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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 849-860, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364699

ABSTRACT

Resumo A leptospirose é uma zoonose que apresenta potencial epidêmico, principalmente após fortes chuvas que acarretam inundações, alagamentos e enxurradas. Algumas características da região costeira de Santa Catarina, localizada no Sul do Brasil, influenciam nesses processos. Portanto, a partir do estudo da leptospirose nos seis municípios do estado com as maiores incidências e picos epidêmicos de 2000 a 2015, buscou-se conhecer a tendência dessa doença e as variáveis climáticas e ambientais associadas à sua ocorrência, ajustando dois modelos com resposta binomial negativa. As maiores incidências foram encontradas em 2008 e 2011, com picos no mesmo mês ou no posterior aos eventos de desastres. A incidência apresentou forte comportamento sazonal, sendo maior nos meses do verão. Observou-se tendência de queda na incidência dos municípios estudados, estimada em 3,21% ao ano. Os fatores climáticos e ambientais mais fortemente associados foram o número de dias de chuva, a temperatura máxima e a presença de enxurrada e de inundação, com diferentes impactos entre os municípios. Houve interações significativas, indicando que o efeito de inundações na incidência não é o mesmo em todos os municípios e que as diferenças nas incidências entre os municípios dependem da ocorrência ou não de inundações.


Abstract Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with epidemic potential, especially after heavy rainfall causing river, urban and flash floods. Certain features of Santa Catarina's coastal region influence these processes. Using negative binomial regression, we investigated trends in the incidence of leptospirosis in the six municipalities with the highest epidemic peaks between 2000 and 2015 and the climatic and environmental variables associated with the occurrence of the disease. Incidence was highest in 2008 and 2011, and peaks occurred in the same month or month after disasters. Incidence showed a strong seasonal trend, being higher in summer months. There was a decrease trend in incidence across the six municipalities (3.21% per year). The climatic and environmental factors that showed the strongest associations were number of rainy days, maximum temperature, presence of flash floods, and river flooding. The impact of these variables varied across the municipalities. Significant interactions were found, indicating that the effect of river flooding on incidence is not the same across all municipalities and differences in incidence between municipalities depend on the occurrence of river flooding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Zoonoses , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Rain , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence
2.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 10-20, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280488

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la epidemiología de la Leptospirosis en el departamento del Huila durante el período 2011 -2017. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, retrospectivo. La población analizada fueron pacientes de los diferentes municipios del departamento del Huila que se reportaron como casos probables o confirmados de leptospirosis. Se estructuraron registros por cada año en bases de datos recopiladas por el área de epidemiología de la Secretaría de Salud del Huila, basadas en las fichas de notificación de vigilancia en salud pública para leptospirosis y generadas por cada Unidad Primaria Generadora de Datos (UPGD) ante la presencia del evento. Los datos fueron discriminados de acuerdo a las variables de interés para el estudio en una nueva base de datos en Excel; tabuladas con el programa estadístico R - Studio 3.3.3 y Epidat 4.2, para luego ser procesados con estadísticos descriptivos y finalmente ser expresados en porcentajes y en tasas de incidencia. Resultados: Se reportaron 268 casos, de los cuales 61 (23%) fueron confirmados por laboratorio y 207 (77%) sospechosos o probables. El 69% de los pacientes presentaron fiebre, mialgias y cefalea como síntomas representativos. El grupo etario más afectado tenía entre 27 y 59 años de edad (44%). La población se caracterizó por ser del área urbana (65%), con mayor frecuencia en hombres (72%). En relación a la ocupación laboral, se encontró mayor frecuencia en agricultores (20%) y en el personal de aseo (17%). Los factores de riesgo evidenciados fueron la presencia de animales domésticos en un 67% de los casos, así como la presencia de ratas en el hogar (51%) y el posible mal manejo del agua. Conclusiones: El incremento en el número de casos de Leptospirosis probablemente está asociado a la mala manipulación del agua y a la presencia de animales en el domicilio.


Abstract Objective: Describe the epidemiology of Leptospirosis in the department of Huila during the years 2011 to 2017. Materials and methods: This article is a descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective study. The population analyzed were patients from the different municipalities of the department of Huila who were reported as probable or confirmed cases for leptospirosis, structuring records for each year in databases compiled by the epidemiology area of ​​the department's health secretary, based on the public health surveillance notification sheets for leptospirosis, and generated by each Primary Data Generating Unit (UPGD) in the presence of the event; The data were discriminated according to the variables of interest for the study in a new database in Excel; tabulated with the statistical program R - Studio 3.3.3 and Epidat 4.2, to later be processed with descriptive statistics and finally expressed in percentages and incidence rates. Results: 268 cases were reported, which 61 (23%) were confirmed by laboratory and 207 (77%) suspicious or probable. 69% of the patients presented fever, myalgia and headache as representative symptoms. The most affected group range in ages from 27 and 59 (44%). The population was characterized for being part of the urban area (65%), and the cases were more frequent in men (72%). Regarding to employment, it was found that farmers (20%) and the cleaning staff (17%) were the most common cases. The risk factors identified were the presence of domestic animals in 67% of the cases, as well as the presence of rats at home (51%) and the possible poor water management. Conclusions: The increase in the number of cases of Leptospirosis is probably associated with the poor water management and the presence of animals at home.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Zoonoses , Risk Factors , Myalgia , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Colombia , Fever , Public Health Surveillance , Farmers , Headache , Animals, Domestic
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 757-761, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278364

ABSTRACT

Neste estudo, 308 amostras de fetos mumificados foram testadas para parvovírus suíno (PPV), circovírus suíno tipos 2 e 3 (PCV2 e PCV3) e leptospiras patogênicas. A idade gestacional no momento da perda gestacional e a frequência da mumificação fetal de acordo com a ordem de parto também foram investigadas. As amostras foram coletadas em granjas comerciais de criação de suínos da região sul do Brasil que apresentassem taxas de mumificação fetal igual ou maiores a 2,5%. Fragmentos de pulmão, rim, fígado e coração de fetos suínos mumificados foram coletados para análise molecular. Resultados da PCR foram classificados de acordo com a região de origem das amostras, tendo Santa Catarina, Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul contabilizado 87 (28,25%), 89 (28,90%) e 132 (42,86%) do total de amostras de fetos suínos mumificados, respectivamente. Coinfecções foram observadas na maioria dos casos e PCV3 foi o agente mais prevalente detectado, encontrado em 298 amostras (96,75%). A maioria das perdas gestacionais foi observada entre 50 e 70 dias de gestação (168; 54,5%) e a mumificação fetal não foi associada à ordem de parto das matrizes. Os achados sugerem que as altas taxas de fetos suínos mumificados na região Sul do Brasil podem ser explicadas pela infecção com esses agentes virais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pregnancy , Swine , Circoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Parvoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Fetal Death/etiology , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Circoviridae/isolation & purification , Parvovirus, Porcine/isolation & purification , Coinfection/veterinary , Leptospira/isolation & purification
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 277-284, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248945

