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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(supl.2): S43-S50, July 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514204

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is most commonly presented in older adults; however, it appears 10 years earlier in Latin American countries. Clinical evolution in older adults from this populations has not been characterized. We analyzed outcomes and survival predictors. Methods: Patients ≥ 55 years old diagnosed with AML at a hematology referral center from 2005 to 2020 receiving intensive chemotherapy (IC), low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) and best supportive care (BSC) were included. Survival analysis included the Kaplan-Meier and Cox models and the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR). Results: Seventy-five adults were included and the overall survival (OS) was 4.87, 1.67 and 1.16 months, using IC, LDAC and BSC, respectively. The IC led to a higher OS (p < 0.001) and was a protective factor for early death, at a cost of more days spent hospitalized and more non-fatal treatment complications; non-significant differences were found between the LDAC and BSC. Eight (10.7%) patients underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation, with a higher OS (p = 0.013). Twenty (26.7%) patients achieved complete remission; 12 (60%) relapsed with a 6-month CIR of 57.9% in those < 70 years old vs. 86.5% in those ≥ 70 years old, p = 0.034. Multivariate analysis showed the white blood cell count (WBC) and IC had a significant impact on the patient survival, whereas chronological age and the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) did not. Conclusion: AML in low-middle income countries demands a different approach; the IC improves survival, even with a high incidence of relapse, and should be offered as first-line treatment. Eligibility criteria should include WBC and a multidimensional evaluation. The age per se and the CCI should not be exclusion criteria to consider IC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Cytarabine , Drug Therapy
2.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 114-121, Junio 2023. Ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443459

ABSTRACT

Las Leucemias y linfomas constituyen las enfermedades oncológicas más frecuentes en pediatría y las bacteriemias representan infecciones graves en estos pacientes. Objetivos: describir los microorganismos aislados de sangre en pacientes con leucemia aguda o linfoma pediátrico; comparar la incidencia de aislamientos según enfermedad de base; detallar las variaciones en la incidencia de dichos aislamientos y la evolución de su resistencia antimicrobiana. Estudio retrospectivo, observacional. Se incluyeron 823 episodios de bacteriemia en 467 pacientes pediátricos, entre julio-2016 y junio-2022, dividido en tres períodos (período-1: años 2016- 2018, período-2: años 2018-2020, período-3: años 2020-2022). Se aislaron 880 microorganismos: 55,3% gram negativos (GN), 40% gram positivos (GP) y 4,7% levaduras. En GN predominaron: enterobacterias (72%) y en GP: estreptococos del grupo viridans (SGV) (34,1%). Se encontró asociación entre LLA-enterobacterias (p=0,009) y LMA-SGV (p<0,001). Hubo aumento de GN entre los períodos 1 y 3 (p=0,02) y 2 y 3 (p=0,002) y disminución de GP entre 2 y 3 (p=0,01). Se registraron los siguientes mecanismos de resistencia: BLEE (16,4%), carbapenemasas: KPC (2,5%); MBL (2,7%) y OXA (0,2%); meticilinorresistencia en Staphylococcus aureus (20%) y estafilococos coagulasa negativos (95%), vancomicina resistencia en Enterococcus spp. (39%), SGV no sensibles a penicilina (44%) y a cefotaxima (13%). Hubo aumento de MBL entre los períodos 1 y 2 (p=0,02) y una tendencia en disminución de sensibilidad a penicilina en SGV entre el 1 y 3 (p=0,058). El conocimiento dinámico y análisis de estos datos es esencial para generar estadísticas a nivel local, fundamentales para el diseño de guías de tratamientos empíricos (AU)


Leukemias and lymphomas are the most common cancers in children and bacteremia is a severe infection in these patients. Objectives: to describe the microorganisms isolated from blood in pediatric patients with acute leukemia or lymphoma; to compare the incidence of isolates according to the underlying disease; and to detail the variations in the incidence of these isolates and the evolution of their antimicrobial resistance. Retrospective, observational study. We included 823 episodes of bacteremia in 467 pediatric patients seen between July-2016 and June-2022, divided into three periods (period-1: 2016- 2018, period-2: 2018-2020, period-3: 2020-2022). A total of 880 microorganisms were isolated: 55.3% were gram-negative (GN), 40% gram-positive (GP) and 4.7% yeasts. In GN there was a predominance of: enterobacteria (72%) and in GP viridans group streptococci (VGS) (34.1%). An association was found between ALL-enterobacteria (p=0.009) and AML-VGS (p<0.001). There was an increase in GN between periods 1 and 3 (p=0.02) and 2 and 3 (p=0.002) and a decrease in GP between 2 and 3 (p=0.01). The following resistance mechanisms were recorded: BLEE (16.4%), carbapenemases: KPC (2.5%), MBL (2.7%), and OXA (0.2%); methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (20%) and coagulase negative staphylococci (95%), vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus spp. (39%), VGS resistant to penicillin (44%) and to cefotaxime (13%). There was an increase in MBL between periods 1 and 2 (p=0.02) and a decreasing trend in penicillin sensitivity in VGS between periods 1 and 3 (p=0.058). Dynamic knowledge and analysis of these data is essential to generate statistics at the local level, which is fundamental for the design of empirical treatment guidelines (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Leukemia, Lymphoid/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Febrile Neutropenia/etiology , Lymphoma/complications , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects
3.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 149-155, Junio 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443658

ABSTRACT

A pesar de los avances en los protocolos de tratamiento y en las medidas de soporte en pacientes con Leucemia Mieloide Aguda (LMA), 27% presentan recaídas de la enfermedad. Esto se debe, entre otras causas, a la persistencia de pequeñas cantidades de células malignas (blastos) resistentes a la terapia. Estas pequeñas cantidades de blastos remanentes se denominan Enfermedad Mínima Residual (EMR). La determinación de EMR requiere de técnicas no solo muy sensibles, sino también específicas, y permite evaluar la respuesta individual a la terapia. La introducción de la EMR como parámetro de respuesta y estratificación está bien definida en Leucemia Linfoblástica Aguda (LLA). Por el contrario, aunque existen publicaciones sobre el impacto pronóstico de la EMR en LMA, aún no se encuentra incluida en forma sistemática en los protocolos nacionales actuales, entre otros motivos, por lo laborioso de la determinación y por la necesidad de validación de la misma. Debe tenerse en cuenta que el inmunofenotipo de los blastos mieloides suele ser más heterogéneo que el de los blastos en LLA, presentando, en muchos casos, subpoblaciones diferentes entre sí, lo cual dificulta su detección certera y no hay consenso definido en cuanto a la metodología más eficaz. En este trabajo describimos una nueva estrategia de marcación y análisis estandarizada en un estudio multicéntrico internacional para LMA y la utilidad de la EMR como parámetro de respuesta y de estratificación. Asimismo, detallamos los resultados preliminares de nuestra cohorte de pacientes (AU)


Despite the improvement in treatment and supportive care of patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), 27% of them relapse. This is due to the persistence of small amounts of malignant cells (blasts) resistant to therapy, among other causes. These small amounts of blasts are called Minimal Residual Disease (MRD). The determination of MRD requires not only techniques with high sensitivity but also with high specificity, and allows to evaluate the individual response to treatment. The introduction of MRD as a response parameter is well established in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), and it is used in current stratification protocols. On the other hand, even though there are some reports regarding the prognostic impact of MRD in AML, it is still not included in the current national protocols due to the lack of validation of the determination, among other causes. This is due to the fact that the immunophenotype of myeloid blasts is more heterogeneous than in ALL, presenting different subpopulations, which difficults their accurate detection. Thus, there is still no consensus regarding the most effective approach. In this article, we describe a new staining and analysis strategy standardized by an international multicentric study, and the utility of EMR as a response and stratification parameter. Additionally, we show the preliminary results of our patient cohort. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Immunophenotyping/instrumentation , Neoplasm, Residual/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation
5.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(1): 25-31, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421556

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Elevated serum progranulin (PGRN) levels have been associated with a wide range of different human malignancies. However, data available on the role of PGRN in hematological malignancies are limited. Methods Measurement of the PGRN level in serum of adult de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed. Results The mean serum PGRN level in AML patients was higher than that in controls (346.08 pg/ml ± 64.46 vs 155 pg/ml ± 63 respectively; p= 0.001). After a mean duration of follow-up equaling 140 days, patients with high serum PGRN (i.e., higher than 370.5 pg/ml) had inferior overall survival (OS) in comparison to patients with low serum PGRN (i.e., lower than 370.5 pg/ml) (OS = 25% vs 60.7%, mean survival = 107 days vs 256.5 days, p= 0.007). On the other hand, remitted patients on day 28 with high serum PGRN (i.e., higher than 307.5 pg/ml) did not differ from those with low serum PGRN (i.e., lower than 307.5 pg/ml) regarding disease-free survival (DFS) (DFS = 78.6% vs. 87.5%, mean survival = 301.3 days vs. 283.5 days, p= 0.789). Moreover, the serum PGRN level was associated with inferior OS (p= 0.024) on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Adult de novo AML patients have elevated serum PGRN levels and a high PGRN level is associated with an inferior OS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Progranulins
6.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(1): 77-82, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421562

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease and approximately one-third of its carriers do not have evident genetic abnormalities. The mutation of specific molecular markers, such as fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FTL3) internal tandem duplication (ITD), FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and nucleophosmin (NPM1), are associated with an adverse and favorable prognosis, respectively. Objective The objective was to determine the prevalence of FLT3/ITD and NPM1 in Chilean patients and their association with clinical data and prognosis. Method and Results Two hundred and thirty-two children were studied between 2011 and 2017, the median being 8.6 years (ranging from 1 to 18 months). Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was diagnosed in 29%. The FLT3/ITD-mutated in non-promyelocytic AML was at 10% (14/133) and the FLT3/TKD, at 3.7% (2/54). In APL, it was at 25.4% (16/63). In non-promyelocytic AML, the FLT3/ITD-mutated was associated with a high leucocyte count, the median being 28.5 x mm3 (n= 14) versus 19.4 x mm3 (n= 119), (p= 0.25), in non-mutated cases. In APL, the median was 33.6 x mm3 (n= 15) versus 2.8 x mm3 (n= 47), (p < 0.001). The five-year overall survival (OS) in non-promyelocytic AML with non-mutated and mutated FLT3/ITD were 62.7% and 21.4%, respectively, (p < 0.001); the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) were 79.5% and 50%, respectively, (p < 0.01). The five-year OS in APL with non-mutated and mutated FLT3/ITD was 84.7% and 62.5%, respectively, (p= 0.05); the 5-year EFS was 84.7% and 68.8%, respectively, (p= 0.122). The NPM1 mutation was observed in 3.2% (5/155), all non-promyelocytic AML with the normal karyotype. Conclusion The FLT3/ITD mutation was observed more frequently in APL and associated with a higher white cell count at diagnosis. However, the most important finding was that the FLT3/ITD mutation was associated with a shorter survival in non-promyelocytic AML.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Nucleophosmin , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Incidence
7.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 410-415, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985939

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for patients with acute leukemia who are positive for the SET-NUP214 fusion gene (SET-NUP214+AL). Methods: This was a retrospective case series study. Clinical data of 18 patients with SET-NUP214+AL who received allo-HSCT in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and Soochow Hongci Hematology Hospital from December 2014 to October 2021 were retrospectively analyzed to investigate treatment efficacy and prognosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results: Of the 18 patients, 12 were male and 6 were female, and the median age was 29 years (range, 13-55 years). There were six cases of mixed phenotype acute leukemia (three cases of myeloid/T, two cases of B/T, one case of myeloid/B/T), nine cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (one case of B-ALL and eight cases of T-ALL), and three cases of acute myeloid leukemia. All patients received induction chemotherapy after diagnosis, and 17 patients achieved complete remission (CR) after chemotherapy. All patients subsequently received allo-HSCT. Pre-transplantation status: 15 patients were in the first CR, 1 patient was in the second CR, 1 was in partial remission, and 1 patient did not reach CR. All patients were successfully implanted with stem cells. The median time of granulocyte and platelet reconstitution was +12 and +13 days, respectively. With a median follow-up of 23 (4-80) months, 15 patients survived, while 3 patients died. The cause of death was recurrence of SET-NUP214+AL after transplantation. After allo-HSCT, 5 patients relapsed. The estimated 3-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) rates were 83.3%±15.2% and 55.4%±20.7%, respectively. Among the 15 patients who achieved CR before transplantation, there was no significant difference in OS and RFS between haploidentical HSCT and matched sibling donor HSCT (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Allo-HSCT can improve the prognosis and long-term survival rate of patients with SET-NUP214+AL. Disease recurrence is the most important factor affecting long-term survival.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Survival Analysis , Remission Induction , Acute Disease , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Recurrence , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins
8.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 393-400, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985937

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical and biological characteristics of familial platelet disorder (FPD) with germline Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) 1 mutations. Methods: Patients diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with RUNX1 mutations from February 2016 to December 2021 in Wuhan No.1 Hospital underwent pedigree analysis and were screened for gene mutations (somatic and germline). Patients diagnosed with FPD with germline RUNX1 mutations were enrolled and evaluated in terms of clinical characteristics and biological evolution. Bioinformatics analysis was used to assess the pathogenicity of mutations and to analyze the effect of mutated genes on the function of the corresponding protein. Results: Germline RUNX1 mutations were detected in three out of 34 patients suffering from MDS/AML who had RUNX1 mutations. A pedigree of FPD with RUNX1 (RUNX1-FPD) c.562A>C and RUNX1 c.1415T>C mutations was diagnosed, and the mutations were of patrilineal origin. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the locus at positions 188 and 472 in the AML-1G type of RUNX1 was highly conserved across different species, and that variations might influence functions of the proteins. The mutations were evaluated to be highly pathogenic. Of the nine cases with germline RUNX1 mutations: two patients died due AML progression; one case with AML survived without leukemia after transplantation of hemopoietic stem cells; four patients showed mild-to-moderate thrombocytopenia; two cases had no thrombocytopenia. During the disease course of the proband and her son, mutations in RUNX1, NRAS and/or CEBPA and KIT appeared in succession, and expression of cluster of differentiation-7 on tumor cells was enhanced gradually. None of the gene mutations correlated with the tumor were detected in the four cases not suffering from MDS/AML, and they survived until the end of follow-up. Conclusions: RUNX1-FPD was rare. The mutations c.562A>C and c.1415T>C of RUNX1 could be the disease-causing genes for the family with RUNX1-FPD, and these mutations could promote malignant transformation. Biological monitoring should be carried out regularly to aid early intervention for family members with RUNX1-FPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Germ-Line Mutation , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/genetics , Pedigree , Blood Platelet Disorders/complications , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics
9.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 550-555, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985907

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of decitabine combined with low dose chemotherapy (LDC) in the treatment of high-risk, refractory and relapsed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods: Clinical data of 19 AML children treated with decitabine combined with LDC in the Department of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University from April 2017 to November 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. The therapeutic response, adverse effects and survival status were analyzed,and the outcomes of patients were followed up. Results: Among 19 AML cases, there were 10 males and 9 females. Five cases were high-risk AML, 7 cases were refractory AML, and 7 cases were relapsed AML. After one course of decitabine+LDC treatment, 15 cases achieved complete remission, 3 cases got partial remission, and only 1 case didn't get remission. All patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as consolidation therapy. The follow-up time of all cases was 46 (37, 58) months, 14 children had survived. The cumulative three-year overall survival rate was (79±9) %, events free survival rates was (68±11) %, and recurrence free survival rate was (81±10) %. The most common adverse effects related to the induction treatment were cytopenia (19 cases) and infection (16 cases).There were no treatment-related death during the therapy. Conclusion: Decitabine combined with LDC is a safe and effective option for high-risk, refractory and relapsed AML children, which provides an opportunity for HSCT.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Child , Decitabine , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
10.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 357-362, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985876

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical features, treatment regime, and outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with DEK-NUP214 fusion gene. Methods: The clinical data, genetic and molecular results, treatment process and survival status of 7 cases of DEK-NUP214 fusion gene positive AML children admitted to the Pediatric Blood Diseases Center of Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from May 2015 to February 2022 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: DEK-NUP214 fusion gene positive AML accounted for 1.02% (7/683) of pediatric AML diagnosed in the same period, with 4 males and 3 females. The age of disease onset was 8.2 (7.5, 9.5) years. The blast percentage in bone marrow was 0.275 (0.225, 0.480), and 6 cases were M5 by FAB classification. Pathological hematopoiesis was observed in all cases except for one whose bone marrow morphology was unknown. Three cases carried FLT3-ITD mutations, 4 cases carried NRAS mutations, and 2 cases carried KRAS mutations. After diagnosis, 4 cases received IAE induction regimen (idarubicin, cytarabine and etoposide), 1 case received MAE induction regimen (mitoxantrone, cytarabine and etoposide), 1 case received DAH induction regimen (daunorubicin, cytarabine and homoharringtonine) and 1 case received DAE induction regimen (daunorubicin, cytarabine and etoposide). Complete remission was achieved in 3 cases after one course of induction. Four cases who did not achieved complete remission received CAG (aclarubicin, cytarabine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor), IAH (idarubicin, cytarabine and homoharringtonine), CAG combined with cladribine, and HAG (homoharringtonine, cytarabine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) combined with cladribine reinduction therapy, respectively, all 4 cases reached complete remission. Six patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after 1-2 sessions of intensive consolidation treatment, except that one case was lost to follow-up after complete remission. The time from diagnosis to HSCT was 143 (121, 174) days. Before HSCT, one case was positive for flow cytometry minimal residual disease and 3 cases were positive for DEK-NUP214 fusion gene. Three cases accepted haploid donors, 2 cases accepted unrelated cord blood donors, and 1 case accepted matched sibling donor. The follow-up time was 20.4 (12.9, 53.1) months, the overall survival and event free survival rates were all 100%. Conclusions: Pediatric AML with DEK-NUP214 fusion gene is a unique and rare subtype, often diagnosed in relatively older children. The disease is characterized with a low blast percentage in bone marrow, significant pathological hematopoiesis and a high mutation rate in FLT3-ITD and RAS genes. Low remission rate by chemotherapy only and very high recurrence rate indicate its high malignancy and poor prognosis. Early HSCT after the first complete remission can improve its prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/genetics , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Daunorubicin/therapeutic use , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Homoharringtonine/therapeutic use , Idarubicin/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/genetics , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies
11.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 358-363, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985680

