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1.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(3): 132-137, jul./set. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363925

ABSTRACT

Hematúria é uma grave manifestação clínica de doença do sistema urinário, ocorrendo sob as formas micro ou macroscópica. Neste artigo relatam-se dois casos de hematúria macroscópica associada à infecção por Leptospira interrogans sorogrupo Canicola. O exame clínico inicial revelou hematúria macroscópica, taquicardia, taquipneia, febre, elevação do tempo de perfusão capilar, hipomotilidade intestinal, além de icterícia da mucosa oral. Leucocitose, proteinúria, glicosúria, piúria e azotemia foram achados comuns aos dois casos. Teste de Soroaglutinação Microscópica foi realizado para titulação de anticorpos contra Leptospira interrogans. Tratamento incluiu medidas terapêuticas de suporte (fluidoterapia), controle da hematúria e antibioticoterapia. Sete dias após manifestação dos sinais clínicos iniciais, ambos animais receberam alta hospitalar após remissão dos sinais clínicos.


Haematuria is a serious clinical manifestation of urinary system disease, occurring in micro or macroscopic forms. In this article two cases of macroscopic haematuria associated with Leptospira interrogans serogroup Canicolainfection are related. The initial clinical examination revealed macroscopic haematuria, tachycardia, tachypnea, fever, increased capillary perfusion time, intestinal hypomotility, in addition to jaundice of the oral mucosa. Leukocytosis, proteinuria, glycosuria, pyuria and azotemia were common findings in both cases. Microscopic serum agglutination test was performed for titration of antibodies against Leptospira interrogans. Treatment included supportive therapeutic measures (fluid therapy), hematuria control and antibiotic therapy. Seven days after the manifestation of the initial clinical signs, both animals were discharged from the hospital without complications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hematuria/veterinary , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Urologic Diseases/veterinary
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 277-284, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248945

ABSTRACT

Bovine leptospirosis assumes great economic importance since it affects several production aspects. Therefore, knowledge about the occurrence and distribution of this disease is fundamental to adopt the correct prevention measures. The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in 24,483 bovine serum samples received between 2007 to 2015 from 21 Brazilian states. Of these, 8,643 (35.3%) were reagents in the microscopic agglutination test to one or more serovars of Leptospira spp. The most frequent serovars were Wolffi (61.47%), Tarassovi (9.62%) and Pomona (7.20%). Hardjo serovar presented a prevalence of 6.27%. Among the 21 states analyzed, the State of Pernambuco had the highest frequency with 88.24% and the State of São Paulo was the origin of the largest number of analyzed samples (13,838), with a frequency of 31.54% of reagents. The results demonstrate a high exposure to several serovars of Leptospira spp. in bovine species in Brazilian states, showing the importance of adopting prophylactic measures in order to reduce the risk of infection in this specie.(AU)


Com o objetivo de avaliar a frequência de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp., foram analisadas 24.483 amostras de soro sanguíneo bovino, provenientes de 21 estados brasileiros, recebidas no período de 2007 a 2015. Destas, 8.643 (35,3%) foram reagentes no teste de soroaglutinação microscópica a uma ou mais sorovariedades de Leptospira spp., e as sorovariedades com maior frequência foram Wolffi (61,47%), Tarassovi (9,62%) e Pomona (7,20%). A sorovariedade Hardjo apresentou prevalência de 6,27%. Entre os 21 estados analisados, o estado de Pernambuco apresentou a maior frequência, com 88,24%, e o estado de São Paulo foi a origem do maior número de amostras para análise, 13.838, com frequência de 31,54% de reagentes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Hemagglutination Tests/veterinary
3.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1837, 2021. mapa, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363605