ABSTRACT

Bovine leptospirosis assumes great economic importance since it affects several production aspects. Therefore, knowledge about the occurrence and distribution of this disease is fundamental to adopt the correct prevention measures. The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in 24,483 bovine serum samples received between 2007 to 2015 from 21 Brazilian states. Of these, 8,643 (35.3%) were reagents in the microscopic agglutination test to one or more serovars of Leptospira spp. The most frequent serovars were Wolffi (61.47%), Tarassovi (9.62%) and Pomona (7.20%). Hardjo serovar presented a prevalence of 6.27%. Among the 21 states analyzed, the State of Pernambuco had the highest frequency with 88.24% and the State of São Paulo was the origin of the largest number of analyzed samples (13,838), with a frequency of 31.54% of reagents. The results demonstrate a high exposure to several serovars of Leptospira spp. in bovine species in Brazilian states, showing the importance of adopting prophylactic measures in order to reduce the risk of infection in this specie.(AU)


Com o objetivo de avaliar a frequência de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp., foram analisadas 24.483 amostras de soro sanguíneo bovino, provenientes de 21 estados brasileiros, recebidas no período de 2007 a 2015. Destas, 8.643 (35,3%) foram reagentes no teste de soroaglutinação microscópica a uma ou mais sorovariedades de Leptospira spp., e as sorovariedades com maior frequência foram Wolffi (61,47%), Tarassovi (9,62%) e Pomona (7,20%). A sorovariedade Hardjo apresentou prevalência de 6,27%. Entre os 21 estados analisados, o estado de Pernambuco apresentou a maior frequência, com 88,24%, e o estado de São Paulo foi a origem do maior número de amostras para análise, 13.838, com frequência de 31,54% de reagentes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Hemagglutination Tests/veterinary
5.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(5): e00100119, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249439

ABSTRACT

A leptospirose se relaciona a problemas de saneamento ambiental, com incremento de casos em períodos de inundações. Levando-se em consideração as questões relacionadas a mudanças climáticas, as inundações tendem a um aumento. As inundações não atingem as populações de maneira homogênea, em geral os menos favorecidos em termos socioeconômicos são os mais acometidos. Para saber se o número de inundações aumentaria a incidência de leptospirose e sua relação com as variáveis contextuais, utilizou-se dados socioeconômicos, ambientais e de ocorrência da doença no nível municipal. Os municípios que tinham problemas no esgotamento sanitário apresentaram maior risco para a ocorrência da leptospirose. O total de inundações adquirida a partir da decretação pela autoridade municipal constituiu um importante marcador de risco para a ocorrência de leptospirose. A modelagem de árvore de regressão mostrou-se útil para estimar a ocorrência de leptospirose no Brasil.


Leptospirosis is related to problems with environmental sanitation, and the incidence tends to increase during flood periods. Considering issues related to climate change, floods can be expected to increase. Floods do not affect populations homogeneously, and communities with worse socioeconomic conditions tend to be impacted more heavily. In order to determine whether the number of floods increases the incidence of leptospirosis and its relationship to contextual variables, the study used socioeconomic, environmental, and disease occurrence data at the municipal (county) level. Municipalities suffering problems with sewage disposal showed a higher risk of leptospirosis incidence. Total flooding since the municipality's declaration of flood emergency was an important risk marker for leptospirosis incidence. Regression tree modeling proved useful for estimating leptospirosis incidence in Brazil.


La leptospirosis se relaciona con problemas de saneamiento ambiental, así como con el incremento de casos en períodos de inundaciones. Teniendo en consideración las cuestiones relacionadas con el cambio climático, las inundaciones tienden a aumentar. Las inundaciones no afectan a las poblaciones de manera homogénea, en general, los menos favorecidos en términos socioeconómicos son los más afectados. Para saber si el número de inundaciones aumentaría la incidencia de leptospirosis, y su relación con variables contextuales, se utilizaron datos socioeconómicos, ambientales y de ocurrencia de la enfermedad en el nivel municipal. Los municipios que poseían problemas en el alcantarillado sanitario presentaron un mayor riesgo para la ocurrencia de leptospirosis. El total de inundaciones sufridas a partir de su reconocimiento oficial por parte de la autoridad municipal constituyó un importante marcador de riesgo para la ocurrencia de leptospirosis. El modelo de árbol de regresión se mostró útil para estimar la ocurrencia de leptospirosis en Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Floods , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Data Mining
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06640, 2021. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279537

ABSTRACT

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacteria Leptospira spp. that affects humans, domestic and wild animals. The present work aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey for leptospirosis in the canine population of the Brejo Paraibano microregion, semiarid of Northeastern Brazil. From May to October 2017, blood samples from 414 dogs were collected in the counties of Alagoa Grande (n=100), Areia (n=79), Bananeiras (n=72), Alagoa Nova (n=73), Serrraria (n=25), Pilões (n=25), Borborema (n=20) and Matinhas (n=20). The tutors of the sampled dogs answered an epidemiological questionnaire, obtaining information about the animals, owner, residence and breeding of the dogs. Subsequently, the serum samples were subjected to the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), using a collection of 23 serovar pathogenic antigens and using the 1:50 dilution as the cutoff point. Of the 414 dogs analyzed 52 were seroreactive, resulting in an apparent prevalence of 12.6% and a real prevalence of 12.2%. Seroreactive dogs were found in the eight counties. Dogs were reactive for the serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae (76.9%), Autumnalis (13.55%), Pomona (3.8%), Grippotyphosa (3.8%) and Serjoe (1.9%) Antibody titers ranged from 50 to 800. The statistical analysis (robust Poisson regression) detected six factors associated with seropositivity, including the rainy season (prevalence ratio; PR=1.94, P=0.013), male dogs (PR=2.10, P=0.005), animals with age greater than five years (PR=4.21, P=0.012), consumption of untreated water (PR=1.87, P=0.043), free access of dogs to street (PR=2.15, P=0.011) and contact with wildlife (PR=3.54, P=0.050). The serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae has a high zoonotic potential and was the most frequent in seropositive animals. The high real prevalence of Leptospira spp. in a transmission region of the semiarid region of Paraíba and the occurrence of seroreactive animals in all the counties suggest wide distribution of the infection and reinforce the need for preventive measures to avoid infection in pets and, consequently, to humans. The analysis of factors associated with the prevalence suggest greater manegment cares with the dogs.(AU)


