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1.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210036, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356460

ABSTRACT

Background: Scorpions are arachnids that have a generalist diet, which use venom to subdue their prey. The study of their trophic ecology and capture behavior is still limited compared to other organisms, and aspects such as trophic specialization in this group have been little explored. Methods: In order to determine the relationship between feeding behavior and venom toxicity in the scorpion species Tityus fuhrmanni, 33 specimens were offered prey with different morphologies and defense mechanisms: spiders, cockroaches and crickets. In each of the experiments we recorded the following aspects: acceptance rate, immobilization time and the number of capture attempts. The median lethal dose of T. fuhrmanni venom against the three different types of prey was also evaluated. Results: We found that this species does not have a marked difference in acceptance for any of the evaluated prey, but the number of capture attempts of spiders is higher when compared to the other types of prey. The immobilization time is shorter in spiders compared to other prey and the LD50 was higher for cockroaches. Conclusions: These results indicate that T. fuhrmanni is a scorpion with a generalist diet, has a venom with a different potency among prey and is capable of discriminating between prey types and employing distinct strategies to subdue them.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior , Scorpions , Hunt , Toxicity , Feeding Behavior , Food Chain , Defense Mechanisms , Lethal Dose 50
2.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(3)sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139858

ABSTRACT

Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is a contagious viral disease of rabbits controlled by vaccination. The present study was aimed to diagnose rabbit hemorrhagic disease from 11 infected farms from Qalubia governorate during 2019 and to prepare homologous vaccine against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2. For this purpose, 11 liver samples were collected from suspected cases and subjected to detection and identification of circulating rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. Ten samples were confirmed to be rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus using hemagglutination test, animal inoculation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of two isolates (R5&R6) revealed the presence of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (A/Qalubia/2019 and B/Qalubia/2019) under accession number MT07629 and MT067630 respectively. The inactivated rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus vaccines were prepared using Montanide ISA 206 oil or aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvants. Prepared vaccines were inoculated subcutaneously in susceptible rabbits and submitted to sterility, safety and potency tests. Obtained results showed that mean hemagglutination inhibition titer for aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine was 6,7.7,8.9 and 9.1 log2 while, Montanide vaccine reached to 6.7,8.7,9.2 and 9.5 log2 at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks post vaccination, respectively. Immunized rabbits with Montanide vaccine showed better protection reach to 70 percent, 90 percent percent, 100 percent and 100 percent when compared to aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine 60 percent, 70 percent, 90 percent and 90 percent at 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th weeks post vaccination respectively. It was concluded that newly emerged rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 was isolated from suspected cases. The two prepared vaccines were sterile, safe and potent. The oily adjuvanted rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 vaccine stimulated an earlier and higher humoral immune response than the aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvanted vaccine. This humoral immune response achieved significant level of protection(AU)


La enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo es una enfermedad viral contagiosa de los conejos que se controla mediante vacunación. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo diagnosticar la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo en 11 granjas infectadas de la provincia de Qalubia, durante 2019 y preparar una vacuna homóloga contra el virus de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo tipo 2. Para este propósito, se recolectaron 11 muestras de hígado de casos sospechosos y se sometieron a detección e identificación de virus circulante de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo. Se confirmó que diez muestras eran positivas al virus de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo, utilizando para ello la prueba de hemaglutinación, inoculación en animales y Reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa. La secuenciación y el análisis filogenético de dos aislamientos (R5 y R6) revelaron la presencia del virus de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo tipo 2 (A/Qalubia/2019 y B/Qalubia/2019) con los números de acceso MT07629 y MT067630 respectivamente. Las vacunas inactivadas del virus de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo se prepararon usando adyuvantes de gel de hidróxido de aluminio o aceite Montanide ISA 206. Las vacunas preparadas se inocularon por vía subcutánea en conejos susceptibles y se sometieron a pruebas de esterilidad, seguridad y potencia. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el título medio de inhibición de la hemaglutinación para la vacuna en gel de hidróxido de aluminio fue de 6; 7,7; 8,9 y 9,1 log2, mientras que la vacuna de Montanide alcanzó 6,7; 8,7; 9,2 y 9,5 log2 en la 1ª, 2ª, 3ª y 4ª semanas después de la vacunación, respectivamente. Los conejos inmunizados con la vacuna Montanide tuvieron una mejor protección, alcanzándose niveles de 70 por ciento, 90 por ciento, 100 por ciento y 100 por ciento en comparación con la vacuna en gel de hidróxido de aluminio 60 por ciento, 70 por ciento, 90 por ciento y 90 por ciento en la 1ª, 2ª, 3ª y 4ª semanas después de la vacunación, respectivamente. Se concluyó que el virus de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo tipo 2 de reciente aparición se aisló de los casos sospechosos. Las dos vacunas preparadas fueron estériles, seguras y potentes. La vacuna contra el virus de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo tipo 2 con adyuvante oleoso estimuló una respuesta inmune humoral más temprana y mayor que la vacuna con adyuvante en gel de hidróxido de aluminio. Esta respuesta inmune humoral confirió un nivel significativo de protección(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Rabbit/immunology , Caliciviridae Infections/veterinary , Lethal Dose 50 , Vaccines , Egypt
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190674, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132236

ABSTRACT

Abstract Clusia grandiflora belongs to an important botanical family which is known for its medicinal value, however there are few reports in literature about the species, highlighting the relevance of this study. Anatomical studies with leaves and stems were performed using traditional techniques. In this investigation it was identified particularities of the species such as the presence of vascular system arranged in an opened arc-shaped with the flexed ends towards the inside of the arch with accessory bundles in the petiole. In histochemical studies, performed with different reagents, alkaloids, phenols substances, carbohydrates and lipids were located. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was performed by tetrazole salt and showed promising results for ethanolic extracts of stems (IC50 human colon cells of 24.30 μg/ mL) and leaves (IC50 ascites gastric cells of 44.15 μg/ mL), without cell membrane disruption of erythrocytes. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by tryptic soy agar and minimal inhibitory concentration assays and showed positive results for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, with better result for adventitious roots (32 μg/ mL and 16 μg/ mL, respectively), stems (64 μg/ mL and 32 μg/ mL, respectively) and leaves (64 μg/ mL and 32 μg/ mL, respectively) ethanolic extracts. Thus, these studies were able to characterize the species and show its potential as promising source of active substances.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Clusia/anatomy & histology , Clusia/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Toxicity Tests , Cell Line, Tumor , Lethal Dose 50 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190211, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057287

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Recently, plant-sourced larvicides are attracting great interests. METHODS: The essential oil was extracted from the leaf of Cinnamomum camphora (L.), and a bioassay was conducted to determine the larvicidal efficacy. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS analysis. RESULTS: The oil showed strong, dose-dependent larvicidal activities. The onset of larvicidal efficiency was rapid. The LC50 and LC95 were determined as 0.146% and 1.057% at 1 h, 0.031% and 0.237% at 12 h, 0.026% and 0.128% at 24 h, respectively. The oil contains 32 compounds. CONCLUSIONS The essential oil of C. camphora leaf has an excellent larvicidal potential for the control of A. stephensi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cinnamomum camphora/chemistry , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Anopheles/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50 , Anopheles/classification
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200111, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132215

ABSTRACT

Abstract Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the main pests of the soybean crop, being controlled mainly with agrochemicals. The environmental and health risks, as well as the development of resistance by the pests, has led to the search for alternative control measures, aiming to use more eco-friendly procedures. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and the bioactivity of Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolia essential oils (EOs) on A. gemmatalis. The major compound in both EOs was α-pinene (60.04 wt.% for S. molle and 38.49 wt.% for S. terebinthifolia). Bioassays were carried out with third instar larvae, with five replicates and each replicate with ten larvae, totaling 50 larvae per treatment. The oils were incorporated in the artificial diet (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% v/v). The controls were: water, Tween-80® 0.5% v/v, and novaluron 0.075% v/v. According to the Probit method, the S. terebinthifolia EO presented a LC50 of 1.74% v/v (1.58-1.97% v/v); it was not possible to determine the LC50 for the S. molle EO. The mortality percentage after 24 and 48 h was 52% and 30% at 2.0% v/v for S. terebinthifolia and S. molle oil, respectively. After 72 h, the mortality rate for S. molle EO have not changed; for S. terebinthifolia EO it increased to 70%; the larvae treated with the chemical control (synthetic insecticide) had a mortality of 100%.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Lepidoptera/drug effects , Biological Assay , Lethal Dose 50
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 802-806, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057988