ABSTRACT

Considering the importance of leptospirosis in sheep farming and public health and the significance of identifying which serogroups circulate in sheep within each region, the objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of the most frequent serogroups causing infection by Leptospira sp. in ovine herds in the Northeast region of Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 4197 sheep from 229 herds in 7 Northeastern States. Sera were analyzed via microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The frequency of seroreactive sheep for Leptospira sp. was 14.06%. The states of Alagoas, Ceará, Paraíba, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, and Sergipe, located in the Caatinga biome, had the highest frequencies of serologically reactive sheep, and Maranhão, in the Cerrado biome, had the lowest frequency. The most frequent serogroups were Autumnalis (19.49%), Australis (15.76%) and Serjoe (14.41%). In the states of Ceará, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, and Sergipe, 100% of their municipalities had at least one seroreactive animal. The highest frequencies of seropositive animals were found in the municipalities of União (50%), Passagem (49.06%), Canindé (48.89%), Igaci (28.95%), Gararu (31.2%), Pirapemas (17.5%), and Angicos (16%) located in the states of Piauí, Paraíba, Ceará, Alagoas, Sergipe, Maranhão and Rio Grande do Norte, respectively. The animal-level prevalence (14.06%) obtained in the present study is significant, especially considering the rustic nature of the species and the adverse conditions of the region for the infectious agent. In semi-arid conditions, it has been suggested that perhaps sheep do not seroconvert detectable titers on MAT with a cut-off point of 1:100. It is important to highlight that the ovine population in the Northeast region of Brazil is composed of mixed animals, which have been considered more resistant to infection by Leptospira spp. Also, environmental factors hostile to the survival of the infectious agent in the studied region should be taken into consideration, since they may have influenced the seropositive animal-level prevalence. A noteworthy variation was observed in agglutinin titers, which ranged from 100 to 1,600, where 80.2% of the positive samples had titers ≤ 200. It is important to highlight that more elevated titers (≥ 400) were obtained in all seven states, which may suggest an acute infection caused by a non-adapted serovar, indicating that preventive and control measures focused on possible infection sources for sheep should be adopted. Although some states showed the same serogroups as the most frequent, a variety of serogroups was observed in municipalities, which may indicate different sources of infection, whether interspecies, intraspecies, or via alternative routes of transmission in semi-arid conditions, such as venereal. This indicates that even though sheep are more resistant to infection, they become exposed due to the environment or management conditions. As such, identification, isolation, and treatment of the affected animals are alternative measures recommended for prevention and control of leptospirosis in sheep in the semi-arid region. It is evident that despite the lack of rain observed in the last decade in the Northeast region of Brazil, which prevented the formation of favorable environments for the presence of Leptospira, the infectious agent remains among the sheep, as well as other production and wild animals in the region. Some factors may be contributing to this scenario, such as the fact that sheep farming in the region is = characterized mainly by subsistence systems, where veterinary assistance and adequate sanitary management are absent, thus increasing the possibility of contact with Leptospira. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/blood , Bacterial Zoonoses/epidemiology , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(6): 451-465, June 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135646

ABSTRACT

Icterus (jaundice) is a yellowish pigmentation resulting from the depositing of bilirubin in tissues due to its high plasmatic concentration. The pathogenesis of icterus includes metabolic changes or obstructed bilirubin excretion and it is classified as pre-hepatic, hepatic and post-hepatic. This study aimed to evaluate and classify different causes of icterus in dogs during post mortem examination. These dogs were examined from 2014 to 2017, using macroscopic and histologic exams as well as ancillary tests. Eighty-three dogs were examined macroscopically and microscopically. They were separated into groups of icterus types: 24 (28.9%) dogs had pre-hepatic icterus, 45 (54.2%) had hepatic, 13 (15.7%) pre-hepatic and hepatic and one (1.2%) had post-hepatic icterus. Many factors were identified as a cause of icterus, including infectious agents (51/83), neoplasms (13/83), hepatic degeneration (11/83), chronic hepatic diseases (6/83), and obstructive causes (1/87). Among the infectious causes, leptospirosis, ehrlichiosis and disorders suggestive of septicemia were diagnosed. Neoplasms associated with icterus were cholangiocarcinoma, hemangiosarcoma and lymphoma. Other causes of icterus included degenerative diseases, such as lipidosis and glycogen degeneration. Hepatic fibrosis (cirrhosis) as a chronic disease and cholelithiasis also produced icterus. PCR was performed to confirm leptospirosis and ehrlichiosis. Samples of total DNA were used to amplify a fragment of a gene from Leptospira interrogans and Ehrlichia canis. In some dogs, co-infection of these agents was detected. The classification and identification of icterus etiologies in dogs is very important due to the number of diseases with this alteration, where ante mortem diagnosis is not always easily performed when some of these conditions are present.(AU)


Icterícia é a pigmentação amarelada decorrente da deposição de bilirrubina em tecidos devido à elevada concentração plasmática. A patogênese da icterícia inclui alterações no metabolismo ou na excreção de bilirrubina, sendo classificada em pré-hepática, hepática ou pós-hepática. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar, avaliar e classificar as causas de icterícia em cães necropsiados de 2014 a 2017, associando as lesões macroscópicas, histológicas e exames complementares. Foram avaliados macro- e microscopicamente 83 cães com diferentes intensidades de icterícia. Os cães foram separados em grupos de acordo com o tipo de icterícia: 24 (28,9%) cães com icterícia pré-hepática, 45 (54,2%) cães com icterícia hepática, 13 (15,7%) com icterícia pré-hepática e hepática e um (1,2%) com icterícia pós-hepática. Foram identificadas várias etiologias associadas à icterícia, dentre elas pode-se destacar, agentes infecciosos (51/83), neoplasmas (13/83), processos degenerativos (11/83), crônicos (6/83) e obstrutivos (1/83). Dentre as causas infecciosas, destacam-se a leptospirose, a erliquiose e as lesões sugestivas de septicemia. Entre os neoplasmas associados com icterícia destacaram-se o colangiocarcinoma, hemangiossarcoma e linfoma. Outras causas de icterícia incluiriam os processos degenerativos como as degenerações gordurosa e glicogênica. Fibrose hepática (cirrose) e colelitíase foram também diagnosticados como causa de icterícia. A PCR foi utilizada para o diagnóstico confirmatório de leptospirose e erliquiose. Amostras de DNA total foram utilizadas para amplificar um fragmento dos genes de Leptospira interrogans e de Ehrlichia canis. Em alguns cães foi detectada co-infecção por estes agentes. A classificação e a identificação das causas de icterícia em cães são relevantes devido ao grande número de doenças que apresentam essa alteração, muitas vezes sem diagnóstico ante mortem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases , Jaundice/diagnosis , Jaundice/etiology , Jaundice/pathology , Jaundice/blood , Jaundice/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Sepsis/veterinary , Diagnosis, Differential , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Neoplasms/veterinary
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(5): 325-332, May 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135637