A leptospirose é uma zoonose mundial causada pela bactéria Leptospira spp. que afeta seres humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um estudo transversal de leptospirose na população canina da microrregião Brejo Paraibano, semiárido do Nordeste do Brasil. No período de maio a outubro de 2017, amostras de sangue de 414 cães foram coletadas nas cidades de Alagoa Grande (n=100), Areia (n=79), Bananeiras (n=72), Alagoa Nova (n=73), Serraria (n=25), Pilões (n=25), Borborema (n=20) e Matinhas (n=20). Os tutores dos cães amostrados responderam a um questionário epidemiológico, sendo obtidas informações sobre os animais, proprietário, residência e criação dos cães. Posteriormente as amostras de soro foram submetidas à prova de soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM), utilizando-se uma coleção de 23 sorovares antígenos patogênicos e adotando como ponto de corte a diluição 1:50. Dos 414 cães analisados 52 foram sorreativos, resultando em uma prevalência aparente de 12.6% e uma prevalência real de 12,2%. Cães sororreativos foram encontrados nos oito municípios. Os cães foram reativos para o sorogrupo Icterohaemorrhagiae (76,9%), Autumnalis (13,55%), Pomona (3,8%), Grippotyphosa (3,8%) and Serjoe (1,9%) Os títulos de anticorpos variaram de 50 a 800. A análise estatística (regressão de Poisson robusta) detectou seis fatores associados à soropositividade, incluindo o período chuvoso (razão de prevalência - RP=1,94; P=0,013), cães machos (RP=2,10; P=0,005), animais com idade maior que cinco anos (RP=4,21; P=0,012), consumo de água não tratada (RP=1,87; P=0,043), cães com livre acesso à rua (RP=2,15; P=0,011) e contato com animais silvestres (RP=3,54; P=0,050). Os resultados desse estudo indicaram que há a exposição por Leptospira spp. em cães da microrregião do Brejo paraibano. O sorogrupo Icterohaemorrhagiae possui alto potencial zoonótico e foi o mais frequente nos animais soropositivos. A alta prevalência real de Leptospira spp. em uma região de transmissão da região semiárida da Paraíba e a ocorrência de animais sororreativos em todos os municípios sugerem uma ampla distribuição da infecção e reforçam a necessidade de medidas preventivas para evitar a infecção em animais de estimação e, consequentemente, em seres humanos. A análise dos fatores associados à prevalência sugere maior cuidado com os cães.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pets/microbiology , Leptospira/pathogenicity , Leptospirosis/epidemiology
7.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e180127, 2021. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1344687

ABSTRACT

The epidemiological characteristics of bovine leptospirosis in animals and herds in Mato Grosso do Sul were investigated to determine parameters such as disease frequency and the serovars reactant in beef cattle herds. A total of 4,629 beef cattle herds were examined against 33 Leptospira spp. serovars. The serum samples were submitted to the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the serological diagnosis of leptospirosis. The MAT results showed that 3,814 (82.39%) of the 4,629 animals evaluated were seropositive for the bacterium, with serological reactions mainly to serogroup Sejroe, serovar Wolffi (36.49%). The observed high frequency of reactive animals demonstrates the relevance of the infection. Therefore, general and specific measures should be implemented to contain and/or prevent infection of the animals in the studied region.(AU)


Foi realizado um inquérito epidemiológico da leptospirose em bovinos de rebanhos de corte do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, de modo a determinar a frequência e as sorovariedades reagentes. Para isso, foram examinados 4.629 bovinos de corte, com uma coleção de 33 sorovariedades de Leptospira, por meio da prova de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (MAT). Dos 4.629 animais examinados, 3.814 (82,39%) foram reagentes com reações predominates para o sorogrupo Sejroe, sorovar Wolffi (36,49%). Assim, a alta frequência de animais reagentes encontrada justifica a implantação de medidas gerais e específicas para conter e/ou prevenir a infecção nos animais dessa região.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/microbiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Leptospirosis/epidemiology
8.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1837, 2021. mapa, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363605

ABSTRACT

Considering the importance of leptospirosis in sheep farming and public health and the significance of identifying which serogroups circulate in sheep within each region, the objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of the most frequent serogroups causing infection by Leptospira sp. in ovine herds in the Northeast region of Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 4197 sheep from 229 herds in 7 Northeastern States. Sera were analyzed via microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The frequency of seroreactive sheep for Leptospira sp. was 14.06%. The states of Alagoas, Ceará, Paraíba, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, and Sergipe, located in the Caatinga biome, had the highest frequencies of serologically reactive sheep, and Maranhão, in the Cerrado biome, had the lowest frequency. The most frequent serogroups were Autumnalis (19.49%), Australis (15.76%) and Serjoe (14.41%). In the states of Ceará, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, and Sergipe, 100% of their municipalities had at least one seroreactive animal. The highest frequencies of seropositive animals were found in the municipalities of União (50%), Passagem (49.06%), Canindé (48.89%), Igaci (28.95%), Gararu (31.2%), Pirapemas (17.5%), and Angicos (16%) located in the states of Piauí, Paraíba, Ceará, Alagoas, Sergipe, Maranhão and Rio Grande do Norte, respectively. The animal-level prevalence (14.06%) obtained in the present study is significant, especially considering the rustic nature of the species and the adverse conditions of the region for the infectious agent. In semi-arid conditions, it has been suggested that perhaps sheep do not seroconvert detectable titers on MAT with a cut-off point of 1:100. It is important to highlight that the ovine population in the Northeast region of Brazil is composed of mixed animals, which have been considered more resistant to infection by Leptospira spp. Also, environmental factors hostile to the survival of the infectious agent in the studied region should be taken into consideration, since they may have influenced the seropositive animal-level prevalence. A noteworthy variation was observed in agglutinin titers, which ranged from 100 to 1,600, where 80.2% of the positive samples had titers ≤ 200. It is important to highlight that more elevated titers (≥ 400) were obtained in all seven states, which may suggest an acute infection caused by a non-adapted serovar, indicating that preventive and control measures focused on possible infection sources for sheep should be adopted. Although some states showed the same serogroups as the most frequent, a variety of serogroups was observed in municipalities, which may indicate different sources of infection, whether interspecies, intraspecies, or via alternative routes of transmission in semi-arid conditions, such as venereal. This indicates that even though sheep are more resistant to infection, they become exposed due to the environment or management conditions. As such, identification, isolation, and treatment of the affected animals are alternative measures recommended for prevention and control of leptospirosis in sheep in the semi-arid region. It is evident that despite the lack of rain observed in the last decade in the Northeast region of Brazil, which prevented the formation of favorable environments for the presence of Leptospira, the infectious agent remains among the sheep, as well as other production and wild animals in the region. Some factors may be contributing to this scenario, such as the fact that sheep farming in the region is = characterized mainly by subsistence systems, where veterinary assistance and adequate sanitary management are absent, thus increasing the possibility of contact with Leptospira. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/blood , Bacterial Zoonoses/epidemiology , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology
9.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210034, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251268

