that the ginger extract used could suppress and decrease the renal damage induced by high-fat diet as it possesses potential medicinal values.

La obesidad es un factor de riesgo modificable para el desarrollo y la progresión de la enfermedad renal. La obesidad puede dañar los riñones en personas sin hipertensión, diabetes o enfermedad renal preexistente. El jengibre, Zingiber officinale, tiene muchos beneficios farmacéuticos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto protector de Zingiber officinale en las complicaciones de la obesidad inducida por una dieta alta en grasas y las enfermedad renal. El período de estudio fue de dos meses, y los grupos de animales experimentales fueron cuatro, se asignaron 80 ratas Wistar de manera similar, 20 animales por grupo: grupo de control; grupo de extracto de jengibre (GE); dieta alta en grasas (DAG); y el grupo GE + DAG. Se evaluó el peso corporal y la grasa, creatinina, leptina, TNF-α, antioxidantes totales, histopatología renal y ultraestructura. Las ratas en el grupo de DAG mostraron un aumento significativo (P<0,05) en el peso corporal y de grasa, creatinina, leptina y TNF-a, y una disminución significativa (P<0,05) en los antioxidantes totales. La administración de jengibre mostró una protección significativa restaurando los parámetros alterados. Además, las ratas tratadas conjuntamente con extracto de jengibre mejoraron la lesión renal histopatológica y ultraestructural inducida por la obesidad. El estudio concluyó que el extracto de jengibre podría suprimir y disminuir el daño renal inducido por la dieta alta en grasas, ya que posee potenciales valores medicinales.

Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ginger/chemistry , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Obesity/complications , Body Weight , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatinine/analysis , Leptin/analysis , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(2): 127-138, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996722


A nutrigenômica representa uma ciência emergente que estuda a relação entre os nutrientes e os genes humanos. Dessa forma, as necessidades de alimentos, compostos bioativos e nutrientes variam entre os indivíduos, por conta dos polimorfismos gênicos, principalmente os de nucleotídeo único, podendo resultar no desenvolvimento de diversas doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNTs). Este artigo objetiva conhecer as mais recentes informações sobre a nutrigenômica e os principais polimorfismos genéticos relacionados às DCNTs, bem como o impacto dos nutrientes na modulação da expressão gênica e prevenção destas patologias. Para o levantamento bibliográfico, optou-se pela busca de artigos nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO, nos idiomas Português e Inglês. Aplicou-se a combinação dos seguintes descritores: "nutrigenômica e necessidades nutricionais", "nutrigenômica e obesidade", "nutrigenômica e diabetes mellitus tipo 2", "nutrigenômica e câncer" e "nutrigenômica e doença inflamatória intestinal". Evidências indicam que diversos tipos de polimorfismos estão associados à incidência, progressão e gravidade de doenças como a obesidade, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), câncer e doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DIIs). Os principais polimorfismos encontrados que se relacionam com as DCNTs são: rs9939609 do fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), rs174547 do Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), Gln27Glu do receptor ß-adrenérgico 2 (ADRB2), Lys656Asn do receptor de leptina (LEPR), -174C/G da interleucina 6 (IL-6), Pro12Ala do receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma gama 2 (PPAR-gama2), rs4315495 da lipina 1 (LPIN1), rs266729 no gene da adiponectina, rs10920533 em adiponectina receptor 1 (AdipoR1), Pro12Ala do receptor ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma γ (PPARγ), rs1440581 da Protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1K (PPM1K), alelo G para o polimorfismo -11377C>G, alelo A para o polimorfismo 11391 G>A, Cdx2 do receptor de vitamina D (RVD), genes de selenoproteínas sob baixas concentrações de selênio (DIO1, DIO2, GPX-1, GPX-3, SEPHS1, SEPSECS e TXNRD2) e alelo G do rs12212067 do Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3). É fundamental entender as interações gene-nutriente nestas doenças e as diferentes respostas metabólicas envolvidas, para que assim se possa orientar a alimentação de cada indivíduo conforme a sua herança genética. Enfim, os estudos não são conclusivos sobre o papel de cada fator na alteração dos genes, e a nutrigenômica é um fator importante e complexo que precisa avançar com a ciência nutricional.

