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Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 176-181, Apr.-June 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448350


Abstract Introduction The availability of a clinical decision algorithm for diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may greatly contribute to the diagnosis of CLL, particularly in cases with ambiguous immunophenotypes. Herein we propose a novel differential diagnosis algorithm for the CLL diagnosis using immunophenotyping with flow cytometry. Methods The hierarchical logistic regression model (Backward LR) was used to build a predictive algorithm for the diagnosis of CLL, differentiated from other lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Results A total of 302 patients, of whom 220 (72.8%) had CLL and 82 (27.2%), B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders other than CLL, were included in the study. The Backward LR model comprised the variables CD5, CD43, CD81, ROR1, CD23, CD79b, FMC7, sIg and CD200 in the model development process. The weak expression of CD81 and increased intensity of expression in markers CD5, CD23 and CD200 increased the probability of CLL diagnosis, (p < 0.05). The odd ratio for CD5, C23, CD200 and CD81 was 1.088 (1.050 - 1.126), 1.044 (1.012 - 1.077), 1.039 (1.007 - 1.072) and 0.946 (0.921 - 0.970) [95% C.I.], respectively. Our model provided a novel diagnostic algorithm with 95.27% of sensitivity and 91.46% of specificity. The model prediction for 97.3% (214) of 220 patients diagnosed with CLL, was CLL and for 91.5% (75) of 82 patients diagnosed with an LPD other than CLL, was others. The cases were correctly classified as CLL and others with a 95.7% correctness rate. Conclusions Our model highlighting 4 markers (CD81, CD5, CD23 and CD200) provided high sensitivity and specificity in the CLL diagnosis and in distinguishing of CLL among other LPDs.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Flow Cytometry , Algorithms , Linear Models , Immunophenotyping , Diagnosis, Differential
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982122


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics of the patients with B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disease(B-CLPD) in the new drug era and the effect of new drug treatment on efficacy and survival.@*METHODS@#The clinical and laboratory data of 200 cases B-CLPD patients diagnosed between April 2015 and August 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical efficacy and survival of the patients under different treatments including Bruton tyrosine kinase(BTK) inhibitors, rituximab, and chemotherapy alone were analyzed. The prognostic factors affecting the survival of patients were analyzed by univarite analysis and multivariate analysis.@*RESULTS@#There were 119 male(59.5%) and 81 female(40.5%) in 200 cases B-CLPD patients, the sex ratio(male/female) was 1.5∶1 with median age of 61(30- 91) years old. The distribution of subtypes were as fallows: 51 cases (25.5%) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma(CLL/SLL), 64(32.0%) cases of follicular lymphoma(FL), 40(20.0%) cases mantle cell lymphoma(MCL), 30(15.0%) cases of marginal zone lymphoma(MZL), 10(5%) cases of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/waldenstrom macroglobulinemia(LPL/WM), 5(2.5%) cases of B cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders unclassified(B-CLPD-U) . The main clinical manifestation of 102 patients was lymph node enlargement, 32 cases were complicated with B symptoms. Among CLL/SLL patients, there were 12(23.5%) cases in Binet A and 39(76.5%) cases in Binet B/C. There were 29 patients(20.9%) in Ann Arbor or Lugano stage I-II and 110 cases(79.1%) in stage III-IV of other subtypes. The complete remission(CR) rate was 43.1%(25/58), 40.2%(39/97), 7.1%(1/14), and overaIl response rate(ORR) was 87.9%(51/58), 62.9%(61/97), 28.6%(4/14) in the groups of BTK inhibitors, rituximab-based therapy, and chemotherapy alone. The 3-year OS rate and PFS rate in all patients was 79.2% and 72.4% respectively. The 3-year OS rate of patient with MZL, CLL/SLL, FL,WM was 94.7%, 87.7%, 86.8% and 83.3% respectively, while the 3-year OS rate of MCL was only 40.6%, which was significantly lower than other subtypes. The median OS of patients treated with BTK inhibitors and rituximab-based therapy was 20.5 and 18.5 months respectively, and the 3-year OS rate was 97.4% and 90.7%. However, the median PFS of patients receiving chemotherapy alone was 4 months, and the 1-year OS rate was 52.7%, which was statistically significant compared with the other two groups(P<0.05). Univarite analysis showed that anemia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, elevated β2-microglobulin, and splenomegaly were the poor prognostic factors for OS(P<0.05), elevated lactate dehydrogenase was also poor prognostic factors for PFS(P<0.05). Multifactor analysis showed that anemia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase were the independent poor prognostic factors for survival(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical features of B-CLPD was various, anemia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase are the prognostic factors for poor survival. BTK inhibitors and new immunotherapy can improve the survival and prognosis of patients in the new drug era.