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study aimed to describe the incidence and proportional lethality of human leptospirosis in the municipality of São Paulo, between 2007 and 2016, according to sociodemographic factors and characteristics of the disease, and to assess the temporal trends of incidence, according to age group and region of residence. Methods: Proportional distributions of leptospirosis cases of residents in the municipality were built and regression models with a Binomial Negative response were adjusted. Results: 2,201 cases of leptospirosis were registered, most of them being males (82%), aged between 20 to 59 years (64.6%), white (39%) or brown (32.8%), residing in the South (27.8%), East (23.8%) and North (18.5%) regions. The overall lethality was 15.1%. The risk was higher in the 20 to 59 age group. There was a downward trend in incidence in all age groups and regions, estimated at 5.6% per year. Conclusions: Despite the downward trend in incidence, leptospirosis is a serious disease with high lethality, affecting mainly male individuals in the age groups considered economically active and living in the peripheral regions of the municipality


RESUMO: Objetivos: O presente estudo teve como objetivos descrever a incidência e a letalidade proporcional de leptospirose humana no município de São Paulo, entre 2007 e 2016, segundo fatores sociodemográficos e características da doença e, avaliar a tendência temporal da incidência, conforme a faixa etária e a região de residência. Métodos: Foram construídas distribuições proporcionais dos casos de leptospirose de residentes no município e ajustados modelos de regressão com resposta binomial negativa. Resultados: Foram registrados 2.201 casos de leptospirose, a maioria do sexo masculino (82%), com idades entre 20 e 59 anos (64,6%), de raça/cor branca (39%) ou parda (32,8%), residentes nas regiões sul (27,8%), leste (23,8%) e norte (18,5%). A letalidade geral foi de 15,1%. O risco da doença foi maior nas faixas etárias de 20 a 59 anos. Houve tendência de queda na incidência, em todas as faixas etárias e regiões, estimada em 5,6% ao ano. Conclusões: Apesar de apresentar tendência de queda na incidência, a leptospirose continua sendo uma doença grave e de alta letalidade, acometendo sobretudo indivíduos do sexo masculino, nas faixas etárias consideradas economicamente ativas e residentes nas regiões periféricas do município.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence
10.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e523, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156535

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La leptospirosis es una zoonosis que tiene alto impacto en la salud de las personas y los animales, especialmente en áreas tropicales y subtropicales. Esta enfermedad es causada por el patógeno Leptospira spp. y es transmitida principalmente por los roedores. Objetivo: Describir la presencia de Leptospira patógena y los posibles factores de riesgo de leptospirosis en un sector marginal de Colombia, con un enfoque One-Health. Métodos: Se llevó acabo un estudio exploratorio en un sector marginal de Soledad, municipio situado en la costa norte de Colombia. Se tomaron muestras de sangre de 83 sujetos. Se analizaron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y ecológicas relacionadas con la leptospirosis. La presencia de anticuerpos IgM anti-leptospira en el suero humano fue detectado mediante la prueba ELISA. También, se tomaron muestras de tejido renal de 53 roedores sinantrópicos para identificar Leptospira spp. patógenas mediante PCR convencional a través del uso de cebadores específicos. Resultados: Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM-anti-leptospira en el 30,12 por ciento de los sujetos de estudio. La Leptospira spp. patógena fue identificada en el 7,55 por ciento de los roedores analizados. En la muestra seleccionada se encontró asociación de casos seropositivos con ser comerciantes, ama de casa y estar en contacto con cerdos. Las condiciones higiénico-sanitarias subóptimas también fueron evidentes en el área de estudio. Conclusiones: La circulación de Leptospira spp. patógena y la exposición a factores de riesgo humanos y ecológicos es elevada en el sector marginal (área de pobreza) del Caribe colombiano. Se recomienda dirigir las intervenciones en la interfaz hombre-animal-ambiente de acuerdo con el paradigma One-Health; se debe considerar la extrema pobreza como un factor determinante para la ocurrencia de la leptospirosis(AU)


Objective: This study aims to describe the presence of pathogenic Leptospira and potential risk factors for leptospirosis in a marginal sector of the Colombian Caribbean, with a One Health approach. Methods: an exploratory study was carried out in a marginal sector of Soledad, a municipality located in the north coast of Colombia. Blood samples were taken from 83 subjects, who were also questioned about sociodemographic, clinical and ecological variables related to leptospirosis. The presence of IgM Anti-Leptospira antibodies in human serum was performed by ELISA. A total 53 synanthropic rodents were also captured using Sherman traps. Renal tissue samples were taken from rodents to identify pathogen Leptospira spp. by conventional PCR using specific primers. Results: IgM-anti-Leptospira was present in 30.12 percent of study subjects and pathogenic Leptospira spp. was identified in 7.55 percent of captured rodents. In the selected sample we found an association of positive cases with being a merchant, housewife and being in contact with pigs. Suboptimal hygienic-sanitary conditions were also evident in the study area. Conclusions: Our results show the circulation of pathogenic Leptospira spp. and exposure to human and ecological risk factors in a marginal sector (slum) of the Colombian Caribbean. We suggest to direct interventions in the human-animal-environment interface according to the One Health paradigm, considering extreme poverty as a determining factor for Leptospirosis occurrence(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Rodentia , Poverty Areas , Risk Factors , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Colombia
11.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(4): e202, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139449