ABSTRACT

Abstract Population explosions of the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) have become a serious concern for livestock producers near sugarcane mills in some regions of Brazil due to the insect's massive reproduction on sugarcane byproducts and waste. Despite the limited efficiency of insecticides for controlling stable fly outbreaks, producers still rely on chemical control to mitigate the alarming infestations in affected areas. This study evaluated the susceptibility of S. calcitrans populations to cypermethrin in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Stable flies were tested from three field populations and two colonies, established from flies previously collected at sugarcane mills. Wild flies were collected with Nzi traps in areas of sugarcane plantations. Both wild and colonized flies were exposed to eleven concentrations of cypermethrin in impregnated filter paper bioassays. All the populations proved to be resistant to cypermethrin, with resistance factors among field populations ranging from 6.8 to 38.6. The intensive use of insecticides has led to the development of pyrethroid resistance in stable fly populations in the proximities of sugarcane mills in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.


Resumo Explosões populacionais da mosca-dos-estábulos (Stomoxys calcitrans) tornaram-se uma séria preocupação para a pecuária próxima a usinas de cana-de-açúcar em algumas regiões do Brasil, devido à massiva reprodução da mosca em resíduos e subprodutos do processamento da cana. Apesar da limitada eficiência dos inseticidas no controle dos surtos desta mosca, produtores dependem do controle químico para mitigar as alarmantes infestações nas áreas afetadas. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a suscetibilidade de populações de S. calcitrans a piretroides no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Moscas-dos-estábulos de três populações de campo e duas colônias, estabelecidas a partir de moscas previamente coletadas em usinas de cana-de-açúcar, foram testadas. Moscas selvagens foram coletadas com armadilhas Nzi em áreas de cana. Moscas coletadas foram expostas a onze concentrações de cipermetrina em bioensaios com papel de filtro impregnado. Todas as populações testadas mostraram-se resistentes ao piretroide, com fatores de resistência variando de 6,8 a 38,6 nas populações de campo. O uso intensivo de inseticidas tem levado ao desenvolvimento de resistência da mosca-dos-estábulos a piretroides em populações próximas a usinas de cana-de-açúcar no estado do Mato Grosso do Sul.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Muscidae/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance , Lethal Dose 50
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758948

ABSTRACT

As an important zoonotic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus has led to serious mastitis and endometritis in infected dairy cows. In this study, a total of 164 strains of S. aureus were isolated from dairy cows in Xinjiang Province, China, and subjected to assays to determine drug susceptibility and biofilm (BF) formation ability. Enterotoxin-related genes were detected, and the transcription levels of genes related to BF formation were determined by using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, the pathogenicity of isolates with different BF formation abilities was determined by measuring their hemolysis activity, half lethal dose (LD₅₀) and organ bacterial load. The results showed that 86.0% of S. aureus isolates could form BF. Among them, 42.1% of the strains had weak BF formation ability, and most strains with a strong BF formation ability were ica gene carriers. The S. aureus isolates displayed multidrug resistance and their drug resistance was positively correlated with their BF formation ability. Moreover, 96.3% of the S. aureus isolates carried enterotoxin genes. Among them, the detection rates of the novel enterotoxin genes were higher than those of conventional enterotoxin genes. Furthermore, isolates with a strong BF formation ability had higher LD50 but lower hemolysis ability and organ bacterial load than those of the isolates with weak or no BF ability. However, isolates without BF ability produced more severe pathological changes than those of isolates with strong BF formation ability. These findings suggest that higher BF ability and presence of novel enterotoxin genes are important characteristics of S. aureus isolates from dairy cows in Xinjiang Province, China, and such isolates may pose potential threats to food safety.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Load , Biofilms , China , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Endometritis , Enterotoxins , Female , Food Safety , Hemolysis , Lethal Dose 50 , Mastitis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus , Virulence
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765763