ABSTRACT

A case series study was conducted to determine the frequency of causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Uruguay. The sample size of 102 cases was composed of 53 fetuses, 35 fetuses with placentas, and 14 placentas without an associated fetus. All cases underwent gross and microscopic pathologic examinations as well as microbiological and serological testing. The etiology was determined in 54 (53%) of cases, 51 of which were caused by infectious agents. Within the observed 102 cases, 30 (29%) were caused by Neospora caninum, six (6%) by Coxiella burnetii and two (2%) by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. Bovine Parainfluenza-3 virus and Salmonella enterica serovar Newport caused one abortion each. Opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Mannheimia sp., Trueperella pyogenes, and Providencia stuartii) were associated with 11 abortions. In two cases the fetal death was attributed to dystocia, and in one case the fetus had a congenital mesothelioma. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was identified in three fetuses; two of which were co-infected with and had typical lesions of N. caninum. No lesions were observed in the other fetus infected by BVDV. Leptospira interrogans was identified in one fetus without lesions. Despite the relatively low overall success rate in establishing an etiological diagnosis in cases of abortion in cattle, a systemic workup of bovine abortion is necessary to establish prevention and control strategies. This also facilitates monitoring and surveillance of reproductive diseases in dairy cattle, some of which represent a risk to public health.(AU)


Uma série de casos foi estudada para determinar a frequência de causas do aborto em bovinos leiteiros no Uruguai. A amostra, de 102 casos, foi composta por 53 fetos, 35 fetos com placentas e 14 placentas sem feto associado. Todos os casos foram submetidos a exames patológicos macroscópicos e microscópicos, além de testes microbiológicos e sorológicos. A etiologia foi determinada em 54 (53%) dos casos, 51 dos quais foram causados por agentes infecciosos. Nos 102 casos observados, 30 (29%) foram causados por Neospora caninum, seis (6%) por Coxiella burnetii e dois (2%) por Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. O vírus da Parainfluenza-3 e Salmonella enterica serovar Newport causaram um aborto cada. Bactérias oportunistas (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Mannheimia sp., Trueperella pyogenes e Providencia stuartii) foram associadas a 11 abortos. Em dois casos, a morte fetal foi atribuída a distocia e, em um caso, o feto apresentava mesotelioma congênito. A infecção pelo vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV) foi identificada em três fetos; dois dos quais foram co-infectados e apresentavam lesões típicas de N. caninum. Não foram observadas lesões no outro feto infectado pelo BVDV. Leptospira interrogans foi identificada em um feto sem lesões. Apesar da relativamente baixa taxa de sucesso no diagnóstico etiológico nos casos de aborto em bovinos, é necessário o diagnóstico sistemático dos abortos para estabelecer estratégias de prevenção e controle. Isso também facilita o monitoramento e a vigilância de doenças reprodutivas em bovinos leiteiros, algumas das quais representam um risco para a saúde pública.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Campylobacter fetus , Campylobacter Infections/veterinary , Coxiella burnetii , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Neospora , Abortion, Veterinary/etiology , Abortion, Veterinary/pathology , Uruguay , Leptospira , Leptospirosis/veterinary
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(5): 399-407, May 2020. tab, graf, ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135629

ABSTRACT

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira and domestic dogs can act as host of some serovars. In order to analyze the transmission dynamics in a dog population, with and without immunization, a longitudinal study was carried out with a focus to evaluate antibody response and to identify serovars. Blood samples were collected in three consecutive years (2015 to 2017) from 331, 373 and 347 dogs respectively. The dog seroprevalence in each year was 11%, 7% and 14%, respectively, and the incidence in 2016 was 5% and in 2017, 14%. The most frequent serovars were Cynopteri and Butembo in 2015, Cynopteri, Butembo and Hardjoprajitno in 2016, and Canicola and Butembo in 2017. Dogs can play a role as sentinel animals and hosts of Leptospira serovars. The percentage of seropositive dogs due to vaccination was higher than the previous years without immunization and lower than in previous years for other serovars, which we interpret as evidence for the importance of immunization. These parameters associated with active canine population control are important for prevention and control of leptospirosis not only in dogs but alsoto inhibit the transmission between dogs and humans.(AU)