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Determinar el comportamiento temporal y espacial de la leptospirosis en México durante el periodo 2013-2019. Materiales y Métodos Se utilizó la información depositada en los boletines epidemiológicos del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de México. Para determinar el comportamiento espacial se construyeron canales endémicos y análisis de series de tiempo. Para determinar el comportamiento espacial, se utilizó el modelo estadístico espacial Scan. Resultados Se determinó que los casos de leptospirosis en México se presentan todo el año; sin embargo, los picos endémicos se observaron en los meses de agosto, septiembre y octubre. Con respecto al comportamiento espacial, no se determinó ninguna agrupación estadísticamente; no obstante, los estados con la mayor prevalencia fueron: Sinaloa, con 146.7 casos por cada millón de habitantes, y Tabasco, con 142 casos por cada millón de habitantes. Discusión La leptospirosis es una enfermedad influenciada por los hábitos y las costumbres de la población, al igual que por variables climatológicas que favorecen el contacto con el agente etiológico. Esto coincide con lo reportado por otros estudios que han determinado que la incidencia de leptospirosis aumenta durante la época de lluvia y que esta enfermedad se relaciona con actividades de recreación en zonas tropicales. Conclusiones La leptospirosis es una enfermedad zoonótica emergente de gran importancia en México, que se presenta con mayor frecuencia en época de lluvias. Los estados de Sinaloa y Tabasco son los más afectados.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objetive To determine the temporal and spatial behavior of leptospirosis in Mexico during the period 2013-2019. Materials and Methods It was used the information deposited in the epidemiological bulletins of National System of Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexico. To determine spatial behavior, endemic channels and time series analyzes were constructed. The spatial statistical model Scan was used to determine the spatial behavior. Results It was determined that leptospirosis cases in Mexico occur throughout the year, however endemic peaks were observed during the months of August, September and October. Regarding to spatial behavior, it was not statistically determined any aggrupation, nevertheless the States with the highest prevalence were Sinaloa with 146.7 cases per million of habitants and Tabasco with 142 cases per million of habitants. Discussion Leptospirosis is a disease which is affected by habits and customs of the populations, as well as by climatological events, favoring the contact with the etiological agent, which coincides with that reported in other studies, in which it was determined that leptospirosis incidence increases during the rainy season, likewise, it was reported that this disease is related to recreational activities in tropical areas. Conclusions To date leptospirosis is an important emerging zoonotic disease in Mexico, the disease occurs more frequently during rainy season, being Sinaloa and Tabasco the most affected States by this disease.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Zoonoses , Models, Statistical , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Spatial Behavior , Mexico/epidemiology
12.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e466, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149914

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La leptospirosis humana es una enfermedad zoonótica con manifestaciones clínicas inespecíficas (cefalea y mialgia), las cuales pueden confundirse con otras enfermedades febriles como: gripe, malaria, dengue, fiebre amarilla, hepatitis vírica y rickettsiosis. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Leptospira en estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Costa Grande de Guerrero. Métodos: Se aplicó un cuestionario a los estudiantes de la Escuela Superior de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia No. 3 con la finalidad de conocer algunos factores de riesgo asociados a la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Leptospira spp. La determinación de anticuerpos anti-Leptospira y la identificación de las serovariedades se realizaron con la técnica de microaglutinación. Se consideró un suero positivo cuando se observó una aglutinación en una dilución igual o mayor a 1:100. Resultados: En el estudio la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Leptospira spp. fue de 12,1 por ciento (8/66). Se detectaron anticuerpos a 8 serovariedades de Leptospira spp. El 62,5 por ciento (5/8) de los sueros presentó más de una serovariedad. Las serovariedades y frecuencia fueron icterohaemorrhagiae 25 por ciento (4/16), hardjo 18,8 por ciento (3/16), pyrogenes 18,8 por ciento (3/16), pomona 12,5 por ciento (2/16), canicola 6,2 por ciento (1/16) wolffi 6,2 por ciento (1/16) tarassovi 6,2 por ciento (1/16) y bratislava 6,2 por ciento (1/16). Los factores de riesgo estudiados no se relacionaron con la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Leptospira. Conclusiones: En el presente estudio se encontraron anticuerpos a Leptospira spp. en estudiantes de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia. Por tanto, es pertinente proporcionar información a los estudiantes para prevenir el contacto con el agente causal de la leptospirosis(AU)


Introduction: Human leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of unspecific clinical manifestations (headache and myalgia) which may be confused with those of other febrile diseases, such as influenza, malaria, dengue, yellow fever, viral hepatitis and rickettsiosis. Objective: Determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies among Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics students from Costa Grande de Guerrero. Methods: A questionnaire was applied to students from the Higher Education Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics School No. 3 to obtain information about risk factors associated to the presence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies. Microagglutination technique was used to determine anti-Leptospira antibodies and identify serovars. A serum sample was considered positive when agglutination was observed at a dilution equal to or greater than 1:100. Results: Seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies was found to be 12.1 percent (8/66). Antibodies were detected for 8 serovars of Leptospira spp. Of the serum samples analyzed, 62.5 percent (5/8) contained more than one serovar. The serovars and their frequency were the following: icterohaemorrhagiae 25 percent (4/16), hardjo 18.8 percent (3/16), pyrogenes 18.8 percent (3/16), pomona 12.5 percent (2/16), canicola 6.2 percent (1/16), wolffi 6.2 percent (1/16), tarassovi 6.2 percent (1/16) and bratislava 6.2 percent (1/16). The risk factors studied were not related to the presence of anti-Leptospira antibodies. Conclusions: Leptospira spp. antibodies were found in Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics students. It is therefore advisable to provide students with the information required to prevent contact with the causative agent of leptospirosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Antibodies/analysis , Schools, Veterinary , Veterinary Medicine , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 36(2): e1162, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138970

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de Weil es una forma grave de la infección bacteriana causada por la bacteria Leptospira, conocida como leptospirosis. Este se caracteriza por la disfunción de múltiples órganos, entre ellos, hígado, riñón, músculos, serosas o el sistema neurológico, en este caso denominado neuroleptospirosis, genera una mortalidad muy elevada cuando no se brinda diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuado. Objetivo: Describir las manifestaciones clínicas, paraclínicos complementarios y tratamiento de un paciente con síndrome de Weil, una condición poco frecuente. Caso clínico: Paciente de 23 años quien consulta en el contexto de síndrome febril agudo asociado con neuritis óptica, dolor torácico y paraclínicos que evidenciaron afectación hepática y cardíaca. Se confirma el diagnóstico de síndrome de Weil dado por neuroleptospirosis, pericarditis y colestasis intrahepática. Conclusiones: mediante un caso clínico de síndrome de Weil, se describe la afectación multisistémica de complicaciones asociadas con leptospirosis, con manifestaciones poco habituales como neuroleptospirosis, pericarditis y colestasis intrahepática(AU)


Introduction: Weil syndrome is a serious form of the bacterial infection caused by the Leptospira bacterium; this is known as leptospirosis. This is characterized by multiple organ dysfunction; for example, the liver, kidney, muscles, of serous type, or the neurological system, in this case called neuroleptospirosis, which produces a very high mortality when adequate diagnosis and treatment are not provided. Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations, complementary paraclinic practice and treatment of a patient with Weil syndrome, as a rare condition. Clinical case: 23-year-old patient who presents with acute febrile syndrome associated with optic neuritis, chest pain, and paraclinical symptoms obviously consistent liver and cardiac involvement. The diagnosis of Weil syndrome is confirmed, specifically defined by neuroleptospirosis, pericarditis, and intrahepatic cholestasis. Conclusions: Through a clinical case of Weil syndrome, the multisystem involvement of complications associated with leptospirosis is described, along with its unusual manifestations, such as neuroleptospirosis, pericarditis, and intrahepatic cholestasis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Weil Disease/epidemiology , Leptospirosis/drug therapy , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(5): 399-407, May 2020. tab, graf, ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135629

