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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251336, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355879


Abstract Bulbine natalensis and Chorophytum comosum are potential medicinal source for the treatment of cancers. Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a hematopoietic stem cells disorder treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors but often cause recurrence of the leukaemia after cessation of therapy, hence require alternative treatment. This study determines the anti-cancer effect of leaf, root and bulb methanolic and aqueous extracts of B. natalensis and C. comosum in chronic human myelogenous leukaemia (K562) cell line by MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimide nuclear and annexin V stain assays. The root methanolic extract of B. natalensis and C. comosum showed a high cytotoxicity of 8.6% and 16.7% respectively on the K562 cell line at 1,000 μg/ml concentration. Morphological loss of cell membrane integrity causing degradation of the cell and fragmentation were observed in the root methanolic extract of both plants. A high apoptosis (p < 0.0001) was induced in the K562 cells by both leaf and root extracts of the C. comosum compared to the B. natalensis. This study shows both plants possess apoptotic effect against in vitro myelogenous leukaemia which contributes to the overall anti-cancer properties of B. natalensis and C. comosum to justify future therapeutic applications against chronic myelogenous leukaemia blood cancer.

Resumo Bulbine natalensis Baker e Chorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques são potenciais fontes medicinais para o tratamento de cânceres. A Leucemia Mieloide Crônica (LMC) é um distúrbio das células-tronco hematopoiéticas que é tratado com inibidores da tirosina quinase, mas frequentemente, causa recorrência da leucemia após a interrupção da terapia, portanto, requer um tratamento alternativo. Este estudo determinou o efeito anticancerígeno de extratos metanólicos e aquosos de folha, raiz e bulbo de B. natalensis e C. comosum na linhagem celular de leucemia mieloide humana crônica (K562) por ensaios de MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimida nuclear e anexina V. O extrato metanólico da raiz de B. natalensis e C. comosum apresentou alta citotoxidade de 8,6% e 16,7% respectivamente, na linhagem celular K562 com a concentração de 1,000 μg / ml. Perda morfológica da integridade da membrana celular causando degradação dos núcleos, citoplasma e encolhimento celular foi observada no extrato metanólico da raiz de ambas as plantas. Uma alta apoptose (p <0,0001) foi induzida nas células K562 por extratos de folhas e raízes de C. comosum em comparação com B. natalensis. Este estudo mostrou que ambas as plantas possuem efeito apoptótico contra leucemia mieloide in vitro que contribui para as propriedades anticâncer gerais de B. natalensis e C. comosum para justificar futuras aplicações terapêuticas contra câncer de sangue de LMC.

Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Asphodelaceae , Apoptosis , K562 Cells
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 54-62, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929530


Objective: To explore the impacts of socio-demographic and clinical co-variates on treatment responses and outcomes in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and identified the predictive models for them. Methods: Data of newly diagnosed adult patients with CML-CP receiving first-line TKI and having complete socio-demographic data and clinical information were reviewed. Cox model was used to identify the independent variables associated with complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) , major molecular response (MMR) , molecular response 4 (MR(4)) and molecular response 4.5 (MR(4.5)) , as well as failure-free survival (FFS) , progression-free survival (PFS) , overall survival (OS) and CML-related OS. Results: A total of 1414 CML-CP patients treated with first-line imatinib (n=1176) , nilotinib (n=170) or dasatinib (n=68) were reviewed. Median age was 40 (18-83) years and 873 patients (61.7% ) were males. Result of the multivariate analysis showed that lower educational level (P<0.001-0.070) and EUTOS long-term survival intermediate or high-risk (P<0.001-0.009) were significantly associated with lower cumulative incidences of CCyR, MMR, MR(4) and MR(4.5), as well as the inferior FFS, PFS, OS and CML-related OS. In addition, those who were males, from rural households, had white blood cells (WBC) ≥120×10(9)/L, hemoglobin (HGB) <115 g/L and treated with first-line imatinib had significantly lower cumulative incidences of cytogenetic and/or molecular responses. Being single, divorced or widowed, having, rural household registration, WBC≥120×10(9)/L, HGB<15 g/L, and comorbidity (ies) was significantly associated with inferior FFS, PFS, OS, and/or CML-related OS. Thereafter, the patients were classified into several subgroups using the socio-demographic characteristics and clinical variables by cytogenetic and molecular responses, treatment failure and disease progression, as well as overall survival and CML-related OS, respectively. There were significant differences in treatment responses and outcomes among the subgroups (P<0.001) . Conclusion: Except for clinical co-variates, socio-demographic co-variates significantly correlated with TKI treatment responses and outcomes in CML-CP patients. Models established by the combination of independent socio-demographic and clinical co-variates could effectively predict the responses and outcome.