ABSTRACT

This review paper evaluates use of Foeniculum vulgare extracts as a popular female plant in management of different ailments of women. Information in this paper was gathered from accessible sources (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Wiley, and Google), and traditional books (Persian or English modern traditional books), unpublished data (R&D reports, thesis and dissertation) by keywords based on the words F. vulgare or fennel and women. Efficacy of oral fennel oil in management of dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, amenorrhea, menopause, lactation, and polycystic ovary syndrome were confirmed according to results of clinical studies. Results of clinical efficacy of fennel oil on menstrual bleeding is complicated, but results of one meta-analysis study revealed that fennel oil significantly increased means of bleeding in the first menstrual periodic cycle (P = 0.001), while fennel oil had no significant effect on bleeding in the second menstrual cycle (P = 0.67). Topical and vaginal fennel extract (5%) exhibited good efficacy in treatment of sexual function, vaginal atrophy, and hirsutism. Fennel had no effect on bone density, or body mass index of menopause women. Results of clinical studies introduce fennel as a valuable medicinal plant in management of women's ailments, but understanding the mechanism of action could be the subject of future studies.


Subject(s)
Amenorrhea , Atrophy , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Dysmenorrhea , Female , Foeniculum , Hemorrhage , Hirsutism , Humans , Lactation , Lethal Dose 50 , Menopause , Menstrual Cycle , Phytoestrogens , Plants , Plants, Medicinal , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Premenstrual Syndrome , Treatment Outcome , Women's Health
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180197, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041584

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are important vectors that transmit arboviruses to human populations. METHODS: Natural products were obtained and tested against larvae collected from the field in Fortaleza, capital of Ceará state. RESULTS: The essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (Ae. aegypti LC50 = 32.7 ppm and Ae. albopictus LC50 = 138.1 ppm) and Croton nepetaefolius (Ae. aegypti LC50 = 81.7 ppm and Ae. albopictus LC50 = 76.1 ppm) showed the most intense larvicidal activity. CONCLUSIONS: The essential oils and methyl esters showed greater larvicidal activity than did the ethanol extracts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plant Oils/classification , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/classification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180459, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041559

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The ability of Vitex trifolia and Vitex negundo essential oils to kill Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae was evaluated. METHODS: The larvae were treated with their respective essential oils at 50-125 ppm concentration. RESULTS: LC50 and LC90 for V. trifolia against Ae. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, and those for V. negundo against Ae. aegypti were 57.7+0.4, 77.9+0.9 ppm and 55.17+3.14, 78.28+2.23 ppm, and 50.86+0.9, 73.12+1.3 ppm, respectively. Eucalyptol and caryophyllene were the major components in Vitex trifolia and Vitex negundo essential oil, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed potential larvicidal properties of essential oil from V. trifolia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Vitex/chemistry , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 291-296, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957425

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the present study, we determined the chemical composition of Clinopodium macrostemum essential oil obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and its effect on the growth and development of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae. METHODS: The essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and bioassays were conducted to evaluate the influence on the developmental stages of early second instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus until the emergence of adults, using essential oil concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800mg/L. RESULTS: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the leaf essential oil of C. macrostemum contained 32 compounds and the major chemical compounds identified were linalool (55.4%), nerol (6.4%), caryophyllene (6.25%), menthone (5.8%), geraniol acetate (4.1%), terpineol (3.7%), and pulegone (2.8%). The essential oil yield obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation was 0.8% at 20 min. The treatments showed lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of 22.49 and 833.35mg/L, respectively, after the final measurement of the total number of dead larvae (second, third, and fourth instars), and LC50 and LC90 of 6.62 and 693.35mg/L, respectively, at the end of the experimental period. The essential oil inhibited the growth and development of the mosquito larvae by 32% (relative growth index = 0.68) at 50mg/L, and up to 47% (relative growth index = 0.53) at 800mg/L. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated the larvicidal effect of C. macrostemum essential oil on Cx. quinquefasciatus, which can be attributed to the oxygenate compounds obtained by the extraction method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Culex/drug effects , Larva/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lamiaceae/classification , Culex/classification , Lethal Dose 50 , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microwaves
12.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 239-245, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886915