ABSTRACT

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira and domestic dogs can act as host of some serovars. In order to analyze the transmission dynamics in a dog population, with and without immunization, a longitudinal study was carried out with a focus to evaluate antibody response and to identify serovars. Blood samples were collected in three consecutive years (2015 to 2017) from 331, 373 and 347 dogs respectively. The dog seroprevalence in each year was 11%, 7% and 14%, respectively, and the incidence in 2016 was 5% and in 2017, 14%. The most frequent serovars were Cynopteri and Butembo in 2015, Cynopteri, Butembo and Hardjoprajitno in 2016, and Canicola and Butembo in 2017. Dogs can play a role as sentinel animals and hosts of Leptospira serovars. The percentage of seropositive dogs due to vaccination was higher than the previous years without immunization and lower than in previous years for other serovars, which we interpret as evidence for the importance of immunization. These parameters associated with active canine population control are important for prevention and control of leptospirosis not only in dogs but alsoto inhibit the transmission between dogs and humans.(AU)


A leptospirose é uma zoonose causada pelo agente etiológico Leptospira. Cães domésticos atuam como hospedeiro de diversos sorovares deste agente. Com intuito de analisar a dinâmica da leptospirose em uma população canina, com e sem imunização, um estudo longitudinal foi realizado avaliando a resposta sorológica destes animais e identificando seus sorovares. Foram coletadas amostras de 331, 373 e 347 cães em três anos consecutivos (2015 a 2017). As soroprevalências foram de 11%, 7% e 14%, respectivamente, e a incidência em 2016 foi de 5% e em 2017 de 14%. Os sorovares mais frequentes foram Cynopteri e Butembo em 2015, Cynopteri, Butembo e Hardjoprajitno em 2016, e Canicola e Butembo em 2017. Estes cães estão atuando como bio-indicadores da presença de Leptospira na região do estudo, incluindo sorovares zoonóticos, e contribuindo com a sua manutenção no ambiente. A soropositividade para sorovares protegidos pela vacina foi mais alta do que nos anos anteriores à imunização, enquanto para os sorovares não protegidos pela vacina diminuiu, demonstrando a importância da imunização para essa população de cães. Medidas de prevenção e controle para a leptospirose, como imunização e controle populacional canino, são recomendadas no local para inibir a transmissão do agente entre as populações de cães e humanos envolvidas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Vaccination/veterinary , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/prevention & control , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Leptospirosis/veterinary
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(3): 919-928, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089483

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do presente artigo é analisar as discrepâncias e lacunas informacionais que produzem uma versão duplamente negligenciada da leptospirose humana na política pública de saúde brasileira. Para alcançar esse objetivo, comparamos dados de morbidade, mortalidade, custos hospitalares e sociais, perfis populacionais, hábitos dos vetores, determinantes sociais de saúde e práticas diagnósticas relacionadas à leptospirose com outra doença de maior reconhecimento no país: a dengue. Nossa análise mostra que a arbitrariedade dos critérios para atribuições de prioridades de intervenção em saúde, a invisibilidade do perfil populacional da leptospirose humana nos dados oficiais da política de saúde e seu caráter clínico mimético corroboram para a produção de uma versão da leptospirose humana que é invisível e, portanto, duplamente negligenciada pela política pública de saúde brasileira. Concluímos que essas discrepâncias e lacunas informacionais relacionam-se ao fato de que a leptospirose humana acomete uma população que o Estado não tem interesse em manter viva.


Abstract The aim of this article is to analyze discrepancies and informational gaps which produce a doubly neglected version of human leptospirosis in the Brazilian public health policy. To achieve this goal, we compared data on morbidity, mortality, hospital and social costs, population profiles, vector habits, social health determinants and diagnostic practices related to leptospirosis with another disease of higher recognition in Brazil: dengue fever. Our analysis shows that the arbitrariness of criteria for assigning health priorities, the invisibility of the population profile of human leptospirosis in official data and its mimetic character in clinic corroborate the production of a version of human leptospirosis that is invisible and, because of that, doubly neglected by the Brazilian public health policy. We conclude that these discrepancies and informational gaps are related to the fact that human leptospirosis affects a population which the State has no interest in keeping alive.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/prevention & control , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Health Priorities/standards , Health Priorities/statistics & numerical data , Leptospirosis/prevention & control , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Middle Aged
16.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e78, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127124

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. This review describes the geographic and temporal distribution of, detection methods for, and other epidemiological features of published leptospirosis outbreaks, with the aim of informing efforts to standardize outbreak-reporting practices. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of leptospirosis outbreaks reported in the scientific literature and ProMED during 1970-2012. Predefined criteria were used to identify and classify outbreaks and a standard form was used to extract information. Results. During 1970-2012, we identified 318 outbreaks (average: 7 outbreaks/year; range: 1-19). Most outbreaks were reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean region (36%), followed by Southern Asia (13%), and North America (11%). Most outbreaks were located in tropical and subtropical ecoregions (55%). Quality classification showed that there was clear description of laboratory-confirmed cases in 40% of outbreaks. Among those, the average outbreak size was 82 cases overall (range: 2-2 259) but reached 253 cases in tropical/subtropical ecoregions. Common risk factors included outdoor work activities (25%), exposure to floodwaters (23%), and recreational exposure to water (22%). Epidemiologic investigation was conducted in 80% of outbreaks, mainly as case interviews. Case fatality was 5% overall (range: 0%-60%). Conclusions. Outbreak reporting increased over the study period with outbreaks covering tropical and non-tropical regions. Outbreaks varied by size, setting, and risk factors; however, data reviewed often had limited information regarding diagnosis and epidemiology. Guidelines are recommended to develop standardized procedures for diagnostic and epidemiological investigations during an outbreak and for reporting.(AU)


RESUMEN Objetivo. Describir la distribución geográfica y temporal, los métodos de detección y otras características epidemiológicas de los brotes de leptospirosis publicados con el fin de fundamentar los esfuerzos tendientes a estandarizar las prácticas empleadas en la notificación de brotes. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de los brotes de leptospirosis notificados en la bibliografía científica y en ProMED entre 1970 y 2012. Se utilizaron criterios predefinidos para identificar y clasificar los brotes y se empleó un formulario estándar para extraer la información. Resultados. Entre 1970 y 2012 se identificaron 318 brotes (promedio: 7 brotes/año; rango: 1-19), la mayoría de ellos en América Latina y el Caribe (36%), región seguida por Asia meridional (13%) y América del Norte (11%). La mayoría de los brotes se localizaron en ecorregiones tropicales y subtropicales (55%). La clasificación cualitativa reveló que en el 40% de los brotes había una clara descripción de los casos confirmados por laboratorio. Entre ellos, el tamaño promedio del brote fue de 82 casos (rango: 2-2259 casos) pero alcanzó los 253 casos en ecorregiones tropicales o subtropicales. Entre los factores de riesgo frecuentes figuraban las actividades laborales al aire libre (25%), la exposición a agua proveniente de inundaciones (23%) y la exposición a agua con fines recreativos (22%). En el 80% de los brotes se realizaron investigaciones epidemiológicas, principalmente entrevistas de casos. La mortalidad específica de los casos fue del 5% (rango: 0%-60%). Conclusiones. La notificación de brotes aumentó durante el período de estudio, y los brotes abarcaron regiones tropicales y no tropicales. Los brotes fueron diferentes en cuanto a su tamaño, el entorno y los factores de riesgo; sin embargo, los datos examinados con frecuencia incluían una información limitada respecto del diagnóstico y la epidemiología. Se recomiendan directrices para elaborar procedimientos estandarizados para las investigaciones diagnósticas y epidemiológicas durante un brote y para su notificación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Zoonoses , Leptospira
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 123 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177480

ABSTRACT

A Leptospirose é uma zoonose de importância mundial e vem se consolidando também como um problema de Saúde Pública, devido aos prejuízos decorrentes da alta incidência e letalidade dos casos, podendo ocorrer de forma isolada ou em surtos epidêmicos sazonais. Fortes chuvas sazonais, ao provocarem enchentes e inundações, constituem condição favorável para o contágio, pois a bacteria Leptospira, agente etiológico da doença, pode dispersar-se facilmente no ambiente através da água. Está ligada a áreas com precárias condições de moradia e saneamento, sujeitas a enchentes e, diretamente relacionada à população de roedores sinantrópicos que albergam o agente etiológico nos rins eliminando-o constantemente no meio ambiente, contaminando solo e água. O número de casos humanos no mundo não é conhecido com exatidão, mas, estima-se que ocorram anualmente 1,03 milhão de casos clínicos com 58.900 óbitos. No Brasil é endêmica com picos epidêmicos nos meses com maior pluviosidade. No município de São Paulo, ela é transmitida geralmente, por água ou lama contaminadas no período de chuvas intensas, relacionando-se epidemiologicamente a fatores socioeconômicos, sugerindo que sua incidência possa ser usada como indicador social. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ocorrência de leptospirose humana no município de São Paulo, no tempo e no espaço, entre 2007 e 2016. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico de séries temporais. Foram utilizados dados secundários, baseados nas informações do SINAN (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação), entre os anos de 2007 e 2016. Foram feitas: análise descritiva; análise de tendência com modelos ajustados de regressão de Poisson com o auxílio do software R for Windows; gráfico confrontando número de casos e pluviosidade mensal; análise espacial com mapas temáticos e de intensidade de Kernel pelo software QGIS 2.16.1; estatísticas de varredura espacial, espaço-temporal e de variação espacial nas tendências temporais através do software SaTScanTM. O município de São Paulo, no período do estudo, apresentou coeficientes de incidência que variaram de 2,6/100 mil habitantes em 2009 a 1,4/100 mil habitantes em 2016. A letalidade média no período foi de 15,1%. Os resultados obtidos na análise de regressão apontaram para uma tendência de queda na incidência, mas, a letalidade apresentou-se alta. Tanto a incidência quanto a precipitação apresentaram forte comportamento sazonal, sendo maiores durante o verão. Na análise puramente espacial e na análise espaço-temporal foram identificados, respectivamente, 5 e 4 aglomerados com significância estatística, todos em áreas periféricas, mostrando que a doença ocorre, principalmente, nos extremos do município, onde reside a população mais carente e mais exposta devido, sobretudo, à ocupação desordenada. As maiores incidências da doença foram observadas em indivíduos do sexo masculino, com idade entre 20 a 59 anos (economicamente ativos), de raça/cor branca ou parda, residentes nas regiões Sul, Leste e Norte do município. Foi observada uma tendência de queda da incidência durante o período de estudo, para todas as faixas etárias e em todas as regiões. O maior risco observado e as maiores incidências ocorreram em áreas periféricas do município, principalmente nas regiões Sul, Leste e Norte.


Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide importance and has been consolidating itself as a Public Health problem, due to the damages resulting from the high incidence and lethality of the cases, which may occur in isolation or in seasonal epidemic outbreaks. Heavy seasonal rains, causing flooding, are a favorable condition for contagion, as Leptospira bacteria, the etiologic agent of the disease, can easily disperse into the environment through water. It is linked to areas with poor housing and sanitation conditions, subject to flooding, and directly related to the population of synanthropic rodents that harbor the etiological agent in the kidneys, constantly eliminating it into the environment, contaminating soil and water. The number of human cases in the world is not known exactly, but it is estimated that 1.03 million clinical cases occur each year with 58.900 deaths. In Brazil it is endemic with epidemic peaks in the months with the highest rainfall. In the city of São Paulo, it is usually transmitted by contaminated water or mud during periods of heavy rainfall, epidemiologically related to socioeconomic factors, suggesting that its incidence may be used as a social indicator. The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of human leptospirosis in the city of São Paulo, in time and space, between 2007 and 2016. This is an ecological study of time series. Secondary data were used, based on information from SINAN (Notifiable Diseases Information System), between the years 2007 and 2016. Were made: descriptive analysis; trend analysis with adjusted Poisson regression models with the aid of the R for Windows software; graph comparing number of cases and monthly rainfall; spatial analysis with thematic maps and Kernel intensity using the QGIS 2.16.1 software; spatial, spatiotemporal and spatial variation statistics on temporal trends using the SaTScanTM software. The municipality of São Paulo, during the study period, presented incidence coefficients that ranged from 2.6 / 100 thousand inhabitants in 2009 to 1.4 / 100 thousand inhabitants in 2016. The average lethality in the period was 15.1%. The results obtained in the regression analysis pointed to a downward trend in incidence, but lethality was high. Both incidence and precipitation showed strong seasonal behavior, being higher during the summer. In the purely spatial analysis and the spatiotemporal analysis, 5 and 4 clusters with statistical significance were identified, respectively, all in peripheral areas, showing that the disease occurs mainly in the extremes of the municipality, where the poorest and most exposed population live, mainly due to disordered occupation. The highest incidences of the disease were observed in males, aged 20 to 59 years (economically active), of race / color white or brown, living in the southern, eastern and northern regions of the municipality. A downward trend in incidence was observed during the study period for all age groups and in all regions. The highest risk observed and the highest incidence occurred in peripheral areas of the municipality, especially in the South, East and North regions.


