Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 197
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231957, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249251

ABSTRACT

Abstract Essential oils from the stems and leaves of Croton doctoris were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, resulting in 22 identified compounds. The effects of these essential oils on the germination, root and shoot growth, total chlorophyll content, potential root respiration, peroxidase activity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and mitotic index in lettuce and onion were determined. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity were also investigated. The results revealed that the stem oil consisted of 15 compounds, of which caryophyllene oxide (24.5%) and E-caryophyllene (13.3%) were the major constituents. The leaf oil contained E-caryophyllene (39.6%) and α-humulene (13.2%) as major compounds. The oils inhibited the germination and growth of lettuce and onion seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content, root respiration, and cell division. They also caused oxidative stress, indicated by the increased activity of the evaluated antioxidant enzymes. These abnormal physiological processes contributed to the inhibition of plant growth. The most pronounced phytotoxic effects were observed in the stem oil. The cytotoxicity tests indicated that leaf oil was more active than stem oil, resulting from the presence of biologically active sesquiterpenes that inhibit the growth of cancer cells.


Resumo Os óleos essenciais do caule e da folha de Croton doctoris foram analisados ​​por cromatografia gasosa (GC) e espectrometria de massa (GC-MS) resultando em 22 compostos identificados. Os efeitos dos óleos essenciais na germinação, crescimento de raízes e parte aérea, teor total de clorofila, respiração radicular, atividade de peroxidase, catalase e superóxido de dimetase e índice mitótico foram determinados em alface e cebola. Atividade antioxidante, antimicrobiana e citotóxica também foram investigadas. Os resultados revelaram que o óleo do caule é constituído por 15 compostos, dos quais os principais são o óxido de cariofileno (24,5%) e E-cariofileno (13,3%). O óleo foliar apresentou E-cariofileno (39,6%) seguido de α-humuleno (13,2%) como compostos majoritários. Os óleos inibiram a germinação e o crescimento das plântulas de alface e cebola e reduziram o conteúdo de clorofila, a respiração radicular e a divisão celular. Eles também causaram estresse oxidativo, indicado pelo aumento da atividade das enzimas antioxidantes avaliadas. Esses processos fisiológicos anormais contribuem para a inibição do crescimento das plantas. Os efeitos fitotóxicos mais pronunciados foram observados no óleo do caule. Nos testes de citotoxicidade observou-se que o óleo das folhas foi mais ativo, resultante da presença de sesquiterpenos biologicamente ativos que atuam inibindo o crescimento das células cancerígenas.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/toxicity , Euphorbiaceae , Croton , Plant Oils , Plant Leaves , Lettuce , Germination
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237839, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249225

ABSTRACT

Abstract Agroecological production represents a new reality in vegetable farming. Thus, the study aimed to search for the presence of pesticides in agroecological samples and microbiological and parasitological contamination in Lactuca sativa L. of agroecological and conventional fairs in Alagoas. Thirty-two samples were collected, a hygienic-sanitary checklist was performed, along with coliform, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus research and Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) for pesticide research; using two methodologies for parasitological studies. Thirty-two samples were analyzed, with a sanitary adequacy level at 45% and 38% for fairs (agroecological and conventional) respectively, with three samples (9.4%) in total, being adequate to the microbiological pattern according to RDC no. 12/2001. Among the 23 samples which were tested positive for parasites, 69.5% originated from samples extracted at conventional fairs, and 53% of every positive samples presented Entamoeba coli as the main contaminant. All together, no traces of deltamethrin were detected, but in two of the samples a peak retention for diphenoconazole was detected. In conclusion, the fairs represent an adequate environment for human pathogens and indicators. Therefore greater hygiene training of vegetable traders and consumers in the state of Alagoas is required, especially in conventional fairs, which presented more critical microbiological and parasitological indexes comparing to fairs with agroecological products; however, the presence of difenoconazole in two samples of agricultural fairs suggests accidental contamination or indiscriminate use of this chemical in the production of Lactuca sativa, however, products with agroecological origin represents a better choice for the consumers.


Resumo A produção agroecológica representa uma nova realidade no cultivo das hortaliças. Assim, o estudo teve como objetivo verificar a presença de agrotóxicos em amostras agroecológicas e analisar a contaminação microbiológico e parasitológico em Lactuca sativa L. de feiras agroecológicas e convencionais de Alagoas. Foram coletadas 32 amostras, realizando checklist higiênico-sanitário, análises de coliformes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus e Cromatografia Gasosa com Espectrômetro de Massas (GC-MS) para pesquisa de agrotóxicos; utilizando-se duas metodologias para estudos parasitológicos. Foram analisadas 32 amostras, com nível de adequação sanitária de 45% e 38% para feiras (agroecológicas e convencionais) respectivamente, sendo três amostras no total (9,4%) adequadas a padrão microbiológico segundo RDC n° 12//2001; Dentre as 23 amostras positivas para parasitos, 69,5% teve origem em amostras de feiras convencionais, e 53% de todas as amostras positivas apresentaram Entamoeba coli como principal contaminante, juntamente, não foi detectado traços de deltametrina, porem foi visualizado em duas amostras, pico de retenção para padrão de difenoconazol. Concluindo-se que as feiras representam um ambiente adequado para patógenos humanos e indicadores, necessitando de uma maior higienização e treinamento dos comerciantes e consumidores de hortaliças do estado de Alagoas, principalmente em feiras convencionais, que apresentaram índices microbiológicos e parasitológicos mais críticos em relação a feiras com produtos agroecológicos; mas, a presença de difenoconazole em duas amostras de feiras agroecológicas sugerem contaminação acidental ou uso indiscriminado deste químico em produção da Lactuca sativa L., todavia os produtos de origem agroecológica representam uma melhor escolha para o consumidor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Entamoeba , Vegetables , Food Contamination/analysis , Lettuce , Agriculture
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237604, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285586