Adult , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Dasatinib/therapeutic use , Demography , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Male , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928666


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of the second-line nilotinib and third-line dasatinib on chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) with failed first- and second-line treatments, and analyze the influencing factors of the efficacy.@*METHODS@#Selected 83 patients in The Third People's Hospital of Kunshan City, Jiangsu Province with CML who were treated with nilotinib as the second-line treatment after the failure of the first-line treatment with imatinib as the second-line treatment group (referred to as the second-line group) from January 2014 to December 2018, and 61 CML patients who were treated by dasatinib as the third-line treatment group (referred to as the third-line group) after the failure of the second-line treatment with nilotinib; the first-line treatment with imatinib failed, but due to various reasons, the patients were fully after being informed of the possible serious consequences of not changing the drug treatment, 37 CML patients who were still required to continue imatinib treatment served as the control group. The hematological, genetic and molecular responses of each group were compared for 3, 6, and 24 months of treatment. LogistiC regression was used to analyze the factors affecting the second and third line curative effects.@*RESULTS@#The three groups had statistically significant differences in the rates of achieving CHR, MCyR, and MMR at 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment (P<0.05). Compared the two groups, the CHR rates of the second-line group at 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment were 100.00%, 97.59%, and 95.18%, respectively; higher than the third-line group's 90.16%, 86.89%, 83.61% and the control group's 83.78%, 75.68% and 72.97%; the CHR rate of the third-line group was higher than that of the control group at 6 and 12 months of treatment. The rates of reaching MCyR at 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment in the second-line group were 87.95%, 93.98% and 93.98%, respectively, while those in the third-line group were 80.33%, 88.52% and 86.89%, which were higher than those of the control group of 67.57%, 64.86% and 48.65%. The rates of achieving MMR at 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment in the second-line group were 19.28%, 33.72% and 60.24%, respectively, and those in the third-line group were 11.48%, 26.23% and 49.18%, which were higher than those of the control group of 0.00%, 2.70% and 0.00%; The rate of reaching MMR within 12 months of treatment in the second-line group was higher than that of the third-line group, and the differences was statistically significant (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of reaching MCyR between the second-line group and the third-line group at 3, 6, and 12 months, and the rate of reaching MMR at 3 and 6 months (P>0.05). The incidence of nausea and vomiting among the three main non-hematological adverse reactions, and the incidence of grade 1~2 anemia among the hematological adverse reactions were statistically significant (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of rash, eyelid edema, diarrhea, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia and neutropenia in the three groups (P>0.05). The incidence of nausea and vomiting and grade 1~2 anemia in the second-line group and the third-line group were higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in Sokal score, medication compliance, and hematological adverse reactions between the MMR group and the non-MMR group (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that dose reduction or withdrawal during the treatment period, and grade 3~4 hematological adverse reactions were the main factors affecting the second and third line curative effects (OR=22.160, 2.715, 95% CI=2.795-93.027, 1.882-48.834).@*CONCLUSION@#The second-line nilotinib and the third-line dasatinib have a better effect on CML patients who have failed the first and second-line treatments. Grade 3~4 hematological adverse reactions, dose reduction or withdrawal are risk factors that affect the efficacy of second and third-line treatments.

Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Dasatinib/therapeutic use , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e10685, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249326


Tanshinone I (Tan I) is one of the main bioactive ingredients derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which has exhibited antitumor activities toward various human cancer cells. However, its effects and underlying mechanisms on human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells still require further investigation. This study determined the effects and mechanisms of anti-proliferative and apoptosis induction activity induced by Tan I against K562 cells. The cytotoxic effect of Tan I at varying concentrations on K562 cells was evaluated via MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was further investigated through DAPI staining and flow cytometry analysis. The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins and activities of JNK/ATF2 and ERK signaling pathways were analyzed by western blot. Quantitative PCR was performed to further determine mRNA expression levels of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 after Tan I treatment. The results indicated that Tan I significantly inhibited K562 cell growth and induced apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. It induced significant cellular morphological changes and increased apoptosis rates in CML cells. Tan I promoted the cleavages of caspase-related proteins, as well as increased the expression levels of PUMA. Furthermore, Tan I significantly activated JNK and inhibited ATF-2 and ERK signaling pathways. The mRNA expression levels of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 were up-regulated by Tan I, further confirming its regulatory effects on JNK/ERK signaling pathways. Overall, our results indicated that Tan I suppressed cell viability via JNK- and ERK-mediated apoptotic pathways in K562 cells, suggesting that it might be a promising candidate as a novel anti-leukemia drug.

Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Abietanes/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880097


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of domestic imatinib (made in China) in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia chronic phase(CML-CP).@*METHODS@#Fifty-seven newly diagnosed CML-CP patients who did not receive any other anti-CML treatment were treated by domestic imatinib 400 mg once a day. The hematological, cytogenetic and molecular reactions and safety were observed and evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment.@*RESULTS@#Fifty-six patients were treated for ≥3 and 6 months, among which 50 patients were treated for ≥12 months. After 3 months of treatment, 49 patients underwent hematological examination, 47 patients (95.9%) achieved complete hematological response (CHR), 49 patients underwent cytogenetic examination, 39 patients (79.6%) achieved major cytogenetic response (MCyR), and 12 patients (24.5%) achieved complete cytogenetic response (CCyR). 49 patients underwent the level of BCR-ABL test, including 41 patients (83.7%) with BCR-ABL@*CONCLUSION@#In the real world, Domestics imatinib mesylate is effective and safe in the treatment of newly diagnosed CML-CP patients, but long-term follow-up data are still necessary to verify its long-term efficacy.

Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides/therapeutic use , China , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Piperazines , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880087


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of etoposide (ETO) on elimination of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) stem cells by imatinib mesylate(IM) in vivo.@*METHODS@#SCL-tTA/BCR-ABL mice were used as CML animal model. Flow cytometry was used to assess the effect of ETO alone or in combination with IM on the number of leukemia stem cell (LSC) in bone marrow and spleen, and peripheral blood neutrophils in CML mice and normal control FVB mice.@*RESULTS@#The results showed that in CML mice, the number and proportion of LSC in bone marrow and the proportion of neutrophils in peripheral blood decreased significantly after ETO and IM combined treatment, and the degree of decrease was more significant than that of both alone. While in wild type FVB mice, the combination of ETO and IM showed no significant effect on the number and proportion of LSK cells in bone marrow and the proportion of neutrophils in spleen.@*CONCLUSION@#ETO can selectively enhance elimination of CML LSC by IM in vivo.

Animals , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Etoposide , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl , Imatinib Mesylate , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Mice , Stem Cells
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1752-1756, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922329


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the curative efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of e19a2 transcript (P230) CML chronic phase (CML-CP) patients.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 11 P230 CML-CP patients were collected from July 2008 to December 2019. Blood routine examination, bone marrow cytology, chromosome, and BCR-ABL qualitative and quantitative tests were performed at initial diagnosis. After TKIs treatment, BCR-ABL (P230)/ABL in peripheral blood was regularly detected to evaluate molecular response by real-time quantitative PCR.@*RESULTS@#There were 11 patients (7 males and 4 females) in chronic phase from 6 domestic hospitals enrolled, their median age was 46 years old (range from 19 to 56 years old). Among 4 patients treated with imatinib (400 mg, qd) firstly, 3 cases switched to nilotinib (400 mg, bid) and 1 case switched to dasatinib (100 mg, qd) due to failure to achieve best molecular response at the landmark time or mutation of ABL kinase. Then major molecular response (MMR) was obtained within 1 year. In addition, 5 patients were treated with nilotinib (300 mg, bid) and 2 patients with dasatinib (100 mg, qd) as first-line treatment, all of them got MMR within 6 months.@*CONCLUSION@#For intolerance or resistance to imatinib, second-generation TKIs can enable P230 CML patients to achieve deeper molecular response, and MMR in a short time.