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study evaluated the in vitro toxicity and motor activity changes in African-derived adult honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) exposed to lethal or sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and imidacloprid. Mortality of bees was assessed to determine the ingestion and contact lethal dose for 24 h using probit analysis. Motor activities in bees exposed to lethal (LD50) and sublethal doses (1/500th of the lethal dose) of both insecticides were evaluated in a behavioral observation box at 1 and 4 h. Ingestion and contact lethal doses of fipronil were 0.2316 ? 0.0626 and 0.0080 ? 0.0021 μg/bee, respectively. Ingestion and contact lethal doses of imidacloprid were 0.1079 ? 0.0375 and 0.0308 ? 0.0218 μg/bee, respectively. Motor function of bees exposed to lethal doses of fipronil and imidacloprid was impaired; exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil but not imidacloprid impaired motor function. The insecticides evaluated in this study were highly toxic to African-derived A. mellifera and caused impaired motor function in these pollinators.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrazoles/toxicity , Bees/drug effects , Neonicotinoids/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Motor Activity/drug effects , Nitro Compounds/toxicity , Bees/physiology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e41, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889473

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antifungal, antibiofilm and antiproliferative activities of the extract from the leaves of Guapira graciliflora Mart. The phytochemical characterization of the extract was performed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The antimicrobial activity of the extract and its fractions was evaluated using the broth microdilution method against species of Candida. The inhibition of C. albicans biofilm was evaluated based on the number of colony-forming units (CFU) and metabolic activity (MTT). The antiproliferative activity of the extract and its fraction was evaluated in the presence of human tumor and non-tumor cells, and the cytotoxicity of the extract was determined on the RAW 264.7 macrophage line - both using the sulforhodamine B method. The phytochemical characterization indicated the presence of the flavonoids rutin and kaempferol. The extract and the methanol fraction exhibited moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. glabrata, and strong activity against C. dubliniensis. In the biofilms at 24 and 48 hours, the concentration of 12500 µg/mL of the extract was the most effective at reducing the number of CFU s/mL (44.4% and 42.9%, respectively) and the metabolic activity of C. albicans cells (34.6% and 52%, respectively). The extract and its fractions had no antiproliferative effect on the tumor lines tested, with mean activity (log GI50) equal to or greater than 1.71 µg/mL. Macrophage cell viability remained higher than 80% for concentrations of the extract of up to 62.5 µg/mL. G. graciliflora has flavonoids in its chemical composition and demonstrates potential antifungal and antibiofilm activity, with no evidence of a significant change in the viability of human tumor and non-tumor cell lines.


Subject(s)
Candida/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Nyctaginaceae/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Survival/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Lethal Dose 50 , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
14.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 335-341, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691058

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study investigated the acute and subacute toxicity of whole-plant aqueous extract of Vernonia mespilifolia Less. (AEVM) in rats for evaluating its safety profile.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>AEVM for the acute (2000 and 5000 mg/kg) and subacute (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) toxicity studies was administered orally to rats according the guidelines 425 and 407 of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, respectively. Food and water intake as well as body and organ weight of animals were recorded. Signs of toxicity were assessed, and hematological, biochemical and histopathological analyses were performed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the acute toxicity study, a single dose of the aqueous extract at 2000 or 5000 mg/kg caused no mortality in the animals, suggesting that the median lethal dose is greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subacute toxicity study, administration of the extract for 28 d, at all doses, caused no significant changes in the body weights or organ weights of rats in the treated groups when compared with the control group. In addition, hematological and biochemical parameters also revealed no toxic effects of the extract on rats. Histological sections of the heart, liver and kidney from test animals showed no signs of degeneration.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These results showed that AEVM at dosage levels up to 600 mg/kg is nontoxic and could also offer protection on some body tissues. AEVM could, therefore, be considered safe.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Heart , Kidney , Lethal Dose 50 , Liver , Male , Plant Extracts , Toxicity , Plant Leaves , Rats, Wistar , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Toxicity Tests, Subacute , Vernonia , Toxicity
15.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 44-51, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716824

ABSTRACT

Fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics are an important class of synthetic antibacterial agents. These are the most extensively used drugs for treating bacterial infections in the field of both human and veterinary medicine. Herein, the antibacterial and pharmacological properties of four fluoroquinolones: lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin have been studied. The objective of this study was to analyze the antibacterial characteristics of the different fluoroquinolones. Also, the pharmacological properties of the compounds including the Lipinski rule of five, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, LD50, drug likeliness, and toxicity were evaluated. We found that among all four FQ molecules, ofloxacin showed the highest antibacterial activity through in silico assays with a strong interaction (−38.52 kJ/mol) with the antibacterial target protein (topoisomerase-II DNA gyrase enzyme). The pharmacological and pharmacokinetic analysis also showed that the compounds ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, lomefloxacin and norfloxacin have good pharmacological properties. Notably, ofloxacin was found to possess an IGC50 (concentration needed to inhibit 50% growth) value of 0.286 μg/L against the Tetrahymena pyriformis protozoa. It also tested negative for the Ames toxicity test, showing its non-carcinogenic character.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Infections , Ciprofloxacin , Computer Simulation , DNA Gyrase , Fluoroquinolones , Humans , Lethal Dose 50 , Metabolism , Norfloxacin , Ofloxacin , Tetrahymena pyriformis , Toxicity Tests , Veterinary Medicine
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771450

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the maximum dose of continuously infused mivacurium for intraoperative neuromonitoring and observe its adverse effects in thyroid surgery.@*METHODS@#Twenty-eight patients undergoing thyroid surgery with intraoperative neuromonitoring received continuous infusion of mivacurium at the initial rate of 5.43 μg?kg?min, and the infusion rate for the next patient was adjusted based on the response of the previous patient according to the results of neurological monitoring. The depth of anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil during the surgery. The LD50 and 95% of mivacurium were calculated using Brownlee's up-and-down sequential method.@*RESULTS@#The LD50 of continuously infused mivacurium was 8.94 μg?kg?min (95% : 8.89- 8.99 μg?kg?min) during thyroid surgery, which did not affect neurological function monitoring. Transient chest skin redness occurred after induction in 9 patients (32.1%). None of the patients experienced intubation difficulties or showed intraoperative body motions during the surgery.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In patients undergoing thyroid surgery under anesthesia maintained by inhalation and intravenous infusion, the LD50 of mivacurium was 8.94 μg?kg?min (95% : 8.89-8.99 μg?kg?min) for continuous infusion, which does not cause serious adverse effects during the operation.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthetics, Inhalation , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Humans , Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring , Methods , Lethal Dose 50 , Mivacurium , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Remifentanil , Sevoflurane , Thyroid Gland , General Surgery
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1671-1681, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886765

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were obtained from vegetable oils of soybean, corn and sunflower. The current study was focused on evaluating the antifungal activity of FAMEs mainly against Paracoccidioides spp., as well as testing the interaction of these compounds with commercial antifungal drugs and also their antioxidant potential. FAMEs presented small IC50 values (1.86-9.42 μg/mL). All three FAMEs tested showed antifungal activity against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. with MIC values ranging from 15.6-500 µg/mL. Sunflower FAMEs exhibited antifungal activity that extended also to other genera, with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL against Candida glabrata and C. krusei and 31.2 μg/mL against C. parapsilosis. FAMEs exhibited a synergetic effect with itraconazole. The antifungal activity of the FAMEs against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. is likely due to the presence of methyl linoleate, the major compound present in all three FAMEs. The results obtained indicate the potential of FAMEs as sources for antifungal and antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Paracoccidioides/drug effects , Picrates/pharmacology , Soybeans/chemistry , Biphenyl Compounds/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Zea mays/chemistry , Helianthus/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Picrates/isolation & purification , Biphenyl Compounds/isolation & purification , Plant Oils/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Lethal Dose 50 , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(3): 365-373, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896971