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study goal to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) and silver (Ag) on germination, initial growth and anatomical alterations of Lactuca sativa L. Plants use various mechanisms to reduce the impacts caused by anthropic action, such as xenobiotic elements of soils and water contaminated by heavy metals. These metals were supplied as lead nitrate and silver nitrate and the following treatments were established: control for both metals, maximum dose of heavy metals, for arable soils, allowed by the National Council of the Environment (Ag = 25 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 180 mg. Kg-1), double (Ag = 50 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 360 mg. Kg-1) and triple (Ag = 75 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg. Kg -1) of this dosage. Vigor and germination tests of the seeds and possible anatomical changes in the leaves and roots of lettuce plants were performed. The species showed a high capacity to germinate under Pb and Ag stress, and the germination was never completely inhibited; however, the germination decreased with increasing Pb concentrations, but not under Ag stress. The use of increasing doses of metals reduced seed vigor and increased chlorophyll content. An increase in biomass was also observed in plants from treatments submitted to Pb. The phytotoxic effects of metals were more pronounced at 15 days after sowing. Anatomically, L. sativa was influenced by metal concentrations, and had a reduction of up to 79.9% in root epidermis thickness at the highest Pb concentration, although some structures did not suffer significant changes. The results suggest that L. sativa presents tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals, showing possible mechanisms to overcome the stress caused by these metals. In this research lettuce possibly used the mechanism of exclusion of metals retaining Pb and Ag in the roots preserving the photosynthetic apparatus in the aerial part of the plants. In general, the chemical element Pb was more toxic than Ag, in these experimental conditions.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de chumbo (Pb) e prata (Ag) na germinação, crescimento inicial e alterações anatômicas de Lactuca sativa L. As plantas utilizam vários mecanismos para reduzir os impactos causados pela ação antrópica, como elementos xenobióticos de solos e água contaminada por metais pesados. Esses metais foram fornecidos como nitrato de chumbo e nitrato de prata e foram estabelecidos os seguintes tratamentos: controle para ambos os metais, dose máxima de metais pesados, para solos cultiváveis, permitida pelo Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (Ag = 25 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 180 mg.Kg-1), dobro (Ag = 50 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 360 mg.Kg-1) e triplo (Ag = 75 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg.Kg -1) desta dosagem. Foram realizados testes de vigor e germinação das sementes e possíveis alterações anatômicas nas folhas e raízes das plantas de alface. A espécie apresentou alta capacidade de germinar sob estresse de Ag e Pb, e a germinação nunca foi completamente inibida; entretanto, a germinação diminuiu com o aumento das concentrações de Pb, mas não sob estresse de Ag. O uso de doses crescentes dos metais, reduziu o vigor das sementes e aumentou o teor de clorofila. Também foi observado aumento da biomassa nas plantas a partir dos tratamentos submetidos ao Pb. Os efeitos fitotóxicos dos metais foram mais acentuados aos 15 dias após a semeadura. Anatomicamente, L. sativa foi influenciada pelas concentrações de metais, e teve uma redução de até 79,9% na espessura da epiderme radicular na maior concentração de Pb, embora algumas estruturas não tenham sofrido alterações significativas. Os resultados sugerem que L. sativa apresenta tolerância a altas concentrações de metais pesados, mostrando possíveis mecanismos para superar o estresse causado por esses metais. Nesta pesquisa a alface possivelmente utilizou o mecanismo de exclusão de metais retendo Pb e Ag nas raízes preservando o aparato fotossintético na parte aérea das plantas. De forma geral o elemento químico Pb se mostrou mais tóxico que Ag, nestas condições experimentais.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Silver Nitrate , Soil , Lettuce , Lead/toxicity , Nitrates/toxicity
5.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(2, cont.): e2307, jul-dez. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141374

ABSTRACT

As hortaliças folhosas são ricas em vitaminas, sais minerais e fibras alimentares, proporcionando importantes benefícios para a saúde, o que acaba atraindo os consumidores, que costumam ingeri-las na forma crua, ficando expostos à contaminação por enteroparasitas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a possível presença de enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa) comercializadas em três mercados municipais de Rio Branco, Acre. Foram analisadas 26 amostras de alfaces, onde as folhas das alfaces foram lavadas, em uma solução contendo 250 mL de água destilada e cinco gotas de detergente. O líquido foi filtrado em gazes de oito dobras e deixado sedimentar por 24 horas, à temperatura ambiente. Após o tempo decorrido o sobrenadante foi descartado, foram preparadas lâminas, que foram analisadas ao microscópio óptico. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo evidenciaram contaminação em 96,2% do total de amostras de alfaces analisadas. As principais estruturas parasitárias encontradas foram: Ascaridia sp., Eimeria sp., Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris trichiura, Diphillobothrium latum e Balantidium sp. O enteroparasita mais abundante foi Ascaridia sp., tendo sido encontrados 164 (430) exemplares nas amostras, representando 38,14% do total de enteroparasitas encontrados. Ascaridia sp. foi também o enteroparasita mais frequente, sendo encontrada em 42,3% do total de amostras analisadas. Nesse contexto, a ingestão de alfaces cruas, provenientes dos mercados municipais estudados, pode representar risco potencial para os consumidores, caso elas não sejam higienizadas corretamente. Isto demonstra a importância de uma boa limpeza e desinfecção das folhas de alface antes do consumo.(AU)


Leafy vegetalizes are reich in vitaminas, mineral and. deitar febres, providing important health benefits, which ends up attracting consumers, who usually eat them in the raw form, being exposed to contamination by enteroparasites. The objective of the study was to verify the possible presence of enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) sold in three municipal markets in Rio Branco, Acre. 26 samples of lettuce were analyzed, where the lettuce leaves were washed, in a solution containing 250 mL of distilled water and. five drops of detergent. The liquid was filtered through eight-fold gauze and. left to settle for 24 hours at room temperature. After the elapsed time, the supernatant was discarded, slides were prepared and. analyzed under an optical microscope. The results obtained in this study showed contamination in 96.2% of the total samples of lettuce analyzed. The main parasitic structures found were: Ascaridia sp., Eimeria sp., Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris trichiura, Diphillobothrium latum e Balantidium sp. The most abundant enteroparasite was Ascaridia sp., 164 (430) specimens were found in the samples, representing 38.14% of the total enteroparasites found. Ascaridia sp. was also the most common enteroparasite, was found in 42.3% of the total samples analyzed. In this context, ingestion of raw lettuce from the municipal markets studied may pose a potential risk to consumers if they are not properly sanitized. This demonstrates the importance of good cleaning and disinfection of lettuce leaves before consumption.(AU)