Nutrigenomics represents an emerging science that studies the relation between nutrients and the human genes. Thus, the need for food, bioactive composts and nutrients vary from person to person due to genic polymorphisms, mainly single nucleotide polymorphism, which can result in the developing of many Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). This article aims at making a scientific literature review regarding the most recent information on nutrigenomics and the main polymorphisms related to the NCDs, as well as the impact of nutrients on the modulation of the genic expression and prevention of those pathologies. For the literature survey, a search was performed in PubMed and SciELO databases, in Portuguese and English using the combination of the following descriptors: "nutrigenomics and nutritional requirements", "nutrigenomics and obesity", "nutrigenomics and diabetes mellitus, type 2", "nutrigenomics and cancer", and "nutrigenomics and inflammatory bowel disease". Evidence has shown that many types of polymorphisms are associated with the incidence, progression and severity of diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cancer, and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The main polymorphisms found to be related to NCDs are: rs9939609 of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), rs174547 of the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), Gln27Glu of the ß-adrenergic receptor 2 (ADRB2), Lys656Asn of the leptin receptor (LEPR), -174 G/C of the interleukin-6 (IL-6), Pro12Ala of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR-gama2), rs4315495 of lipin 1 (LPIN1), rs266729 in the adiponectin gene, rs10920533 in adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), Pro12Ala of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), rs1440581 of Protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1K (PPM1K), G allele of the -11377C>G polymorphism, allele A of the 11391 G>A polymorphism, Cdx2 of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), selenoprotein genes under low selenium concentrations (DIO1, DIO2, GPX-1, GPx-3, SEPHS1, SEPSECS and TXNRD2), and G allele of the Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) rs12212067. It is fundamental to understand the interaction between gene-nutrients in these diseases and the different metabolic answers involved to guide the eating habits of each person according to their genetic heritage. Finally, the studies are not conclusive on the role of each factor in the alteration of the genes, and nutrigenomics is an important and complex factor that needs to advance with nutritional science.

Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Nutrigenomics , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Obesity/prevention & control , Polymorphism, Genetic , Selenium , Vitamin D , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/prevention & control , Gene Expression , Nutrients , Apoptosis , Leptin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Alleles , Adiponectin , Selenoproteins , Nutritional Sciences , Genes , Neoplasms
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 715-719, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038591


O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar polimorfismos genéticos de leptina, ß-lactoglobulina e fator de transcrição pituitária (PIT1) e avaliar seus efeitos na composição química e na contagem de células somáticas de leite de vacas leiteiras mestiças que vivem em um clima quente. Um total de 291 vacas leiteiras mestiças foram investigadas. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue para extração de DNA e amostras de leite. As amostras foram classificadas em três grupos genéticos: 12/ (42), 34/ (83) e 78/ (166) Holandês x Guzerá. As frequências de alelos e genótipos foram determinadas e o equilíbrio Hardy-Weinberg foi avaliado. Foram realizadas análises da composição do leite (gordura, proteína, lactose e extracto seco desengordurado), contagem de células somáticas e rendimento leiteiro. Os grupos genéticos e os polimorfismos genéticos para cada gene foram utilizados como efeitos fixos na análise. O único polimorfismo encontrado em equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg foi para o genótipo da ß-lactoglobulina. No presente estudo, era esperado que a maioria das variáveis de composição variasse entre os genótipos. Já se sabe que os cruzamentos dão origem a animais com características fenotípicas e genotípicas. No entanto, os polimorfismos não influenciaram a composição e a qualidade do leite nas vacas 12/ , 34/ e 78/ Holstein x Guzerá mantidas em um clima quente.(AU)

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Milk/cytology , Milk/chemistry , Leptin/genetics , Lactoglobulins/genetics
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 192-197, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001127