Adult , Dasatinib , Female , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Young Adult
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1746-1751, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922328


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics of the patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) discontinued tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) therapy and the outcome of the patients.@*METHODS@#35 cases of CML patients experienced initiative discontinuation of TKI therapy in our hospital from June 1st 2015 to December 31th 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The TFR of the patients and the factors affecting it were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The median duration of TKI administration was 72 (range 35-173) months in the 35 patients. Among these patients, 8 had experienced TKI dose reduction or suspension. All the enrolled patients have achieved at least MMR. The median time for these patients achieving MMR was 15 (range 3-75) months after administration of TKI, and for MMR maintenance before TKI suspension was 55 (range 13-164) months. After TKI withdrawal the median follow up time was 20.3 (range 3-57.9) months, 22 out of 35 patients kept TFR, among them, 2 (5.71%) patients restarted TKI after 12 month suspension, and maintained MMR during suspension. 13 (37.1%)patients lost MMR, among them, 9 patients restarted TKI treatment, and 5 of them achieved MR4.0 after the median duration of 3(2-5) month. No patients were found to have disease progression. The estimated TFR rate was 57.8% and 51.8% at 12 and 24 months after discontinuation, respectively. Other clinical characteristic related to relapse were also analyzed, including the cumulative TKI administration duration, cumulative MMR duration, time to achieve MMR, median age at diagnosis, risk stratification by Sokal score, TKI dose reduction and discontinuation history, and second-generation TKI administration before stopping TKI, however, no statistical difference was found.@*CONCLUSION@#TKI discontinuation is practical for CML patients in our center.

Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(3): 366-369, July-Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134844


ABSTRACT Imatinib, which inhibits tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr-Abl protein, is a standard form of treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Through its immunomodulatory effect it affects T cell function in a number of ways. It inhibits antigen-induced T cell activation and proliferation. Antigen-specific T-cells and macrophages are vital for protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we present a case of renal tuberculosis associated with imatinib therapy in the maintenance phase of CML. With granulomatous interstitial nephritis and positive tubercular DNA on renal biopsy, the condition was successfully treated with anti-tubercular therapy. This case provides support to the hypothesis that imatinib therapy in CML increases the susceptibility to tuberculosis and strict vigilance is required to enable its early detection and treatment.

RESUMO O imatinibe, um inibidor da atividade da tirosina-quinase da proteína BCR-ABL, faz parte do padrão de tratamento para leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC). Por conta de seu efeito imunomodulador, o imatinibe afeta a função dos linfócitos T de várias maneiras ao inibir a sua ativação e proliferação induzidas por antígenos. Linfócitos T e macrófagos antígeno-específicos são vitais para a proteção contra o Mycobacterium tuberculosis. O presente artigo relata um caso de tuberculose renal associada a terapia com imatinibe na fase de manutenção da LMC. Com nefrite intersticial granulomatosa e positividade para DNA de M. tuberculosis na biópsia renal, o paciente foi tratado com sucesso com terapia antituberculínica. O presente caso corrobora a hipótese de que a terapia com imatinibe na LMC aumenta a suscetibilidade à tuberculose, exigindo vigilância rigorosa para permitir sua detecção e tratamento precoces.

Humans , Male , Adult , Tuberculosis, Renal/chemically induced , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Imatinib Mesylate/administration & dosage , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Benzamides/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
Acta méd. costarric ; 60(1): 21-26, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886397


Resumen Justificación y objetivo: la leucemia mieloide crónica constituye un paradigma de reversión de neoplasia con un tratamiento específico basado en los inhibidores de tirosina quinasa. Aunque la situación epidemiológica ha sido estudiada en países primermundistas, los estudios en Latinoamérica son escasos. Con el fin de actualizar la situación real de la LMC en la región centroamericana, el estudio pretende describir la epidemiología de la leucemia mieloide crónica en Costa Rica. Métodos: se evaluaron 133 pacientes con la enfermedad, mediante monitoreo hematológico y molecular. Se analizó la respuesta de estos casos a tratamiento conforme a las siguientes variables: respuesta hematológica, respuesta molecular y supervivencia global, libre de evento, progresión, así como la prevalencia de mutaciones que confieren resistencia al tratamiento. Resultados: la respuesta hematológica completa fue del 97,7%, y la molecular mayor, a los 12 meses, fue del 43,4%. El seguimiento recomendado por la guía European LeukemiaNet se alcanzó solo en un 68,4% de los pacientes en el primer año, bajando al 57,7%, posteriormente. Un total de 92 pacientes alcanzó respuesta molecular mayor en algún momento; de ellos, el 87,0% conservó respuesta. La supervivencia libre de evento a 3 años fue del 65,7%, libre de progresión del 92,2% y global del 89,2%. La mutación más frecuente encontrada en el gen ABL fue la T315I. Conclusión: el tratamiento de la leucemia mieloide crónica en Costa Rica presenta una eficacia comparable a lo reportado en otros países, con una respuesta molecular mayor inferior a lo esperado, debido a dificultades de acceso al medicamento y monitoreo de la enfermedad.