Las verduras de hoja son ricas en vitaminas, minerales y fibras dietéticas, aportando importantes beneficios para la salud, lo que acaba atrayendo a los consumidores, que suelen consumirlas crudas, quedando expuestas a la contaminación por enteroparásitos. El objetivo del estudio fue verificar la posible presencia de enteroparásitos en lechugas (Lactuca sativa) vendidas en tres mercados municipales de Rio Branco, Acre. Se analizaron 26 muestras de lechuga, donde se lavaron las hojas de lechuga, en una solución que contenía 250 mL de agua destilada y cinco gotas de detergente. El líquido se filtró a través de una gasa de ocho veces y se dejó reposar durante 24 horas a temperatura ambiente. Transcurrido el tiempo, se descartó el sobrenadante, se prepararon los portaobjetos y se analizaron al microscopio óptico. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio mostraron contaminación en el 96,2% del total de muestras de lechuga analizadas. Las principales estructuras parasitarias encontradas fueron: Ascaridia sp., Eimeria sp., Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris trichiura, Diphillobothrium latum y Balantidium sp. El enteroparásito más abundante fue Ascaridia sp., Se encontraron 164 (430) ejemplares en las muestras, lo que representa el 38,14% del total de enteroparásitos encontrados. Ascaridia sp. también fue el enteroparásito más frecuente, encontrándose en el 42,3% del total de muestras analizadas. En este contexto, la ingesta de lechuga cruda, de los mercados municipales estudiados, puede representar un riesgo potencial para los consumidores, si no se higienizan adecuadamente. Esto demuestra la importancia de una buena limpieza y desinfección de las hojas de lechuga antes del consumo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Ascaridia , Lettuce/parasitology , Eimeria , Entamoeba , Ancylostoma
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e015820, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138147

ABSTRACT

Abstract The consumption of vegetables has increased in recent years due to the search for a healthier diet that is rich in fiber and has fewer calories. To assess the parasitic contamination of lettuce sold in markets, a survey of parasites was carried out from a supermarket chain in the city of Londrina, Paraná. A total of thirty samples of lettuce were purchased in the ten markets visited, three in each, of which ten were conventionally cultivated, ten were hydroponically cultivated, and ten were organically cultivated. All samples were analyzed using the sedimentation methods of Hoffman, Pons and Janer and the fluctuation method of Faust and colleagues and Willis with adaptations. In addition, the samples were subjected to DNA extraction by a commercial kit and polymerase chain reaction to detect Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., which are protozoa that cause food and waterborne parasitic outbreaks. All samples were negative for sedimentation and flotation techniques. One of the hydroponically cultivated samples was positive for T. gondii. The results demonstrate the risk of curly lettuce contamination from hydroponic cultivation and the need for proper cleaning of these foods before consumption.


Resumo O consumo de vegetais aumentou nos últimos anos devido à busca de uma dieta mais saudável, rica em fibras e com menos calorias. Para avaliar a contaminação parasitária de alface vendida nos mercados, foi realizado um levantamento de parasitas em vegetais folhosos de uma cadeia de supermercados da cidade de Londrina, Paraná. Um total de 30 amostras foram compradas nos dez mercados visitados, três em cada, dos quais dez foram convencionalmente cultivados, dez cultivados hidroponicamente e dez foram cultivados organicamente. Todas as amostras foram analisadas, usando-se os métodos de sedimentação de Hoffman, Pons e Janer e o método de flutuação de Faust e colaboradores e Willis com adaptações. Além disso, as amostras foram submetidas à extração de DNA por um kit comercial e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para detectar Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., que são protozoários causadores de surtos transmitidos pela água e alimentos. Todas as amostras foram negativas para técnicas de sedimentação e flutuação. Uma das amostras cultivadas hidroponicamente foi positiva para T. gondii. Os resultados demonstram o risco de contaminação por alface crespa do cultivo hidropônico e a necessidade de limpeza adequada desses alimentos antes do consumo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lettuce/parasitology , Hydroponics , Cryptosporidiosis/transmission , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Cities , Supermarkets
7.
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(1): 33-44, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099715

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian "National School Lunch Program" (PNAE) must provide healthy food for students in public primary education. Thus, it is necessary to ensure both nutritional and parasitological quality, reducing health risks. Vegetables must be clean, presenting no parasites and larvae, according to Brazilian legislation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the favorite vegetables among students, and is eaten raw in salads. This paper aims to evaluate the parasitological quality of lettuce served in school lunches. 72 samples of leaf lettuce, 36 from conventional agriculture (CA) and 36 from family agriculture (FA), were analyzed. Half the samples in each group were sanitized by immersion in a sodium hypochlorite solution, with 2% active stabilized chlorine for 10 minutes (n=18/each) and half were not sanitized (n=18/each). Parasite load evaluation was performed by two methods in each subgroup: spontaneous sedimentation (SS) and sedimentation by centrifugation (SC). The parasite frequencies found were evaluated by the chi-squared test. Medically relevant parasites identified were helminths (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hookworms) as well as protozoa (Balantidium coli and Entamoeba coli). 44.6% of the FA samples presented some form of parasite by SS evaluation and 33.4% by SC evaluation; 66.7% of the CA samples presented parasites by SS evaluation, and 44.5% by SC evaluation. No significant differences were noted between the FA and CA groups in either technique. No parasites were found in any of the sanitized lettuces, regardless of the subgroup or technique applied. These results evidence the importance of adequate training and guidance for vegetable growers, food handlers as well as the general population regarding proper hygiene of lettuce leaves prior to consumption.


