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Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 70(2)abr-jun. 2024.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1551543


Introdução: Pacientes com leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC) com alto risco têm menores taxas de resposta, curso clínico mais agressivo e resistência à quimioterapia padrão, representando um desafio para o tratamento. Os inibidores da tirosina quinase de Bruton (BTK ­ ibrutinibe e acalabrutinibe) e o inibidor BCL-2 (venetoclax) podem ser utilizados nesses casos. Objetivo: Identificar e avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do uso de ibrutinibe, acalabrutinibe e venetoclax no tratamento de primeira linha em pacientes com LLC de alto risco. Método: Revisão sistemática de ensaios clínicos randomizados que avaliaram pacientes adultos com LLC, portadores de deleção 17p ou mutação TP53 e sem tratamento prévio. Foram pesquisadas as bases PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS e Cochrane Library, e realizadas avaliação do risco de viés pela ferramenta RoB 2 da Cochrane e avaliação da qualidade da evidência pelo GRADE. Resultados: Na meta-análise em rede para sobrevida livre de progressão (SLP), venetoclax + obinutuzumabe (RR: 0,62; IC 95% 0,41-0,95; p = 0,027) e acalabrutinibe + obinutuzumabe (RR: 0,74; IC 95% 0,55-0,99; p = 0,043) apresentaram menor risco de progressão ou óbito, com significância considerada limítrofe. Ibrutinibe + obinutuzumabe (RR: 0,93; IC 95% 0,86-1,00; p = 0,054) não apresentou diferença significativa na SLP para pacientes com LLC de alto risco. Conclusão: O tratamento de primeira linha com inibidores de BTK (ibrutinibe e acalabrutinibe) e o inibidor BCL-2 (venetoclax), associados a agentes monoclonais anti-CD20 ­ especialmente o obinutuzumabe ­, tem sido proposto como padrão para a maioria dos pacientes com LLC. Entretanto, pelos resultados desta revisão com meta-análise em rede, não foi possível confirmar essa recomendação.

Introduction: Patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have lower response rates, a more aggressive clinical course, and resistance to standard chemotherapy, representing a treatment challenge. Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTK ­ ibrutinib and acalabrutinib) and the BCL-2 inhibitor (venetoclax) can be used in these cases. Objective: To identify and evaluate studies on the efficacy and safety of the use of ibrutinib, acalabrutinib and venetoclax in first-line treatment in patients with high-risk CLL. Method:Systematic review of randomized clinical trials that evaluated adult patients with CLL, carriers of 17p deletion or TP53 mutation and without prior treatment. The PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane RoB 2 tool and the quality of evidence was assessed with GRADE. Results: In the network meta-analysis for progression-free survival (PFS) venetoclax + obinutuzumab (RR: 0.62; 95%CI 0.41-0.95; p value 0.027) and acalabrutinib + obinutuzumab (RR: 0. 74; 95% CI 0.55-0.99; p value 0.043) presented a lower risk of progression or death, with significance considered borderline. Ibrutinib + obinutuzumab (RR: 0.93; 95% CI 0.86-1.00; p value 0.054) did not show a significant difference in PFS for patients with high-risk CLL. Conclusion: First-line treatment with BTK inhibitors (ibrutinib and acalabrutinib) and the BCL-2 inhibitor (venetoclax) associated with anti-CD20 monoclonal agents ­ especially obinutuzumab ­ have been proposed as the standard for most patients with CLL. However, based on the results of this review with network meta-analysis, it was not possible to confirm this recommendation.

Introducción: Los pacientes con leucemia linfocítica crónica (LLC) de alto riesgo tienen tasas de respuesta más bajas, un curso clínico más agresivo y resistencia a la quimioterapia estándar, lo que representa un desafío para el tratamiento. En estos casos se pueden utilizar los inhibidores de la tirosina quinasa de Bruton (BTK - ibrutinib y acalabrutinib) y el inhibidor de BCL-2 (venetoclax). Objetivo:Identificar y evaluar estudios sobre la eficacia y seguridad del uso de ibrutinib, acalabrutinib y venetoclax en el tratamiento de primera línea en pacientes con LLC de alto riesgo. Método: Revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos aleatorios que evaluaron pacientes adultos con LLC, portadores de deleción 17p o mutación TP53 y sin tratamiento previo. Se realizaron búsquedas en las bases de datos PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS y Cochrane Library y se evaluó el riesgo de sesgo mediante la herramienta Cochrane RoB 2 y la calidad de la evidencia se evaluó mediante GRADE. Resultados: En el metaanálisis en red para la supervivencia libre de progresión (SSP) venetoclax + obinutuzumab (RR: 0,62; IC 95% 0,41-0,95; valor de p 0,027) y acalabrutinib + obinutuzumab (RR: 0,74; IC 95%). 0,55-0,99; valor de p 0,043) presentaron un menor riesgo de progresión o muerte, con una significación considerada límite. Ibrutinib + obinutuzumab (RR: 0,93; IC del 95 %: 0,86-1,00; valor de p 0,054) no mostró una diferencia significativa en la SSP para pacientes con LLC de alto riesgo. Conclusión: El tratamiento de primera línea con inhibidores de BTK (ibrutinib y acalabrutinib) y el inhibidor de BCL-2 (venetoclax), asociados con agentes monoclonales anti-CD20, especialmente obinutuzumab, se ha propuesto como estándar para la mayoría de los pacientes con LLC. Sin embargo, según los resultados de esta revisión con metaanálisis en red, no fue posible confirmar esta recomendación

Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Inhibitors, Tyrosine Kinase , Antineoplastic Protocols , Network Meta-Analysis , Systematic Review
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 917-923, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012257


Objective: To investigate the clinical and molecular biological characteristics of patients with accelerated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (aCLL) . Methods: From January 2020 to October 2022, the data of 13 patients diagnosed with aCLL at The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were retrospectively analyzed to explore the clinical and molecular biological characteristics of aCLL. Results: The median age of the patients was 54 (35-72) years. Prior to aCLL, five patients received no treatment for CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), while the other patients received treatment, predominantly with BTK inhibitors. The patients were diagnosed with aCLL through pathological confirmation upon disease progression. Six patients exhibited bulky disease (lesions with a maximum diameter ≥5 cm). Positron emission tomography (PET) -computed tomography (CT) images revealed metabolic heterogeneity, both between and within lesions, and the median maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the lesion with the most elevated metabolic activity was 6.96 (2.51-11.90). Patients with unmutated IGHV CLL accounted for 76.9% (10/13), and the most frequent genetic and molecular aberrations included +12 [3/7 (42.9% ) ], ATM mutation [6/12 (50% ) ], and NOTCH1 mutation [6/12 (50% ) ]. Twelve patients received subsequent treatment. The overall response rate was 91.7%, and the complete response rate was 58.3%. Five patients experienced disease progression, among which two patients developed Richter transformation. Patients with aCLL with KRAS mutation had worse progression-free survival (7.0 month vs 26.3 months, P=0.015) . Conclusion: Patients with aCLL exhibited a clinically aggressive course, often accompanied by unfavorable prognostic factors, including unmutated IGHV, +12, ATM mutation, and NOTCH1 mutation. Patients with CLL/SLL with clinical suspicion of disease progression, especially those with bulky disease and PET-CT SUVmax ≥5, should undergo biopsy at the site of highest metabolic uptake to establish a definitive pathological diagnosis.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/genetics , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Biopsy , Disease Progression
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 793-799, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012234


Objective: Murine CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) products have been approved for the treatment of refractory/relapsed (R/R) B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) ; moreover, humanized products are also undergoing clinical trials. This study aimed to explore the differences in safety and short- and long-term follow-up efficacy between humanized and murine CD19 CAR-T-cells for treating relapsed and refractory B-ALL. Methods: Clinical data of 80 patients with R/R B-ALL treated with CD19-targeted CAR-T-cells at the Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology between May 2016 and March 2023 were analyzed, which included 31 patients with murine CAR-T and 49 with humanized products. Results: The proportion of patients with cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) in the murine and humanized groups was 63.1% and 65.3%, respectively. Moreover, a higher proportion of patients suffered from severe CRS in the murine group than in the humanized CAR-T group (19.4% vs 8.2%, P=0.174). Furthermore, one patient per group died of grade 5 CRS. The incidence of grade 1-2 immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) was 12.9% and 6.1%, respectively; severe ICANS were not observed. Among patients receiving murine CAR-T-cells, an overall response (OR) was observed in 74.2%. Conversely, the OR rate of patients receiving humanized CAR-T-cells was 87.8%. During the median follow-up time of 10.5 months, the median recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients with murine CAR-T-cells was 12 months, which was as long as that of patients with humanized CAR-T-cells. The median overall survival (OS) were not reached in both groups. Of the 45 patients with a bone marrow burden over 20% at baseline, humanized CAR-T therapy was associated with a significantly improved RFS (43.25% vs 33.33%, P=0.027). Bridging transplantation was an independent factor in prolonging OS (χ(2)=8.017, P=0.005) and PFS (χ(2)=6.584, P=0.010). Common risk factors, such as age, high proportion of bone marrow blasts, and BCR-ABL fusion gene expression, had no significant effect on patients' long-term follow-up outcomes. Three patients reached complete remission after reinfusion of humanized CAR-T-cells. However, one patient relapsed one month after his second infusion of murine CAR-T-cells. Conclusions: The results indicate that humanized CAR-T therapy showed durable efficacy in patients with a higher tumor burden in the bone marrow without any influence on safety. Moreover, it could overcome immunogenicity-induced CAR-T resistance, providing treatment options for patients who were not treated successfully with CAR-T therapies.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Antigens, CD19 , Burkitt Lymphoma/drug therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 722-729, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982122