Abstract Background and aim: Chronic myeloid leukemia is a paradigm of reversion of neoplasia with a specific treatment based on tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Although the epidemiological situation has been studied in first world countries, studies in Latin American countries are scarce. In order to update the real situation of the chronic myeloid leukemia in our Central American region, this study aims to describe the epidemiology of chronic myeloid leukemia in Costa Rica. Methods: 133 patients with the disease were evaluated through hematological and molecular monitoring. The response of these cases to treatment was analyzed by the following variables: haematological response, molecular response and overall survival, event-free, progression, as well as the prevalence of mutations that confer resistance to treatment. Results: The complete haematological response was 97.7% and the molecular response greater than 12 months was 43.4%. The follow-up recommended by the European LeukemiaNet guideline was reached in only 68.4% of the patients in the first year, decreasing to 57.7% later on. A total of 92 patients achieved a higher molecular response at some point, of which 87.0% retained a response. The 3-year event-free survival was 65.7%, progression free of 92.2% and overall of 89.2%. The most frequent mutation found in the ABL gene was T315I. Conclusion: The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in Costa Rica presents an efficacy comparable to that reported in other countries, with a lower molecular response than expected due to difficulties in accessing medication and monitoring the disease.

Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid , Costa Rica , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Molecular Conformation
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(3): 161-166, jun. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894451


La supervivencia a cinco años de los pacientes con leucemia mieloide crónica en fase crónica tratados con inhibidores de tirosina quinasa es superior al 90%. Existen escasos datos a nivel local. Esta información puede ser de interés, ya que el imatinib genérico se encuentra disponible en la región. El objetivo del presente estudio es proporcionar información del monitoreo y los resultados a largo plazo del tratamiento con imatinib fuera de un ensayo clínico controlado, así como analizar el valor predictivo de respuestas tempranas para el logro de respuesta molecular 4.0 y la detección de variables que puedan condicionar falla al tratamiento. Se incluyeron 106 pacientes tratados con imatinib 400 mg diarios como inhibidor de primera línea durante una mediana de 8.9 años IQR (5.8-11.7) entre junio del 2000 y diciembre del 2015. La supervivencia global fue de 93%. En la última evaluación, 74% de los pacientes continuaba recibiendo el imatinib inicial. La obtención de respuesta en los objetivos temporales específicos (6, 12 meses) se asoció con mayor supervivencia libre de falla: 87% vs. 56%, p = 0.007; 90% vs. 69% p = 0.01 y mayor adquisición de respuesta molecular 4.0: OR 5.6 (IC 95% 1.6-19.0) p = 0.003; OR 5.3 (IC 95% 1.4-21.0) p = 0.006. Luego del prolongado seguimiento, el imatinib proporcionó altas tasas de respuesta y supervivencia. Se confirmó el valor pronóstico de la respuesta en momentos temporales específicos. Este estudio refuerza la importancia del monitoreo estandarizado en los puntos temporales conocidos, que debe continuar siendo un objetivo en Argentina.

The expected five-year survival of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is over 90%. Little data is available regarding the results in the Argentinian population. This information might be of interest as generic imatinib is now available in the region. The aim of this study is to provide information on monitoring and the long-term treatment with imatinib outside of a controlled clinical trial, as well as to analyze the predictive effect of early responses to achieve molecular remission 4.0 (RM 4.0) and the detection of variables that may condition treatment failure. We included 106 patients, who received imatinib 400 mg daily as first-line inhibitor for a median of 8.9 years (IQR 5.8-11.7) between June 2000 and December, 2015. Overall survival was 93%. At latest follow-up 74% of patients continues on initial imatinib. The achievement of response at targeted milestones (6, 12 months) was associated with increased failure-free survival: 87% vs. 56%, p = 0.007; 90% vs. 69% p = 0.01 and was independently associated to RM 4.0: OR 5.6 (95% CI: 1.6-19.0); OR 5.3 (95% CI: 1.4-21.0) p = 0.006. After long-term follow-up, imatinib provided high-rates of response and survival. The prognostic value of response at targeted milestones was confirmed. This study reinforces the importance of molecular monitoring under IS standardization at known timepoints and this must continue to be a target in Argentina.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Survival Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Follow-Up Studies
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(1): 61-72, feb. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841634