Subject(s)
School Feeding , Food Parasitology , Lettuce/parasitology , Health Risk , Food Handling
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1932-1940, nov./dec. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049172

ABSTRACT

Anacardium genus, Anacardiaceae, stands out for the presence of phenolic compounds. One of its species, investigated for its different potential uses, is Anacardium humile; however, little is known about its allelopathic effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the chemical profile and evaluate the herbicide potential of your leaves in the germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Lactuca sativa(lettuce), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) and Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod), both in vitro and in greenhouse. Leaves of A. humile were obtained from 20 matrices of Cerrado fragments in the municipality of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. A voucher specimen was deposited at the herbarium (no. 8448). The aqueous extract was obtained from dried and crushed leaves using the extraction method of ultrasonic bath (30 min) with subsequent static maceration. After solvent evaporation, 12.78 g of extract were obtained. The chemical profile of the aqueous extract included determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, pH, electrical conductivity, and soluble solids concentration. For the in vitro bioassays, the extract was used at different concentrations, namely, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg mL-1. In greenhouse, the substrates were prepared using 950 g of vermiculite and 50 g of A. humile leaf powder at the following ratios: (950/50) (5%), 900/100 (10%), 800/200 (20%), and a control (100% vermiculite), under a completely randomized experimental design. Phenolic compounds and anthraquinones were predominant in the chemical profile of the extract, which presented different levels of allelopathic effect on seed germination and seedling growth of plants both ingermination chamber and in greenhouse, indicating strong allelopathic activity associated with the different compounds found in the leaves. Therefore, the results showed germination and growth inhibition at different levels, indicating that the substances contained in the leaves of Anacardium humile may be a promising alternative for the control of invasive species.


O gênero Anacardium, Anacardiaceae, destaca-se pela presença de compostos fenólicos. Uma de suas espécies, investigada pelos diferentes potenciais de uso, é Anacardium humile. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre seus efeitos alelopáticos. Portanto, o presente trabalho objetivou determinar o perfil químico e avaliar o potencial herbicida de suas folhas sobre a germinação e crescimento de Lactuca sativa (alface), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomate) e Senna obtusifolia (fedegoso) in vitro e em casa de vegetação. Folhas de A. humile foram obtidas de 20 matrizes de Cerrado, município de Campo Grande/MS, Brasil. Uma espécime foi depositada no herbário (N. 8448). O extrato aquoso foi obtido das folhas secas e trituradas e o método de extração foi banho de ultrassom (30 minutos) seguido de maceração estática, sendo o solvente evaporado e 12,78 g de extrato obtido. O extrato foi submetido ao perfil químico e determinado: teor de fenóis totais e flavonóides, pH, condutividade elétrica e concentração de sólidos solúveis. Para os bioensaios in vitro, o extrato foi utilizado em diferentes concentrações (25, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg mL-1). Em casa de vegetação, os substratos foram preparados com 950 g do substrato vermiculita e 50 g do pó das folhas de A. humile (950/50) (5%); 900/100 (10%); 800/200 (20%), além do controle, 100% vermiculita, com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. O extrato apresentou como perfil químico predominante os compostos fenólicos e antraquinonas, com efeito alelopático sobre a germinação e crescimento em câmara de germinação e estufa, em diferentes graus, indicando que há uma forte atividade alelopática associada aos diferentes compostos encontrados nas folhas. Portanto, os resultados indicaram germinação e inibição do crescimento, em diferentes níveis, demonstrando que as substâncias contidas nas folhas de A. humile podem ser uma alternativa promissora para o controle de espécies invasoras.


Subject(s)
Lycopersicon esculentum , Lettuce , Senna Plant , Anacardium , Herbicides
9.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1143-1152, july/aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048848

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality allied to biochemical quality of lettuce seeds by germination and enzymes expression at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 42ºC. Germination speed index and percentage of germination were estimated. Isoenzyme expressions were assessed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), catalase (CAT), esterase (EST), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and glutamate oxaloacetate transferase (GOT). The experiment consisted of a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme 4x6, with four cultivars and six different temperatures, with four replications. The highest germination and vigor were observed for cv. 'Everglades' at 35°C, which proved that this cultivar is thermotolerant. Catalase can be considered a genetic marker for the identification ofthermotolerant lettuce cultivars. Cultivar 'Everglades' has potential to be used in lettuce breeding programs aimed at cultivars tolerant to high temperatures during germination.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e bioquímica de sementes de alface por meio da germinação e expressão de enzimas a 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 e 42ºC. As variáveis velocidade de germinação e o índice de velocidade de germinação foram estimadas. As expressões das enzimas alcool desidrogenase (ADH), malato desidrogenase (MDH), catalase (CAT), esterase (EST), piruvate descarboxilase (PDC) e glutamato oxaloacetato transferase (GOT) foram avaliadas. Para análise dos genótipos foi empregado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4x6, testando quatro cultivares e seis diferentes temperaturas, com quatro repetições. A maior germinação e vigor foram observadas para a cv. 'Everglades' a 35°C, o que prova que esta cultivar é termotolerante. A catalase pode ser considerada um marcador para a identificação de cultivares de alface termotolerantes. A cultivar 'Everglades' tem potential para uso em programas de melhoramento visando tolerância à alta temperatura durante a germinação.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Catalase , Lettuce , Esterases , Thermotolerance , Isoenzymes , Oxidoreductases
10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 419-430, mar./apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048596

