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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986978


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Zuogui Jiangtang Jieyu Decoction (ZJJ) on Shh signaling and self-renewal of neural stem cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of diabetic rats with depression.@*METHODS@#Diabetic rat models with depression were randomly divided into model group, positive drug (metformin + fluoxetine) group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose ZJJ groups (n=16), with normal SD rats as the control group. The positive drugs and ZJJ were administered by gavage, and the rats in the control and model groups were given distilled water. After the treatment, blood glucose level was detected using test strips, and behavioral changes of the rats were assessed by forced swimming test and water maze test. ELISA was used to examine the serum level of leptin; The expressions of nestin and Brdu proteins in the dentate gyrus of the rats were detected using immunofluorescence assay, and the expressions of self-renewal marker proteins and Shh signaling proteins were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The diabetic rats with depression showed significantly increased levels of blood glucose and leptin (P < 0.01) and prolonged immobility time in forced swimming test (P < 0.01) and increased stage climbing time with reduced stage seeking time and stage crossings in water maze test (P < 0.01). The expressions of nestin and Brdu in the dentate gyrus, the expressions of cyclin D1, SOX2, Shh, Ptch1, Smo in the hippocampus and the nuclear expression of Gli-1 were decreased (P < 0.01) while hippocampal Gli-3 expression was increased significantly (P < 0.01) in the rat models. Treatment of rat models with high-dose ZJJ significantly reduced the blood glucose (P < 0.01) and leptin level (P < 0.05) and improved their performance in behavioral tests (P < 0.01). The treatment also obviously increased the expressions of nestin, Brdu, cyclin D1, SOX2, Shh, Ptch1, and Smo and the nuclear expression of Gli-1 in the dentate gyrus (P < 0.01) and reduced hippocampal expression of Gli-3 (P < 0.05) in the rat models.@*CONCLUSION@#ZJJ can significantly improve the self-renewal ability of neural stem cells and activate Shh signaling in dentate gyrus of diabetic rats with depression.

Animals , Rats , Blood Glucose , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Self Renewal , Cyclin D1 , Dentate Gyrus , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Hippocampus , Leptin , Nestin , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 163-171, feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389635


BACKGROUND: Appetite regulation is integral to food intake and is modulated by complex interactions between internal and external stimuli. Hormonal mechanisms which stimulate or inhibit intake have been characterized, but the physiologic effects of serum levels of such hormones in short-term appetite regulation have received little attention. AIM: To evaluate whether fasting levels of orexigenic/anorexigenic hormones were associated with energy intake at breakfast, served soon after drawing a fasting blood sample, in a group of adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anthropometry, body composition and fasting blood levels of leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and orexin-A were measured in 655 Chilean adolescents aged 16.8 ± 0.3 years (52% males). Energy intake was measured at a semi-standardized breakfast. Associations between hormone levels and energy intake were studied using multivariate linear models. RESULTS: Thirty nine percent of participants were overweight/ obese. After an overnight fast, median values for leptin, insulin, ghrelin and orexin-A were 7.3 ng/mL, 6.7 IU/dL, 200.8 pg/mL, and 16.1 pg/mL, respectively. Participants ate on average 637 ± 239 calories at breakfast. In multivariable models, insulin levels were inversely and independently associated with caloric intake at breakfast (β = −18.65; p < 0.05), whereas leptin, ghrelin and orexin-A levels were positively and independently associated with intake: β= 5.56, β = 0.34 and β = 8.40, respectively, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting leptin, ghrelin and orexin-A were positively associated with energy intake during breakfast provided soon after the blood draw. Insulin was negatively associated with energy intake. Modifiable factors influencing levels of appetite regulating hormones could be a potential target for influencing food intake.

ANTECEDENTES: La regulación del apetito es parte integral de la ingesta alimentaria y es modulada por complejas interacciones entre estímulos internos y externos. Se han caracterizado los mecanismos hormonales que estimulan o inhiben la ingesta, pero los efectos fisiológicos de los niveles séricos de tales hormonas en la regulación del apetito a corto plazo han recibido poca atención. OBJETIVO: Evaluar si los niveles en ayunas de hormonas orexigénicas/ anorexigénicas se asocian con la ingesta energética en el desayuno, entregado inmediatamente después de una muestra de sangre en ayunas, en un grupo de adolescentes. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se efectuaron mediciones antropométricas, composición corporal y medición de niveles en ayunas de leptina, insulina, grelina y orexina-A en 655 adolescentes de 16,8 ± 0,26 años. La ingesta energética se midió en un desayuno semiestandarizado. Se estudiaron las asociaciones entre los niveles hormonales y la ingesta energética mediante modelos lineales multivariados. RESULTADOS: Los valores de leptina, insulina, grelina y orexina-A fueron 7,3 ng/mL, 6,7 UI/dL, 200,8 pg/mL y 16,1 pg/mL respectivamente. Los participantes comieron un promedio de 637 ± 239 calorías en el desayuno. Los niveles de insulina se asociaron inversa e independientemente con la ingesta del desayuno (β = −18,65; p < 0,05), mientras que los niveles de leptina, grelina y orexina-A se asociaron positiva e independientemente con la ingesta: β = 5,65; β = 0,34; β = 8,40, (p < 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: La leptina, grelina y orexina-A en ayunas se asociaron positivamente con la ingesta de energía durante el desayuno proporcionado poco después de la muestra de sangre. La insulina se asoció negativamente con la ingesta de energía. Los factores modificables que influyen en las hormonas reguladoras del apetito podrían ser un objetivo potencial para influir en la ingesta de alimentos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Appetite/physiology , Breakfast , Energy Intake/physiology , Chile , Fasting , Leptin , Ghrelin , Orexins , Insulin
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 149-165, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929077