Humans , Adult , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell , Prognosis , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone , Lactate Dehydrogenases
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 418-423, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984639


Objective: To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of 11 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with t (14;19) (q32;q13) . Methods: The case data of 11 patients with CLL with t (14;19) (q32;q13) in the chromosome karyotype analysis results of the Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 1, 2018, to July 30, 2022, were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In all 11 patients, t (14;19) (q32;q13) involved IGH::BCL3 gene rearrangement, and most of them were accompanied by +12 or complex karyotype. An immunophenotypic score of 4-5 was found in 7 patients and 3 in 4 cases. We demonstrated that CLLs with t (14;19) (q32;q13) had a mutational pattern with recurrent mutations in NOTCH1 (3/7), FBXW7 (3/7), and KMT2D (2/7). The very-high-risk, high-risk, intermediate-risk, and low-risk groups consisted of 1, 1, 6, and 3 cases, respectively. Two patients died, 8 survived, and 2 were lost in follow-up. Four patients had disease progression or relapse during treatment. The median time to the first therapy was 1 month. Conclusion: t (14;19) (q32;q13), involving IGH::BCL3 gene rearrangement, is a rare recurrent cytogenetic abnormality in CLL, which is associated with a poor prognosis.

Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Translocation, Genetic , Chromosome Aberrations , Karyotyping
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 380-387, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984633


Objective: To understand the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) /small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) among hematologists, oncologists, and lymphoma physicians from hospitals of different levels in China. Methods: This multicenter questionnaire survey was conducted from March 2021 to July 2021 and included 1,000 eligible physicians. A combination of face-to-face interviews and online questionnaire surveys was used. A standardized questionnaire regarding the composition of patients treated for CLL/SLL, disease diagnosis and prognosis evaluation, concomitant diseases, organ function evaluation, treatment selection, and Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor was used. Results: ①The interviewed physicians stated that the proportion of male patients treated for CLL/SLL is higher than that of females, and the age is mainly concentrated in 61-70 years old. ②Most of the interviewed physicians conducted tests, such as bone marrow biopsies and immunohistochemistry, for patient diagnosis, in addition to the blood test. ③Only 13.7% of the interviewed physicians fully grasped the initial treatment indications recommended by the existing guidelines. ④In terms of cognition of high-risk prognostic factors, physicians' knowledge of unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable and 11q- is far inferior to that of TP53 mutation and complex karyotype, which are two high-risk prognostic factors, and only 17.1% of the interviewed physicians fully mastered CLL International Prognostic Index scoring system. ⑤Among the first-line treatment strategy, BTK inhibitors are used for different types of patients, and physicians have formed a certain understanding that BTK inhibitors should be preferentially used in patients with high-risk factors and elderly patients, but the actual use of BTK inhibitors in different types of patients is not high (31.6%-46.0%). ⑥BTK inhibitors at a reduced dose in actual clinical treatment were used by 69.0% of the physicians, and 66.8% of the physicians had interrupted the BTK inhibitor for >12 days in actual clinical treatment. The use of BTK inhibitors is reduced or interrupted mainly because of adverse reactions, such as atrial fibrillation, severe bone marrow suppression, hemorrhage, and pulmonary infection, as well as patients' payment capacity and effective disease progression control. ⑦Some differences were found in the perceptions and behaviors of hematologists and oncologists regarding the prognostic assessment of CLL/SLL, the choice of treatment options, the clinical use of BTK inhibitors, etc. Conclusion: At present, a gap remains between the diagnosis and treatment of CLL/SLL among Chinese physicians compared with the recommendations in the guidelines regarding the diagnostic criteria, treatment indications, prognosis assessment, accompanying disease assessment, treatment strategy selection, and rational BTK inhibitor use, especially the proportion of dose reduction or BTK inhibitor discontinuation due to high adverse events.