ABSTRACT

Plant growth promotion by microorganisms may be a viable alternative to increase lettuce production through pathogens control and nutrients absorption increase. Trichoderma and Pseudomonasgenus are examples of widely studied microorganisms with the capacity to promote plant growth. However, there are still gaps regarding the action of the combined effect of these two microorganisms. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of Pseudomonas sp. UAGF14 and Trichoderma aureoviride URM5158 on the development of lettuce plants. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments: CONT (control), CM (soil with organic fertilization), CMB (soil withorganic fertilization and Pseudomonas sp.), CMF (soil with organic fertilization and T. aureoviride), and CMFB (soil with organic fertilization, Pseudomonas sp. and T. aureoviride), with ten repetitions. At 30, 40 and 60 days after sowing, the following parameters were analyzed: plant and canopy height and number of leaves. At 60 days after emergence, shoot dry matter, leaf area, root dry matter, root length and chlorophyll were analyzed. Catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzymatic activity were determined. The CMFB treatment had the highest means of lettuce growth promotion, confirming the synergistic effect of the combination of the two microorganism types, as it increased height, canopy, shoot and root dry matter, and chlorophyll levels compared to CONT, although did not differ from CM in some variables. Enzymatic activity was also influenced by the action of these microorganisms combined, evidencing by polyphenol oxidase increase. The CMFB or CM were efficient in promoting lettuce growth, showing positive response to the plant morphological and physiological characteristics. However, few responses were observed in lettuce plant growth in the first cycle evaluated after 60 days, compared CM and CMFB treatments, but both treatments showed superiority in lettuce plant growth submitted to CONT treatment. Therefore, further studies are needed to estimate the long-term effects of combined effect of Pseudomonas sp. UAGF14 and T. aureoviride URM5158 on crop productivity in field conditions.


A promoção do crescimento das plantas por micro-organismos pode ser uma alternativa viável para aumentar a produção de alface através de controle de patógenos e aumento da absorção de nutrientes. O gênero fúngico Trichoderma e o gênero bacteriano Pseudomonas são exemplos de micro-organismos amplamente estudados com capacidade para promover o crescimento da planta. No entanto, ainda existem lacunas quanto à ação do efeito combinado desses dois micro-organismos. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito combinado de Pseudomonas UAGF14 e Trichoderma aureoviride URM5158 sobre o desenvolvimento de plantas de alface. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizados, com cinco tratamentos: CONT (controle, sem fertilização orgânica), CM (solo com fertilização orgânica), CMB (solo com fertilização orgânicae Pseudomonas sp.), CMF (solo com fertilização orgânica e T. aureoviride) e CMFB (solo com fertilização orgânica, Pseudomonas sp. e T. aureoviride), com dez repetições. Aos 30, 40 e 60 dias após a semeadura, foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: altura da planta e dossel e número de folhas. Aos 60 dias após a emergência, a matéria seca da parte aérea, a área foliar, a massa seca das raízes, o comprimento radicular e a clorofila foram analisados. Catalase, peroxidase e atividade enzimática da polifenol oxidase foram determinadas. O CMFB apresentou o maior crescimento de alface, confirmando o efeito benéfico da combinação dos dois tipos de micro-organismos com a planta, na medida em que aumentou a altura, o dossel, a matéria seca da parte aérea e da raiz, e os níveis de clorofila em relação ao CONT, embora não tenha diferido do CM em algumas variáveis. As atividades enzimáticas também foram influenciadas pela ação desses micro-organismos combinados, evidenciada pelo aumento de polifenol oxidase. O CMFB ou CM foram eficientes na promoção do crescimento da alface, mostrando respostas positivas às características morfológicas e fisiológicas. Entretanto, poucas respostas foram observadas no crescimento da alface noprimeiro ciclo da planta avaliado depois de 60 dias, comparando os tratamentos CM e CMFB, mas ambos tratamentos mostraram superioridade em relação ao crescimento das plantas de alface submetidas ao tratamento controle. Por isso, são necessários futuros estudos para estimar à longo prazo o efeito combinado de Pseudomonas sp. UAGF14 e Trichoderma aureoviride URM5158 na produção de cultura em condições de campo.


Subject(s)
Catalase , Lettuce , Pseudomonas , Trichoderma
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 495-502, mar./apr. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048604

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the organo-mineral foliar fertilization and the environment in the lettuce crop. The work was carried out in a soil classified as Quartzipsamments, with loam texture and low initial availability of nutrients. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 x 5, corresponding to two cultivars of lettuce (Crisp Vanda and Crisp Lucy Brown), two environments (with and without shading mesh at 35%) and five concentrations of Ferti Garden liquid fertilizer multipurpose via foliar, (0; 5; 10; 15 and 20% of the product in the solution), with 4 repetitions, containing 20 plants. Soil preparation was done manually and fertilized with 30 m3 hectare-1 of bovine manure, dead cover was also used. The foliar fertilizer was applied three times, at intervals of seven days, through a constant pressure sprayer, from 12 days after transplanting the seedlings. At 33 days after the transplant the plants were harvested and evaluated in the variables of head diameter, number of leaves, fresh matter and productivity. The cultivar Crisp Lucy Brown proved to be more demanding in terms of luminosity and mineral nutrition in relation to the cultivar Crisp Vanda. Therefore, the highest development and productivity of the Crisp Lucy Brown cultivar is obtained without shading mesh, with fertilization before sowing of 30 kg ha-1 of fowl bed and fertilization with 9.1% of the foliar fertilizer. While for the cultivar Crisp Vanda the highest productivity is obtained with shading mesh, and only with fertilization before sowing.


Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a influência da adubação foliar organominaral e ambiência no cultivo da alface. O estudo foi realizado em condições de campo, em solo classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico, com textura média e baixa disponibilidade inicial de nutrientes. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso em fatorial 2 x 2 x 5, correspondente a duas cultivares de alface (solta crespa: Vanda e repolhuda crespa: Lucy Brown), dois ambientes (presença e ausência de sombrite a 35%) e cinco concentrações do fertilizante líquido Ferti Garden Multiuso via foliar (0; 5; 10; 15 e 20% do produto na calda), em 4 repetições, contendo 20 plantas. No preparo do solo foi realizado manualmente e fertilizado com 30 m3 hectare-1 de esterco bovino, sendo também adotado a cobertura morta. O fertilizante foliar foi aplicado três vezes em intervalos de sete dias via pulverizador de pressão constante, a partir do 12 dias após o transplantio das mudas. Aos 33 dias após o transplantio as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto ao diâmetro da cabeça, número de folha, matéria fresca e produtividade. A cultivar Lucy Brown é mais exigente em luminosidade e nutrição mineral em relação a cultivar Vanda. O maior crescimento e produtividade dacultivar Lucy Brown é obtido na ausência de sombrite, com adubação de fundação com 30 kg ha-1 de cama aviária e adubação com 9,1% do fertilizante foliar. Enquanto para cultivar solta crespa: Vanda é obtido na presença de sombrite, apenas com adubação de fundação.