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, which is widely distributed throughout Amazonia, has a neurotoxic venom. It is important to characterize the biological and molecular properties of this venom in order to develop effective antitoxins. METHODS: Toxins from the venom of M. surinamensis were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and their neurotoxic effects in vivo were evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Most proteins in the venom had masses < 14kDa, low phospholipase A2 activity, and no proteolytic activity. The toxins inhibited the coagulation cascade. The venom had neurotoxic effects in mice, with a median lethal dose upon intravenous administration of 700 µg/kg. Immunogenic studies revealed abundant cross-reactivity of antielapidic serum with 14kDa toxins and limited cross-reactivity with toxins < 10kDa. These results indicate that antielapidic serum against M. surinamensis venom has weak potency (0.35mg/ml) in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Elapidae , Elapid Venoms/enzymology , Elapid Venoms/genetics , Elapid Venoms/chemistry , Phospholipases A2/metabolism , Cross Reactions , Electrophoresis , Phospholipases A2/chemistry , Lethal Dose 50 , Mice, Inbred BALB C
19.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 373-382, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886653

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cardanol is a constituent of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid that presents larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. The isolation of cardanol is somewhat troublesome, however, in this work we describe an efficient and inexpensive method to obtain it as a pure material. The compound was used as starting material to make chemical transformation leading to saturated cardanol, epoxides and, halohydrins. These derivatives were tested for toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae. The results showed that iodohydrins are very promising compounds for making commercial products to combat the vector mosquito larvae presenting a LC50 of 0.0023 ppm after 72 h of exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phenols/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/toxicity , Phenols/chemistry , Time Factors , Insecticides/chemical synthesis , Insecticides/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(4): 307-312, Apr. 2017. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895416

ABSTRACT

Este estudo avaliou a toxicidade aguda e crônica de um inseticida a base de tiametoxam para peixes da espécie Pacamã (Lophisiolurus alexandri), avaliando a CL50%, além de alterações histopatológicas hepáticas em animais expostos por 96 horas e 15 dias ao inseticida. Para tanto foram utilizados 120 alevinos submetidos a cinco diferentes concentrações do inseticida (30, 60, 120, 240 e 480mg/L) por 15 dias, com dois tempos amostrais, 96 horas e 15 dias. Não houve mortalidade significativa durante todo o período experimental, no entanto os animais apresentaram alterações como vacuolização citoplasmática, congestão e necrose. A CL50% foi determinada como superior a 100mg/L, considerada praticamente não tóxico. A necrose foi a alteração melhor evidenciada nos animais expostos, com o aumento da ocorrência nos animais do teste de toxicidade crônica.(AU)


This research evaluated acute and chronic toxicity of a thiamethoxam insecticide for Pacamã (Lophisiolurus alexandri), assessing the LC50 and liver histopathological changes in animals exposed for 96 hours and 15 days. Therefore, were used 120 fingerlings subjected to five different concentrations (30, 60, 120, 240 and 480mg/L) for 15 days with two sampling times, 96 hours and 15 days. There was no significant mortality during the experimental period, however the animals showed changes as vacuolation, congestion and necrosis. The LC50 was determined as greater than 100mg/L, considered practically non-toxic. Necrosis was the more significant change in exposed animals, with increasing occurrence in chronic toxicity test.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes , Agrochemicals/adverse effects , Neonicotinoids/adverse effects , Agro Toxic Maximum Allowable Limit on Food , Lethal Dose 50
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