Abstract BACKGROUND: Psoriasis and obesity are somewhat related to a low-grade systemic inflammatory response. OBJECTIVES: To determine leptin and adiponectin levels in psoriasis patients compared to control patients matched for weight. METHODS: A case-control study was performed, evaluating 113 psoriasis patients and 41 controls with other dermatologic diseases. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was 33% in cases and 21.9% in controls. All evaluated comorbidities were more prevalent among cases. When stratified by weight, the comorbidities were more frequent in overweight patients. We found no correlation between being overweight (p=0.25), leptin (p=0.18) or adiponectin (p=0.762) levels and psoriasis severity. When overweight cases and controls were compared, we found differences in the adiponectin values (p= 0.04). The overweight cases had lower adiponectin levels than the overweight controls. We found no differences in the leptin dosage between cases and controls. The overweight cases had higher leptin values than the normal weight cases (p<0.001). STUDY LIMITATIONS: Several patients used systemic anti-inflammatory medication. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of obesity among psoriasis cases (33%) was higher than in the general population (17.4%). We did not find any correlation between severity of psoriasis and inflammatory cytokines and the condition of being overweight. The overweight cases had lower values of adiponectin than the overweight controls. It seems, therefore, that there is a relationship between adiponectin and psoriasis, but this relationship depends on the presence of obesity.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Psoriasis/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Cytokines/blood , Overweight/blood , Obesity/blood
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 143-150, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989356


The aim of this study was to relate the serum concentration IL-6, IGF-1, leptin and estrogen in non-castrated bitches with or without overweight and early stage mammary carcinomas. Forty-three bitches were divided into four groups, two groups without mammary carcinomas with and without overweight, and two groups with mammary carcinomas with and without overweight. Overweight bitches, with or without mammary carcinomas, were statistically different from bitches by ideal weight, in relation to ECC, IMCC and body fat percentages (P< 0.0001). There was a positive correlation between ECC and IMCC (P< 0.0001), ECC and % GC (P< 0.0001), and IMCC and % GC (P< 0.0001). A positive correlation was found between serum leptin and IL-6 (P= 0.0451) and leptin and IGF-1 (P= 0.05). A positive correlation (P= 0.0053) between ECC and leptin was found in the analysis of body evaluation methods and serum concentrations, and a negative correlation between ECC and IL-6 (P= 0.0435). Among the fat percentage and the leptin concentration, there was a positive correlation (P= 0.0016), as found between the IMCC and leptin (P= 0, 0209). In this study, no association was observed between excessive weight and the presence of early stage mammary carcinomas.(AU)

Este estudo teve por objetivo relacionar a concentração sérica de IL-6, IGF-1, leptina e estrógeno, em cadelas não castradas com ou sem excesso de peso, e carcinomas mamários em estágio inicial. Quarenta e três cadelas foram divididas em quatro grupos, sendo dois de cadelas sem carcinomas mamários, com e sem excesso de peso, e dois de cadelas com carcinomas mamários, com e sem excesso de peso. Cadelas com excesso de peso, com ou sem carcinomas mamários, foram estatisticamente diferentes de cadelas em peso ideal, em relação às avaliações corporais de ECC, IMCC e percentual de gordura corpórea (P<0,0001). Foi observada uma correlação positiva entre ECC e IMCC (P<0,0001), ECC e %GC (P<0,0001), e IMCC e %GC (P<0,0001). As análises de estrógeno, leptina, IL-6 e IGF-1 não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos. Demonstrou-se correlação positiva entre as concentrações séricas de leptina e IL-6 (P=0,0451) e leptina e IGF-1 (P=0,05). Encontrou-se correlação positiva entre ECC e leptina (P=0,0053) e negativa entre ECC e IL-6 (P=0,0435). Entre o percentual de gordura e leptina encontrou-se correlação positiva (P=0,0016), assim como entre IMCC e leptina (P=0,0209). Neste estudo, não se observou associação entre excesso de peso e a presença de carcinomas mamários em estadio inicial.(AU)

Animals , Female , Dogs , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/diagnosis , Leptin/analysis , Dogs/metabolism , Overweight/veterinary , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Interleukin-6