Leptin, an adipocyte-derived peptide hormone, has been shown to facilitate breathing. However, the central sites and circuit mechanisms underlying the respiratory effects of leptin remain incompletely understood. The present study aimed to address whether neurons expressing leptin receptor b (LepRb) in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) contribute to respiratory control. Both chemogenetic and optogenetic stimulation of LepRb-expressing NTS (NTSLepRb) neurons notably activated breathing. Moreover, stimulation of NTSLepRb neurons projecting to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) not only remarkably increased basal ventilation to a level similar to that of the stimulation of all NTSLepRb neurons, but also activated LPBN neurons projecting to the preBötzinger complex (preBötC). By contrast, ablation of NTSLepRb neurons projecting to the LPBN notably eliminated the enhanced respiratory effect induced by NTSLepRb neuron stimulation. In brainstem slices, bath application of leptin rapidly depolarized the membrane potential, increased the spontaneous firing rate, and accelerated the Ca2+ transients in most NTSLepRb neurons. Therefore, leptin potentiates breathing in the NTS most likely via an NTS-LPBN-preBötC circuit.

Leptin/pharmacology , Membrane Potentials , Neurons/metabolism , Solitary Nucleus/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929000


OBJECTIVES@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), nephrotoxin, and sepsis, with poor prognosis and high mortality. Leptin is a protein molecule that regulates the body's energy metabolism and reproductive activities via binding to its specific receptor. Leptin can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by I/R, but its effect on I/R kidney injury and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanisms of leptin on renal function, renal histopathology, apoptosis, and autophagy during acute I/R kidney injury.@*METHODS@#Healthy adult male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham+wild-type mice (ob/+) group, a sham+leptin gene-deficient mice (ob/ob) group, an I/R+ob/+ group, and an I/R+ob/ob group (n=8 per group). For sham operation, a longitudinal incision was made on the back of the mice to expose and separate the bilateral kidneys and renal arteries, and no subsequent treatment was performed. I/R treatment was ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 48 h. The levels of BUN and SCr were detected to evaluate renal function; HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis, and apoptosis-positive cells were counted; Western blotting was used to detect levels of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase 3, caspase 9), autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), LC3 I, LC3 II], mTOR-dependent signaling pathway proteins [phosphate and tension homology (PTEN), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), phosphorylated PTEN (p-PTEN), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)].@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of BUN and SCr between the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group (both P>0.05). The levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/+ group were significantly higher than those in the sham+ob/+ group (both P<0.05). Compared with the mice in the sham+ob/ob group or the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/ob group were significantly increased (all P<0.05). There was no obvious damage to the renal tubules in the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group. Compared with sham+ob/+ group and sham+ob/ob group, both the I/R+ob/+ group and the I/R+ob/ob group had cell damage such as brush border shedding, vacuolar degeneration, and cast formation. Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the renal tubules of the mice in the I/R+ob/ob group were more severely damaged. The pathological score of renal tubular injury showed that the renal tubular injury was the most serious in the I/R+ob/ob group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/+ group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, and the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/+ group (all P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/ob group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, while the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT were more significantly down-regulated, while the levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were more significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was more significantly increase in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Renal function and tubular damage, and elevated levels of apoptosis and autophagy are observed in mice kidneys after acute I/R. Leptin might relieve I/R induced AKI by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy that through a complex network of interactions between mTOR-dependent signaling pathways.

Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/pharmacology , Autophagy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Ischemia , Kidney/pathology , Leptin/pharmacology , Mammals/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936323


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the the effects of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and PTEN expression of rat retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) cultured under hypoxic condition.@*METHODS@#SD rat RPCs were cultured in normoxic conditions or exposed to hypoxia in the presence of 0, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10, and 30 nmol/L leptin for 12, 48 and 72 h, and the cell viability was assessed using cell counting kit 8 (CCK 8) assay. The RPCs in primary culture were divided into control group, hypoxia group, and hypoxia+leptin group, and after 48 h of culture, the cell medium was replaced with differentiation medium and the cells were further cultured for 6 days. Immunofluorescence staining was employed to detect the cells positive for β-tubulin III and GFAP, and Western blotting was used to examine the expression of PTEN at 48 h of cell culture.@*RESULTS@#The first generation of RPCs showed suspended growth in the medium with abundant and bright cellular plasma and formed mulberry like cell spheres after 2 days of culture. Treatment with low-dose leptin (below 3.0 nmol/L) for 48 h obviously improved the viability of RPCs cultured in hypoxia, while at high concentrations (above 10 nmol/L), leptin significantly suppressed the cell viability (P < 0.05). The cells treated with 3.0 nmol/L leptin for 48 h showed the highest viability (P < 0.05). After treatment with 3.0 nmol/L leptin for 48 h, the cells with hypoxic exposure showed similar GFAP and β-tubulin Ⅲ positivity with the control cells (P>0.05), but exhibited an obvious down-regulation of PTEN protein expression compared with the control cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In rat RPCs with hypoxic exposure, treatment with low dose leptin can promote the cell proliferation and suppress cellular PTEN protein expression without causing significant effects on cell differentiation.