Female , Humans , Male , Aged , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Prognosis , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Immunohistochemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/therapeutic use
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 14(Suplemento 2)20220800.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1412555


Objetivo: O presente estudo objetiva desenvolver um modelo de análise de impacto orçamentário (AIO) relacionada à incorporação do rituximabe no tratamento de primeira linha da leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC) no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Métodos: A elaboração da AIO foi realizada de acordo com as recomendações metodológicas das diretrizes brasileiras, considerando a perspectiva do SUS, horizonte temporal de cinco anos, população a ser tratada, diferentes cenários de market share do rituximabe e custos diretos envolvidos no tratamento atual e no tratamento proposto, e também foi executada uma análise de sensibilidade para avaliar possíveis incertezas futuras. Resultados: A cada ano e ao final do horizonte temporal de cinco anos, a incorporação do rituximabe promoverá aumento dos custos, quando comparado com o valor de ressarcimento do SUS para o tratamento de primeira linha da LLC. No cenário de maior participação de mercado do rituximabe, os custos totais foram menores em relação ao cenário de menor market share. Dado que a estimativa da AIO é para gastos futuros, incertezas relacionadas como a possível elevação do custo do medicamento foi o fator que promoveu o cenário de maiores gastos. Conclusões: A projeção de custos estimados pela AIO demonstrou menores gastos financeiros no cenário de maior difusão do medicamento, o que pode ter correlação com o atraso da progressão da doença ao utilizar o rituximabe, e consequentemente menos pacientes irão requerer segunda linha de tratamento, que tem custo mais elevado.

Objective: This study aims to develop a budget impact analysis (BIA) model related to the incorporation of rituximab in the first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in the Unified Health System (SUS). Methods: The preparation of the BIA was carried out in accordance with the methodological recommendations of the Brazilian guidelines, considering the perspective of the SUS, a time horizon of five years, population to be treated, different market share scenarios for rituximab and direct costs involved in the current treatment and treatment proposed, a sensitivity analysis was also performed to assess possible future uncertainties. Results: Each year and at the end of the five-year time horizon, the incorporation of rituximab will increase costs, when compared to the SUS reimbursement value for the first-line treatment of CLL. In the scenario of higher market share for rituximab, total costs were lower compared to the scenario of lower market share. Given that the BIA estimate is for future expenses, uncertainties related to the possible increase in the cost of the drug were the factor that promoted the scenario of higher expenses. Conclusions: The projection of costs estimated by the BIA showed lower financial expenses in the scenario of greater diffusion of the drug, which may be correlated with the delay in the progression of the disease when using rituximab and, consequently, fewer patients will require second-line treatment, which has a higher cost.

Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Rituximab , Analysis of the Budgetary Impact of Therapeutic Advances
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1411991


Objetivo: Estimar o custo do sequenciamento de tratamentos e por desfecho dos novos agentes disponíveis para o tratamento de pacientes com leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC) em primeira linha (1L) e segunda linha (2L) em um horizonte temporal de 15 anos sob a perspectiva do sistema de saúde suplementar brasileiro. Métodos: Foi desenvolvido um modelo de sobrevida particionada com quatro transições de estados de saúde (sem progressão em 1L, sem progressão em 2L, pós-progressão e morte), considerando os seguintes regimes: venetoclax + obinutuzumabe (VenO), venetoclax + rituximabe (VenR), ibrutinibe (Ibru) e acalabrutinibe (Acala). Foram consideradas na análise as posologias em bula e as curvas de sobrevida livre de progressão (SLP) dos respectivos estudos pivotais em cada uma das linhas terapêuticas. O custo total de cada sequência considerou a soma dos custos dos regimes utilizados em 1L e 2L, baseado no preço fábrica de cada medicamento. Resultados: As sequências de tratamento iniciadas com VenO apresentaram menores custos, especialmente o regime VenO>VenR (R$ 982.447), que apontou redução de aproximadamente R$ 3 milhões em 15 anos, quando comparada às sequências de Ibru>VenR ou Acala>VenR. Na análise de custo por desfecho, a sequência VenO>VenR apresentou o menor custo por ano de SLP (R$ 104.437), até 76% inferior em relação ao sequenciamento com maior custo por ano de SLP (Ibru>VenR). Conclusões: Os resultados desta análise demonstram o impacto significativo que a 1L de tratamento possui na jornada do paciente com LLC. Adicionalmente, o presente estudo aponta o menor custo de tratamento acumulado para o sequenciamento dos regimes VenO>VenR, sugerindo que os regimes de tratamento à base de venetoclax podem contribuir de maneira substancial em uma maior eficiência na alocação de recursos pelo gestor do sistema de saúde suplementar brasileiro.