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics of the patients with B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disease(B-CLPD) in the new drug era and the effect of new drug treatment on efficacy and survival.@*METHODS@#The clinical and laboratory data of 200 cases B-CLPD patients diagnosed between April 2015 and August 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical efficacy and survival of the patients under different treatments including Bruton tyrosine kinase(BTK) inhibitors, rituximab, and chemotherapy alone were analyzed. The prognostic factors affecting the survival of patients were analyzed by univarite analysis and multivariate analysis.@*RESULTS@#There were 119 male(59.5%) and 81 female(40.5%) in 200 cases B-CLPD patients, the sex ratio(male/female) was 1.5∶1 with median age of 61(30- 91) years old. The distribution of subtypes were as fallows: 51 cases (25.5%) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma(CLL/SLL), 64(32.0%) cases of follicular lymphoma(FL), 40(20.0%) cases mantle cell lymphoma(MCL), 30(15.0%) cases of marginal zone lymphoma(MZL), 10(5%) cases of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/waldenstrom macroglobulinemia(LPL/WM), 5(2.5%) cases of B cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders unclassified(B-CLPD-U) . The main clinical manifestation of 102 patients was lymph node enlargement, 32 cases were complicated with B symptoms. Among CLL/SLL patients, there were 12(23.5%) cases in Binet A and 39(76.5%) cases in Binet B/C. There were 29 patients(20.9%) in Ann Arbor or Lugano stage I-II and 110 cases(79.1%) in stage III-IV of other subtypes. The complete remission(CR) rate was 43.1%(25/58), 40.2%(39/97), 7.1%(1/14), and overaIl response rate(ORR) was 87.9%(51/58), 62.9%(61/97), 28.6%(4/14) in the groups of BTK inhibitors, rituximab-based therapy, and chemotherapy alone. The 3-year OS rate and PFS rate in all patients was 79.2% and 72.4% respectively. The 3-year OS rate of patient with MZL, CLL/SLL, FL,WM was 94.7%, 87.7%, 86.8% and 83.3% respectively, while the 3-year OS rate of MCL was only 40.6%, which was significantly lower than other subtypes. The median OS of patients treated with BTK inhibitors and rituximab-based therapy was 20.5 and 18.5 months respectively, and the 3-year OS rate was 97.4% and 90.7%. However, the median PFS of patients receiving chemotherapy alone was 4 months, and the 1-year OS rate was 52.7%, which was statistically significant compared with the other two groups(P<0.05). Univarite analysis showed that anemia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, elevated β2-microglobulin, and splenomegaly were the poor prognostic factors for OS(P<0.05), elevated lactate dehydrogenase was also poor prognostic factors for PFS(P<0.05). Multifactor analysis showed that anemia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase were the independent poor prognostic factors for survival(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical features of B-CLPD was various, anemia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase are the prognostic factors for poor survival. BTK inhibitors and new immunotherapy can improve the survival and prognosis of patients in the new drug era.

Humans , Adult , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell , Prognosis , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone , Lactate Dehydrogenases
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 418-423, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984639


Objective: To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of 11 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with t (14;19) (q32;q13) . Methods: The case data of 11 patients with CLL with t (14;19) (q32;q13) in the chromosome karyotype analysis results of the Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 1, 2018, to July 30, 2022, were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In all 11 patients, t (14;19) (q32;q13) involved IGH::BCL3 gene rearrangement, and most of them were accompanied by +12 or complex karyotype. An immunophenotypic score of 4-5 was found in 7 patients and 3 in 4 cases. We demonstrated that CLLs with t (14;19) (q32;q13) had a mutational pattern with recurrent mutations in NOTCH1 (3/7), FBXW7 (3/7), and KMT2D (2/7). The very-high-risk, high-risk, intermediate-risk, and low-risk groups consisted of 1, 1, 6, and 3 cases, respectively. Two patients died, 8 survived, and 2 were lost in follow-up. Four patients had disease progression or relapse during treatment. The median time to the first therapy was 1 month. Conclusion: t (14;19) (q32;q13), involving IGH::BCL3 gene rearrangement, is a rare recurrent cytogenetic abnormality in CLL, which is associated with a poor prognosis.

Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Translocation, Genetic , Chromosome Aberrations , Karyotyping
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 380-387, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984633


Objective: To understand the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) /small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) among hematologists, oncologists, and lymphoma physicians from hospitals of different levels in China. Methods: This multicenter questionnaire survey was conducted from March 2021 to July 2021 and included 1,000 eligible physicians. A combination of face-to-face interviews and online questionnaire surveys was used. A standardized questionnaire regarding the composition of patients treated for CLL/SLL, disease diagnosis and prognosis evaluation, concomitant diseases, organ function evaluation, treatment selection, and Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor was used. Results: ①The interviewed physicians stated that the proportion of male patients treated for CLL/SLL is higher than that of females, and the age is mainly concentrated in 61-70 years old. ②Most of the interviewed physicians conducted tests, such as bone marrow biopsies and immunohistochemistry, for patient diagnosis, in addition to the blood test. ③Only 13.7% of the interviewed physicians fully grasped the initial treatment indications recommended by the existing guidelines. ④In terms of cognition of high-risk prognostic factors, physicians' knowledge of unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable and 11q- is far inferior to that of TP53 mutation and complex karyotype, which are two high-risk prognostic factors, and only 17.1% of the interviewed physicians fully mastered CLL International Prognostic Index scoring system. ⑤Among the first-line treatment strategy, BTK inhibitors are used for different types of patients, and physicians have formed a certain understanding that BTK inhibitors should be preferentially used in patients with high-risk factors and elderly patients, but the actual use of BTK inhibitors in different types of patients is not high (31.6%-46.0%). ⑥BTK inhibitors at a reduced dose in actual clinical treatment were used by 69.0% of the physicians, and 66.8% of the physicians had interrupted the BTK inhibitor for >12 days in actual clinical treatment. The use of BTK inhibitors is reduced or interrupted mainly because of adverse reactions, such as atrial fibrillation, severe bone marrow suppression, hemorrhage, and pulmonary infection, as well as patients' payment capacity and effective disease progression control. ⑦Some differences were found in the perceptions and behaviors of hematologists and oncologists regarding the prognostic assessment of CLL/SLL, the choice of treatment options, the clinical use of BTK inhibitors, etc. Conclusion: At present, a gap remains between the diagnosis and treatment of CLL/SLL among Chinese physicians compared with the recommendations in the guidelines regarding the diagnostic criteria, treatment indications, prognosis assessment, accompanying disease assessment, treatment strategy selection, and rational BTK inhibitor use, especially the proportion of dose reduction or BTK inhibitor discontinuation due to high adverse events.

Female , Humans , Male , Aged , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Prognosis , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Immunohistochemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/therapeutic use
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1910-1915, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010059


Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a low-grade lymphoproliferative tumor that occurs frequently in middle-aged and elderly people. Early and precise intervention can effectively improve the clinical prognosis of CLL patients. In the past, chemotherapy was the main treatment plan. With the development of molecular biology and the continuous advent of immune targeting drugs, targeted drugs targeting B cell receptor signaling pathway have shown high clinical application value in the diagnosis and treatment path of CLL. Cellular immunotherapies such as CAR-T also offer hope for patients with relapsed and refractory CLL. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and multi-drug combination have also shown remarkable results in clinical practice. The purpose of this article is to review the latest research progress in the treatment of CLL.

Humans , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Immunotherapy , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1663-1669, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010020


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression and clinical significance of T helper cell 9 (Th9) and its cytokine interleukin 9(IL-9) in peripheral blood of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia(CLL).@*METHODS@#A total of 43 newly diagnosed patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from June 2021 to June 2022 were selected as the case group. The patients were divided into Binet A group (13 cases), Binet B group (20 cases) and Binet C group (10 cases) by Binet staging system, and 20 healthy volunteers who underwent physical examinationin in our hospital in the same period served as control group. The proportion of Th9 cells in peripheral blood was detected by flow cytometry, the expression level of Th9 specific transcription factors PU.1 and IRF4 was detected by Western blot, and the expression level of serum cytokine IL-9 was detected by ELISA. The proportion of Th9, the expression of PU.1, IRF4 and IL-9 in each group were compared, and the correlation between the proportion of Th9, IL-9 and clinicopathological indexes of CLL patients was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The proportion of Th9, the expression of PU.1, IRF4 and IL-9 in CLL group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05), the proportion of Th9 and the expression of IL-9 in Binet B and C group were higher than those in Binet A group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the proportion of Th9 cells between Binet B group and C group (P>0.05). The expression of IL-9 in Binet C group was significantly higher than that in Binet B group (P<0.05) . The proportion of Th9 cells and IL-9 were highly expression in patients with β2 microglobulin abnormality, IGHV unmutation, P53 abnormality and hepatosplenic lymph node enlargement(P<0.05), but not related to age and sex (P>0.05). The results of Spearman correlation analysis showed that the proportion of Th9 in patients with CLL was negatively correlated with the lymphocytic account and lymphocyte proportion(rs=-0.32,rs=-0.34). The proportion of Th9 and IL-9 were positively correlated with Binet stage, Rai stage and CLL-IPI Scoring (rs=0.79,rs=0.54,rs=0.58; rs=0.72,rs=0.63,rs=0.45), but not with WBC, CD4+ T cells and CD8+T cells (P>0.05). The proportion of Th9 was positively correlated with IL-9 (rs=0.53).@*CONCLUSION@#Th9 cells and IL-9 are abnormally highly expressed in CLL, which is related to the poor prognosis of CLL.

Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/genetics , Interleukin-9 , Clinical Relevance , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/pathology , Cytokines
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 176-181, Apr.-June 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448350


Abstract Introduction The availability of a clinical decision algorithm for diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may greatly contribute to the diagnosis of CLL, particularly in cases with ambiguous immunophenotypes. Herein we propose a novel differential diagnosis algorithm for the CLL diagnosis using immunophenotyping with flow cytometry. Methods The hierarchical logistic regression model (Backward LR) was used to build a predictive algorithm for the diagnosis of CLL, differentiated from other lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Results A total of 302 patients, of whom 220 (72.8%) had CLL and 82 (27.2%), B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders other than CLL, were included in the study. The Backward LR model comprised the variables CD5, CD43, CD81, ROR1, CD23, CD79b, FMC7, sIg and CD200 in the model development process. The weak expression of CD81 and increased intensity of expression in markers CD5, CD23 and CD200 increased the probability of CLL diagnosis, (p < 0.05). The odd ratio for CD5, C23, CD200 and CD81 was 1.088 (1.050 - 1.126), 1.044 (1.012 - 1.077), 1.039 (1.007 - 1.072) and 0.946 (0.921 - 0.970) [95% C.I.], respectively. Our model provided a novel diagnostic algorithm with 95.27% of sensitivity and 91.46% of specificity. The model prediction for 97.3% (214) of 220 patients diagnosed with CLL, was CLL and for 91.5% (75) of 82 patients diagnosed with an LPD other than CLL, was others. The cases were correctly classified as CLL and others with a 95.7% correctness rate. Conclusions Our model highlighting 4 markers (CD81, CD5, CD23 and CD200) provided high sensitivity and specificity in the CLL diagnosis and in distinguishing of CLL among other LPDs.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Flow Cytometry , Algorithms , Linear Models , Immunophenotyping , Diagnosis, Differential
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 14(Suplemento 2)20220800.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1412555


Objetivo: O presente estudo objetiva desenvolver um modelo de análise de impacto orçamentário (AIO) relacionada à incorporação do rituximabe no tratamento de primeira linha da leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC) no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Métodos: A elaboração da AIO foi realizada de acordo com as recomendações metodológicas das diretrizes brasileiras, considerando a perspectiva do SUS, horizonte temporal de cinco anos, população a ser tratada, diferentes cenários de market share do rituximabe e custos diretos envolvidos no tratamento atual e no tratamento proposto, e também foi executada uma análise de sensibilidade para avaliar possíveis incertezas futuras. Resultados: A cada ano e ao final do horizonte temporal de cinco anos, a incorporação do rituximabe promoverá aumento dos custos, quando comparado com o valor de ressarcimento do SUS para o tratamento de primeira linha da LLC. No cenário de maior participação de mercado do rituximabe, os custos totais foram menores em relação ao cenário de menor market share. Dado que a estimativa da AIO é para gastos futuros, incertezas relacionadas como a possível elevação do custo do medicamento foi o fator que promoveu o cenário de maiores gastos. Conclusões: A projeção de custos estimados pela AIO demonstrou menores gastos financeiros no cenário de maior difusão do medicamento, o que pode ter correlação com o atraso da progressão da doença ao utilizar o rituximabe, e consequentemente menos pacientes irão requerer segunda linha de tratamento, que tem custo mais elevado.