Animals , Rats , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Hypoxia/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Leptin/pharmacology , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retina/metabolism , Stem Cells/metabolism , Tubulin
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 821-831, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349997


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on biomarkers of inflammation and their relationship with fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) concentrations in women with overweight and obesity. Subjects and methods: Thirty-one women were enrolled in a 12-week interdisciplinary weight loss program delivered by a team comprising an endocrinologist, nutritionist and exercise physiologist. Body composition; anthropometric measures; metabolic and inflammatory markers including adiponectin, leptin, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were assessed at baseline and post-therapy. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the homeostasis model assessment of adiponectin (HOMA-AD) were calculated. The participants were divided into two groups: those with increased FGF21, and those with decreased FGF21. Results: The sample comprised women aged 32 ± 5 years with a body mass index of 33.64 ± 3.49 kg/m2. Body weight, waist circumference and leptin concentration were decreased in the whole sample after therapy. However, only the group with an increase in FGF21 concentration presented significant improvements in adiponectin concentration and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Moreover, although there was a reduction of leptin in both groups, it was greater in the increased FGF21 groups. There was a reduction in ANP in the decreased FGF21 group. Conclusions: Changes in FGF21 concentrations were different among the women participating in the weight loss program, with some having increased levels and some reduced levels. Furthermore, improvements in adiponectin and the adiponectin/leptin ratio were found only in the group with increased FGF21 concentration.

Humans , Female , Adult , Weight Reduction Programs , Obesity/therapy , Insulin Resistance , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , Leptin , Adiponectin , Fibroblast Growth Factors/blood
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1217-1224, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345258


This work aimed to assess the effect of the probiotic strain, Lactobacillus plantarum, on the levels of leptin, IGF-1 and their receptors on the hepatopancreatic tissues of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and then correlate fish growth performance and gut microbiological parameters. Fish juveniles (±23g) were reared in a recirculation system with constant aeration and temperature (25°C). They were distributed into six polyethylene tanks (45L) and fed twice a day at 5% of the tank biomass with the respective diets: control (commercial diet without probiotic) and supplemented with L. plantarum inoculum (1 x 108 CFU mL-1), both in triplicate. After 30 days of feeding, L. plantarum-fed fishes showed greater weekly growth rate, final weight, and feed conversion rate, in addition to higher count of lactic-acid bacteria and lower count of pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal tract, when compared to the control group. The immunostaining intensity for IGF-1 and leptin hormones was lower after L. plantarum supplementation than in the control group, with no change in the level for receptors. This reduction could implicate important changes in fish metabolism and homeostasis.(AU)

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da cepa probiótica Lactobacillus plantarum sobre os níveis de leptina, IGF-1 e seus receptores no tecido hepatopancreático de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e correlacionar com o desempenho zootécnico e os parâmetros microbiológicos intestinais dos peixes. Juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo (±23g) foram distribuídos em seis tanques de polietileno (45L) conectados a um sistema de recirculação, com aeração e temperatura constantes (25°C). Os peixes foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia, a 5% da biomassa do tanque, com as respectivas dietas: controle (dieta comercial sem probiótico) e suplementada com L. plantarum (1 x 108 UFC mL-1), ambas em triplicata. Após 30 dias de cultivo, os peixes alimentados com L. plantarum apresentaram maiores ganho de peso semanal, peso final e conversão alimentar, bem como maior contagem de bactérias ácido-láticas e menor contagem de bactérias patogênicas no trato intestinal das tilápias alimentadas com dieta probiótica, em comparação ao grupo controle. A intensidade da imunomarcação para os hormônios IGF-1 e leptina foi menor com a suplementação de L. plantarum do que no grupo controle, sem alterar os níveis de seus receptores. Essa redução pode implicar mudanças importantes no metabolismo e na homeostase dos peixes.(AU)

Animals , Cichlids/growth & development , Hepatopancreas/chemistry , Lactobacillus plantarum , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Animal Feed , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Dietary Supplements , Leptin
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 732-738, jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385401


SUMMARY: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might progress the steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), reaching a cirrhosis state and possibly hepatocellular carcinoma. The liver of three-month-old C57BL/6J mice (wild-type, WT group, n=10) and leptin- deficient obese mice (ob/ob group, n=10) were studied, focusing on the mechanisms associated with the activation of the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and pro-fibrogenesis. The obese ob/ob animals' liver showed steatosis, increased lipogenesis gene expressions, inflammation, increased pro-inflammatory gene expressions, inflammatory infiltrate, and potential apoptosis linked to a high Caspase 3 expression. In ob/ob mice, liver sections were labeled in the fibrotic zones by anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and anti-Reelin, but not in the WT mice. Moreover, the alpha-SMA gene expression was higher in the ob/ob group's liver than the WT group. The pro-fibrogenic gene expressions were parallel to anti- alpha-SMA and anti-Reelin immunofluorescence, suggesting HSCs activation. In the ob/ob animals, there were increased gene expressions involved with lipogenesis (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector-c, Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and Fatty acid synthase), pro-fibrogenesis (Transforming growth factor beta1, Smad proteins- 3, Yes-associated protein-1, Protein platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta), pro-inflammation (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and Interleukin-6), and apoptosis (Caspase 3). In conclusion, the results in obese ob/ob animals provide a clue to the events in humans. In a translational view, controlling these targets can help mitigate the hepatic effects of human obesity and NAFLD progression to NASH.