Objective: To estimate the cost of treatment sequencing and per outcome of the new agents available for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in 1st line (1L) and 2nd line (2L) in a 15-years time horizon from the perspective of the Brazilian supplementary health system. Methods: A partitioned survival model including four health state transitions (no progression in 1L, no progression in 2L, post-progression and death) was developed, considering the following regimens: venetoclax + obinutuzumab (VenO), venetoclax + rituximab (VenR), ibrutinib (Ibru) and acalabrutinib (Acala). The package insert dosages and progression-free survival (PFS) curves of the respective pivotal studies in each of the therapeutic lines were considered in the analysis. The total cost of each sequence considered the sum of the costs of the regimens used in 1L and 2L, based on the factory price of each drug. Results: Lower costs were observed when treatment sequences were initiated with VenO, especially the VenO>VenR regimen (R$ 982,447), which showed a reduction of approximately R$ 3 million in 15 years when compared to the Ibru>VenR or Acala>VenR sequences. In the cost per outcome analysis, the sequence VenO>VenR had the lowest cost per year of PFS (R$ 104,437), up to 76% lower than the sequencing with the highest cost per year of PFS (Ibru>VenR). Conclusions: Results show the significant impact that 1L treatment has on the CLL patient's journey. Additionally, the present study points to the lowest accumulated treatment cost for the sequencing of VenO>VenR regimens, suggesting that venetoclax-based treatment regimens can substantially contribute to greater efficiency in the allocation of resources by the manager of the Brazilian supplementary health system.

Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Costs and Cost Analysis , Supplemental Health
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 63-69, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364896


Abstract Objective We evaluated the relevance of using the smudge cell percentage in the blood smear as a prognostic marker in CLL. Methods In this prospective study, 42 untreated Senegalese patients with CLL were enrolled. The diagnosis was established, based on the peripheral blood count and flow cytometry using the Matutes score. Cytogenetic aberrations, assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), were available for 30 patients, while the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IGVH) mutation status was performed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 24 patients. The SC percentage was determined in the blood smear, as previously described. Statistical analyses were executed using the GraphPad Prism 8. Results The mean age was 63 years (48 - 85) and the male: female sex ratio was 4.66. A low SC (< 30%) percentage was correlated with Binet stage B/C (p= 0.0009), CD38 expression (p= 0.039), unmutated IGVH status (p= 0.0009) and presence of cytogenetic abnormalities (for del 13q, p= 0.0012, while for other cytogenetic aberrations, p= 0.016). An inverse correlation was found between the SC percentage and the absolute lymphocyte count (r= -0.51) and patients with higher percentage of SCs had a prolonged survival. However, there was no correlation between the SC percentage and age (p= 0.41) or gender (median, 19% for males vs. 20% for females; p= 0.76). Conclusion When less than 30%, the SC was associated with a poor prognosis in CLL. Easy and affordable, the percentage of SCs in a blood smear could be a reliable prognostic marker, accessible to all CLL patients, mainly those in developing countries.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Prognosis , Senegal
Afr. j. AIDS res. (Online) ; 21(2): 1-6, 28 Jul 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1391077


Initial and subsequent waves of COVID-19 in Uganda disrupted the delivery of HIV care. In rural areas, village health teams and organisations on the ground had to develop strategies to ensure that people living with HIV could continue their treatment. It was necessary to take evolving circumstances into account, including dealing with movement restrictions, constrained access to food and stigma due to anonymity being lost as a result of a shift from health facility-based services to community-level support. Uganda has a long history of community-driven response to HIV, although health systems and response programming have become more centralised through government and donors to address political commitments to HIV treatment and other targets. The delivery system for antiretroviral therapy was vulnerable to the impacts of COVID-19 restrictions and related circumstances. To understand the continuum of challenges, and to inform ongoing and future support of treatment for people living with HIV, interviews were conducted with HIV organisation implementers, health workers, village health team members and people living with HIV. It was found that stigma was a central challenge, which led to nuanced adaptations for delivering antiretroviral treatment. There is a need to strengthen support to households of people living with HIV through improving community capacity to manage crises through improving household food gardens and savings, as well as capacity to organise and interact with support systems such as the village health teams. In communities, there is a need to evoke dialogue on stigma and to support community leadership on pressing issues that affect communities as a whole and their vulnerable groups. There are opportunities to reawaken the grassroots civic response systems that were evident in Uganda's early response to HIV yet were lacking in the COVID-19 context.