Objective: This study aims to develop a budget impact analysis (BIA) model related to the incorporation of rituximab in the first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in the Unified Health System (SUS). Methods: The preparation of the BIA was carried out in accordance with the methodological recommendations of the Brazilian guidelines, considering the perspective of the SUS, a time horizon of five years, population to be treated, different market share scenarios for rituximab and direct costs involved in the current treatment and treatment proposed, a sensitivity analysis was also performed to assess possible future uncertainties. Results: Each year and at the end of the five-year time horizon, the incorporation of rituximab will increase costs, when compared to the SUS reimbursement value for the first-line treatment of CLL. In the scenario of higher market share for rituximab, total costs were lower compared to the scenario of lower market share. Given that the BIA estimate is for future expenses, uncertainties related to the possible increase in the cost of the drug were the factor that promoted the scenario of higher expenses. Conclusions: The projection of costs estimated by the BIA showed lower financial expenses in the scenario of greater diffusion of the drug, which may be correlated with the delay in the progression of the disease when using rituximab and, consequently, fewer patients will require second-line treatment, which has a higher cost.

Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Rituximab , Analysis of the Budgetary Impact of Therapeutic Advances
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1411991


Objetivo: Estimar o custo do sequenciamento de tratamentos e por desfecho dos novos agentes disponíveis para o tratamento de pacientes com leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC) em primeira linha (1L) e segunda linha (2L) em um horizonte temporal de 15 anos sob a perspectiva do sistema de saúde suplementar brasileiro. Métodos: Foi desenvolvido um modelo de sobrevida particionada com quatro transições de estados de saúde (sem progressão em 1L, sem progressão em 2L, pós-progressão e morte), considerando os seguintes regimes: venetoclax + obinutuzumabe (VenO), venetoclax + rituximabe (VenR), ibrutinibe (Ibru) e acalabrutinibe (Acala). Foram consideradas na análise as posologias em bula e as curvas de sobrevida livre de progressão (SLP) dos respectivos estudos pivotais em cada uma das linhas terapêuticas. O custo total de cada sequência considerou a soma dos custos dos regimes utilizados em 1L e 2L, baseado no preço fábrica de cada medicamento. Resultados: As sequências de tratamento iniciadas com VenO apresentaram menores custos, especialmente o regime VenO>VenR (R$ 982.447), que apontou redução de aproximadamente R$ 3 milhões em 15 anos, quando comparada às sequências de Ibru>VenR ou Acala>VenR. Na análise de custo por desfecho, a sequência VenO>VenR apresentou o menor custo por ano de SLP (R$ 104.437), até 76% inferior em relação ao sequenciamento com maior custo por ano de SLP (Ibru>VenR). Conclusões: Os resultados desta análise demonstram o impacto significativo que a 1L de tratamento possui na jornada do paciente com LLC. Adicionalmente, o presente estudo aponta o menor custo de tratamento acumulado para o sequenciamento dos regimes VenO>VenR, sugerindo que os regimes de tratamento à base de venetoclax podem contribuir de maneira substancial em uma maior eficiência na alocação de recursos pelo gestor do sistema de saúde suplementar brasileiro.

Objective: To estimate the cost of treatment sequencing and per outcome of the new agents available for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in 1st line (1L) and 2nd line (2L) in a 15-years time horizon from the perspective of the Brazilian supplementary health system. Methods: A partitioned survival model including four health state transitions (no progression in 1L, no progression in 2L, post-progression and death) was developed, considering the following regimens: venetoclax + obinutuzumab (VenO), venetoclax + rituximab (VenR), ibrutinib (Ibru) and acalabrutinib (Acala). The package insert dosages and progression-free survival (PFS) curves of the respective pivotal studies in each of the therapeutic lines were considered in the analysis. The total cost of each sequence considered the sum of the costs of the regimens used in 1L and 2L, based on the factory price of each drug. Results: Lower costs were observed when treatment sequences were initiated with VenO, especially the VenO>VenR regimen (R$ 982,447), which showed a reduction of approximately R$ 3 million in 15 years when compared to the Ibru>VenR or Acala>VenR sequences. In the cost per outcome analysis, the sequence VenO>VenR had the lowest cost per year of PFS (R$ 104,437), up to 76% lower than the sequencing with the highest cost per year of PFS (Ibru>VenR). Conclusions: Results show the significant impact that 1L treatment has on the CLL patient's journey. Additionally, the present study points to the lowest accumulated treatment cost for the sequencing of VenO>VenR regimens, suggesting that venetoclax-based treatment regimens can substantially contribute to greater efficiency in the allocation of resources by the manager of the Brazilian supplementary health system.

Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Costs and Cost Analysis , Supplemental Health
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 63-69, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364896


Abstract Objective We evaluated the relevance of using the smudge cell percentage in the blood smear as a prognostic marker in CLL. Methods In this prospective study, 42 untreated Senegalese patients with CLL were enrolled. The diagnosis was established, based on the peripheral blood count and flow cytometry using the Matutes score. Cytogenetic aberrations, assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), were available for 30 patients, while the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IGVH) mutation status was performed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 24 patients. The SC percentage was determined in the blood smear, as previously described. Statistical analyses were executed using the GraphPad Prism 8. Results The mean age was 63 years (48 - 85) and the male: female sex ratio was 4.66. A low SC (< 30%) percentage was correlated with Binet stage B/C (p= 0.0009), CD38 expression (p= 0.039), unmutated IGVH status (p= 0.0009) and presence of cytogenetic abnormalities (for del 13q, p= 0.0012, while for other cytogenetic aberrations, p= 0.016). An inverse correlation was found between the SC percentage and the absolute lymphocyte count (r= -0.51) and patients with higher percentage of SCs had a prolonged survival. However, there was no correlation between the SC percentage and age (p= 0.41) or gender (median, 19% for males vs. 20% for females; p= 0.76). Conclusion When less than 30%, the SC was associated with a poor prognosis in CLL. Easy and affordable, the percentage of SCs in a blood smear could be a reliable prognostic marker, accessible to all CLL patients, mainly those in developing countries.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Prognosis , Senegal
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1689-1694, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971352


OBJECTIVES@#Immunophenotyping technique is a powerful tool for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative diseases (B-CLPD). CD200 is strongly expressed in CLL. This study aims to analyze the clinical value of modified Matutes score (MMS) containing CD200 in the diagnosis of CLL.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed 103 B-CLPD patients diagnosed from January 2020 to July 2021, including 64 CLL patients, 11 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients, 14 mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients, 6 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) patients, 1 hairy cell leukemia (HCL) patient, and 7 lymphoplasmic lymphoma/Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM) patients. The expression of CD markers between the CLL group and the non-CLL group was compared, and the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical consistency of MMS and Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) immunophenotyping score system were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#There were significant differences in the expressions of CD5, CD23, FMC7, CD22, CD79b, CD200, and sIg between the CLL group and the non-CLL group (χ2 values were 37.42, 54.98, 30.71, 11.67, 55.26, 68.48, and 17.88, respectively, all P<0.01). When the RMH immunophenotyping score≥4, the sensitivity was 79.7%, and the specificity was 100%. When the MMS≥3, the sensitivity was 95.3%, and the specificity was 100%. The Kappa coefficient of RMH immunophenotyping system was 0.677, and the Kappa coefficient of MMS system was 0.860.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The MMS system containing CD200 has better sensitivity and same specificity compared with RMH immunophenotyping system, and MMS system may be more useful in the diagnosis of CLL.

Humans , Adult , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology , Retrospective Studies , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone , Flow Cytometry/methods
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 221-228, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929561


Objective: To investigate whether haplotype hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is effective in the treatment of pre transplant minimal residual disease (Pre-MRD) positive acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) compared with HLA- matched sibling donor transplantation (MSDT) . Methods: A total of 998 patients with B-ALL in complete remission pre-HSCT who either received haplo-HSCT (n=788) or underwent MSDT (n=210) were retrospectively analyzed. The pre-transplantation leukemia burden was evaluated according to Pre-MRD determinedusing multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) . Results: Of these patients, 997 (99.9% ) achieved sustained, full donor chimerism. The 100-day cumulative incidences of neutrophil engraftment, platelet engraftment, and grades Ⅱ-Ⅳ acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 99.9% (997/998) , 95.3% (951/998) , and 26.6% (95% CI 23.8% -29.4% ) , respectively. The 3-year cumulative incidence of total chronic GVHD was 49.1% (95% CI 45.7% -52.4% ) . The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) of the 998 cases were 17.3% (95% CI 15.0% -19.7% ) and 13.8% (95% CI 11.6% -16.0% ) , respectively. The 3-year probabilities of leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were 69.1% (95% CI 66.1% -72.1% ) and 73.0% (95% CI 70.2% -75.8% ) , respectively. In the total patient group, cases with positive Pre-MRD (n=282) experienced significantly higher CIR than that of subjects with negative Pre-MRD [n=716, 31.6% (95% CI 25.8% -37.5% ) vs 14.3% (95% CI 11.4% -17.2% ) , P<0.001]. For patients in the positive Pre-MRD subgroup, cases treated with haplo-HSCT (n=219) had a lower 3-year CIR than that of cases who underwent MSDT [n=63, 27.2% (95% CI 21.0% -33.4% ) vs 47.0% (95% CI 33.8% -60.2% ) , P=0.002]. The total 998 cases were classified as five subgroups, including cases with negative Pre-MRD group (n=716) , cases with Pre-MRD<0.01% group (n=46) , cases with Pre-MRD 0.01% -<0.1% group (n=117) , cases with Pre-MRD 0.1% -<1% group (n=87) , and cases with Pre-MRD≥1% group (n=32) . For subjects in the Pre-MRD<0.01% group, haplo-HSCT (n=40) had a lower CIR than that of MSDT [n=6, 10.0% (95% CI 0.4% -19.6% ) vs 32.3% (95% CI 0% -69.9% ) , P=0.017]. For patients in the Pre-MRD 0.01% -<0.1% group, haplo-HSCT (n=81) also had a lower 3-year CIR than that of MSDT [n=36, 20.4% (95% CI 10.4% -30.4% ) vs 47.0% (95% CI 29.2% -64.8% ) , P=0.004]. In the other three subgroups, the 3-year CIR was comparable between patients who underwent haplo-HSCT and those received MSDT. A subgroup analysis of patients with Pre-MRD<0.1% (n=163) was performed, the results showed that cases received haplo-HSCT (n=121) experienced lower 3-year CIR [16.0% (95% CI 9.4% -22.7% ) vs 40.5% (95% CI 25.2% -55.8% ) , P<0.001], better 3-year LFS [78.2% (95% CI 70.6% -85.8% ) vs 47.6% (95% CI 32.2% -63.0% ) , P<0.001] and OS [80.5% (95% CI 73.1% -87.9% ) vs 54.6% (95% CI 39.2% -70.0% ) , P<0.001] than those of MSDT (n=42) , but comparable in 3-year NRM [5.8% (95% CI 1.6% -10.0% ) vs 11.9% (95% CI 2.0% -21.8% ) , P=0.188]. Multivariate analysis showed that haplo-HSCT was associated with lower CIR (HR=0.248, 95% CI 0.131-0.472, P<0.001) , and superior LFS (HR=0.275, 95% CI 0.157-0.483, P<0.001) and OS (HR=0.286, 95% CI 0.159-0.513, P<0.001) . Conclusion: Haplo HSCT has a survival advantage over MSDT in the treatment of B-ALL patients with pre MRD<0.1% .

