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Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(3): 276-281, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131081


ABSTRACT Objective Climacterium is associated with elevated leptin levels and increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. Conflicting data diverge on whether high leptin levels in climacterium reflect increasing adipose mass or, at least partially, age-related hormonal changes. This study addresses this issue in women from a Brazilian state with a low human development index. Subjects and methods A case-control study was conducted, enrolling 136 women from the state of Maranhão, 52 (38.2%) climacteric and 84 (61.8%) non-climacteric. Biometric, biochemical, hormonal and immunological parameters were analyzed. Results Climacteric women showed a moderately increased waist/hip ratio (0.894 versus 0.834, p < 0.05), sustained body mass index (27.46 versus 28.68, p > 0.05) increased leptin levels (9.59 versus 7.13, p < 0.05) and no evidence of metabolic syndrome. No other parameters were altered. The climacteric cohort didn't show significant body fat gains but displayed a typical age-related redistribution of adipose tissue. Even so, leptin levels were significantly elevated compared with non-climacteric women. Conclusions Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that leptin is elevated, at least partially, as a function of age and climacterium and is not necessarily correlated with metabolic dysfunction and systemic inflammation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of higher leptin levels on postmenopausal women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):276-81

Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Climacteric/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiposity/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Climacteric/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Middle Aged
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088773


ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to explore the relationship between body fat percentage and metabolic markers. Subjects and methods Sedentary women were assigned to PCOS (N = 60) and CONTROL (N = 60) groups. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to body fat percentage (22-27%, 27-32% and 32-37%). The protocol consisted of assessments of glucose, insulin, androgens, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results The PCOS subgroups showed higher concentrations of androgens, LH and 17-OHP. Leptin showed direct relationship with increased body fat percentage, whereas adiponectin showed the inverse effect. However, both were unaffected by PCOS. TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in PCOS women and showed a direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Glucose showed direct relationship with body fat percentage, whereas insulin presented higher values in PCOS women and direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Conclusions Our findings indicate that PCOS and body fat percentage directly influence concentrations of insulin, TNF-α and IL-6, whereas leptin and adiponectin are influenced only by the increase in body fat percentage in these women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):4-10

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Adipose Tissue/anatomy & histology , Metabolic Diseases/blood , Insulin Resistance , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Glucose/analysis , Androgens/blood , Insulin/blood
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(8): 1061-1066, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041062


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the potential association of foot pain and plasmatic adipocytes as physiological biomarkers of childhood obesity with the incidence of flatfoot in a cohort of Egyptian school children aged 6 -12 years. METHODS A total of 550 Egyptian schoolchildren (220 boys and 330 girls) aged 6-12 years were randomly invited to participate in this descriptive survey analysis. For all children, we assessed the diagnosis and severity of flatfoot as well as plasma adipocytes, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, and TNF-α, using the Dennis method and immunoassay techniques respectively. Foot pain was assessed by using a standard VAS of 100 mm and Faces Pain Scale, respectively. RESULTS Flat foot was predicted in 30.4% of school-age children, most of them showed a higher frequency of overweight (33.3%) and obesity (62.5%). Boys showed higher ranges of flat foot than girls. Foot pain significantly correlated with flat foot and obesity among the studied populations. In overweight-obese children, plasmatic adipocyte variables, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, IL-6, TNF-α.; showed significant correlations with foot stance, especially in boys. Also, the studied adipocyte variables along with BMI, age, gender explained about~65% of the variance of flatfoot with pain among our school-age students. CONCLUSION Foot pain showed an association with flat foot and childhood obesity in 30.4% of school-age students (6-12 years). Foot pain was shown to correlate positively with the incidence of flat foot and changes in adiposity markers, as well as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, Il-6, TNF-α

RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a potencial associação de dor no pé e adipócitos plasmáticos como biomarcadores fisiológicos da obesidade infantil com incidência de pé plano em uma coorte de escolares egípcios de 6 a 12 anos. MÉTODOS Um total de 550 escolares egípcios (220 meninos e 330 meninas) com idades entre 6 e 12 anos foram convidados aleatoriamente para participar desta análise descritiva. Para todas as crianças, diagnóstico e gravidade do flatfoot, bem como adipócitos plasmáticos; adiponectina, leptina, resistina, IL-6 e TNF-α; foram avaliados pelo método de Dennis e técnicas de imunoensaio, respectivamente. A dor no pé foi avaliada usando uma EVA padrão de 100 mm e a Faces Pain Scale, respectivamente. RESULTADOS O pé plano foi predito em 30,4% das crianças em idade escolar; a maioria apresentou maior frequência de sobrepeso (33,3%) e obesidade (62,5%). Os meninos apresentaram maiores faixas de pé plano do que as meninas. A dor no pé correlacionou-se significativamente com pé plano e obesidade entre as populações estudadas. Em crianças obesas com sobrepeso, variáveis adipocitárias plasmáticas; adiponectina, leptina, resistina, IL-6 e TNF-α; apresentaram correlação significativa com a postura do pé, em meninos e meninas. Além disso, as variáveis estudadas dos adipócitos, juntamente com o IMC, idade e sexo, explicaram cerca de 65% da variância do pé plano com a dor entre os nossos alunos em idade escolar. CONCLUSÃO A dor no pé mostrou associação com pé plano e obesidade infantil em 30,4% dos estudantes em idade escolar (6-12 anos). A dor no pé se correlacionou positivamente com a incidência de pé plano e a mudança nos marcadores de adiposidade; adiponectina, leptina, resistina, IL-6, TNF-α.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Aged, 80 and over , Pain/blood , Flatfoot/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Adipocytes/chemistry , Obesity/blood , Pain/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Pain Measurement , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flatfoot/complications , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Resistin/blood , Obesity/complications
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 192-197, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001127


Abstract BACKGROUND: Psoriasis and obesity are somewhat related to a low-grade systemic inflammatory response. OBJECTIVES: To determine leptin and adiponectin levels in psoriasis patients compared to control patients matched for weight. METHODS: A case-control study was performed, evaluating 113 psoriasis patients and 41 controls with other dermatologic diseases. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was 33% in cases and 21.9% in controls. All evaluated comorbidities were more prevalent among cases. When stratified by weight, the comorbidities were more frequent in overweight patients. We found no correlation between being overweight (p=0.25), leptin (p=0.18) or adiponectin (p=0.762) levels and psoriasis severity. When overweight cases and controls were compared, we found differences in the adiponectin values (p= 0.04). The overweight cases had lower adiponectin levels than the overweight controls. We found no differences in the leptin dosage between cases and controls. The overweight cases had higher leptin values than the normal weight cases (p<0.001). STUDY LIMITATIONS: Several patients used systemic anti-inflammatory medication. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of obesity among psoriasis cases (33%) was higher than in the general population (17.4%). We did not find any correlation between severity of psoriasis and inflammatory cytokines and the condition of being overweight. The overweight cases had lower values of adiponectin than the overweight controls. It seems, therefore, that there is a relationship between adiponectin and psoriasis, but this relationship depends on the presence of obesity.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Psoriasis/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Cytokines/blood , Overweight/blood , Obesity/blood
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(2): 216-219, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959214


Objective: To evaluate the serum leptin levels in cannabis smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study of participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic data and the use of psychoactive substances. Leptin levels were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Results: Of the 911 participants, 6.7% were identified as cannabis smokers and had significantly lower leptin levels (p = 0.008). When stratified by gender, there was a significant decrease in leptin levels among male smokers (p = 0.039). Conclusion: Cannabis smoking was linked to leptin levels in men, suggesting that the response to biological signals may be different between men and women.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Marijuana Smoking/blood , Leptin/blood , Appetite/drug effects , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Marijuana Smoking/physiopathology , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(6): 514-521, June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950172


Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is widespread among hypertensive patients. Clinical features and potential biomarkers of MetS in the presence of hypertension and resistant hypertension (RHTN) represent a great area of interest for investigation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and the clinical features associated with it in resistant and mild to moderate hypertensives. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 236 patients, (i) 129 mild to moderate hypertensive patients and (ii) 107 patients with RHTN. We measured blood pressure (BP) and adipokines levels, and performed bioelectrical impedance analysis. Microalbuminuria (MA), cardiac hypertrophy and arterial stiffness were also assessed. The significance level of alpha = 0.05 was adopted. Results: We found a MetS prevalence of 73% in resistant and 60% in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. In a multiple regression analysis, MA (odds ratio = 8.51; p = 0.01), leptin/adiponectin ratio (LAR) (odds ratio = 4.13; p = 0.01) and RHTN (odds ratio = 3.75; p = 0.03) were independently associated with the presence of MetS apart from potential confounders. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both resistant and controlled hypertensive subjects have a high prevalence of MetS. In addition, MetS-related metabolic derangements may cause early renal and hormonal changes. Finally, LAR may be useful as a reliable biomarker for identifying those hypertensive subjects who are at risk for developing MetS.

Resumo Fundamentos: A síndrome metabólica (SM) é comum em pacientes hipertensos. As características clínicas e os potenciais biomarcadores da SM na presença de hipertensão e hipertensão resistente (HR) representam uma ampla área de interesse a ser investigada. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de SM e as características clínicas associadas à síndrome em indivíduos com hipertensão resistente e leve a moderada. Métodos: Este estudo transversal incluiu 236 pacientes, (i) 129 pacientes com hipertensão leve a moderada e (ii) 107 pacientes com HR. Medimos a pressão arterial (PA), parâmetros bioquímicos e os níveis de adipocinas dos pacientes, além de microalbuminúria (MA), hipertrofia cardíaca e rigidez arterial. Foi adotado o nível de significância de alfa 0,05. Resultados: A SM esteve presente em 73% dos pacientes com HR e 60% daqueles com hipertensão leve a moderada. Na análise de regressão múltipla, a MA (odds ratio = 8,51; p = 0,01), a razão leptina/adiponectina (RLA) (odds ratio = 4,13; p = 0,01) e a HR (odds ratio = 3,75; p = 0,03) foram independentemente associadas com a presença de SM, excluindo-se potenciais fatores de confusão. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que tanto hipertensos resistentes como hipertensos controlados apresentam alta prevalência de SM. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos relacionados à SM podem causar alterações precoces renais e hormonais, e a RLA parece ser útil como biomarcador confiável para identificar indivíduos hipertensos em risco de desenvolverem SM.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Pressure/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Echocardiography , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Electric Impedance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Leptin/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Pulse Wave Analysis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/blood , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(3): 275-284, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950062


ABSTRACT Objectives: Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the presence of the pro-inflammatory state associated with the development of many comorbidities, including bone turnover marker alterations. This study aimed to investigate the role of the inflammatory state on bone turnover markers in obese adolescents undergoing interdisciplinary weight loss treatment for one year. Subjects and methods: Thirty four post-pubescent obese adolescents with primary obesity, a body mass index (BMI) greater than > 95th percentile of the CDC reference growth charts, participated in the present investigation. Measurements of body composition, bone turnover markers, inflammatory biomarkers and visceral and subcutaneous fat were taken. Adolescents were submitted to one year of interdisciplinary treatment (clinical approach, physical exercise, physiotherapy intervention, nutritional and psychological counseling). Results: Reduction in body mass, body fat mass, visceral and subcutaneous fat, as well as, an increase in the body lean mass and bone mineral content was observed. An improvement in inflammatory markers was seen with an increase in adiponectin, adiponectin/leptin ratio and inteleukin-15. Moreover, a positive correlation between the adiponectin/leptin ratio and osteocalcin was demonstrated. Further, both lean and body fat mass were predictors of osteocalcin. Negative associations between leptin with osteocalcin, adiponectin with Beta CTX-collagen, and visceral fat with adiponectin were observed. Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that the inflammatory state can negatively influence the bone turnover markers in obese adolescents. In addition, the interdisciplinary weight loss treatment improved the inflammatory state and body composition in obese adolescents. Therefore, the present findings should be considered in clinical practice.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Osteocalcin/blood , Leptin/blood , Diet, Reducing , Adiponectin/blood , Exercise Therapy , Obesity/therapy , Biomarkers/blood , Weight Loss , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Bone Remodeling , Combined Modality Therapy , Resistance Training , Obesity/blood
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(1): 41-46, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887633


ABSTRACT Objects To compare insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic aspects of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and individuals without the disease. Subjects and methods Forty patients with NF1 were matched by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) to 40 controls from the community. Blood samples were collected for biochemical assessment. Homeostasis model assessment adiponectin (HOMA-AD), Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and adiponectin/leptin ratio (ALR) were used to identify IR. Results The median HOMA-IR values were similar between the groups. However, the HOMA-AD value was significantly lower and the ALR significantly higher in the NF1 group. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), leptin, and visfatin levels of patients with NF1 were significantly lower, although adiponectin levels were significantly higher than those in the controls. Fasting insulin and blood glucose levels 2 hours after administration of 75 g of dextrose, glycated hemoglobin, and resistin showed no significant differences between groups. The HOMA-AD correlated with BMI, FBG, blood glucose levels 2 hours after administration of 75 g of dextrose, fasting insulin, glycated hemoglobin, adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, ALR, and HOMA-IR. The ALR correlated with BMI leptin, visfatin, and adiponectin. Conclusions Lower levels of FBG, leptin, visfatin, and HOMA-AD, and higher adiponectin levels and ALR may be related to increased insulin sensitivity and lower occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with NF1

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Neurofibromatosis 1/physiopathology , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Fasting/blood , Neurofibromatosis 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Homeostasis
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6775, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889055


The aims of this study were 1) to characterize the intensity of the vibration stimulation in women diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM) compared to a control group of healthy women (HW) matched by age and anthropometric parameters, and 2) to investigate the effect of a single session of whole body vibration (WBV) on inflammatory responses. Levels of adipokines, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFr1, sTNFr2), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was estimated by a portable gas analysis system, heart rate (HR) was measured using a HR monitor, and perceived exertion (RPE) was evaluated using the Borg scale of perceived exertion. Acutely mild WBV increased VO2 and HR similarly in both groups. There was an interaction (disease vs vibration) in RPE (P=0.0078), showing a higher RPE in FM compared to HW at rest, which further increased in FM after acute WBV, whereas it remained unchanged in HW. In addition, there was an interaction (disease vs vibration) in plasma levels of adiponectin (P=0.0001), sTNFR1 (P=0.000001), sTNFR2 (P=0.0052), leptin (P=0.0007), resistin (P=0.0166), and BDNF (P=0.0179). In conclusion, a single acute session of mild and short WBV can improve the inflammatory status in patients with FM, reaching values close to those of matched HW at their basal status. The neuroendocrine mechanism seems to be an exercise-induced modulation towards greater adaptation to stress response in these patients.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Vibration , Exercise , Fibromyalgia/blood , Fibromyalgia/therapy , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Interleukin-8/blood , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/blood , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/blood , Leptin/blood , Resistin/blood , Adipokines/blood , Heart Rate/physiology , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/therapy
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(3): 249-256, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887553


ABSTRACT Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the serum levels of adipokines in women with fibromyalgia with and without overweight/obesity, and to correlate the adipokines levels with clinical parameters associated with fibromyalgia and adipose tissue mass (body fat). Subjects and methods The study included 100 women divided into four groups: (a) fibromyalgia and overweight/obesity; (b) fibromyalgia and normal weight; (c) controls and overweight/obesity; and (d) controls and normal weight. Patients and controls were evaluated for clinical, anthropometric, and fibromyalgia-related parameters. Assessments included serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of adipokines were further adjusted for fat mass. Results Fibromyalgia patients with overweight/obesity or normal weight had no differences in clinical parameters. Unadjusted leptin levels were lower in fibromyalgia patients than controls, a finding that was more remarkable in fibromyalgia patients with overweight/obesity. Leptin levels had no correlation with clinical parameters of fibromyalgia or inflammation markers (MCP-1 and CRP), and adiponectin levels showed no difference between groups. Conclusions No correlation was observed between adjusted leptin levels and clinical parameters of fibromyalgia. Patients with fibromyalgia and overweight/obesity presented lower levels of leptin than controls with overweight/obesity.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Fibromyalgia/blood , Leptin/blood , Overweight/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Quality of Life , Reference Values , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Fibromyalgia/physiopathology , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pain Threshold , Statistics, Nonparametric , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Overweight/physiopathology , Waist Circumference
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(1): 70-75, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838419


ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate for 12 months the changes of body weight using Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) and if these changes are related to inflammatory markers. Subjects and methods Twenty women of childbearing age who chose the DMPA, without previous use of this method, BMI < 30 kg/m2, and 17 women using IUD TCu 380A, participated in the study. At the baseline and after one year, changes in weight gain, body composition by the bioimpedance electric method, resting energy expenditure (REE) by the indirect calorimetry method, inflammatory markers and HOMA-IR were assessed. Results After 12 months of evaluation, we could observe a significant increase in the DMPA group in weight (3,01 kg) and BMI, while the IUD group’s only significant increase was observed in the BMI. Relative to REE there was an increase of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in both groups after one year. The sub-group DMPA that gained < 3 kg had increased significant weight, BMI and body surface (BS) with respiratory quotient (RQ) reduction, while the sub-group that gained ≥ 3 kg had a significant increase in weight, BMI, BS, fat-free mass, fat mass, BMR, Leptin, HOMA-IR and waist circumference, with RQ significantly reduced. Conclusion Our study found significant changes in weight, body composition and metabolic profile of the population studied in the first 12 months of contraceptive use. These changes mainly increased body weight, leptin levels and HOMA-IR which can contribute to the development of some chronic complications, including obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

Humans , Female , Adult , Body Composition/drug effects , Biomarkers/blood , Weight Gain/drug effects , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Basal Metabolism/drug effects , Calorimetry, Indirect , Body Mass Index , Follow-Up Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/blood , Glucose/analysis , Insulin/blood
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(1): 14-20, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838418


ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relationship between markers of adiposity and common carotid artery (CIMT) in obese children born small for gestational age (SGA) versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA), to establish cut-off values for CIMT in obese pediatric populations. Subjects and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out over a 1-year period (Jul 2013 – June 2014). We analyzed 122 obese patients aged 4-20 (mean age 14.9 ± 2.28). Twenty-six patients were born SGA. CIMT was measured in all the patients. Using ROC curve, cut-off values were obtained for both groups. Results We demonstrated a correlation between CIMT and adiponectin, leptin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (r = -0.25, r = 0.279, r = 0.498) in obese children. CIMT in obese children born SGA were significantly increased as compared with obese children born AGA of similar age, sex and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.0035). A CIMT cut off value of 0.049 cm has been obtained with a high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion CIMT is a well-known marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and its measurement is a noninvasive and inexpensive method of detecting subclinical atherosclerosis. Being born SGA increases the atherogenic risk. Obese children with CIMT above 0.049 cm should be screened for metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Leptin/blood , Adipokines/blood , Obesity/complications , Romania , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Obesity/blood
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(1): 7-13, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838409


ABSTRACT Objective Leptin has been suggested as a potential biomarker of cardiovascular risk. This paper aims to ascertain, based on a sample of prepubertal children, which serum leptin value best suited to identify metabolic syndrome (MS). Subjects and methods This observational, cross-sectional study recruited children from the outpatient pediatrics clinic, with the purpose of validating serum leptin level cutoffs to identify MS. All obese and overweight children who met eligibility criteria were included in the study, as was a sample of normal-weight children. The sample underwent clinical assessment and blood fasting glucose, lipid profile, insulin, and leptin were measured. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated for each leptin measurement, using MS as the outcome. These values were used to construct a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The association between MS and leptin was assessed using logistic models to predict MS. Results A total of 65 normal weight, 46 overweight, and 164 obese children were analyzed (160 boys, 115 girls; age: 93.7 ± 17.8 months). The most appropriate leptin cutoff was 13.4 ng/mL (sensitivity 67.6%; specificity 68.9%; accuracy 72.1%). The logistic model indicated that leptin levels above 13.4 ng/dL were significantly associated with MS and that, for every 1 ng/dL increase in leptin levels, the odds of MS increase by 3% (p = 0.002; OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01-1.05). Conclusions Leptin may be a useful biomarker of cardiovascular risk in prepubertal children, with an optimal cutoff of 13.4 ng/mL. Identification of potential new risk markers for cardiovascular disease in children could contribute to the development of preventive strategies.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Leptin/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
Clinics ; 72(1): 36-43, Jan. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840037


OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the frequency of cardiometabolic risk markers and metabolic syndrome occurrence in overweight and obese children and adolescents. METHODS: The participants included 161 overweight (n=65) and obese (n=96) individuals aged between 5 and 19 years. Clinical markers were assessed (body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, acanthosis, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, laboratory parameters [glucose, insulin, cholesterol (total and fractions) and triglyceride levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index] and leptin and adiponectin levels). The frequency of changes, odds ratios and correlations among markers were determined. Metabolic syndrome was assessed according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. RESULTS: A high frequency of acanthosis (51.6%); increased waist circumference (45.4%), systolic blood pressure / diastolic blood pressure (8.1% / 9.3%), glucose (10%), insulin (36.9%) and HOMA-IR (44.3%) values; and reduced high-density lipoprotein levels (47.2%) were observed. Leptin levels were increased in 95% of obese and in 66% of overweight subjects. Adiponectin was decreased in 29.5% of obese and in 34% of overweight subjects. An odd ratio analysis revealed a greater probability of increased waist circumference (9.0), systolic blood pressure (4.1), triglyceride (2.3) and insulin (2.9) levels and HOMA-IR (3.0) in the obese group than in the overweight group. The clinical and laboratory parameters and leptin levels exhibited significant correlations, whereas adiponectin was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. The occurrence rate of metabolic syndrome was 13.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of changes in clinical, laboratory and adipokine markers indicates the need for early interventions aimed at preventing cardiometabolic complications in adulthood.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Obesity/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol/blood , Insulin/blood , Leptin/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Obesity/complications , Overweight/blood , Overweight/complications , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Triglycerides/blood , Waist Circumference
IJRM-International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine. 2017; 15 (7): 423-428
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189254


Background: Endocrine abnormalities related to polycystic ovary Syndrome [PCOS] are important problems

Objective: To compare serum leptin levels between infertile women with and without PCOS. To rank sensitivity of six indirect methods for detection of insulin resistance [IR] and to evaluate the association between leptin and IR in PCOS group

Materials and methods: This Case-controlled study performed on 189 infertile women referred to Shiraz Mother and Child Hospital during 2012-2015. Ninety-nine PCOS cases according to Rotterdam criteria were compared to 90 cases without PCOS. Serum leptin, body mass index [BMI], several hormones, and their correlation coefficients with leptin were compared. IR in PCOS women was measured by indirect methods, including fasting blood sugar [FBS], fasting insulin [FI], glucose/insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI], and MacAuley index. Association between IR and leptin was evaluated. Independent sample t-test and Pearson's test were used

Results: Infertile women with PCOS had higher BMI [26.47 +/- 3.62 vs. 24.82 +/- 5.18 kg/m[2]] and serum leptin levels [41.79 +/- 187.89 vs. 19.38 +/- 12.57 ng/mL]. Leptin showed significant association with weight and BMI in both groups [p<0.001] and to age in non-PCOS group. HOMA-IR showed the highest rate of IR followed by FI and QUICKI methods. The mean leptin levels had positive association with IR assessed by HOMA-IR [p<0.001], QUICKI [p<0.001], FI [p=.002], and FBS [p=0.02]

Conclusion: BMI and IR have positive association with serum leptin in PCOS infertile women. HOMA-IR followed by FI and QUICKI is the most sensitive test for detection of IR

Humans , Female , Adult , Leptin/blood , Insulin Resistance , Infertility, Female , Case-Control Studies
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 29(4): 276-278, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837548


ABSTRACT Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most frequent types of malignant tumors in the world. There is growing evidence of the relationship between it development and obesity. The mechanism that links obesity to cancer is still not fully understood; however, it is essential to the understanding the adipose tissue in metabolic changes related to obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma. Objective: To review the influence of serum leptin levels in patients with hepatocelular carcinoma. Method: Systematic review of the literature based on the methodology of the Cochrane Institute. The search for articles was in the database: Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Lilacs e Pubmed. The key words used were hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, adipokine. Results: After evaluation of individual studies, were selected seven studies. The results previously studied are still inconsistent and contradictory, and leptin can be effectively involved in the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusion: Therefore, it is necessary to develop prospective, well-designed and conducted focusing on the role and specific mechanisms of this hormone in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, so that new correlations can be properly supported.

RESUMO Introdução: O carcinoma hepatocelular é um dos tipos mais frequentes de tumores malignos no mundo. Há crescentes evidências da relação entre o seu desenvolvimento e a obesidade. O mecanismo que os relaciona ainda não é completamente entendido. Entretanto é essencial a compreensão do tecido adiposo nas alterações metabólicas relacionadas à obesidade e ao câncer. Objetivo: Revisar a influência dos níveis séricos de leptina em pacientes com carcinoma hepatocelular. Método: Trata-se de revisão bibliográfica baseada na metodologia do Instituto Cochrane; a busca de dados foi realizada na base de dados Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Lilacs e Pubmed, empregando as seguintes descritores: hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, adipokine. Resultado: Após avaliação individual dos artigos selecionaram-se sete estudos. Os resultados ainda são inconsistentes e contraditórios, e a leptina pode estar efetivamente envolvida na ocorrência e no desenvolvimento do carcinoma hepatocelular. Conclusão: Faz-se necessário o desenvolvimento de estudos prospectivos, bem desenhados e conduzidos sobre o papel e mecanismos específicos deste hormônio em pacientes com carcinoma hepatocelular para que novas correlações sejam devidamente comprovadas.

Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/blood , Leptin/blood , Liver Neoplasms/blood
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(6): 573-581, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827784


ABSTRACT Objective Our aim was to describe the distribution of selected biomarkers according to age and sex, adjusted for HOMA-IR and adiposity, in a subset of middle-aged individuals of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-ELSA without diabetes mellitus or CVD. Subjects and methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 998 participants of the ELSA-Brasil without diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. In addition to the traditional risk factors, several biomarkers concentrations were compared according to sex, age groups (35-44; 45-54 yrs) and HOMA-IR tertiles. Linear regression was used to examine independent associations of sex and age with selected novel biomarkers, adjusted for body adiposity and HOMA-IR. Results Fifty-five percent were women. Men had higher mean values of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, worse lipid profile and higher E-selectin and lower leptin concentrations than women; while women had higher levels of HDL-cholesterol and leptin than men. Mean values of waist circumference, systolic BP, plasma glucose and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) increased with age in both sexes. Leptin and E-selectin concentrations increased across HOMA-IR tertiles. Independent associations of Apo B with age were found only in male sex, while of leptin with body mass index and HOMA-IR, and of E-selectin with HOMA-IR in both sexes. Conclusions In conclusion, our data indicate age, sex, adiposity and, consequently, insulin resistance, influence circulating levels of Apo B, leptin and E-selectin, suggesting that those aspects should be taken into consideration when assessing these parameters for research or clinical purposes in individuals at relatively low cardiometabolic risk.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Atherosclerosis/blood , Adiposity , Apolipoproteins B/blood , Brazil , Insulin Resistance , Biomarkers/blood , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , E-Selectin/blood , Leptin/blood , Waist Circumference
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(4): 348-353, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827860


Abstract Background: Clinical studies have demonstrated that adipocytokines play an important role in developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Objective: The aim of study was to evaluate the relationship between serum resistin and leptin levels with obesity and coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the levels of serum resistin and leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid profile and cardiac enzyme tests (AST, CPK, LDH, CK-MB) in 40 CAD patients compared to 40 healthy controls. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height for calculating of body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were performed for evaluation of obesity. Results: CAD patients had increased levels of leptin and CRP, (p < 0.001), cholesterol (p < 0.05), triglyceride (p < 0.01), and WC (p < 0.05) compared to healthy controls. There was no statistical difference between CAD and control subjects for resistin (p = 0.058). In a multiple regression analysis, only an association between serum leptin with BMI (β = 0.480, p < 0.05) and WC (β = 1.386, p < 0.05) was found. Conclusions: The findings suggest that leptin is a better marker of fat mass value than resistin and may be considered an independent risk factor for cardiac disorders that is largely dependent on obesity. However, further prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.