Patient Care Team , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , HIV , COVID-19 , Community Health Workers , Community Participation
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32402, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373282


Introdução: A associação de leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC) e melanoma tem sido estudada nos últimos anos. Acredita-se que a imunossupressão causada pelo tratamento da doença seja o fator de risco mais importante para o aumento da susceptibilidade ao desenvolvimento e disseminação do câncer de pele. Relato de Caso: Este relato de caso descreve homem de 53 anos, em tratamento de leucemia linfocítica crônica desde 2018, já submetido a diversos ciclos de quimioterapia com fludarabina. Apresentou histórico de exérese de melanoma nodular epitelioide no couro cabeludo em 2019, removido com margens livres. Um ano após a cirurgia, paciente evoluiu com piora do estado geral com necessidade de hospitalização. Investigação adicional revelou focos de metástase em pulmões, fígado, rins, estômago, sistema nervoso central e linfonodos. Análise histopatológica foi positiva para melanoma. A possibilidade de tratamento foi descartada pela equipe de oncologia, que sugeriu cuidados paliativos. Discussão: Um dos mecanismos mais discutidos para explicar esta associação de neoplasias é a imunossupressão resultante do tratamento da LLC, que deixa o paciente suscetível ao desenvolvimento e à disseminação do melanoma. Além disso, a fludarabina, quimioterápico geralmente usado para remissão da LLC, é conhecida por depletar células T-helper e tem sido descrita como cofator deste processo. A associação de leucemia e melanoma cutâneo têm sido descrita nos últimos anos, porém não há nenhum protocolo de tratamento para esta condição.

BACKGROUND: The association of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and melanoma have been studied in the last years. The immunosuppression caused by the treatment of CLL seems to be the major factor of increasing patients' susceptibility to the development and spread of skin cancer. CASE REPORT: This case report describes a 53-year-old male patient, in CLL treatment since 2018, already submitted to many cycles of chemotherapy with fludarabine. History of an exeresis of epithelioid nodular melanoma of the scalp in 2019, which was removed with a clear margin. One year later, he presented with a poor general condition with hospitalization indication. Additional investigation revealed metastatic lesions in lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, central nervous system, and lymph nodes. Histopathologic analysis positive for melanoma. The possibility of treatment was discarded by the Oncology team, which suggested palliative care. DISCUSSION: One of the most discussed mechanisms to explain this cancer association is the immunosuppression developed during the treatment of CLL, increasing patients' susceptibility to the development and spread of melanoma. In addition, the use of fludarabine, a chemotherapy commonly used in relapsed CLL, is known to deplete T-helper cells and has been described as a cofactor of this process. The association of leukemia and cutaneous melanoma has been reported in the last years, yet there is no surveillance protocol.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Immunosuppression Therapy , Medical Oncology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19946, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383979


Abstract The present study evaluated 56 patients diagnosed with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and a control group of 44 clinically healthy subjects with no previous history of leukemia. Genetic expressions of AKT and microRNAs were evaluated by quantitative PCR (qPCR). A significant increase in AKT gene expression in patients when compared to controls was observed (p = 0.017). When the patients were stratified according to Binet subgroups, a significant difference was observed between the subgroups, with this protein kinase appearing more expressed in the B+C subgroup (p = 0.013). Regarding miRNA expression, miR-let-7b and miR-26a were reduced in CLL patients, when compared to controls. However, no significant differences were observed in these microRNA expressions between the Binet subgroups (A versus B+C). By contrast, miR-21 to miR-27a oncogenes showed no expression difference between CLL patients and controls. AKT protein kinase is involved in the signaling cascade that occurs with BCR receptor activation, leading to increased lymphocyte survival and protection against the induction of cell death in CLL. Thus, increased AKT protein kinase expression and the reduction of miR-let-7b and miR-26a, both tumor suppressors, may explain increased lymphocyte survival in CLL patients and may be promising markers for the prognostic evaluation of this disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Protein Kinases , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology , Patients , Gene Expression/genetics , Apoptosis , MicroRNAs/pharmacology , Healthy Volunteers
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19332, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384002


Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a blood cancer characterized by the accumulation of clonal B-lymphocytes. This study evaluated the mRNA gene expression of miR-15a, miR-16- 1, ZAP-70, and Ang-2 by qPCR, as well as the plasma levels of Bcl-2 by Elisa immunoassay, in CLL patients and healthy controls. Significant differences were observed when comparing patients and controls regarding miR-15a (p < 0.001), miR-16-1 (p < 0.001) mRNA, Ang-2 gene expression, and Bcl-2 plasma levels (p < 0.001). When stratified by risk, differences were maintained with a significantly reduced expression in high-risk patients. A positive correlation was observed between miR-15a and platelets (R2 = 0.340; p = 0.009) as well as between Bcl-2 and leukocytes (R2 = 0.310; p = 0.019). Conversely, negative correlations were observed between ZAP-70 and platelets (R2 = - 0.334; p = 0.011), between miR-15a and lymphocytes (R2 = - 0.376; p = 0.004), as well as between miR-16-and lymphocytes (R2 = - 0.515; p = 0.00004). The data suggest that a reduction in miR-15a and miR-16-1 expressions, in addition to an overexpression of Bcl-2, are associated with the reduction in apoptosis and, consequently, to a longer survival of lymphocytes, thus contributing to lymphocyte accumulation and aggravation of the disease. By contrast, Ang-2 expression was significantly higher in A than in B + C Binet groups. This context leads to the speculation that this biomarker should be investigated in more robust studies within populations with a still relevantly indolent form of the disease in an attempt to identify those patients with a greater potential for an aggravation of the disease

Humans , Male , Female , Biomarkers/analysis , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology , ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase/analysis , Patients , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Gene Expression , Apoptosis
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 221-228, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929561


Objective: To investigate whether haplotype hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is effective in the treatment of pre transplant minimal residual disease (Pre-MRD) positive acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) compared with HLA- matched sibling donor transplantation (MSDT) . Methods: A total of 998 patients with B-ALL in complete remission pre-HSCT who either received haplo-HSCT (n=788) or underwent MSDT (n=210) were retrospectively analyzed. The pre-transplantation leukemia burden was evaluated according to Pre-MRD determinedusing multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) . Results: Of these patients, 997 (99.9% ) achieved sustained, full donor chimerism. The 100-day cumulative incidences of neutrophil engraftment, platelet engraftment, and grades Ⅱ-Ⅳ acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 99.9% (997/998) , 95.3% (951/998) , and 26.6% (95% CI 23.8% -29.4% ) , respectively. The 3-year cumulative incidence of total chronic GVHD was 49.1% (95% CI 45.7% -52.4% ) . The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) of the 998 cases were 17.3% (95% CI 15.0% -19.7% ) and 13.8% (95% CI 11.6% -16.0% ) , respectively. The 3-year probabilities of leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were 69.1% (95% CI 66.1% -72.1% ) and 73.0% (95% CI 70.2% -75.8% ) , respectively. In the total patient group, cases with positive Pre-MRD (n=282) experienced significantly higher CIR than that of subjects with negative Pre-MRD [n=716, 31.6% (95% CI 25.8% -37.5% ) vs 14.3% (95% CI 11.4% -17.2% ) , P<0.001]. For patients in the positive Pre-MRD subgroup, cases treated with haplo-HSCT (n=219) had a lower 3-year CIR than that of cases who underwent MSDT [n=63, 27.2% (95% CI 21.0% -33.4% ) vs 47.0% (95% CI 33.8% -60.2% ) , P=0.002]. The total 998 cases were classified as five subgroups, including cases with negative Pre-MRD group (n=716) , cases with Pre-MRD<0.01% group (n=46) , cases with Pre-MRD 0.01% -<0.1% group (n=117) , cases with Pre-MRD 0.1% -<1% group (n=87) , and cases with Pre-MRD≥1% group (n=32) . For subjects in the Pre-MRD<0.01% group, haplo-HSCT (n=40) had a lower CIR than that of MSDT [n=6, 10.0% (95% CI 0.4% -19.6% ) vs 32.3% (95% CI 0% -69.9% ) , P=0.017]. For patients in the Pre-MRD 0.01% -<0.1% group, haplo-HSCT (n=81) also had a lower 3-year CIR than that of MSDT [n=36, 20.4% (95% CI 10.4% -30.4% ) vs 47.0% (95% CI 29.2% -64.8% ) , P=0.004]. In the other three subgroups, the 3-year CIR was comparable between patients who underwent haplo-HSCT and those received MSDT. A subgroup analysis of patients with Pre-MRD<0.1% (n=163) was performed, the results showed that cases received haplo-HSCT (n=121) experienced lower 3-year CIR [16.0% (95% CI 9.4% -22.7% ) vs 40.5% (95% CI 25.2% -55.8% ) , P<0.001], better 3-year LFS [78.2% (95% CI 70.6% -85.8% ) vs 47.6% (95% CI 32.2% -63.0% ) , P<0.001] and OS [80.5% (95% CI 73.1% -87.9% ) vs 54.6% (95% CI 39.2% -70.0% ) , P<0.001] than those of MSDT (n=42) , but comparable in 3-year NRM [5.8% (95% CI 1.6% -10.0% ) vs 11.9% (95% CI 2.0% -21.8% ) , P=0.188]. Multivariate analysis showed that haplo-HSCT was associated with lower CIR (HR=0.248, 95% CI 0.131-0.472, P<0.001) , and superior LFS (HR=0.275, 95% CI 0.157-0.483, P<0.001) and OS (HR=0.286, 95% CI 0.159-0.513, P<0.001) . Conclusion: Haplo HSCT has a survival advantage over MSDT in the treatment of B-ALL patients with pre MRD<0.1% .

Humans , B-Lymphocytes , Graft vs Host Disease , HLA Antigens/genetics , Haplotypes , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Leukemia, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Neoplasm, Residual , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Siblings
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971352


OBJECTIVES@#Immunophenotyping technique is a powerful tool for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative diseases (B-CLPD). CD200 is strongly expressed in CLL. This study aims to analyze the clinical value of modified Matutes score (MMS) containing CD200 in the diagnosis of CLL.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed 103 B-CLPD patients diagnosed from January 2020 to July 2021, including 64 CLL patients, 11 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients, 14 mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients, 6 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) patients, 1 hairy cell leukemia (HCL) patient, and 7 lymphoplasmic lymphoma/Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM) patients. The expression of CD markers between the CLL group and the non-CLL group was compared, and the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical consistency of MMS and Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) immunophenotyping score system were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#There were significant differences in the expressions of CD5, CD23, FMC7, CD22, CD79b, CD200, and sIg between the CLL group and the non-CLL group (χ2 values were 37.42, 54.98, 30.71, 11.67, 55.26, 68.48, and 17.88, respectively, all P<0.01). When the RMH immunophenotyping score≥4, the sensitivity was 79.7%, and the specificity was 100%. When the MMS≥3, the sensitivity was 95.3%, and the specificity was 100%. The Kappa coefficient of RMH immunophenotyping system was 0.677, and the Kappa coefficient of MMS system was 0.860.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The MMS system containing CD200 has better sensitivity and same specificity compared with RMH immunophenotyping system, and MMS system may be more useful in the diagnosis of CLL.

Humans , Adult , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology , Retrospective Studies , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone , Flow Cytometry/methods
Iatreia ; 34(4): 370-374, oct.-dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350837


RESUMEN Las alteraciones genéticas en el gen TP53 están presentes entre el 5 al 8 % de los pacientes de leucemia linfocítica crónica (LLC) en el momento del diagnóstico. Estos casos se relacionan con un mal pronóstico debido a su resistencia al tratamiento estándar. Presentamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 52 años diagnosticado con LLC, expresión del marcador CD38 y una deleción en el gen TP53 (17p13.1). Tras la evaluación posterior del tratamiento, se observó enfermedad mínima residual lo que llevó a un trasplante haploidéntico de progenitores hematopoyéticos. Debido al alto riesgo de recaída, su edad y la ausencia de comorbilidades, era la única opción curativa hasta la fecha para la LLC. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una revisión de la literatura que sirva como base para analizar el caso clínico presentado, en el marco de las implicaciones clínicas, pronóstico y respuesta al tratamiento en los individuos con LLC que presentan alteraciones en el gen TP53.

SUMMARY Genetic alterations in the TP53 gene are present in 5 to 8% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases at the time of diagnosis. These cases are typically associated with poor prognosis due to their resistance against standard CLL treatment. In our report a 52-yearold male patient was diagnosed with CLL, CD38 expression and a deletion in the TP53 gene (17p13.1). Upon evaluation post-treatment, minimal residual disease (MDR) was observed, and a haploidentical stem cell transplant was performed. Because of the high risk of relapse, his age, and the absence of comorbidities it was the only curative option to date for CLL. The purpose of this article is to complete a literature review that will give a basis to analyze the clinical case presented, within the framework of the clinical implications, prognosis, and response to treatment in patients with CLL who present with aberrations of the TP53 gene.

Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Genes, p53 , Research Report