Humans , B-Lymphocytes , Graft vs Host Disease , HLA Antigens/genetics , Haplotypes , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Leukemia, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Neoplasm, Residual , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Siblings
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32402, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373282


Introdução: A associação de leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC) e melanoma tem sido estudada nos últimos anos. Acredita-se que a imunossupressão causada pelo tratamento da doença seja o fator de risco mais importante para o aumento da susceptibilidade ao desenvolvimento e disseminação do câncer de pele. Relato de Caso: Este relato de caso descreve homem de 53 anos, em tratamento de leucemia linfocítica crônica desde 2018, já submetido a diversos ciclos de quimioterapia com fludarabina. Apresentou histórico de exérese de melanoma nodular epitelioide no couro cabeludo em 2019, removido com margens livres. Um ano após a cirurgia, paciente evoluiu com piora do estado geral com necessidade de hospitalização. Investigação adicional revelou focos de metástase em pulmões, fígado, rins, estômago, sistema nervoso central e linfonodos. Análise histopatológica foi positiva para melanoma. A possibilidade de tratamento foi descartada pela equipe de oncologia, que sugeriu cuidados paliativos. Discussão: Um dos mecanismos mais discutidos para explicar esta associação de neoplasias é a imunossupressão resultante do tratamento da LLC, que deixa o paciente suscetível ao desenvolvimento e à disseminação do melanoma. Além disso, a fludarabina, quimioterápico geralmente usado para remissão da LLC, é conhecida por depletar células T-helper e tem sido descrita como cofator deste processo. A associação de leucemia e melanoma cutâneo têm sido descrita nos últimos anos, porém não há nenhum protocolo de tratamento para esta condição.

BACKGROUND: The association of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and melanoma have been studied in the last years. The immunosuppression caused by the treatment of CLL seems to be the major factor of increasing patients' susceptibility to the development and spread of skin cancer. CASE REPORT: This case report describes a 53-year-old male patient, in CLL treatment since 2018, already submitted to many cycles of chemotherapy with fludarabine. History of an exeresis of epithelioid nodular melanoma of the scalp in 2019, which was removed with a clear margin. One year later, he presented with a poor general condition with hospitalization indication. Additional investigation revealed metastatic lesions in lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, central nervous system, and lymph nodes. Histopathologic analysis positive for melanoma. The possibility of treatment was discarded by the Oncology team, which suggested palliative care. DISCUSSION: One of the most discussed mechanisms to explain this cancer association is the immunosuppression developed during the treatment of CLL, increasing patients' susceptibility to the development and spread of melanoma. In addition, the use of fludarabine, a chemotherapy commonly used in relapsed CLL, is known to deplete T-helper cells and has been described as a cofactor of this process. The association of leukemia and cutaneous melanoma has been reported in the last years, yet there is no surveillance protocol.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Immunosuppression Therapy , Medical Oncology