A leptospirose é uma zoonose causada pelo agente etiológico Leptospira. Cães domésticos atuam como hospedeiro de diversos sorovares deste agente. Com intuito de analisar a dinâmica da leptospirose em uma população canina, com e sem imunização, um estudo longitudinal foi realizado avaliando a resposta sorológica destes animais e identificando seus sorovares. Foram coletadas amostras de 331, 373 e 347 cães em três anos consecutivos (2015 a 2017). As soroprevalências foram de 11%, 7% e 14%, respectivamente, e a incidência em 2016 foi de 5% e em 2017 de 14%. Os sorovares mais frequentes foram Cynopteri e Butembo em 2015, Cynopteri, Butembo e Hardjoprajitno em 2016, e Canicola e Butembo em 2017. Estes cães estão atuando como bio-indicadores da presença de Leptospira na região do estudo, incluindo sorovares zoonóticos, e contribuindo com a sua manutenção no ambiente. A soropositividade para sorovares protegidos pela vacina foi mais alta do que nos anos anteriores à imunização, enquanto para os sorovares não protegidos pela vacina diminuiu, demonstrando a importância da imunização para essa população de cães. Medidas de prevenção e controle para a leptospirose, como imunização e controle populacional canino, são recomendadas no local para inibir a transmissão do agente entre as populações de cães e humanos envolvidas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Vaccination/veterinary , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/prevention & control , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Leptospirosis/veterinary
7.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(1): 22-28, jan./mar. 2020. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1379247

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to perform serological and molecular detection of Leptospira sp. infection in cattle and sheep under semiarid conditions. Based on a preliminary study performed in our research group, we selected six rural properties showing a positivity ≥ 60% for Sejroe serogroup with titer ≥ 200 measured in serological tests from cattle. In the present study, blood and urine samples were collected from 99 females of reproductive age (51 cattle and 48 sheep) for serological diagnosis, molecular detection and Leptospira sp. attempt to strain recovery. Of the 99 analyzed animals 38.4% (38/99) were positively reactive at the serological tests. Of them, 49% (25/51) were cattle and 27.1% (13/48) sheep. The serogroups detected in cattle were Sejroe (36.8%), Hebdomadis (26.3%), Australis (10.5%), Djasiman (10.5%), Ballum (5.3%), Pomona (5.3%), and Cynopteri (5.3%) with titers of 100­800. In sheep, the reactive serogroups were Australis (27.3%), Ballum (27.3%), Djasiman (18.1%), Tarassovi (9.1%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (9.1%), and Cynopteri (9.1%) with titers of 100­400.Leptospiral DNA was detected in nine urine samples, including five cattle and four sheep. Property 1 showed the highest serological positivity frequencies for both cattle (70.6%) and sheep (70.6%). Similarly, the highest frequency of DNA detection was also found (eight samples, 89%). In this property, we observed the existence of consorted rearing of cattle and sheep with close coexistence between these species. In semiarid conditions, transmission among animals of the same species seems to be the main form of Leptospira sp. dissemination in cattle and sheep herds. However, the contribution of other domestic and wild animals cannot be discarded. The practice of consorted rearing of cattle and sheep and their close coexistence may facilitate the spread of the pathogen in rural properties.


Os objetivos deste estudo foram realizar detecção sorológica e molecular da infecção por Leptospira sp. em bovinos e ovinos em condições semiáridas. Com base em estudo preliminar realizado em nosso grupo de pesquisa, foram selecionadas seis propriedades rurais com soropositividade ≥ 60% para o sorogrupo Sejroe com título ≥ 200 em bovinos. No presente estudo, amostras de sangue e urina foram coletadas de 99 fêmeas em idade reprodutiva (51 bovinos e 48 ovinos) para diagnóstico sorológico, detecção molecular e tentativa de recuperação de estirpesde Leptospira sp. Dos 99 animais analisados, 38,4% (38/99) foram sororeativos nos testes sorológicos. Destes, 49% (25/51) eram bovinos e 27,1% (13/48) ovinos. Os sorogrupos detectados em bovinos foram Sejroe (36,8%), Hebdomadis (26,3%), Australis (10,5%), Djasiman (10,5%), Ballum (5,3%), Pomona (5,3%) e Cynopteri (5,3%) com títulos de 100 a 800. Nos ovinos, os sorogrupos reativos foram Australis (27,3%), Ballum (27,3%), Djasiman (18,1%), Tarassovi (9,1%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (9,1%) e Cynopteri (9,1%) com títulos de 100-400. O DNA leptospiral foi detectado em nove amostras de urina, incluindo cinco bovinos e quatro ovinos. A propriedade 1 apresentou as maiores frequências de positividade sorológica para bovinos (70,6%) e ovinos (70,6%). Da mesma forma, a maior frequência de detecção de DNA também foi encontrada (oito amostras, 89%). Nesta propriedade observou-se a existência de criação consorciada de bovinos e ovinos com estreita convivência entre estas espécies. Em condições semiáridas, a transmissão entre animais da mesma espécie parece ser a principal forma de disseminação de Leptospira sp. em rebanhos bovinos e ovinos. No entanto, a contribuição de outros animais domésticos e selvagens não pode ser descartada. A prática de criação consorciada de bovinos e ovinos e sua estreita convivência podem facilitar a disseminação do patógeno em propriedades rurais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/abnormalities , Serologic Tests/veterinary , Sheep/abnormalities , Disease Transmission, Infectious/veterinary , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/veterinary , Leptospira/pathogenicity , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Semi-Arid Zone
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 383-394, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042517