Subject(s)
Vegetables , Lettuce , Crops, Agricultural , Food Production
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766382

ABSTRACT

This study examined the microbiological quality of daycare center meals. Six menu items from five daycare centers in Daegu included uncooked processed foods (seasoned cucumber and lettuce salad), post-preparation after cooking processed foods (rolled omelet and seasoned soybean sprout), and cooking processed foods (panbroiled beef with oyster sauce and seasoned pork roast). Microbiological analyses were performed for the aerobic plate counts (APC), coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The analyses were conducted in July and November 2017. The mean APC and coliform count of seasoned cucumber decreased significantly from 4.71 log colony forming units (CFU)/g and 2.50 log CFU/g in July to 4.07 log CFU/g and 1.78 log CFU/g in November, respectively (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). The APC of panbroiled beef with oyster sauce and seasoned pork roast were significantly lower in July (1.84 and 1.79 log CFU/g) than in November (2.41 and 2.28 log CFU/g) (P < 0.001). The coliform counts of panbroiled beef with oyster sauce and seasoned pork roast were significantly greater in November (2.11 and 1.62 log CFU/g) (P < 0.001). E. coli was not detected. Among the foods prepared using the three preparation processes, the post-preparation after cooking processed foods had the lowest microbial quality. The APC and coliform counts of cooking processed foods were satisfactory in July, with an acceptable rating for pan-broiled beef with oyster sauce in November. Time-temperature control and the prevention of cross-contamination are essential during meal production for food safety, regardless of the season.


Subject(s)
Cooking , Escherichia coli , Food Safety , Lettuce , Meals , Ostreidae , Red Meat , Seasons , Soybeans , Stem Cells
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763368

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Canine influenza virus (CIV), H3N2, carries potentiality for zoonotic transmission and genetic assortment which raises a concern on possible epidemics, and human threats in future. To manage possible threats, the development of rapid and effective methods of CIV vaccine production is required. The plant provides economical, safe, and robust production platform. We investigated whether hemagglutinin (HA) antigen from Korea-originated CIV could be produced in Nicotiana benthamiana and lettuce, Lactuca sativa by a DNA viral vector system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used DNA sequences of the HA gene from Korean CIV strain influenza A/canine/Korea/S3001/2015 (H3N2) for cloning into a geminiviral expression vectors to express recombinant HA (rHA) antigen in the plant. Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration was performed to introduce HA-carrying vector into host plants cells. Laboratory-grown N. benthamiana, and grocery-purchased or hydroponically-grown lettuce plant leaves were used as host plants. RESULTS: CIV rHA antigen was successfully expressed in host plant species both N. benthamiana and L. sativa by geminiviral vector. Both complex-glycosylated and basal-glycosylated form of rHA were produced in lettuce, depending on presence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. In terms of rHA expression level, canine HA (H3N2) showed preference to the native signal peptide than ER retention signal peptide in the tested geminiviral vector system. CONCLUSION: Grocery-purchased lettuce leaves could serve as an instant host system for the transient expression of influenza antigen at the time of emergency. The geminiviral vector was able to induce expression of complex-glycosylated and basal-glycosylated rHA in lettuce and tobacco.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , DNA , Emergencies , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Influenza, Human , Lettuce , Orthomyxoviridae , Plant Leaves , Plants , Protein Sorting Signals , Tobacco
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(6 Supplement 1): 90-96, nov./dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-968857

ABSTRACT

Some essential oils are rich in nematicidal compounds and can be used for the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Laboratory and field studies aiming to evaluate the efficiency of this compounds are necessary. The objective of this research was to assess the nematicidal potential of essential oils from leaves of Ageratum fastigiatum and Callistemon viminalis, and green and mature fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. In laboratory, the essential oil of S. terebinthifolius green fruits reduced hatching by more than 80% and increased juvenile mortality by 300% when compared to Tween 20 + water. In the field, none of the essential oils controlled M. javanica in lettuce. In conclusion, the essential oil of S. terebinthifolius green fruits reduces the egg hatching and kills J2 of M. javanica in laboratory. In an infested field with an average of 555 J2/100 cm3 of soil, the application of the essential oils of S. terebinthifolius, C. viminalis and A. fastigiatum does not control M. javanica in lettuce.


Alguns óleos essenciais são ricos em compostos nematicidas e poderiam ser usados no manejo de fitonematoides. Estudos laboratoriais e de campo que visam avaliar a eficiência desses compostos são necessários. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial nematicida de óleos essenciais de folhas de Ageratum fastigiatum e Callistemon viminalis e frutos verdes e maduros de Schinus terebinthifolius sobre o nematoide de galhas Meloidogyne javanica. Em laboratório, o óleo essencial de frutos verdes de S. terebinthifolius reduziu mais de 80% a eclosão e aumentou em 300% a mortalidade de juvenis em comparação com Tween 20 + água. No campo, nenhum óleo essencial controlou M. javanica em alface. Em conclusão, o óleo de frutos verdes de S. terebinthifolius reduz a eclosão e mata J2 de M. javanica em laboratório. Em campo com infestação média de 555 J2/100 cm3 de solo, a aplicação dos óleos essenciais de S. terebinthifolius, C. viminalis e A. fastigiatum não controla M. javanica em alface.