Resumo Fundamento: Estudos clínicos demonstraram que adipocitocinas têm papel importante no desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares ateroscleróticas. Objetivo: Avaliar a relação entre níveis de leptina e resistina em soro com obesidade e doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Métodos: Em estudo transversal, avaliamos os níveis de resistina e leptina em soro, proteína C-reativa (CPR), perfil lipídico e testes de enzimas cardíacas (AST, CPK, LDH, CK-MB) em quarenta pacientes com DAC comparados a 40 controles saudáveis. Para avaliação de obesidade, foram feitas as medições antropométricas, incluindo peso e altura para o cálculo do índice de massa corporal (IMC) e circunferência da cintura (CC). Resultados: Pacientes com DAC apresentaram aumento nos níveis de leptina e CPR, (p < 0,001), colesterol (p < 0,05), triglicérides (p < 0,01) e CC (p < 0,05) em comparação aos controles. Não houve diferença significativa entre DAC e controles com relação à resistina (p = 0,058). Na análise de regressão múltipla, foi encontrada apenas uma associação entre leptina em soro ao IMC (β = 0,480, p < 0,05) e CC (β = 1,386, p < 0,05). Conclusões: Os achados sugerem que a leptina é melhor marcadora de valor de massa gorda do que a resistina, e pode ser considerada um fator de risco, dependente da obesidade, independente para distúrbios cardíacos. Contudo, outros estudos prospectivos serão necessários para a confirmação desses resultados.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Leptin/blood , Resistin/blood , Obesity/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reference Values , Triglycerides/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry , Cholesterol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Creatine Kinase/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2016; 15 (1): 323-330
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-177563


Recently, extensive efforts have been made to understand the rate of energy expenditure and the weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment, including identification of markers of obesity risk. In recent years, leptin, an adipocyte hormone, has gained significant interest in psychiatric disorders. S100B has been considered as a surrogate marker for astrocyte-specific damage in neurologic disorders. Also, S100B has been detected in adipose with concentration as high as nervous tissue as a second release source. In this study we evaluated the relationship between S100B and leptin in schizophrenic patients under treatment with clozapine and risperidone. This study included 19 patients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, having body mass index [BMI] of 16- 25 kg/m[2] and suffering schizophrenia for more than 3 years and from this study. Twenty five healthy controls were group matched for age and gender whose BMI was 16-25 kg/m[2]. Serum S100B and leptin levels and positive and negative symptom scale [PANSS] were assessed at admission and after six weeks. During the study, S100B showed a strong and negative correlation with leptin [r = -0.5, P = 0.01]. Also, there were negative correlation between serum S100B level and PANSS negative subscale after 6 weeks of treatment [r = -0.048, P = 0.8]. Positive correlation between leptin level and PANSS suggested a potential role for leptin which can mediate the link between antipsychotic induced weight gain and therapeutic response in schizophrenia

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/blood , Leptin/blood , Clozapine , Risperidone , Antipsychotic Agents , Statistics as Topic
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-5, 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950850


BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex disorder and has been increasing globally at alarming rates including Pakistan. However, there is scarce research on understanding obesity genetics in Pakistan. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes in response to satiety and correlates with body weight. Any mutations in the LEP gene have an adverse effect on energy regulation pathway and lead to severe, early onset obesity. To date, only eight mutations have been described in the LEP gene of which p. N103K is one. METHODS: We aimed to analyze the prevalence of this mutation in Pakistani subjects. A total of 475 subjects were genotyped by PCR-RFLP analysis and their serum profiling was done. RESULTS: Results showed that this mutation was present only in one male child with early onset obesity (10 year). He had very low serum leptin levels suggestive of functional impact of the mutation. The prevalence of such mutations is, however, low due to the drastic effects on the energy regulation. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, LEP gene mutations contribute significantly to the monogenic forms of obesity and are important due to the availability of treatment options. Such mutations may exert their effect by directly affecting energy regulation pathway and are more prominent in the early stages of life only.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Leptin/genetics , Mutation , Obesity/genetics , Pakistan , Severity of Illness Index , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Age of Onset , Leptin/blood , Genotype , Obesity/blood