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. in dogs from Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-N. caninum. Immunoenzymatic assay and microscopic serum agglutination were used for screening antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-Leptospira spp., respectively. The results were: 67.02% of the samples reactive for T.gondii and 1.38% for N. caninum, both without statistically significant variables. For Leptospira spp. the results indicated seroprevalence of 23.11%. The analysis of the variables without distinction of serovar showed association for intrinsic characteristics as breed, age, nutritional status and dog category. The extrinsic variables as city region and access to the street presented association (p<0.05). The most prevalent serovars were: Canicola 59.47%; Bratislava 13.07% and Butembo 15.68%. Variables that make up the adjusted multiple analysis model using Leptospira spp. were: age, breed and nutritional status; serovar Canicola, sex, nutritional status and area (p<0.05); serovar Bratislava, lymphadenomegaly and presence of fleas (p<0.05). Given the results obtained, dogs can be used as sentinels for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Foz do Iguaçu and other cities with similar outcomes. In addition, preventive measures should be taken by health authorities because they are zoonoses and humans are also at risk.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum e Leptospira spp. em cães de Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil. O teste de imunofluorescência indireta foi utilizado para detectar anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-N. caninum. Ensaio imunoenzimático e soroaglutinação microscópica foram utilizados para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-Leptospira spp., respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos foram: 67,02% (435/649) das amostras reativas para T. gondii e, 1,38% (9/649) para N. caninum, ambas com ausência de variáveis significativas estatisticamente. Para Leptospira spp. os resultados indicaram soroprevalência de 23,11% (153/649). A análise das variáveis sem distinção de sorovar mostraram associação para caraterísticas intrísecas como raça, idade, estado nutricional e categoria de cães. Para as variáveis extrínsecas, a região da cidade e ter acesso à rua mostraram associação estatística (p<0,05). Os sorovares mais prevalentes foram: Canicola com 59,47% (91/153); Bratislava 13,07% (20/153) e Butembo 15,68% (24/153). As variáveis que compõem o modelo de análise multivariada ajustada usando como desfecho Leptospira spp. foram: idade, raça, estado nutricional e área. Para o sorovar Canicola, as variáveis significantes (p<0,05) foram sexo, estado nutricional e área; para o sorovar Bratislava, as variáveis significantes (p<0,05) foram linfadenomegalia e presença de pulgas. Dos resultados obtidos, cães podem ser usados como sentinelas para infecção por T. gondii e Leptospira spp. na cidade de Foz do Iguaçu e em outras cidades com desfechos similares. Além disso, medidas preventivas devem ser tomadas pelas autoridades de saúde, pois são zoonoses e os seres humanos também estão em risco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Toxoplasma/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Neospora/immunology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 245-257, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013737

ABSTRACT

Abstract This is a cross-sectional study to assess the presence of antibodies in ruminants against selected pathogens associated with reproductive disorders in cattle in four Brazilian states, including the zoonotic agent Coxiella burnetii. The used tests were Virus Neutralization Assay for IBR and BVD, Microscopic Agglutination Test for Leptospira spp., Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) for C. burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii, and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma vivax. Seropositivity for C. burnetii was 13.7% with titers from 128 to 131,072; 57.8% for BoHV-1, with titers between 2 and 1,024; 47.1% for BVDV-1a, with titers from 10 to 5,120; 89.2% for N. caninum; 50% for T. vivax; and 52.0% for Leptospira spp., with titers between 100 to 800 (the following serovars were found: Tarassovi, Grippotyphosa, Canicola, Copenhageni, Wolffi, Hardjo, Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae); 19.6% for T. gondii with titer of 40. This is the first study that has identified C. burnetii in cattle associated with BoHV and BVDV, N. caninum, Leptospira spp., T. gondii and T. vivax. Thus, future studies should be conducted to investigate how widespread this pathogen is in Brazilian cattle herds.