Subject(s)
Tylenchoidea , Oils, Volatile , Lettuce , Anacardiaceae , Ageratum , Antinematodal Agents
15.
Hig. aliment ; 32(284/285): 41-45, out. 30, 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-965438

ABSTRACT

A população está mudando seus hábitos alimentares, incluindo mais vegetais a sua alimentação. Os vegetais são fonte de fibras, vitaminas e minerais essenciais para o organismo e o seu consumo diário pode diminuir o risco de doenças crônicas. No entanto, há estudos que afirmam que os jovens brasileiros estão consumindo com menor frequência os vegetais e frutas. Desta maneira, foi conduzida uma pesquisa de mercado em uma instituição de ensino superior para se observar o perfil de consumo de vegetais como a alface. A pesquisa foi realizada na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - UTFPR -campus Medianeira, com a colaboração de 120 consumidores. Os resultados obtidos mostram que 34% dos entrevistados consomem uma vez por semana a alface e 44% dos participantes consomem alface convencional. Observou-se que 59% dos participantes eram homens, e 91 % dos entrevistados tem idade entre 18 e 28 anos. Também, verificou-se que não há uma correlação entre IMC, renda e consumo de alface. Conclui-se, que a frequência de consumo de alface entre os entrevistados é baixa e isto pode ser explicado pelos hábitos alimentares adotados pelos estudantes. Assim, sugere-se que as universidades proporcionem aos estudantes, professores, funcionários e visitantes, por meio de palestras, reflexões sobre hábitos alimentares adequados, de forma a incentivar um estilo de vida mais saudável.


The population is changing their eating habits, including more vegetables to their diet. Vegetables are a source of fiber, vitamins and essential minerals to the body. Besides, if consumed daily decreases the risk of chronic diseases. However, there are studies that claim that Young Brazilians are consuming less often vegetables and fruits. In this way, a market research was conducted in a higher education institution to observe the profile of consumption of vegetables like lettuce. The survey was conducted on Federal Technological University of Technology in the Paraná state, Brazil. with the collaboration of 120 consumers. The results obtained show that 34% of the respondents consume only once a week lettuce, and 44% of the participants consume the conventional lettuce, and 59% of the participants were men, and 91% of the respondents were between 18 to 28 years of age. In addition, there isn´t a correlation between the income and the Body Mass Index (BMI) and lettuce consumption. It is therefore concluded that the results on the frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables is low, and this can be explained by the eating habits adopted by students. Thus, it is suggested that universities provide knowledge to the students, teachers, staff and visitors, through lectures, reflections on proper eating habits, in order to encourage a healthier lifestyle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vegetables , Eating , Student Health , Feeding Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Quality of Life , Comorbidity , Lettuce , Healthy Lifestyle
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(5): 1319-1325, sept./oct. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967321

ABSTRACT

Lettuce is the main leafy vegetable grown in the world, being the crispy-leaf lettuce type predominant. With consecutive cultivation in the same area, several factors may impair yield, highlighting the damage caused by root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. This study aimed at evaluating the reaction of twenty crispy-leaf lettuce cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita race 3, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. Three experiments were conducted, one for each nematode species. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse, in pots with sterilized substrate. The design was completely randomized with five replications. Seedlings were inoculated with 1.000 eggs and second-stage juveniles of nematode per pot, on the day of transplantation of seedlings. The tomato 'Rutgers' was used as inoculum viability control for each specie tested. The variables evaluated were: reproduction factor (FR), total number of eggs and second-stage juveniles (NTOJ) and number of eggs and second-stage juveniles per gram of root (NOJGR), 60 days after inoculation. The results showed that the cultivars Veronica, Grand Rapids and Crespa para Verão are resistant to the three nematode species. The cultivars Thaís, SRV 2005 and Marisa are resistant to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica. The cultivar Black Seed Simpson is resistant to M. enterolobii. The cultivars Vanda and Mônica SF 31 are resistant to M. incognita race 3. The cultivars Crespa, Rubia, Cinderela and Veneranda are resistant to M. javanica.


A alface é a principal hortaliça folhosa cultivada no mundo, sendo o tipo crespa mais comercializada. Com o cultivo consecutivo na mesma área, vários fatores podem prejudicar a produtividade, se destacando os danos causados pelos nematoides de galha, Meloidogyne spp. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar vinte cultivares de alface, do grupo crespa, quanto a reação à Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne enterolobii. Foram realizados três ensaios, um para cada espécie de nematoide. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, em vaso com substrato autoclavado. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. As plantas foram inoculadas com 1.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de segundo estágio do nematoide, no dia do transplantio das cultivares. O tomateiro 'Rutgers' foi utilizado como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo de cada espécie de nematoide. As variáveis avaliadas foram: número total de ovos e juvenis do segundo estádio (NTOJ), fator de reprodução (FR) e número de ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio por grama de raízes (NOJGR) avaliadas 60 dias após a inoculação. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as cultivares Verônica, Grand Rapids e Crespa para Verão foram resistentes as espécies M. enterolobii, M. incognita, M. javanica. As cultivares Thaís, SRV 2005 e Marisa foram resistentes as espécies M. incognita e M. javanica. A cultivar Black Seed Simpson foi resistente à M. enterolobii. Vanda e Mônica SF 31 foram resistentes à M. incognita. As cultivares Crespa, Rubia, Cinderela e Veneranda foram resistentes à M. javanica.


Subject(s)
Plant Tumors , Plants , Tylenchoidea , Lettuce , Nematoda
17.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 21(1): 33-36, Jan-Mar. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-915863

ABSTRACT

Investigou-se a presença de formas evolutivas de enteroparasitos em alfaces (Lactuca sativa) vendidas em diferentes áreas de distribuição urbanas em Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais. Foram analisados 72 pés de alface, utilizando as técnicas de sedimentação espontânea e de Ritchie, com o intuito de encontrar cistos e ovos de enteroparasitos. Observou-se a presença de enteroparasitos em 75% das amostras oriundas de sacolões, sendo, Endolimax nana (90,7%), ascarídeos (29,6%), ancilostomídeos (18,5%), Strongyloides sp. (16,7%), Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9,2%) e Entamoeba coli (3,7%). Das amostras advindas das feiras livres, 16,7% foram positivas, sendo, E. nana (91,7%), ancilostomídeos (33,3%), ascarídeos (25%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (16,7%) e Strongyloides sp. (8,3%). Quanto às alfaces da horta, 8,4% mostraram-se positivas, sendo, E. nana (66,6%), ascarídeos (50%), Strongyloides sp. (16,7%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (16,7%) e Toxocara sp. (16,7%). As alfaces comercializadas em diferentes estabelecimentos da área estudada apresentaram condições de higiene, manipulação e acondicionamento inadequados.(AU)