RESUMEN: La enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (HGNA) puede progresar de la esteatosis a esteatohepatitis no alcohólica (ENA), alcanzando un estado de cirrosis y posiblemente carcinoma hepatocelular. Se estudió el hígado de ratones C57BL / 6J de tres meses de edad (tipo salvaje, grupo WT, n = 10) y ratones obesos con deficiencia de leptina (grupo ob/ob, n = 10), centrándose en los mecanismos asociados con la activación de las células estrelladas hepáticas (HSC) y profibrogénesis. El hígado de los animales obesos ob/ob mostró esteatosis, aumento de la expresión génica de la lipogénesis, inflamación, aumento de la expresión génica proinflamatoria, infiltrado inflamatorio y posible apoptosis ligada a una alta expresión de Caspasa 3. En ratones ob/ob, las sec- ciones de hígado se marcaron en las zonas fibróticas con anti-alfa- actina de músculo liso (alfa-SMA) y anti-Reelin, pero no en los ratones WT. Además, la expresión del gen alfa-SMA fue mayor en el hígado del grupo ob/ob que en el grupo WT. Las expresiones génicas profibrogénicas fueron paralelas a la inmunofluorescencia anti-alfa-SMA y anti-Reelin, lo que sugiere la activación de las HSC. En los animales ob/ob, hubo un aumento de las expresiones génicas involucradas con la lipogénesis (receptor activado por proliferador de peroxisoma gamma, efector c similar a DFFA inductor de muerte celular, proteína de unión al elemento regulador de esterol-1c y sintasa de ácidos grasos), pro-fibrogénesis (factor de crecimiento transformante beta 1, proteínas Smad-3, proteína-1 asociada a Yes, receptor beta del factor de crecimiento derivado de plaquetas de proteínas), proinflamación (factor de necrosis tumoral alfa e interleucina-6) y apoptosis (caspasa 3). ). En conclusión, los resultados en animales obesos ob/ob proporcionan una pista de los eventos en humanos. Desde un punto de vista traslacional, el control de estos objetivos puede ayudar a mitigar los efectos hepáticos de la obesidad humana y la progresión de HGNA a ENA.

Animals , Mice , Leptin/deficiency , Fatty Liver/pathology , Photomicrography , Apoptosis , Microscopy, Confocal , Lipogenesis/genetics , Caspase 3/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells/ultrastructure , Fatty Liver/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Inflammation/genetics , Liver/ultrastructure , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190643, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249204


Abstract The aim of this study was to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies of markers in the leptin (LEP), pituitary transcription factor (PIT-1) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) genes and evaluate their effects on reproductive traits and milk yield of Holstein cattle. Data from 147 cows from department of Francisco Morazán, Honduras, were collected and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assays were performed to characterize the PIT-1-HinfI, LEP- A59V and LHR-rs41256848 polymorphisms. To estimate the effect of genotypes on reproductive traits and milk yield fixed and mixed linear models were fitted. The frequencies of the genotypes CC, CT and TT of A59V, AA, AB and BB of HinfI, and CC, CG and GG of rs41256848 were 0.46, 0.33 and, 0.21; 0.09, 0.32 and 0.58; and 0.37, 0.61 and 0.02, respectively. The genotypes of LEP and LHR showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The A59V polymorphism was significantly associated with the calving to conception interval (CCI) (p=0.01), being the C allele favorable. The HinfI and rs41256848 polymorphism were significantly associated (p=0.08 and p=0.04) with age to first calving (AFC), being the A and G the alleles favorable associated, respectively. The results suggest that LEP, PIT and LHR polymorphisms can probably act as candidate to be used in marker-assisted selection for AFC and CCI traits.

Luteinizing Hormone , Leptin , Genetic Profile , Gene Frequency/physiology , Reproduction , Cattle , Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e11116, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249338


The interplay between obesity and gastrointestinal (GI) motility is contradictory, and the transgenerational influence on this parameter is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the GI function in a model of paternal obesity and two subsequent generations of their male offspring. Newborn male rats were treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG) and composed the F1 generation, while control rats (CONT) received saline. At 90 days, male F1 were mated with non-obese females to obtain male offspring (F2), which later mated with non-obese females for obtaining male offspring of F3 generation. Lee Index analysis was adopted to set up the obesity groups. Alternating current biosusceptometry (ACB) technique was employed to calculate GI transit parameters: mean gastric emptying time (MGET), mean cecum arrival time (MCAT), mean small intestinal transit time (MSITT), and gastric frequency and amplitude of contractions. Glucose, insulin, and leptin levels and duodenal morphometry were measured. F1 obese rats showed a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of gastric contractions, while obese rats from the F2 generation showed accelerated MGET and delayed MCAT and MSITT. Glucose and leptin levels were increased in F1 and F2 generations. Insulin levels decreased in F1, F2, and F3 generations. Duodenal morphometry was altered in all three generations. Obesity may have paternal transgenerational transmission, and it provoked disturbances in the gastrointestinal function of three generations.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Paternal Exposure , Obesity/etiology , Gastrointestinal Transit , Leptin , Gastrointestinal Motility , Insulin
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(5): e20210166, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340148


RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a cinética diafragmática, a função respiratória e a dosagem sérica de leptina e citocinas inflamatórias (IL-6 e TNF-α) em três grupos clínicos: obeso, asmático e saudável. Métodos Estudo clínico-exploratório realizado com 73 jovens (12-24 anos, sendo 42,5% do sexo masculino) alocados em três grupos: obesidade (GO, n = 33), índice de massa corporal (IMC z-score) ≥ + 2 e asmáticos leves controlados (GA, n = 26), classificados pela GINA, e grupo controle saudável (GC, n = 14). Os participantes foram submetidos à ultrassonografia diafragmática, espirometria, pressão respiratória máxima, níveis séricos de leptina e níveis de IL-6 e TNF-α em hemocultura total. Resultados A espessura do diafragma foi maior no GO em comparação ao GA e GC (2,0 ± 0,4 vs 1,7 ± 0,5 e 1,6 ± 0,2, respectivamente, com p < 0,05). A ventilação voluntária máxima (VVM) foi significativamente menor no GO e GA em relação ao GC (82,8 ± 21,4 e 72,5 ± 21,2 vs 102,8 ± 27,3, respectivamente, com p < 0,05). O GO tem a maior taxa de leptina entre todos os grupos (com os outros dois grupos, p < 0,05). Os três grupos tinham níveis semelhantes de TNF-α e IL-6. Conclusão A hipertrofia muscular encontrada no diafragma de indivíduos obesos pode ser justificada pelo aumento do trabalho respiratório imposto pela condição crônica da doença. Esse aumento de espessura não ocorreu em asmáticos leves controlados. Os marcadores IL-6 e TNF-α não detectaram evidências de inflamação muscular, embora fosse esperado que a leptina estivesse alterada em indivíduos obesos. Pacientes obesos e asmáticos apresentaram menor resistência pulmonar do que os saudáveis.

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to assess the diaphragm kinetics, respiratory function, and serum dosage of leptin and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in three clinical groups: obese, asthmatic, and healthy. Methods This is a clinical exploratory study performed on 73 youths (12-24 years of age, 42.5% male) allocated into three groups: obesity (OG, n=33), body mass index (BMIz-score) ≥ +2, asthmatic (AG, n=26) controlled mild asthmatics, classified by GINA, and Healthy Control Group (CG, n=14). The participants were subjected to diaphragmatic ultrasound, spirometry, maximal respiratory pressure, serum leptin levels, and IL-6 and TNF-α whole blood cell culture levels. Results Diaphragm thickness was higher in OG in comparison to AG and CG (2.0±0.4 vs 1.7±0.5 and 1.6±0.2, both with p<0.05). Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) was significantly lower in OG and AG in relation to the CG (82.8±21.4 and 72.5±21.2 vs 102.8±27.3, both with p<0.05). OG has the highest leptin rate among the groups (with the other two groups had p<0.05). All groups had similar TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Conclusion The muscular hypertrophy found in the diaphragm of the obese individuals can be justified by the increase in respiratory work imposed by the chronic condition of the disease. Such increase in thickness did not occur in controlled mild asthmatics. The IL-6 and TNF-α markers detected no evidence of muscle inflammation, even though leptin was expected to be altered in obese individuals. Both obese and asthmatic patients had lower pulmonary resistance than the healthy ones.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Asthma , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Kinetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Leptin , Obesity/complications
Perspect. nutr. hum ; 22(2): 189-200, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351203


Resumen Antecedentes: la obesidad es un factor de riesgo para las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Objetivo: explorar la relación entre indicadores antropométricos y niveles de leptina en un grupo de madres y en sus hijos. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal en 74 binomios madre-hijo de Cali, Colombia. Se realizó caracterización sociodemográfica, evaluaciones antropométricas y leptina sérica en 56 madres y 26 niños. Se usaron coeficientes de correlación entre los indicadores antropométricos y la leptina. Resultados: las madres presentaron 35,5 % de exceso de peso, elevada grasa corporal en un 80 % y niveles de leptina de 20,5 ng/mL. Los niños tenían 20,7±2,4 meses de edad; 8,2 % de exceso de peso; 4,1 % desnutrición aguda y niveles de leptina de 1,85 ng/mL. En madres e hijos las correlaciones entre indicadores antropométricos fueron significativas y positivas, lo mismo con leptina en las madres, pero en los niños solo correlacionó débilmente con peso/talla e IMC-edad. La leptina en las madres se correlacionó débilmente con indicadores antropométricos de los niños, pero no al contrario. Conclusión: la prevalencia de exceso de peso es alta en las madres y menor en los niños. La leptina en las madres se correlaciona débilmente con indicadores antropométricos de los niños, pero no al contrario.