Actualmente las guías clínicas para el manejo de pacientes con leucemia mieloide crónica incluyen el monitoreo molecular de BCR-ABL1 por PCR cuantitativa en tiempo real; esta metodología permite definir la respuesta molecular. A pesar de la probada importancia pronóstica de la respuesta molecular, en muchos casos no se tiene en cuenta que la PCR cuantitativa puede producir datos muy variables, que pueden afectar la validez de los resultados, y hacer difícil la comparación entre diferentes laboratorios. Por lo tanto, para un manejo clínico óptimo, es absolutamente necesaria la estandarización de las metodologías de medición de BCR-ABL1. La estrategia para obtener valores de BCR-ABL1 comparables consiste en la adopción de la escala internacional. La conversión a la escala internacional se logra mediante la aplicación de un factor de conversión específico para cada laboratorio; este factor de conversión se puede obtener mediante el uso de calibradores secundarios validados, que hoy se producen en Argentina, en el marco del programa nacional de armonización. Por otra parte, con el objetivo de mitigar las diferencias entre laboratorios y facilitar criterios uniformes en la interpretación de los resultados y presentación de los informes, decidimos preparar estas guías de laboratorio. Esto permitirá además a los laboratorios poder evaluar su calidad de trabajo, tarea muy importante, en particular para aquellos centros más aislados, que no tienen fácil acceso a costosos kits comerciales o programas internacionales de intercambio de muestras.

Current clinical guidelines for managing chronic myeloid leukemia include molecular monitoring of BCR-ABL1 transcript quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Despite the proven prognostic significance of molecular response, it is not widely appreciated that quantitative reverse-transcription PCR potentially produces highly variable data, which may affect the validity of results, making comparability between different laboratories difficult. Therefore, standardized reporting of BCR-ABL1 measurements is needed for optimal clinical management. An approach to achieve comparable BCR-ABL1 values is the use of an international reporting scale. Conversion to the international scale is achieved by the application of laboratory specific conversion factor that is obtained by using validated secondary reference calibrators. Moreover, with the aim to mitigate the interlaboratory imprecision of quantitative BCR-ABL1 measurements and to facilitate local laboratory results interpretation and reporting, we decide to prepare laboratory guidelines that will further facilitate interlaboratory comparative studies and independent quality-assessment programs, which are of paramount importance for worldwide standardization of BCR-ABL1 monitoring results, in particular for those most isolated laboratories, with not easy access to commercial kits or sample interchange programs.

Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/blood , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Genes, abl/genetics , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Guidelines as Topic , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(1): e15210, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839446


Abstract In this study, the potential antileukemic activity of grandisin, a lignan extracted from Piper solmsianum, was evaluated against the leukemic line K562. The cytotoxicity of grandisin (0.018 to 2.365 µM) was evaluated in K562 and normal peripheral blood lymphocytes by Trypan Blue Exclusion and MTT methods after 48h exposure to the drug. In both methods, cellular viability was concentration-dependent and the IC50 values were lower than 0.85µM. Analysis of K562 cells after treatment with grandisin showed that the cell cycle was arrested in the G1 phase with a 12.31% increase, while both S and G2 phases decreased. Morphological studies conducted after the exposure of K562 to grandisin revealed changes consistent with the apoptosis process, which was confirmed by anexin V stain and caspase activation. Thus, lignan grandisin showed antileukemic activities against the K562 cell line and the cell death process occurred via apoptosis.

Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic/genetics , Lignans/pharmacokinetics , K562 Cells/classification , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/analysis , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Piperaceae/classification
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e00191, 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889433


ABSTRACT The enhancement of anti-leukemia therapy and the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens are major challenges in healthcare. Although a large arsenal of drugs is available, many of these become ineffective, and as a result, the discovery of new active substances occurs. Notably, triazenes (TZCs) have been consolidated as a promising class of compounds, characterized by significant biological activity, especially antiproliferative and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study is the synthesis and characterization of a new triazenide complex of gold (I), as well as the in vitro assessment of its antiproliferative activity against the K562 cell line (Chronic Myeloid Leukemia), and antibacterial activity against bacterial isolates of biofilm-producing coagulase-negative staphylococci. The combination of TZC with gold metal tends to have a synergistic effect against all biofilm-producing isolates, with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values (MIC) between 32 and 64 µg mL-1. It has also shown activity against K562 cell line, getting an IC50=4.96 µM. Imatinib mesylate (Glivec) was used as reference, with IC50=3.86 µM. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first report of the activity of a TZC complexed with gold ion in the oxidation state (I) against microorganisms that produce biofilm and K562 cells.