Resumo Este é um estudo transversal para avaliar a presença de anticorpos em ruminantes contra patógenos selecionados e associados a distúrbios reprodutivos em bovinos de quatro estados brasileiros, incluindo o agente zoonótico Coxiella burnetii. Os testes utilizados foram Teste de Vírus-Neutralização para BoHV e BVDV, teste de Aglutinação Microscópica para Leptospira spp., Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta for C. burnetii e Toxoplasma gondii, e Ensaio de Imunoabsorção Enzimática para Neospora caninum e Trypanosoma vivax. A soropositividade para C. burnetii foi de 13,7% com títulos de 128 a 131.072; 57,8% para BoHV-1, com títulos entre 2 a 1.024; 47,1% para BVDV-1a, com títulos de 10 a 5.120; 89,2% para N. caninum; 50% para T. vivax; e 52,0% para Leptospira spp., com títulos entre 100 a 800 (sorovares encontrados: Tarassovi, Grippotyphosa, Canicola, Copenhageni, Wolffi, Hardjo, Pomona e Icterohaemorrhagiae) 19,6% para T. gondii com título de 40. Este é o primeiro estudo que evidencia a participação de C. burnetii em bovinos associada ao Vírus da Rinotraqueíte bovina infecciosa e da diarreia viral bovina, N. caninum, Leptospira spp., T. gondii e T. vivax em bovinos. Desta forma, futuros estudos devem ser conduzidos a fim de investigar o quão disseminado se encontra este patógeno em rebanhos bovinos brasileiros.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Q Fever/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis, African/veterinary , Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease/complications , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/complications , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Q Fever/complications , Q Fever/diagnosis , Q Fever/epidemiology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Trypanosomiasis, African/complications , Trypanosomiasis, African/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis, African/epidemiology , Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease/diagnosis , Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Agglutination Tests , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Trypanosoma vivax , Coxiella burnetii/immunology , Coccidiosis/complications , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/immunology , Neospora/immunology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Abortion, Veterinary , Endometritis/etiology , Infertility, Female/etiology , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/complications , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 795-800, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974314

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in female buffalo in the state of Pernambuco. A total of 123 female buffalo blood samples were collected from five properties distributed in the state of Pernambuco. The microscopic agglutination test was used to study anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies. The occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies was 28.5% (35/123; CI 20.7-37.3%) and on different properties, the occurrence ranged from 28.6% to 80.0%, with 100% of the properties showing animals with positive results. The serovars of the serogroup Sejroe with a higher incidence were Hardjoprajtino (CTG strain, 49.1%) and Hardjo (Prajtino genotype, 43.2%), followed by serogroup Grippotyphosa with the Grippotyphosa serovar (3.9%), serogroup Pomona with the Pomona serovar (1.9%), and the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Copenhageni (1.9%). This was the first record of the occurrence of anti-Lepstospira spp. antibodies in female buffalo in the state of Pernambuco. Control measures are necessary to prevent health and economic losses, given that the agent involved affects animal reproduction, triggering drops in conception rates or even clinical cases of abortion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Buffaloes/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/blood , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Brazil , Agglutination Tests , Buffaloes/immunology , Cattle Diseases/immunology , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Serogroup , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospira/genetics , Leptospirosis/immunology , Leptospirosis/microbiology , Leptospirosis/blood , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology
11.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(3): e144154, Outubro 25, 2018. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-969214

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with Leptospira sp. in dogs attended at veterinary clinics in the city of João Pessoa, State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. A total of 384 blood samples from dogs from 34 veterinary clinics were used from April 2015 to May 2016. The serological Leptospira sp diagnosis was carried out through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), using a collection of 20 pathogenic antigens and adopting a 1:100 dilution as cutoff point. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied to the animal's owners to obtain the information used in risk factors analysis. The prevalence of seropositive animals was 11.7% (45/384), with reactions for serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae (62.3%), Grippotyphosa (22.2%), Canicola (13.3%), Djasiman 2%) and Pomona (2.2%). The following risk factors were identified: age from 49 to 72 months (odds ratio = 2.74); Age > 72 months (odds ratio = 3.22); and monthly cleaning of the environment where the animals were kept (odds ratio = 10.70). We concluded that dogs attended at veterinary clinics in João Pessoa are exposed to Leptospira sp infection, with predominance of serogroups kept by wild or synanthropic animals, and suggest a monthly periodic environment cleaning where the animals are kept.(AU)


O presente trabalho investigou a prevalência e os fatores de risco associados à infecção por Leptospira sp. em cães atendidos em clínicas veterinárias da cidade de João Pessoa, Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. Foram utilizadas 384 amostras sanguíneas de cães provenientes de 34 clínicas veterinárias no período de abril de 2015 a maio de 2016. O diagnóstico da infecção por Leptospira sp. foi realizado com o emprego reação de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM), utilizando uma coleção com 20 antígenos patogênicos e adotando como ponto de corte a diluição 1:100. Foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico aos proprietários dos animais para obtenção de dados a serem utilizados na análise de fatores de risco. A prevalência de animais soropositivos foi de 11,7% (45/384), com reações para os sorogrupos Icterohaemorrhagiae (62,3%), Grippotyphosa (22,2%), Canicola (13,3%), Djasiman (2,2%) e Pomona (2,2%). Foram identificados os seguintes fatores de risco: idade entre 49 e 72 meses (odds ratio = 2,74), idade maior que 72 meses (odds ratio = 3,22), e limpeza mensal do ambiente onde os animais permanecem (odds ratio = 10,70). Conclui-se que cães atendidos em clínicas veterinárias de João Pessoa estão expostos à infecção por Leptospira sp., com predominância de sorogrupos mantidos por animais selvagens, e foi sugerida a realização da limpeza periódica do ambiente ocupado pelos animais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Risk Factors , Dogs/immunology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Cross-Sectional Studies/trends
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 584-590, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951807

ABSTRACT

Abstract A modified TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting a 138 bp fragment within the lipl32 gene was developed to identify exclusively pathogenic Leptospira spp. in dog urine samples. Thirty-five samples from dogs with suspected clinical leptospirosis and 116 samples from apparently healthy dogs were tested for presence of leptospiral DNA using the TaqMan-based assay. The results were compared with those from a well-established conventional PCR targeting the 16S RNA encoding gene associated with nucleotide sequencing analysis. The overall agreement between the assays was 94.8% (confidence interval [CI] 95% 88-100%). The newly developed assay presented 91.6% (CI 95% 71.5-98.5%) relative sensitivity (22[+] lipl32 PCR/24[+] 16S RNA and sequencing), 100% (CI 95% 96.3-100%) relative specificity and 98.7% accuracy (CI 95% 94.8-100%). The lipl32 assay was able to detect and quantify at least 10 genome equivalents/reaction. DNA extracted from 17 pathogenic Leptospira spp., 8 intermediate/saprophytic strains and 21 different pathogenic microorganisms were also tested using the lipl32 assay, resulting in amplification exclusively for pathogenic leptospiral strains. The results also demonstrated high intra and inter-assay reproducibility (coefficient of variation 1.50 and 1.12, respectively), thereby qualifying the newly developed assay as a highly sensitive, specific and reliable diagnostic tool for leptospiral infection in dogs using urine specimens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/genetics , Urine/microbiology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Lipoproteins/genetics , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/urine , Sensitivity and Specificity , Dog Diseases/urine , Leptospira/genetics , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/microbiology , Leptospirosis/urine , Lipoproteins/urine
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 368-371, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041464

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Serological surveys are important to assess the health status of wild animals. In this study, antibodies against Leptospira spp, causal agents of leptospirosis, were detected in free-living marsupials in the State of Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Nineteen blood samples collected from marsupials in the municipalities of Peixe-Boi, Viseu, and Castanhal were subjected to microscopic agglutination tests. RESULTS: In total, 36.8% (7/19) of samples were positive, and two exhibited co-agglutination. The most frequent serovars were Icterohaemorrhagiae (60%; 3/5), Panama (20%; 1/5), and Nupezo (20%; 1/5). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-Leptospira spp antibodies currently circulate in free-living marsupials in Northeastern Pará.


Subject(s)
Animals , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Marsupialia/microbiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Brazil , Agglutination Tests/veterinary , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Animals, Wild/classification , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Marsupialia/classification
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 364-367, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041463

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to detect anti-Leptospira spp antibodies and Leptospira DNA in domestic dogs. METHODS: Blood and urine from 106 dogs were evaluated by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. RESULTS: Six (5.7%) and one (1%) animals were positive by MAT and PCR, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a low prevalence of infection by Leptospira spp. The absence of positive results for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup indicates the small relevance of these dogs as sources of human leptospirosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Agglutination Tests/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leptospira/classification , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leptospira/genetics , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/microbiology , Leptospirosis/epidemiology
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 347-350, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889235

ABSTRACT

Abstract In swine and bovines, leptospirosis prevention and control is carried out via vaccination of susceptible animals using bacterins. However, the efficiency of leptospirosis vaccines has been questioned. This work aimed to investigate the potency of five leptospirosis vaccines sold commercially in Brazil, challenging the animals with one autochthonous strain of Leptospira, Canicola serovar, denoted LO4, isolated from swine. The standard protocol was followed, and renal carriers of Leptospira were identified among the surviving animals by culture and PCR. Of the five vaccines tested, only two proved effective. None of the surviving animals was positive by culture; however, one animal was positive by PCR. Three of the five vaccines sold commercially in Brazil for the immunization of swine or bovines failed the test of the efficacy to protect the vaccinated animals following challenge with an autochthonous Leptospira strain, Canicola serovar. The two vaccines provided protection against the renal carrier state in the surviving animals. The criteria used to produce leptospirosis bacterins sold commercially in Brazil must be reviewed. The industry should support researches on leptospiral vaccinology to improve the quality of the present vaccines and discover new immunogenic strains, because it is known that vaccination is one of the most important tools to increase the reproduction rates in livestock.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/pathology , Brazil , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Kidney/microbiology , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospirosis/pathology , Leptospirosis/prevention & control
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 857-860, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041436

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are zoonotic reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, and influence diseases in urban areas. METHODS: Free-ranging and laboratory-raised rats from two zoos in southern Brazil were tested for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii using microscopic agglutination and modified agglutination tests, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 25.6% and 4.6% free-ranging rats tested positive for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii, respectively, with co-seropositivity occurring in two animals. For laboratory-raised rats, 20% tested positive for Leptospira spp. Also, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc and Leptospira noguchii serovar Panama were found. CONCLUSIONS: Serosurveys can show the environmental prevalence of zoonotic pathogens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Agglutination Tests , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Animals, Zoo
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(9): 937-940, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895524

ABSTRACT

A leptospirose é uma doença infecciosa causada por bactérias do gênero Leptospira, que afeta animais domésticos, selvagens e também humanos. De outubro a novembro de 2014, numa propriedade rural localizada em Glorinha, RS, em que bovinos eram mantidos em resteva de arroz, 13 bezerros manifestaram hemoglobinúria e apatia, nove dos quais morreram em menos de 24 horas após o início dos sinais clínicos. Foram necropsiados quatro bezerros (A, B, C e D). Fragmentos de tecido foram fixados em formalina a 10%. Amostras de rim, fígado e pulmão dos Bezerros B, C e D foram enviadas para análise de PCR para RNA ribossômico 16S e a proteína Lip 32 de Leptospira. No exame macroscópico foram observados mucosas e tecido subcutâneo amarelados, fígado alaranjado, pulmões com múltiplas petéquias, predominantemente nos lóbulos craniais. A cavidade torácica do Bezerro A estava repleta de um líquido vermelho-escuro. À avaliação microscópica foi observada hemorragia acentuada nos pulmões; no fígado havia necrose e vacuolização hepatocelular centrolobular difusa moderada, além de infiltrado linfocítico periportal discreto. Nos rins observou-se nefrite intersticial linfoplasmocítica discreta multifocal. A análise por PCR teve resultado positivo para os Bezerros B e D. O diagnóstico de leptospirose nos bezerros foi baseado nos achados epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos, associados ao resultado positivo na PCR. Este estudo demonstra a importância da investigação da doença quando animais jovens são criados em áreas inundadas e têm manifestações clínicas de doença septicêmica aguda.(AU)


Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira, which affect domestic and wild animals, and also humans. From October to November 2014, in a rural property located in Glorinha, RS, where cattle were kept in the rice stubble, thirteen calves presented hemoglobinuria and apathy, nine of which died within less than 24 hours after the onset of clinical signs. Four calves were necropsied (A, B, C and D). Tissue samples were collected in 10% formalin. Samples of kidney, liver and lung from calves B, C and D were sent for PCR analysis for 16S ribosomal RNA and the protein Lip 32 genes of Leptospira. At macroscopic examination jaundiced mucosae and subcutaneous tissue, orange liver, and lungs with multiple petechiae, predominantly in cranial lobes, were observed. The thoracic cavity of calf A was filled with a reddish fluid. At microscopic examination, severe hemorrhage was observed in the lungs; in the liver there was moderate diffuse centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis and vacuolization, in addition to discrete periportal lymphocytic infiltrate. Discrete multifocal lymphoplasmocytic interstitial nephritis was observed in the kidneys. PCR analyzis resulted positive for calves B and D. The diagnosis of leptospirosis in the calves was based on epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings associated with positive PCR analysis. This study demonstrates the importance of investigation of the disease when young bovids are raised in flooded areas and have clinical signs of an acute septicemic disease.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Sepsis/etiology , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Animal Feed , Oryza , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(7): 708-712, jul. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895478

ABSTRACT

A cross-sectional study using 99 serum samples of dogs from southern Chile was conducted to determine the diagnostic utility of a rapid immunochromatography assay for the detection of Leptospira specific IgM antibodies as screening test and as a potential aid in the diagnosis of leptospirosis in animals with and without clinical suspicion of the disease. The Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) was used as reference assay. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected in 37.3% of the dogs with MAT. Using the immunochromatography test, specific IgM antibodies were found in 13.1% of sampled dogs. The sensitivity of the rapid test as screening assay was 29.7% (95% Confidence Interval=16.4-47.2) and the specificity was 96.7% (95% Confidence Interval=87.8-99.4). 40.0% of the canines with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis and 37.1% of dogs without clinical signs were serological reactors to MAT, but none of MAT reactive dogs with clinical suspicion tested positive in the rapid test. Rapid and user-friendly diagnostic procedures for canine leptospirosis such as this immunochromatography assay could be important tools to use in clinical practice, however, further studies are needed to obtain more information about their utility, considering that diagnostic tests could not have similar performances in different geographic locations, clinical and epidemiological contexts.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Agglutination Tests/veterinary , Chromatography, Affinity/veterinary , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/veterinary , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/veterinary
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 248-250, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041405

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazilian native species are reemerging as increasingly free-ranging populations. METHODS: Sera from 31 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and 28 peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari) were tested for anti-Leptospira and anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using microscopic seroagglutination test. RESULTS: Nineteen percent of free-ranging and 10.0% of captive capybaras, along with 31.8% of collared peccaries, were seropositive for T. gondii. None was seropositive for Leptospira sp. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicated low risk of disease, particularly among capybaras and white-lipped peccaries; however, active surveillance programs are important for monitoring wildlife health and public health once they are in public parks around cities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Artiodactyla/microbiology , Artiodactyla/parasitology , Rodentia/microbiology , Rodentia/parasitology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Agglutination Tests , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Prevalence , Leptospira/immunology , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Animals, Wild , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
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