Abstract Background: Obesity is a risk factor for non-communicable chronic diseases. Objective: Explore the relationship between anthropometric indicators and leptin levels in a group of mothers and their children. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study in 74 mother-child pairs from Cali, Colombia. Sociodemographic characterization, anthropo-metric evaluations, and serum leptin measurements were performed in 56 mothers and 26 children. Correlation coefficients were used between anthropometric indicators and leptin. Results: 35.5% of mothers had excess weight, 80% had high body fat, and leptin levels of 20.5 ng/dL. The children were 20.7 ± 2.4 months old; 8.2% presented with excess weight; 4.1% had acute malnutrition, and leptin levels of 1.85 ng/dL. In mothers and children, the correlations between anthropometric indicators were significant and positive, the same with leptin in mothers, but in children leptin only correlated weakly with weight / height and BMI-age. Leptin in mothers was weakly correlated with anthropometric indicators in children, but not vice versa. Conclusion: The prevalence of excess weight was high in mothers and less so in their children. Leptin in mothers weakly correlated with anthropometric indicators in their children, but not vice versa.

Leptin , Obesity
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2315-2329, 01-11-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148395


Assess the nutritional and biochemical state of patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) compared to a control group. This is an observational, case-control and descriptive type study, based on the recruiting of 22 elderly individuals with a clinical diagnosis of AD considered as the case group, and 22 other elderly individuals considered as the control group. Evaluations were made using the results from the following scales Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), anthropometric measurements for obtaining the body mass index (BMI) and biochemical analyses. The analyses were performed on the program SPSS version 20.0, using absolute and relative measures, T test for independent samples for measurement comparisons and the Spearman correlation test. In the cognitive evaluation MMSE, those participants with AD present higher risk of cognitive decline (81.8%), greater risk of malnutrition according to MNA (45.5%) and altered levels of leptin (90.9%). Upon performing the comparison analysis between the group with AD and the control group, there existed noteworthy differences between the means for the variables MNA (4.40; BMI95% 2.75 ­ 6.06), MMSE (10.54; BMI95% 7.09 ­ 13.99) and doses of HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) (14.53; BMI95% 6.18 ­ 22.88). As well as differences in the p-value < 0.09 in the leptin doses (11.54; BMI95% (-24.98 ­ 1.89) and transferrin dose (-72.31; BMI95% -159.48 ­ 14.84). The Spearman correlation demonstrated that the cognitive decline in the group of senior citizens with AD was strongly associated with nutritional conditions MNA (R 0.484) and the leptin dose (R 0.590). Senior citizens with AD present worse nutritional conditions, cognitive decline and biochemical alterations when compared to senior citizens in the control group. As such, the study demonstrated the need for an integrated healthcare assistance concerning senior citizens with AD.

Avaliar o estado nutricional e bioquímico de pacientes com Doença de Alzheimer (DA) comparando com um grupo controle. Materiais e métodos: trata-se de um tipo observacional, caso-controle e descritivo a partir do recrutamento de 22 idosos diagnosticados clinicamente com DA considerados grupo caso e outros 22 idosos considerados controle, foi utilizado a escala Mini Avaliação nutricional (MNA), Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MMSE), medidas antropométricas para obtenção do índice de massa corporal (IMC) e análises bioquímicas. As análises foram realizadas no programa SPSS versão 20.0, utilizou-se de medidas absolutas e relativas, teste T para amostras independentes para comparação de médias e o teste de correlação de Spearman. Na avaliação cognitiva MMSE os participantes com DA apresentaram maior prevalência de declínio cognitivo (81,8%), maior prevalência de risco para desnutrição segundo MNA (45,5%) e níveis alterados de leptina (90,9%). Ao se realizar a análise de comparação o grupo com DA e o controle observou-se diferenças significativas entre as médias das variáveis MNA (4,40; IC95% 2,75 ­ 6,06), MMSE (10,54; IC95% 7,09 ­ 13,99) e dosagens de HDL (14,53; IC95% 6,18 ­ 22,88). E diferenças com o p-valor < 0,09 nas dosagens de leptina (11,54; IC95% (-24,98 ­ 1,89) e dosagem de transferrina (-72,31; IC95% -159,48 ­ 14,84). A correlação de Spearman demonstrou que o declínio cognitivo no grupo de idosos com DA, esteve associado significativamente às condições nutricionais MNA (R 0,484) e dosagem de leptina (R 0,590). Idosos com DA apresentaram piores condições nutricionais, declínio cognitivo e alterações bioquímicas, ao compara-los com idosos controles. Desta forma, o estudo demonstra a necessidade de uma assistência integral a esses idosos.