The presence of enteroparasite forms in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) sold in different urban distribution areas in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, was investigated. Seventy-two lettuce samples were analyzed, using spontaneous sedimentation and Ritchie techniques, searching for enteroparasite cysts and eggs. The presence of enteroparasites was observed in 75% of the samples from supermarkets, being Endolimax nana (90.7%), ascarids (29.6%), hookworms (18.5%), Strongyloides sp. (16.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.2%), and Entamoeba coli (3.7%). On samples obtained from street markets, 16.7% presented positive results, being E. nana (91.7%), hookworms (33.3%), ascarids (25%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (16.7%), and Strongyloides sp. (8.3%). As for the lettuce from the vegetable garden, 8.4% were positive, being, E. nana (66.6%), ascarids (50%), Strongyloides sp. (16.7%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (16.7%) and Toxocara sp. (16.7%). Lettuce sold in different stores in the studied area presented inappropriate hygiene, handling and packaging conditions.(AU)


Se investigó la presencia de formas evolutivas de enteroparásitos en lechuga (Lactuca sativa) vendidas en diferentes áreas de distribución urbana en Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais. Se analizaron 72 muestras de lechuga, utilizando las técnicas de sedimentación espontánea y de Ritchie, con el propósito de encontrar quistes y huevos de enteroparásitos. Se observó la presencia de enteroparásitos en 75% de las muestras procedentes en puntos de venta, siendo, Endolimax nana (90,7%), ascárideos (29,6%), ancilostomídeos (18,5%), Strongyloides sp. (16,7%), Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9,2%) y Entamoeba coli (3,7%). De las muestras procedentes de las ferias libres, 16,7% fueron positivas, siendo, E. nana (91,7%), ancilostomídeos (33,3%), ascarídeos (25%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (16,7%) y Strongyloides sp. (8,3%). En cuanto a las lechugas de la huerta, 8,4% fueron positivas, siendo, E. nana (66,6%), ascarídeos (50%), Strongyloides sp. (16,7%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (16,7%) y Toxocara sp. (16,7%). Las lechugas comercializadas en diferentes establecimientos del área estudiada presentaron condiciones de higiene, manipulación y acondicionamiento inadecuados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Vegetables/parasitology , Lettuce/parasitology
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 31: 1-9, Jan. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022023

ABSTRACT

Background: Lettuce is a globally important leafy vegetable and a model plant for biotechnology due to its adaptability to tissue culture and stable genetic transformation. Lettuce is also crucial for functional genomics research in the Asteraceae which includes species of great agronomical importance. The development of transgenic events implies the production of a large number of shoots that must be differentiated between transgenic and non-transgenic through the activity of the selective agent, being kanamycin the most popular. Results: In this work we adjusted the selection conditions of transgenic seedlings to avoid any escapes, finding that threshold concentration of kanamycin was 75 mg/L. To monitor the selection system, we studied the morphological response of transgenic and non-transgenic seedlings in presence of kanamycin to look for a visual morphological marker. Several traits like shoot length, primary root length, number of leaves, fresh weight, and appearance of the aerial part and development of lateral roots were affected in non-transgenic seedlings after 30 d of culture in selective media. However, only lateral root development showed an early, qualitative and reliable association with nptII presence, as corroborated by PCR detection. Applied in successive transgenic progenies, this method of selection combined with morphological follow-up allowed selecting the homozygous presence of nptII gene in 100% of the analyzed plants from T2 to T5. Conclusions: This protocol allows a simplified scaling-up of the production of multiple homozygous transgenic progeny lines in the early generations avoiding expensive and time-consuming molecular assays.


Subject(s)
Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Lettuce/genetics , Selection, Genetic , Kanamycin/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Lettuce/chemistry , Seedlings , Homozygote
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17135, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974406

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic crude extracts and fractions of the species Senecio westermanii Dusén on Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Allium cepa L. (onion) seeds. We assessed the germination, growth, root respiration and photosynthesis of the target species in Petri dishes (9.0 cm diameter) containing filter paper n°6. The study was conducted using 50 seeds per plate and held in 4 replicates per concentration of each sample. In the germination there was an inhibitory effect of fractions hexane (FH) and chloroform (FCl) at concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/mL. There was a reduction in the radicle growth of lettuce by 14 to 24% and a reduction of hypocotilum by 14 to 28%. As for the radicle of the onion was up 74% reduction to the FCl and the coleoptile was 24 and 45% reduction for FH and FCl, respectively. Inhibitory effects in the root respiration of lettuce were detected in all the samples analyzed, with results ranging from 16 to 83%. For the seeds of A. cepa, there was an encouragement for the FCl and ethyl acetate fractions (FAE), with results ranging from 94 to 142% and 76 to 150%, respectively. With regard to the photosynthesis of L. sativa, there was no significant difference between the control, and as for the A. cepa, there was a strain in inhibition concentrations of 250 and 500 µg/mL, which ranged from 27 to 68%. The samples of S. westermanii caused changes in the target species and thus can be used as a natural herbicide.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Lettuce/growth & development , Asteraceae/adverse effects , Onions/growth & development , Plant Components, Aerial , Senecio/classification , Allelopathy/physiology
20.
REVISA (Online) ; 7(2): 127-132, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096959

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o perfil parasitário em alfaces crespas comercializadas em diferentes bancas de feiras livres do Distrito Federal. Trata-se de uma pesquisa quali-quantitativa, onde foram analisadas 4 amostras de alfaces escolhidas aleatoriamente, aplicando-se a técnica descrita por Hoffman de sedimentação espontânea. A análise parasitológica das quatro amostras de alfaces crespas revelou resultados negativos quanto à presença de micro-organismos patogênicos a saúde humana. Com base nos dados obtidos no presente estudo conclui-se que as amostras apresentam boas condições sanitárias. Embora o resultado esteja em desacordo com alguns achados na literatura, faz-se necessário aumentar o número de amostras analisadas em pesquisas adicionais sobre o assunto para uma abordagem baseada em melhores evidências.


Subject(s)
Lettuce
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL