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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880662


Chronic myeloid leukemia with a significant increase of monocytes is rare and difficult to identify from chronic myelo-monocytic leukemia in clinic. A 31-year-old male patient with systemic pain was initially diagnosed as chronic myelo-monocytic leukemia, who was finally diagnosed as chronic myeloid leukemia by fusion gene and chromosome examination. In addition to the typical Ph chromosome, a rare chromosome translocation t(2; 7)(p13; p22) was observed. The detection of monocyte subsets by multi-parameter flow cytometry is a diagnostic marker to distinguish the above 2 diseases. The relationship between fusion genes and mononucleosis is not clear. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can be used in the treatment for this disease.

Adult , Humans , Karyotype , Karyotyping , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Male , Monocytes , Translocation, Genetic
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1242-1246, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888545


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression level of ETV6-ABL fusion gene in different cell populations in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) and therapeutic effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI).@*METHODS@#A 42-year-old man who presented with fever, marked leukocytosis and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) like MPN was reported. ETV6-ABL fusion gene was detected by real-time PCR and confirmed by direct sequencing. ETV6-ABL mRNA expression in each cell population sorted from peripheral blood by flow cytometry was detected by real-time PCR.@*RESULTS@#ETV6-ABL fusion gene was found out in bone marrow cells and confirmed as type A by direct sequencing. ETV6-ABL fusion gene transcript level in polymorphonuclear cells was nearly 3.6-fold relative to that in total cells, which was significantly higher than that in T cell, B cell and monocyte subsets. The complete blood count (CBC) returned to normal level after treatment with imatinib (400 mg) daily for three months. After TKI treatment for 6 months, the ratio of ETV6-ABL/ABL decreased from 174.1% to 1.9%.@*CONCLUSION@#ETV6-ABL fusion gene positive MPN may have a CML clinical presentation and is sensitive to TKI. ETV6-ABL fusion gene is specifically expressed in polymorphonuclear cells.

Adult , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Genes, abl , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Male , Myeloproliferative Disorders/genetics
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1768-1774, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922332


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of silencing DNA methyltransferase 1(DNMT1) to the methylation of the promoter of the tumor suppressor gene wnt-1 (WIF-1) in human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells.@*METHODS@#DNMT1 siRNAi plasmid was constructed and DNMT1 siRNAi was transfected into CML K562 cells. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of DNMT1 gene and related protein, and methylation PCR was used to detect WIF-1 gene promoter methylation level. The trypan blue exclusion and MTT assay were used to detect the cell proliferation, flow cytometry were used to detect the cell apoptosis rate, colony formation assay was used to detect cell colony formation ability. Expression of Wnt/β- catenin and its downstream signaling pathway proteins were detected by Western blot after DNMT1 gene was silenced.@*RESULTS@#The expression level of DNMT1 mRNA and its related protein in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group and negative control group (P<0.05). After 72 hours of successful transfection, the WIF-1 gene in the control group and negative control group were completely methylated, while in the experimental group, the methylation level significantly decreased. The results of MSP showed that the PCR product amplified by the unmethylated WIF-1 primer in the experimental group increased significantly,while by the methylated WIF-1 primer decreased significantly. After 48 h of transfection, the OD value, viable cell number and colony formation of the cells in experimental group were significantly lower than those in the negative control group and the control group (P<0.05). The apoptosis rate of the cells in experimental group was significantly higher than those in the negative control group and control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of β- actin, myc, cyclin D1 and TCF-1 in K562 cells in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the negative control group and control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Silencing DNMT1 gene can inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of K562 cells. The mechanism may be related to reverse the hypermethylation level of the WIF-1 gene promoter, thereby inhibit the activity of the Wnt/β- catenin signaling pathway.

Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , DNA Methylation , Humans , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Repressor Proteins/metabolism
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1714-1718, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922323


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the regulation of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) imatinib resistant genes, in order to improve the therapeutic effect of CML imatinib resistant patients.@*METHODS@#The human CML cell line K562 and imatinib-resistant K562 cells (K562/G01) were collected, and transcriptome of the cells were achieved by RNA-seq. The sequencing data were analyzed by using standard procedures.@*RESULTS@#Compared with K562 cells, 464 genes were significantly changed in K562/G01 cells, including 163 up-regulated and 301 down-regulated genes. The GO function annotation analysis and KEGG pathway analysis results showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biological processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, localization to protein organelle, ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis and so on. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) plots showed that 5 gene-sets were up-regulated in K562/G01 significantly, including the pathway of TGF-beta, mTOR and CML.@*CONCLUSION@#CML imatinib resistance is associated with oxidative phosphorylation, during which the pathway of TGF-beta and mTOR are significantly up-regulated.

Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879508


OBJECTIVE@#To trace a rare case of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with a four-way Philadelphia chromosome variant by cytogenetic analysis in order to provide a basis for the selection of treatment.@*METHODS@#Bone marrow morphology, chromosomal karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) were used for the diagnosis and staging of the disease. Point mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of ABL1 gene were detected by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The patient was initially diagnosed as CML in chronic phase (CML-CP) with a chromosomal karyotype of 46,XX,t(5;9;22;6)(q13;q34;q11;q25), while FISH revealed presence of a variant Philadelphia chromosome translocation. Clonal evolution has occurred after 38 months of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, when cytogenetic analysis revealed coexisting t(5;9;22;6)(q13;q34;q11;q25) and t(5;9;22;6;17)(q13;q34;q11;q25;q11). After 57 months of TKIs treatment, only the t(5;9;22;6;17) clone was detected. Three months later, hyperdiploidy with additional abnormalities were detected in addition to t(5;9;22;6;17). Three mutations, including p.Tyr253Phe, p.Thr315Ile and p.Gly250Glu, were identified in the tyrosine kinase domain of the ABL1 gene during the course of disease. The patient did not attain cytogenetic and molecular response to TKIs.@*CONCLUSION@#The four-way variant translocation may be genetically unstable. Clonal evolution and genetic mutations are likely to occur during TKIs treatment, resulting in poor response to drug therapy. This observation, however, needs to be confirmed by large-scale studies.

Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Philadelphia Chromosome , Translocation, Genetic
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(3): 161-166, jun. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894451


La supervivencia a cinco años de los pacientes con leucemia mieloide crónica en fase crónica tratados con inhibidores de tirosina quinasa es superior al 90%. Existen escasos datos a nivel local. Esta información puede ser de interés, ya que el imatinib genérico se encuentra disponible en la región. El objetivo del presente estudio es proporcionar información del monitoreo y los resultados a largo plazo del tratamiento con imatinib fuera de un ensayo clínico controlado, así como analizar el valor predictivo de respuestas tempranas para el logro de respuesta molecular 4.0 y la detección de variables que puedan condicionar falla al tratamiento. Se incluyeron 106 pacientes tratados con imatinib 400 mg diarios como inhibidor de primera línea durante una mediana de 8.9 años IQR (5.8-11.7) entre junio del 2000 y diciembre del 2015. La supervivencia global fue de 93%. En la última evaluación, 74% de los pacientes continuaba recibiendo el imatinib inicial. La obtención de respuesta en los objetivos temporales específicos (6, 12 meses) se asoció con mayor supervivencia libre de falla: 87% vs. 56%, p = 0.007; 90% vs. 69% p = 0.01 y mayor adquisición de respuesta molecular 4.0: OR 5.6 (IC 95% 1.6-19.0) p = 0.003; OR 5.3 (IC 95% 1.4-21.0) p = 0.006. Luego del prolongado seguimiento, el imatinib proporcionó altas tasas de respuesta y supervivencia. Se confirmó el valor pronóstico de la respuesta en momentos temporales específicos. Este estudio refuerza la importancia del monitoreo estandarizado en los puntos temporales conocidos, que debe continuar siendo un objetivo en Argentina.

The expected five-year survival of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is over 90%. Little data is available regarding the results in the Argentinian population. This information might be of interest as generic imatinib is now available in the region. The aim of this study is to provide information on monitoring and the long-term treatment with imatinib outside of a controlled clinical trial, as well as to analyze the predictive effect of early responses to achieve molecular remission 4.0 (RM 4.0) and the detection of variables that may condition treatment failure. We included 106 patients, who received imatinib 400 mg daily as first-line inhibitor for a median of 8.9 years (IQR 5.8-11.7) between June 2000 and December, 2015. Overall survival was 93%. At latest follow-up 74% of patients continues on initial imatinib. The achievement of response at targeted milestones (6, 12 months) was associated with increased failure-free survival: 87% vs. 56%, p = 0.007; 90% vs. 69% p = 0.01 and was independently associated to RM 4.0: OR 5.6 (95% CI: 1.6-19.0); OR 5.3 (95% CI: 1.4-21.0) p = 0.006. After long-term follow-up, imatinib provided high-rates of response and survival. The prognostic value of response at targeted milestones was confirmed. This study reinforces the importance of molecular monitoring under IS standardization at known timepoints and this must continue to be a target in Argentina.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Survival Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Follow-Up Studies
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(1): 61-72, feb. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841634


Actualmente las guías clínicas para el manejo de pacientes con leucemia mieloide crónica incluyen el monitoreo molecular de BCR-ABL1 por PCR cuantitativa en tiempo real; esta metodología permite definir la respuesta molecular. A pesar de la probada importancia pronóstica de la respuesta molecular, en muchos casos no se tiene en cuenta que la PCR cuantitativa puede producir datos muy variables, que pueden afectar la validez de los resultados, y hacer difícil la comparación entre diferentes laboratorios. Por lo tanto, para un manejo clínico óptimo, es absolutamente necesaria la estandarización de las metodologías de medición de BCR-ABL1. La estrategia para obtener valores de BCR-ABL1 comparables consiste en la adopción de la escala internacional. La conversión a la escala internacional se logra mediante la aplicación de un factor de conversión específico para cada laboratorio; este factor de conversión se puede obtener mediante el uso de calibradores secundarios validados, que hoy se producen en Argentina, en el marco del programa nacional de armonización. Por otra parte, con el objetivo de mitigar las diferencias entre laboratorios y facilitar criterios uniformes en la interpretación de los resultados y presentación de los informes, decidimos preparar estas guías de laboratorio. Esto permitirá además a los laboratorios poder evaluar su calidad de trabajo, tarea muy importante, en particular para aquellos centros más aislados, que no tienen fácil acceso a costosos kits comerciales o programas internacionales de intercambio de muestras.

Current clinical guidelines for managing chronic myeloid leukemia include molecular monitoring of BCR-ABL1 transcript quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Despite the proven prognostic significance of molecular response, it is not widely appreciated that quantitative reverse-transcription PCR potentially produces highly variable data, which may affect the validity of results, making comparability between different laboratories difficult. Therefore, standardized reporting of BCR-ABL1 measurements is needed for optimal clinical management. An approach to achieve comparable BCR-ABL1 values is the use of an international reporting scale. Conversion to the international scale is achieved by the application of laboratory specific conversion factor that is obtained by using validated secondary reference calibrators. Moreover, with the aim to mitigate the interlaboratory imprecision of quantitative BCR-ABL1 measurements and to facilitate local laboratory results interpretation and reporting, we decide to prepare laboratory guidelines that will further facilitate interlaboratory comparative studies and independent quality-assessment programs, which are of paramount importance for worldwide standardization of BCR-ABL1 monitoring results, in particular for those most isolated laboratories, with not easy access to commercial kits or sample interchange programs.

Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/blood , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Genes, abl/genetics , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Guidelines as Topic , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
Säo Paulo med. j ; 133(6): 471-479, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770158


CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) requires strict daily compliance with oral medication and regular blood and bone marrow control tests. The objective was to evaluate CML patients' perceptions about the disease, their access to information regarding the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment, adverse effects and associations of these variables with patients' demographics, region and healthcare access. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cross-sectional study among CML patients registered with the Brazilian Lymphoma and Leukemia Association (ABRALE). METHODS: CML patients receiving treatment through the public healthcare system were interviewed by telephone. RESULTS: Among 1,102 patients interviewed, the symptoms most frequently leading them to seek medical care were weakness or fatigue. One third were diagnosed by means of routine tests. The time that elapsed between first symptoms and seeking medical care was 42.28 ± 154.21 days. Most patients had been tested at least once for Philadelphia chromosome, but 43.2% did not know the results. 64.8% had had polymerase chain reaction testing for the BCR/ABL gene every three months. 47% believed that CML could be controlled, but 33.1% believed that there was no treatment. About 24% reported occasionally stopping their medication. Imatinib was associated with nausea, cramps and muscle pain. Self-reported treatment adherence was significantly associated with normalized blood count, and positively associated with imatinib. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of information or understanding about disease monitoring tools among Brazilian CML patients; they are diagnosed quickly and have good access to treatment. Correct comprehension of CML control tools is impaired in Brazilian patients.

CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: Leucemia mieloide crônica (CML) exige estrita adesão à medicação oral e ao monitoramento do sangue e da medula. O objetivo foi avaliar percepções de pacientes com leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) sobre a doença, seu acesso à informação sobre diagnóstico, monitoramento e tratamento, efeitos adversos e a associação destes com dados demográficos, geográficos e de acesso a tratamento. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo prospectivo transversal realizado com pacientes de LMC cadastrados na Associação Brasileira de Leucemia e Linfoma (Abrale). MÉTODOS: Pacientes com LMC recebendo tratamento do sistema público de saúde foram entrevistados por telefone. RESULTADOS: Entre os 1.102 pacientes entrevistados, os sintomas mais frequentemente levando à busca de consulta foram fraqueza e fadiga. Um terço foi diagnosticado por exames de rotina. O tempo entre sintoma inicial e procura por ajuda foi de 42,28 ± 154,21 dias. A maioria foi testada pelo menos uma vez para o cromossomo Filadélfia, mas 43,2% não sabiam os resultados. 64,8% fizeram exame de reação em cadeia da polimerase para o gene BCR/ABL a cada três meses. 47% acreditavam que LMC pode ser controlada, mas 33,1% acham que não há tratamento. Cerca de 24% disseram que ocasionalmente interrompem o tratamento. Imatinibe associou-se com náusea, câimbra e dor muscular. Aderência auto-reportada associou-se significativamente com hemograma normal e positivamente com uso de imatinibe. CONCLUSÕES: Falta informação ou compreensão sobre monitoramento entre pacientes com LMC; eles recebem diagnóstico rapidamente e têm bom acesso ao tratamento. A correta compreensão das ferramentas de controle em LMC está prejudicada entre eles.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Medication Adherence , Perception , Philadelphia Chromosome , Prospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
Clinics ; 70(8): 550-555, 08/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753967


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hematological, cytogenetic and molecular responses as well as the overall, progression-free and event-free survivals of chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with a third tyrosine kinase inhibitor after failing to respond to imatinib and nilotinib/dasatinib. METHODS: Bone marrow karyotyping and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed at baseline and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after the initiation of treatment with a third tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Hematologic, cytogenetic and molecular responses were defined according to the European LeukemiaNet recommendations. BCR-ABL1 mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: We evaluated 25 chronic myeloid leukemia patients who had been previously treated with imatinib and a second tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Nine patients were switched to dasatinib, and 16 patients were switched to nilotinib as a third-line therapy. Of the chronic phase patients (n=18), 89% achieved a complete hematologic response, 13% achieved a complete cytogenetic response and 24% achieved a major molecular response. The following BCR-ABL1 mutations were detected in 6/14 (43%) chronic phase patients: E255V, Y253H, M244V, F317L (2) and F359V. M351T mutation was found in one patient in the accelerated phase of the disease. The five-year overall, progression-free and event-free survivals were 86, 54 and 22% (p<0.0001), respectively, for chronic phase patients and 66%, 66% and 0% (p<0.0001), respectively, for accelerated phase patients. All blast crisis patients died within 6 months of treatment. Fifty-six percent of the chronic phase patients lost their hematologic response within a median of 23 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although the responses achieved by the third tyrosine kinase inhibitor were not sustainable, a third tyrosine kinase inhibitor may be an option for improving patient status until a donor becomes available for transplant. Because the long-term outcome ...

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Dasatinib/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Bone Marrow Examination , Disease-Free Survival , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Karyotyping , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Mutation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(6): 509-514, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748223


We measured circulating endothelial precursor cells (EPCs), activated circulating endothelial cells (aCECs), and mature circulating endothelial cells (mCECs) using four-color multiparametric flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 84 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients and 65 healthy controls; and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by quantitative real-time PCR in 50 CML patients and 32 healthy controls. Because of an increase in mCECs, the median percentage of CECs in CML blast crisis (0.0146%) was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (0.0059%, P<0.01) and in the accelerated phase (0.0059%, P=0.01). There were no significant differences in the percentages of CECs in chronic- or active-phase patients and healthy subjects (P>0.05). In addition, VEGF gene expression was significantly higher in all phases of CML: 0.245 in blast crisis, 0.320 in the active phase, and 0.330 in chronic phase patients than it was in healthy subjects (0.145). In conclusion, CML in blast crisis had increased levels of CECs and VEGF gene expression, which may serve as markers of disease progression and may become targets for the management of CML.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Blast Crisis/pathology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/pathology , Neoplastic Cells, Circulating/pathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Blast Crisis/blood , Blast Crisis/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Cell Count , Flow Cytometry/methods , Gene Expression/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/blood , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. xviii, 97 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1119024


A Leucemia Mielóide Crônica (LMC) é uma doença mieloproliferativa ocasionada pela translocação recíproca entre o oncogene ABL 1, localizado no cromossomo 9, com o gene BCR, localizado no cromossomo 22 [t9,22], originando um novo cromossomo, denominado Philadelphia. A proteína quimérica da translocação BCR-ABL possui atividade tirosino-quinase aumentada e anormal. Apesar da contribuição indubitável da proteína BCR-ABL, alguns estudos já evidenciaram que as células-tronco leucêmicas podem ser independente de BCR-ABL para sobreviver, indicando que alguns fatores presentes no microambiente tumoral, como as microvesículas e exossomos, podem sustentar as células-tronco leucêmicas (LSCs). Os exossomos, também denominados de nanovesículas, possuem de 40 a 100nm de diâmetro, são responsáveis pela comunicação intercelular e tem ganhado atenção nos últimos anos, devido a grande quantidade de moléculas e substâncias que podem transportar de uma célula a outra, ativando importantes vias de sinalização. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi purificar os exossomos do plasma de medula óssea de pacientes com LMC em fase crônica da doença ao diagnóstico, caracterizar o perfil imunofenotípico, realizar uma análise proteômica Label Free para identificar o perfil proteômico e identificar os RNAs longos não codificantes (lncRNAs) presente no interior destes exossomos. Foram identificadas 341 proteínas diferencialmente expressas entre pacientes com LMC e doadores, e a proteína BOC, receptor da via de Hedgehog (Hh), estava aumentada na amostra dos pacientes. O perfil imunofenotípico revelou que os exossomos foram purificados com sucesso e que, provavelmente, estavam sendo secretados pelas células mesenquimais, megacariócitos e granulócitos no microambiente da medula, uma vez que houve aumento da diferencça de média de intensidade de fluorescência (dMIF) para as tetraspaninas consideradas marcadoras destas populações celulares, respectivamente (CD105, CD61 e CD65). Em relação ao lncRNAs, ANTINOS2A, RoR, SFMBT2 e VLDLR apresentaram reprodutibilidade dos dados em amostras dos doadores, estando ausentes nos pacientes. Neste grupo somente o lncRNA HOTAIR apresentou-se diferencialmente expresso com um fold-change de 13,24. Nossos dados permitem inferir que os exossomos presentes no plasma de pacientes com LMC são capazes de carrear conteúdo molecular, de ativar a via de Hh e, assim, favorecer a leucemogênese no início da LMC.

Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Proteomics , Exosomes , Signal Transduction , RNA, Long Noncoding
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2014 Jan-Mar ;20 (1): 64-68
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156635


BACKGROUND: BCR-ABL fusion oncogene is a hallmark of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). It results due to translocation between chromosome 22 and chromosome 9 [t (9; 22)(q34; q11)]. It gives rise to translation of a 210 KDa chimeric protein (p210), leading to enhanced tyrosine kinase activity and activation of leukemogenic pathways, ultimately causing onset of CML. In case of CML, the classic fusions are b2a2 or b3a2, fusing exon 13 (b2) or exon 14 (b3) of BCR, respectively, to exon 2 (a2) of ABL. The type of BCR-ABL transcripts are thought to be have different prognosis and hence useful in clinical decision-making. The frequencies of different fusion oncogenes associated with leukemia can vary in different ethnic groups and geographical regions due to interplay of genetic variation in different ethnic populations, diverse environmental factors and living style. Moreover, earlier relevant studies from our region were carried out in small subset of patients. Therefore, objective of this study was to find out frequencies of different BCR-ABL splice variants in larger subset of CML patients. METHODS: A nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was established to detect BCRABL splice variants in 130 CML patients. Sensitivity of RT-PCR and ability to detect BCR-ABL fusion gene in least possible time was studied. RESULTS: BCR-ABL detection using our optimized RTPCR protocol could be completed in 8 hours, starting from RNA extraction to Gel electrophoresis. Sensitivity of RTPCR assay was of the order of 10−6. Out of 130 Pakistani patients, 83 (63.84%) expressed b3a2 while 47 (36.15%) expressed b2a2 transcript. CONCLUSION: Our RT-PCR was proved to be very quick to detect BCR-ABL fusion oncogene in CML patients within one working day. Because of its sensitivity, it can be used to monitor complete molecular response in CML. BCR-ABL RT-PCR and BCR-ABL splice variants frequency in our study differs from other ethnic groups. It shows that ethnic and geographical differences exist in BCR-ABL splice variant frequency, which may have a profound effect on disease biology as well as implications in prognosis and clinical management of BCR-ABL positive leukemias.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic/genetics , Gene Knockdown Techniques/methods , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Oncogenes/genetics
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2014; 24 (3): 190-193
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-157538


To compare the sensitivity and specificity of Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction [RT-PCR] with conventional cytogenetics in diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. A cross-sectional, analytical study. The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology [AFIP], Rawalpindi, from December 2010 to January 2012. A total number of 40 patients were studied, in which all were diagnosed as CML on peripheral blood and bone marrow aspiration. The subjects were tested for the presence of Philadelphia [Ph] chromosome by cytogenetics and BCR-ABL fusion gene by RT-PCR. 2-3 ml of venous blood was collected, half in sodium heparin [anti-coagulant] for cytogenetics and half in EDTA for PCR. For cytogenetics, cells were cultured for 72 hours in RPMI 1640 medium and examined by arresting in metaphase using Colchicine to identify Philadelphia chromosome. For PCR, RNA extraction was done by Tri Reagent LS [MRC, USA] and cDNA was synthesized using reverse transcriptase and gene specific primer. RT- PCR was done on ABI-7500. The positive samples were identified when fluorescence exceeded threshold limit. Results of cytogenetics and RT PCR were compared. Out of the 40 patients, PCR showed 37 [92.5%] were positive and 3 [7.5%] were negative for BCR-ABL fusion gene, whereas in cytogenetics 28 [70%] were positive for Ph chromosome and 12 [30%] were negative for Ph chromosome. Sensitivity and specificity of cytogenetics was 75.6% and 100% respectively. Real time PCR as compared to cytogenetics is less tedious, gives quick results, does not require multiple sampling due to culture failure and can be done on peripheral blood

Humans , Male , Female , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Cytogenetics/methods , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Molecular Sequence Data , Philadelphia Chromosome , RNA, Messenger , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 29(2): 114-118, abr.-jun. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-672140


Evolución clonal en la leucemia mieloide crónica se denomina a la presencia de alteraciones cromosómicas adicionales al cromosoma Filadelfia. Ocurre aproximadamente en el 30 por ciento de los pacientes en fase acelerada y en el 80 por ciento de los pacientes en crisis blástica. Es considerada un criterio de la fase acelerada de la enfermedad. Aunque se plantea que su presencia implica peor pronóstico, su significado es controversial y está en dependencia de la alteración citogenética específica, su frecuencia en el cariotipo, la asociación con otras alteraciones citogenéticas y clínicas de progresión, relación con el tiempo en que aparece en la evolución de la enfermedad y los tratamientos empleados

Clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia is defined as the presence of a variety of additional, nonrandom chromosomal abnormalities besides the Philadelfia chromosome. It occurs in approximately 30 percent of patients in accelerated phase and 80 percent of patients in blastic phase. It is considered a criterion for accelerated phase. Although it is associated with a poor prognosis, its significance is controversial. It depends on the specific cytogenetic abnormality, its frequency in karyotype study, the association with other progression clinical and cytogenetic alterations, its relationship with the time of appearance during the course of the disease and the therapy used

Humans , Male , Female , Clonal Evolution/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/complications , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Philadelphia Chromosome , Prognosis
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-137370


Background & objectives: Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) is the commonest leukaemia in Asia. There is a paucity data on cytogenetic and molecular analyses of Indian CML patients. This apparently reflects the low availability of cytogenetic and molecular techniques in our country. This study aimed to document various types of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts in different phases of CML and to compare the Ph chromosome positivity/negativity vis-a-vis BCR-ABL fusion transcripts in adult CML patients. Methods: Between June 2004 and February 2009, 208 patients were diagnosed as CML in chronic phase (CP), accelerated phase (AP) and blast crisis (BC), according to standard criteria. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses were performed in all patients. Various types of BCR-ABL hybrid transcripts were compared with phases of CML and cytogenetic abnormalities. Results: Among 208 CML patients, b3a2 BCR-ABL transcripts were most commonly detected (66.82%) followed by b2a2 (28.84%), b3a2 + b2a2 (3.36%), b3a2 + e19a2 (0.48%) and b2a2 + e19a2 (0.48%). b3a2 transcripts were more frequently detected than b2a2 transcripts, in the whole group of 208 as well as in 183 CML-CP patients (P<0.0001). Ph chromosome was positive in 135 of 139 patients with b3a2 transcripts and 56 of 60 patients with b2a2 transcripts, difference not being significant. Additional cytogenetic abnormalities detected in 3.8 per cent patients in CML-CP and 44 per cent patients in CMLAP/ BC, did not show predilection for any BCR-ABL transcript type. Interpretation & conclusions: This study documents higher Ph positivity (96.15%) by cytogenetic analysis among CML patients, as confirmed by qualitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in a large patient group from north India. Both the techniques contribute towards understanding the disease biology, and have important implications for diagnosis and management of CML patients.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetic Analysis , Female , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Humans , India , /diagnosis , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/pathology , Male , Middle Aged
Indian J Cancer ; 2012 Jan-Mar; 49(1): 46-56
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144551


Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia has evolved from symptom control to long-term disease-free survival with cure potentially round the corner. This required faster, deeper, and longer response. Optimizing treatment decisions therefore requires clear understanding of and strict implementation of guidelines for shift from imatinib. In patients who are resistant to or intolerant of imatinib, second-line TKIs have to be selected carefully. Currently available data show comparable efficacy between nilotinib and dasatinib. With a better safety profile (especially with respect to grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity and clinically relevant non-hematologic toxicities), nilotinib becomes the preferred choice in most instances.

Chromosome Aberrations , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/pathology , Mutation , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/adverse effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 47(2): 313-322, Apr.-June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595819


Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disease characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome (translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22), resulting in the formation of the hybrid BCR-ABL protein. Currently, the treatment of CML patients is performed with imatinib mesylate (IM), which promotes the elimination of leukemic cells by inhibiting the kinase activity of BCR-ABL. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IM by monitoring 22 CML patients in a chronic phase treated at the CEPON/SC with IM for a minimum follow-up period of two years. Cytogenetic Response (CR) and bone marrow biopsies (BMB) were evaluated before and after IM treatment. BMB were evaluated by detection of reticulin degree and vascularization. The results were correlated to the CR. Mean time to achieve CR was 9 months and was attained by 77.27 percent of the patients. The results from the initial BMB analysis showed that 59.09 percent presented reticulin of between 2+ and 4+ whereas after treatment, only 27.17 percent presented this degree. With regard to vascularization of the initial sample, 90.91 percent were graded between II and IV, whereas after treatment, 40.91 percent had this degree. The results suggest a positive correlation of degree of reticulin and vascularization with CR.

A Leucemia Mielóide Crônica (LMC) é uma doença mieloproliferativa caracterizada pela presença do cromossomo Filadélfia (translocação entre os cromossomos 9 e 22), que resulta na formação da proteína híbrida BCR-ABL. Atualmente o tratamento de pacientes com LMC é realizado com mesilato de imatinibe (MI), o qual promove a eliminação das células leucêmicas pela inibição da atividade quinase de BCR-ABL. O presente estudo avaliou a eficácia do MI por meio do acompanhamento de pacientes portadores de LMC em fase crônica, atendidos no CEPON/SC tratados com MI pelo tempo mínimo de dois anos. Foram avaliadas a Resposta Citogenética (RC) e as biópsias de medula óssea (BMO) antes e após o tratamento com MI. As BMO foram avaliadas quanto ao grau de reticulina e vascularização. Os resultados correlacionaram-se com a RC cujo tempo médio para obtenção da RC foi de 9 meses, sendo atingida por 77.27 por cento dos pacientes. Na primeira BMO, 59.09 por cento dos pacientes apresentaram grau de reticulina entre 2+ e 4+ e após o tratamento, apenas 27.17 por cento apresentaram esta graduação. Quanto à vascularização da primeira amostra, 90.91 por cento foram graduadas entre II e IV e após o tratamento, 40.91 por cento apresentaram esta graduação. Os resultados sugerem uma correlação diretamente proporcional entre os graus de reticulina e vascularização com a RC.

Humans , Cytogenetics/methods , Fibrosis , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/therapy , Mesylates/administration & dosage , Mesylates/analysis , Mesylates/pharmacokinetics , Brazil , Biopsy/methods , Bone Marrow/drug effects , Bone Marrow/chemistry