Aged , Biomarkers , Nutrition Assessment , Leptin , Alzheimer Disease
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(1): 61-70, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131256


Resumo Fundamento A obesidade é um fator de risco para complicações médicas, incluindo o sistema cardiovascular. Há informações limitadas sobre o colágeno no coração obeso. Nosso estudo anterior demonstrou uma redução dos níveis proteicos de colágeno miocárdico tipo I em ratos obesos alimentados com uma dieta com alto teor de gordura durante 34 semanas. No entanto, os mecanismos responsáveis pelos níveis baixos não estão completamente elucidados. Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a hipótese de que a redução do colágeno tipo I está associada ao aumento da atividade da metaloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a qual está ligada à elevação de leptina no miocárdio de ratos obesos. Métodos Ratos Wistar machos com 30 dias de idade foram randomizados em dois grupos: controle (dieta padrão) e obeso (dieta com alto teor de gordura), e alimentados durante 34 semanas. Foram avaliados as características gerais dos animais e os perfis metabólicos e endócrinos. Foram avaliados as expressões proteicas miocárdicas de colágeno tipo I, leptina e inibidores teciduais de metaloproteinases (TIMP), bem como a atividade da MMP-2. O teste de correlação de Pearson foi aplicado para determinar as associações entre variáveis. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados Os animais obesos apresentaram índice de adiposidade mais elevado em comparação ao controle. Foram observadas comorbidades como intolerância à glicose, hiperinsulinemia, resistência à insulina, hiperleptinemia e hipertensão nos ratos obesos. A obesidade reduziu o colágeno tipo I, TIMP-1 e TIMP-2, e aumentou a leptina e a MMP-2 no miocárdio. Houve uma correlação negativa entre o colágeno tipo I e a MMP-2 e uma correlação positiva entre a leptina e a MMP-2. Conclusão Foi confirmada a hipótese de que a redução do colágeno tipo I está associada ao aumento da atividade da MMP-2 e da expressão de leptina no miocárdio de ratos obesos. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(1):61-70)

Abstract Background Obesity is a risk factor for medical complications, including the cardiovascular system. There is limited information on collagen in the heart in obesity. Our previous study showed decreased protein levels of myocardial collagen type I in obese rats fed a high-fat diet for 34 weeks. However, the mechanisms responsible for low levels are not fully elucidated. Objective The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in collagen type I is associated with increased metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity, which is linked to elevated leptin in the myocardium of obese rats. Methods Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, control (standard diet) and obese (high-fat diet), and fed for 34 weeks. The general animal characteristics and metabolic and endocrine profiles were evaluated. Myocardial protein expressions of collagen I, leptin, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP), and MMP-2 activity were assessed. Pearson correlation was employed to determine the associations between variables. The level of significance was 5%. Results The obese animals had increased adiposity index compared to control. Comorbidities such as glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, and hypertension were observed in obese rats. Obesity reduced collagen I, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, and it increased leptin and MMP-2 in the myocardium. There was a negative correlation between collagen I and MMP-2 and a positive correlation between leptin and MMP-2. Conclusion The hypothesis was confirmed; the reduction in collagen type I is associated with increased MMP-2 activity and leptin expression in the myocardium of obese rats. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(1):61-70)

Animals , Male , Rats , Leptin , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Rats, Wistar , Collagen Type I , Myocardium , Obesity/complications
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(3): 276-281, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131081


ABSTRACT Objective Climacterium is associated with elevated leptin levels and increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. Conflicting data diverge on whether high leptin levels in climacterium reflect increasing adipose mass or, at least partially, age-related hormonal changes. This study addresses this issue in women from a Brazilian state with a low human development index. Subjects and methods A case-control study was conducted, enrolling 136 women from the state of Maranhão, 52 (38.2%) climacteric and 84 (61.8%) non-climacteric. Biometric, biochemical, hormonal and immunological parameters were analyzed. Results Climacteric women showed a moderately increased waist/hip ratio (0.894 versus 0.834, p < 0.05), sustained body mass index (27.46 versus 28.68, p > 0.05) increased leptin levels (9.59 versus 7.13, p < 0.05) and no evidence of metabolic syndrome. No other parameters were altered. The climacteric cohort didn't show significant body fat gains but displayed a typical age-related redistribution of adipose tissue. Even so, leptin levels were significantly elevated compared with non-climacteric women. Conclusions Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that leptin is elevated, at least partially, as a function of age and climacterium and is not necessarily correlated with metabolic dysfunction and systemic inflammation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of higher leptin levels on postmenopausal women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):276-81

Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Climacteric/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiposity/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Climacteric/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Middle Aged
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088773


ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to explore the relationship between body fat percentage and metabolic markers. Subjects and methods Sedentary women were assigned to PCOS (N = 60) and CONTROL (N = 60) groups. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to body fat percentage (22-27%, 27-32% and 32-37%). The protocol consisted of assessments of glucose, insulin, androgens, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results The PCOS subgroups showed higher concentrations of androgens, LH and 17-OHP. Leptin showed direct relationship with increased body fat percentage, whereas adiponectin showed the inverse effect. However, both were unaffected by PCOS. TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in PCOS women and showed a direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Glucose showed direct relationship with body fat percentage, whereas insulin presented higher values in PCOS women and direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Conclusions Our findings indicate that PCOS and body fat percentage directly influence concentrations of insulin, TNF-α and IL-6, whereas leptin and adiponectin are influenced only by the increase in body fat percentage in these women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):4-10

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Adipose Tissue/anatomy & histology , Metabolic Diseases/blood , Insulin Resistance , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Glucose/analysis , Androgens/blood , Insulin/blood
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(1): 20-25, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144396


ABSTRACT Introduction: Several studies have documented the statistical association between leptin and osteoarthritis (OA) especially in joints that support weight, such as hips and knees, demonstrating high concentrations of plasma leptin and synovial fluid. Few studies address the possible relationship between leptin and obesity/overweight with OA hand. Objectives: To determine the relationship between serum leptin levels and the severity of OA in hands. Establish the association between obesity/overweight with the severity of OA, using radiographic scales. Methods: Measurement of leptin levels by ELISA technique to 44 patients with primary OA of hand and 30 healthy controls. Analysis of hand radiographs using the classification system of Kellgren and Lawrence, and anthropometric measurements for the calculation of body mass index. Results: Serum leptin levels in the group of patients with primary hand OA were higher compared to healthy controls (P = 0.046). No significant associations were found between the different degrees of severity of the disease measured by radiological scale of de Kellgren and Lawrence with the average leptin levels (P = 0.94) as well as the obesity/overweight categorization according to the body mass index (P = 0.88). Conclusions: Serum leptin levels in the group of patients with primary hand OA in this study were higher compared to healthy controls, with a significant statistical difference. This difference was not maintained in relation to gender, as well as in the subgroup of patients with obesity or overweight.

RESUMEN Introducción: Varios estudios han documentado la asociación estadística entre leptina y osteoartritis (OA), en especial en las articulaciones que soportan peso, como caderas y rodillas, y han demostrado concentraciones elevadas de leptina en plasma y líquido sinovial. Pocos estudios abordan la posible relación entre leptina y obesidad/sobrepeso con la OA de mano. Objetivos: Determinar la relación entre el nivel sérico de leptina y la severidad de la OA en manos. Establecer la asociación entre obesidad/sobrepeso con la severidad de OA mediante escalas radiográficas. Métodos: Medición del nivel de leptina por técnica de ELISA en 44 pacientes con OA primaria de mano y 30 controles sanos. Análisis de radiografías de manos mediante el sistema de clasificación de Kellgren y Lawrence y toma de medidas antropométricas para el cálculo del índice de masa corporal. Resultados: El nivel sérico de leptina en el grupo de pacientes con OA primaria de manos fue mayor que el de los controles sanos (p = 0,046). No se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre los diferentes grados de severidad de la enfermedad medidos por escala radiológica de Kellgren y Lawrence y los niveles medios de leptina (p = 0,94), ni tampoco con la categorización de obesidad/sobrepeso de acuerdo con el índice de masa corporal (p = 0,88). Conclusiones: El nivel sérico de leptina en el grupo de pacientes con OA de manos primaria de este estudio fue mayor que el de los controles sanos, con una diferencia estadística significativa. Esta diferencia no se mantuvo con relación al género, como tampoco en el subgrupo de pacientes con obesidad o sobrepeso.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Osteoarthritis , Leptin , Radiography , Body Mass Index , Obesity
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190388, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057271


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leptin (LEP) is a peptide hormone that acts via leptin receptor (LEPR) binding. Genetic evidence from different human populations has implicated LEP/LEPR in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD), and suggests that certain LEP/LEPR gene polymorphisms may increase the risk of CAD. The aim of this study was to assess two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LEP genes (rs2167270 and rs7799039) and two in LEPR genes (rs6588147, rs1137100) for association with CAD. METHODS: We enrolled 271 North Chinese Han CAD patients, and 113 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood, and the four SNPs were assessed using a MassArray system. RESULTS: The G allele frequency at rs2167270 was significantly higher among CAD cases than among controls. The AG genotype at rs7799039 was associated with a significantly decreased risk of CAD unlike the AA genotype used as the reference. The A allele was significantly associated with the CAD patient group. Interestingly, statistically significant differences in genotype and allele frequency at LEP rs2167270 and rs7799039 existed among females but not among males. CONCLUSIONS: The current study detected a significant association between genetic variations at LEP rs7799039 and rs2167270 and the risk of CAD in a north Chinese population, and revealed that LEP rs2167270 and rs7799039 gene polymorphisms might act as predisposing factors for CAD.

Humans , Male , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Leptin/genetics , Receptors, Leptin/genetics , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Middle Aged
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 175-180, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827070


The present study was aimed to clarify the signaling molecular mechanism by which fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) regulates leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Differentiated 3T3-F442A adipocytes were used as study object. The mRNA expression level of leptin was detected by fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The phosphorylation levels of proteins of signal transduction pathways were detected by Western blot. The results showed that FGF21 significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression level of leptin in adipocytes, and FGF21 receptor inhibitor BGJ-398 could completely block this effect. FGF21 up-regulated the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and AMPK in adipocytes. Either ERK1/2 inhibitor SCH772984 or AMPK inhibitor Compound C could partially block the inhibitory effect of FGF21, and the combined application of these two inhibitors completely blocked the effect of FGF21. Neither PI3K inhibitor LY294002 nor Akt inhibitor AZD5363 affected the inhibitory effect of FGF21 on leptin gene expression. These results suggest that FGF21 may inhibit leptin gene expression by activating ERK1/2 and AMPK signaling pathways in adipocytes.

Animals , Mice , 3T3 Cells , Adenylate Kinase , Adipocytes , Metabolism , Down-Regulation , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Metabolism , Leptin , Metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Phosphorylation , Signal Transduction