Subject(s)
Zoonoses , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Population , Rodentia , Incidence , Risk Factors
18.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200041, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101601

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Brazil has registered more than 62,000 confirmed cases of leptospirosis between 2001 and 2017, with more than 2,000 cases confirmed in the State of Pará. Despite a large number of cases, no study has been conducted to trace the spatio-temporal profile of the disease. Methodology: Confirmed cases of leptospirosis from 2001 to 2017 from the state of Pará were the basis for this space-time study. The database of the Department of Informatics of the Ministry of Health was used to access data on leptospirosis. The spatio-temporal analysis was performed in the SaTScan software for the detection of clusters, and maps were generated in the QGIS software. Results: The municipalities of Belém and Santarém were among the ones with the highest incidence rates of leptospirosis for the whole study period. Increased number of cases in Soure, Inhangapi, São João da Ponta and Magalhães Barata, Ponta de Pedras, Breves, Bragança, Castanhal, and São Domingos do Capim were identified in different time periods. Santarém and Belém are the main foci of leptospirosis because they are the most urbanized and densely populated municipalities in the State. The cases found in smaller municipalities may be associated with periods of more frequent rainfall and circulation of Leptospira sp. in marsupials and cattle, in the northeastern part of the State. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to help identify the risk factors that contribute to the occurrence of leptospirosis in the State of Pará, particularly in areas with lower population density.


RESUMO: Introdução: O Brasil registrou mais de 62 mil casos de leptospirose confirmados entre 2001 e 2017, com mais de 2.000 casos confirmados no estado do Pará. Apesar da grande quantidade de casos, nenhum estudo até este momento traçou o perfil espaço-temporal da doença. Metodologia: Este é um estudo espaço-temporal com base nos casos confirmados de leptospirose entre 2001 a 2017 no estado do Pará. O banco de dados do Departamento de Informática do Ministério da Saúde foi utilizado para acessar os dados de leptospirose. A análise espaço-temporal foi realizada no software SaTScan para detecção de clusters e os mapas foram gerados no software QGIS. Resultados: O município de Belém e Santarém se mantiveram entre as maiores taxas de incidência de leptospirose durante todo o período estudado. O aumento no número de casos em Soure, Inhangapi, São João da Ponta e Magalhães Barata, Ponta de Pedras, Breves, Bragança, Castanhal e São Domingos do Capim foram identificados em diferentes períodos. Santarém e Belém são os principais focos de leptospirose por serem os municípios mais urbanizados e com maior densidade populacional do estado. Os casos observados em municípios menores podem estar associados a períodos de maior pluviosidade e circulação de Leptospira sp. em marsupiais e em gado no nordeste do estado. Conclusão: Com o exposto, torna-se necessário mais estudos visando o conhecimento dos fatores que contribuem com a ocorrência da leptospirose no estado do Pará, particularmente em áreas com menor adensamento populacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Rural Population , Time Factors , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Monte Carlo Method , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cities , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Risk Assessment , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Geography , Middle Aged
19.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(4): e172607, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348020

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of leptospirosis is significantly higher in the tropical climate than in temperate regions, especially in periods with high rainfall levels. In horses, leptospirosis can range from subclinical to asymptomatic but maintains an important role in the transmission of leptospirosis by eliminating the agent in the environment. Regarding horses, the Amazonas herd increased by 30% between 2004 and 2013. Thus, the study aimed to determine the serological prevalence of leptospirosis in horses in Manaus and metropolitan regions, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil as well as to assess the main serogroups involved in the infections of these animals. For this purpose, from August 2018 to July 2019, serum from 198 horses was evaluated through the microscopic agglutination test with a panel of 10 serogroups. As a result, 92 horses (44.46%) were found to be positive for one or more Leptospira serovars, with the highest prevalence of serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pyrogenes. Therefore, with the increase in the equine herd in the region and, consequently, greater interaction between breeders and animals, the identification of reagents to at least one serovar of Leptospira spp. signals the possible existence of reservoirs of pathogenic strains for other animals and man.(AU)


A ocorrência de leptospirose é significativamente maior no clima tropical do que nas regiões temperadas, especialmente em períodos com altos níveis de chuva. Em cavalos, a leptospirose pode variar de subclínica a assintomática, mas estes animais podem desempenhar um papel importante na transmissão da leptospirose por meio da eliminação do agente no ambiente. Em relação aos cavalos, entre os anos de 2004 e 2013, o rebanho Amazônico aumentou 30%. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi determinar a prevalência sorológica de leptospirose em cavalos em Manaus e região metropolitana, estado do Amazonas, Brasil, bem como, determinar os principais sorogrupos envolvidos nas infecções desses animais. Para este propósito, entre agosto de 2018 e julho de 2019, foram colhidos soros de 198 cavalos para serem avaliados sorologicamente com o teste de microaglutinação microscópica, utilizando-se um painel de dez sorogrupos. Como resultado, observou-se que 92 cavalos (44,46%) foram positivos para um ou mais sorovares de Leptospira, com maior prevalência dos sorogrupos Icterohaemorrhagiae e Pyrogenes. Portanto, com o aumento do rebanho equino na região e, consequentemente, maior interação entre criadores e animais, a identificação de reagentes para pelo menos um sorovar de Leptospira spp. alerta para a possível existência de reservatórios de cepas patogênicas para outros animais e seres humanos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Horses/microbiology , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Leptospira
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200466, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143871

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Brazil that can become an epidemic during the rainy season resulting from floods in areas susceptible to natural disasters. These areas are widespread in Santa Catarina, particularly in the coastal region. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify environmental, climatic, and demographic factors associated with the incidence of leptospirosis in the municipalities of Santa Catarina from 2001 to 2015, taking into account possible spatial dependence. METHODS: This was an ecological study aggregated by municipality. To evaluate the association between the incidence of leptospirosis and the factors under study (temperature, altitude, occurrence of natural disasters, etc.) while taking into account spatial dependence, linear regression models and models with global spatial error were used. RESULTS: Lower altitudes, higher temperatures, and areas of natural disaster risk in the municipality contributed the most to explaining the variability in the incidence rate. After taking spatial dependence into account, only the minimum altitude variable remained significant. The regions of lower altitude, where the highest rates of leptospirosis were recorded, corresponded to the eastern portion of the state near the coastal region, where floods, urban floods, and overflows are common occurrences. No associations were found concerning demographic factors. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of leptospirosis in Santa Catarina was associated with environmental factors, particularly low altitude, even when considering the spatial dependence structure present in the data. The spatial error model allowed for adequate modeling of spatial autocorrelation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Environment , Spatial Analysis
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