Triazenes/chemical synthesis , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Gold/classification , Triazenes/analysis , Triazenes/therapeutic use
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(4): 581-589, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951882


ABSTRACT Adherence to imatinib mesylate improves clinical outcomes and promotes a reduction in health expenditure. However, treatment duration and lack of efficacy decrease adherence to pharmacotherapy, resulting in increased mortality associated with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate and compare adherence and/or discontinuation of imatinib mesylate in different studies from the literature. An integrative review of original articles published between the years of 2004 and 2014 was performed using the databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and SciELO. The descriptor "imatinib" was used in two combinations employing the connector AND between terms: "medication adherence'' AND ''imatinib" AND "leukemia'' and ''patient compliance'' AND "imatinib" AND "leukemia". We identified 476 studies, being 14 included in the study. The rates of adherence and discontinuation were diverse, ranging from 19.0 to 97.0% and from 1.8 and 41.0%, respectively, and a high number of longitudinal studies was observed (71.4%). Most studies used questionnaires as an indirect method to assess adherence and factors related to poor adherence were adverse drug reactions, dose changes and unavailability of the medication. Patient education associated with follow up by pharmacists and other health professionals can improve patient adherence and minimize the pharmacotherapy discontinuation.

Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Patient Compliance , Medication Adherence , Imatinib Mesylate/adverse effects , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data
Lima; s.n; nov. 2016. tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-848258


INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente dictamen expone la evaluación de tecnología de la eficacia y seguridad de nilotinib para el manejo de pacientes con diagnóstico de leucemia mieloide crónica resistente o intolerante a imatinib y a dasatinib sin mutación T315I y ECOG 0-2. Aspectos Generales: La leucemia mieloide crónica (LMC) es una enfermedad mieloproliferativa, que se caracteriza por la proliferación de granulocitos en sangre y medula ósea. Más del 90% de los casos se debe a la traslocación recíproca de los cromosomas 9 y 22 [t (9; 22)] debido a la mutación del cromosoma Filadelfia (Ph+). Esta traslocación genera la fusión de una región del gen BCR del cromosoma 22 en la banda q11 y del gen ABL1 localizado en el cromosoma 9 en la banda q34. El producto de la fusión BDR-ABL1 es una proteína activa llamada tirosina quinasa. Esta proteína lleva a una proliferación celular incontrolada. Las personas con leucemia mieloide crónica, sin la mutación Filadelfia, tienen otros mecanismos de traslocación, pero resultan en la misma fusión de genes y la codificación de la proteína tirosina quinasa. Tecnologia Sanitaria de Interés: El nilotinib (Tasigna®, Novartis; C28H22F3N70), es un inhibidor de tirosina quinasa, derivado del imatinib. El nilotinib se une y estabiliza la conformación inactiva del dominio quinasa de la proteína Abl. METODOLOGIA: Estrategia de Búsqueda: Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura con respecto a la eficacia y seguridad de nilotinib para el tratamiento de leucemia mieloide crónica en pacientes resistentes/intolerantes a imatinib y dasatinib. Esta búsqueda se realizó utilizando los meta-buscadores: Translating Research into Practice (TRIPDATABASE), National Library of Medicine (Pubmed-Medline) y Health Systems Evidence. Adicionalmente, se amplió la búsqueda revisando la evidencia generada por grupos internacionales que realizan revisiones sistemáticas (RS), evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias (ETS) y guías de práctica clínica (GPC), como la Cochrane Group, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), the Agency for Health care Research and Quality (AHRQ), The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) y The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC). RESULTADOS: Sinopsis de la Evidencia: Se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica y de evidencia científica para el sustento del uso de nilotinib para el tratamiento de leucemia mieloide crónica en pacientes resistentes o intolerantes a imatinib/dasatinib. Se presenta la evidencia disponible según el tipo de publicación priorizada en los criterios de inclusión (i.e., GP, ETS, RS y ECA fase III). CONCLUSIONES: La presente evaluación de tecnología sanitaria tuvo por objetivo la evaluación de la eficacia y seguridad del uso de nilotinib como tercera línea de tratamiento de la LMC-FC, en pacientes resistentes y/o intolerantes a imatinib y dasatinib, sin mutación T315I y ECOG 0-2. Fueron incluidos un total de 6 publicaciones científicas (1 guía de práctica clínica, 1 revisión sistemática, 1 ensayo clínico y 3 ensayos observacionales). A pesar que la evidencia es de baja calidad dado que no existen estudios clínicos aleatorizados fase III del uso de nilotinib como tercera línea de tratamiento de LCM, los ECAs fase II y estudios observacionales encontrados muestran que nilotinib podría ser una alternativa eficaz como tercera línea. Además, existe plausibilidad biológica, pues los patrones de resistencia y de efectos adversos son diferentes para nilotinib, dasatinib e imatinib, excepto por la mutación T315I. Nilotinib puede ser considerado como una adecuada alternativa para el a' tratamiento de tercera línea, luego de haber recibido tratamiento con dos inhibidores de tirosina quinasa y haber mostrado resistencia o intolerancia a estos, aunque la respuesta podría no ser duradera. Ello teniendo en cuenta, además, que actualmente no se cuenta con más alternativas de tratamiento, pues los inhibidores de tirosina quinasa indicados para tratamiento de tercera línea no se encuentran en el mercado, y el trasplante no está indicado para todos los casos. El Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación (IETSI) aprueba el uso de nilotinib como alternativa de tratamiento en pacientes con leucemia mieloide crónica con resistencia o intolerancia a imatinib y dasatinib sin mutación T315I y ECOG 0-2. El periodo de vigencia de este dictamen es de dos años y la continuación de dicha aprobación estará sujeta a los resultados obtenidos de los pacientes que se beneficien con dicho tratamiento y a nueva evidencia que pueda surgir en el tiempo.

Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/administration & dosage , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Dasatinib/adverse effects , Drug Resistance , Imatinib Mesylate/adverse effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Treatment Outcome
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5,supl.1): 45-47, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837937


Abstract Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are effective as a target therapy for malignant neoplasms. Imatinib was the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor used. After its introduction, several other drugs have appeared with a similar mechanism of action, but less prone to causing resistance. Even though these drugs are selective, their toxicity does not exclusively target cancer cells, and skin toxicity is the most common non-hematologic adverse effect. We report an eruption similar to lichen planopilaris that developed during therapy with nilotinib, a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia resistant to imatinib. In a literature review, we found only one report of non-scarring alopecia due to the use of nilotinib.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug Eruptions/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Lichen Planus/pathology , Biopsy , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Alopecia/chemically induced , Alopecia/pathology , Imatinib Mesylate/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 32(3): 159-161, 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-947767


Nilotinib es un inhibidor altamente selectivo de BCR-ABL tirosina kinasa usado para el tratamiento de Leucemia mieloide crónica. Las reacciones cutáneas fueron uno de los efectos adversos no hematológicos más frecuentemente reportados en relación al uso de esta droga. El presente artículo documenta el caso una paciente femenina de 17 años de edad diagnosticada con Leucemia mieloide crónica que había estado en tratamiento con Nilotinib por 5 meses desarrollando una reacción tipo queratosis pilar. La paciente fue tratada con medidas generales, Urea 15% y antihistamínicos, con cese del prurito. Es importante reconocer las reacciones cutáneas asociadas al uso de Nilotinib para así otorgar alivio oportuno de los síntomas con el fin de lograr una mejor adherencia al tratamiento de la Leucemia mieloide crónica y mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente.

Nilotinib is a highly selective inhibitor of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase. It is used as a treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Cutaneous reactions are one of the most common non-hematologic reported adverse effects. The present article documents the case of a 17-year-old female patient diagnosed with CML. She was treated with nilotinib for 5 months and developed a keratosis pilaris-like reaction. The patient was treated with general measures, topical 15%-urea and antihistamines with improvement and cessation of pruritus. It is imperative to recognize the cutaneous adverse effects associated with the use of new oncologic treatments such as nilotinib.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Keratosis/chemically induced , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Drug Eruptions