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the expression of glycoprotein non metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) in renal eosinophilic tumors and to compare the value of GPNMB with CK20, CK7 and CD117 in the differential diagnosis of renal eosinophilic tumors. Methods: Traditional renal tumor eosinophil subtypes, including 22 cases of renal clear cell carcinoma eosinophil subtype (e-ccRCC), 19 cases of renal papillary cell carcinoma eosinophil subtype (e-papRCC), 17 cases of renal chromophobe cell carcinoma eosinophil subtype (e-chRCC), 12 cases of renal oncocytoma (RO) and emerging renal tumor types with eosinophil characteristics [3 cases of eosinophilic solid cystic renal cell carcinoma (ESC RCC), 3 cases of renal low-grade eosinophil tumor (LOT), 4 cases of fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cell carcinoma (FH-dRCC) and 5 cases of renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma (E-AML)], were collected at the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from January 2017 to March 2022. The expression of GPNMB, CK20, CK7 and CD117 was detected by immunohistochemistry and statistically analyzed. Results: GPNMB was expressed in all emerging renal tumor types with eosinophil characteristics (ESC RCC, LOT, FH-dRCC) and E-AML, while the expression rates in traditional renal eosinophil subtypes e-papRCC, e-chRCC, e-ccRCC and RO were very low or zero (1/19, 1/17, 0/22 and 0/12, respectively); the expression rate of CK7 in LOT (3/3), e-chRCC (15/17), e-ccRCC (4/22), e-papRCC (2/19), ESC RCC (0/3), RO (4/12), E-AML(1/5), and FH-dRCC (2/4) variedly; the expression of CK20 was different in ESC RCC (3/3), LOT(3/3), e-chRCC(1/17), RO(9/12), e-papRCC(4/19), FH-dRCC(1/4), e-ccRCC(0/22) and E-AML(0/5), and so did that of CD117 in e-ccRCC(2/22), e-papRCC(1/19), e-chRCC(16/17), RO(10/12), ESC RCC(0/3), LOT(1/3), E-AML(2/5) and FH-dRCC(1/4). GPNMB had 100% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity in distinguishing E-AML and emerging renal tumor types (such as ESC RCC, LOT, FH-dRCC) from traditional renal tumor types (such as e-ccRCC, e-papRCC, e-chRCC, RO),respectively. Compared with CK7, CK20 and CD117 antibodies, GPNMB was more effective in the differential diagnosis (P<0.05). Conclusion: As a new renal tumor marker, GPNMB can effectively distinguish E-AML and emerging renal tumor types with eosinophil characteristics such as ESC RCC, LOT, FH-dRCC from traditional renal tumor eosinophil subtypes such as e-ccRCC, e-papRCC, e-chRCC and RO, which is helpful for the differential diagnosis of renal eosinophilic tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Angiomyolipoma/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Membrane Glycoproteins
12.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 472-478, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984646

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the early effect and safety of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with a 10-day decitabine-containing conditioning regimen in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) /myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) . Methods: From April 2021 to May 2022, 31 AML/MDS patients who received allo-HSCT with a 10-day decitabine-containing conditioning regimen were analyzed. Results: AML (n=10), MDS-AML (n=6), CMML-AML (n=1), and MDS (n=14) were identified in 31 patients, 16 males, and 15 females, with a median age of 41 (20-55) yr. Neutrophils and platelets were successfully implanted in 31 patients (100%), with a median implantation duration of 12 (9-30) and 14 (9-42) days, respectively. During the preconditioning period, 16 patients (51.6%) developed oral mucositis, with 15 cases of Ⅰ/Ⅱ grade (48.4%) and one case of Ⅲ grade (3.2%). After transplantation, 13 patients (41.9%) developed CMV viremia, six patients (19.4%) developed hemorrhagic cystitis, and four patients (12.9%) developed a local infection. The median time of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) following transplantation was 33 (12-111) days. The cumulative incidence of aGVHD and Ⅲ/Ⅳ grade aGVHD was 41.9% (95% CI 26.9%-61.0%) and 22.9% (95% CI 13.5%-47.5%), respectively. There was no severe cGVHD, and mild and moderate chronic GVHD (cGVHD) incidence was 23.5% (95% CI 12.1%-43.6%). As of November 30, 2022, only one of the 31 patients had relapsed, with a 1-yr cumulative relapse rate (CIR) of 3.2% (95% CI 0.5%-20.7%). There was only one relapse patient death and no non-relapse deaths. The 1-yr overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 92.9% (95% CI 80.3%-100%) and 96.8% (95% CI 90.8%-100%), respectively. Conclusions: A 10-day decitabine-containing conditioning regimen for allo-HSCT reduced relapse and was safe and feasible in treating AML/MDS.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Decitabine , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Disease-Free Survival , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Recurrence , Chronic Disease , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Transplantation Conditioning/adverse effects , Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome , Retrospective Studies
13.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 458-464, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984644

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the role of donor change in the second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT2) for hematological relapse of malignant hematology after the first transplantation (HSCT1) . Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with relapsed hematological malignancies who received HSCT2 at our single center between Mar 1998 and Dec 2020. A total of 70 patients were enrolled[49 males and 21 females; median age, 31.5 (3-61) yr]. Results: Forty-nine male and 21 female patients were enrolled in the trial. At the time of HSCT2, the median age was 31.5 (3-61) years old. Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia, 23 patients with ALL, and 16 patients with MDS or other malignant hematology disease. Thirty patients had HSCT2 with donor change, and 40 patients underwent HSCT2 without donor change. The median relapse time after HSCT1 was 245.5 (26-2 905) days. After HSCT2, 70 patients had neutrophil engraftment, and 62 (88.6%) had platelet engraftment. The cumulative incidence of platelet engraftment was (93.1±4.7) % in patients with donor change and (86.0±5.7) % in patients without donor change (P=0.636). The cumulative incidence of CMV infection in patients with and without donor change was (64.0±10.3) % and (37.0±7.8) % (P=0.053), respectively. The cumulative incidence of grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ acute graft versus host disease was (19.4±7.9) % vs (31.3±7.5) %, respectively (P=0.227). The cumulative incidence of TRM 100-day post HSCT2 was (9.2±5.1) % vs (6.7±4.6) % (P=0.648), and the cumulative incidence of chronic graft versus host disease at 1-yr post-HSCT2 was (36.7±11.4) % versus (65.6±9.1) % (P=0.031). With a median follow-up of 767 (271-4 936) days, 38 patients had complete remission (CR), and three patients had persistent disease. The CR rate was 92.7%. The cumulative incidences of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) 2 yr after HSCT2 were 25.8% and 23.7%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse, OS, and DFS was (52.6±11.6) % vs (62.4±11.3) % (P=0.423), (28.3±8.6) % vs (23.8±7.5) % (P=0.643), and (28.3±8.6) % vs (22.3±7.7) % (P=0.787), respectively, in patients with changed donor compared with patients with the original donor. Relapses within 6 months post-HSCT1 and with persistent disease before HSCT2 were risk factors for OS, DFS, and CIR. Disease status before HSCT2 and early relapse (within 6 months post-HSCT1) was an independent risk factor for OS, DFS, and CIR post-HSCT2. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that changing donors did not affect the clinical outcome of HSCT2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Recurrence , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Chronic Disease
14.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 373-379, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984632

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the molecular features of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) . Methods: According to 2022 World Health Organization (WHO 2022) classification, 113 CMML patients and 840 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients from March 2016 to October 2021 were reclassified, and the clinical and molecular features of CMML patients were analyzed. Results: Among 113 CMML patients, 23 (20.4%) were re-diagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), including 18 AML with NPM1 mutation, 3 AML with KMT2A rearrangement, and 2 AML with MECOM rearrangement. The remaining 90 patients met the WHO 2022 CMML criteria. In addition, 19 of 840 (2.3%) MDS patients met the WHO 2022 CMML criteria. At least one gene mutation was detected in 99% of CMML patients, and the median number of mutations was 4. The genes with mutation frequency ≥ 10% were: ASXL1 (48%), NRAS (34%), RUNX1 (33%), TET2 (28%), U2AF1 (23%), SRSF2 (21.1%), SETBP1 (20%), KRAS (17%), CBL (15.6%) and DNMT3A (11%). Paired analysis showed that SRSF2 was frequently co-mutated with ASXL1 (OR=4.129, 95% CI 1.481-11.510, Q=0.007) and TET2 (OR=5.276, 95% CI 1.979-14.065, Q=0.001). SRSF2 and TET2 frequently occurred in elderly (≥60 years) patients with myeloproliferative CMML (MP-CMML). U2AF1 mutations were often mutually exclusive with TET2 (OR=0.174, 95% CI 0.038-0.791, Q=0.024), and were common in younger (<60 years) patients with myelodysplastic CMML (MD-CMML). Compared with patients with absolute monocyte count (AMoC) ≥1×10(9)/L and <1×10(9)/L, the former had a higher median age of onset (60 years old vs 47 years old, P<0.001), white blood cell count (15.9×10(9)/L vs 4.4×10(9)/L, P<0.001), proportion of monocytes (21.5% vs 15%, P=0.001), and hemoglobin level (86 g/L vs 74 g/L, P=0.014). TET2 mutations (P=0.021) and SRSF2 mutations (P=0.011) were more common in patients with AMoC≥1×10(9)/L, whereas U2AF1 mutations (P<0.001) were more common in patients with AMoC<1×10(9)/L. There was no significant difference in the frequency of other gene mutations between the two groups. Conclusion: According to WHO 2022 classification, nearly 20% of CMML patients had AMoC<1×10(9)/L at the time of diagnosis, and MD-CMML and MP-CMML had different molecular features.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic/genetics , Prognosis , Splicing Factor U2AF/genetics , Mutation , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 366-372, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984631

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of the AML1-ETO (AE) fusion gene on the biological function of U937 leukemia cells by establishing a leukemia cell model that induces AE fusion gene expression. Methods: The doxycycline (Dox) -dependent expression of the AE fusion gene in the U937 cell line (U937-AE) were established using a lentivirus vector system. The Cell Counting Kit 8 methods, including the PI and sidanilide induction, were used to detect cell proliferation, cell cycle-induced differentiation assays, respectively. The effect of the AE fusion gene on the biological function of U937-AE cells was preliminarily explored using transcriptome sequencing and metabonomic sequencing. Results: ①The Dox-dependent Tet-on regulatory system was successfully constructed to regulate the stable AE fusion gene expression in U937-AE cells. ②Cell proliferation slowed down and the cell proliferation rate with AE expression (3.47±0.07) was lower than AE non-expression (3.86 ± 0.05) after inducing the AE fusion gene expression for 24 h (P<0.05). The proportion of cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase in the cell cycle increased, with AE expression [ (63.45±3.10) %) ] was higher than AE non-expression [ (41.36± 9.56) %] (P<0.05). The proportion of cells expressing CD13 and CD14 decreased with the expression of AE. The AE negative group is significantly higher than the AE positive group (P<0.05). ③The enrichment analysis of the transcriptome sequencing gene set revealed significantly enriched quiescence, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, interferon-α/γ, and other inflammatory response and immune regulation signals after AE expression. ④Disorder of fatty acid metabolism of U937-AE cells occurred under the influence of AE. The concentration of the medium and short-chain fatty acid acylcarnitine metabolites decreased in cells with AE expressing, propionyl L-carnitine, wherein those with AE expression (0.46±0.13) were lower than those with AE non-expression (1.00±0.27) (P<0.05). The metabolite concentration of some long-chain fatty acid acylcarnitine increased in cells with AE expressing tetradecanoyl carnitine, wherein those with AE expression (1.26±0.01) were higher than those with AE non-expression (1.00±0.05) (P<0.05) . Conclusion: This study successfully established a leukemia cell model that can induce AE expression. The AE expression blocked the cell cycle and inhibited cell differentiation. The gene sets related to the inflammatory reactions was significantly enriched in U937-AE cells that express AE, and fatty acid metabolism was disordered.


Subject(s)
Humans , U937 Cells , RUNX1 Translocation Partner 1 Protein , Leukemia/genetics , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics
16.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 276-283, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984615

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm-accelerated phase/blast phase (MPN-AP/BP) . Methods: A total of 67 patients with MPN-AP/BP were enrolled from February 2014 to December 2021 at the Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Their clinical features and prognostic factors were analyzed retrospectively. Results: ① Sixty-seven patients with MPN-AP/BP with a median age of 60 (range, 33-75) years, including 31 males (46.3% ) and 36 females (53.7% ) , were analyzed. Forty-eight patients progressed from primary myelofibrosis (PMF) , and 19 progressed from other myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) , which included polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and MPN unclassifiable. Patients who progressed from PMF had higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels than those who progressed from other MPNs (925.95 vs. 576.2 U/L, P=0.011) , and there were higher proportions of patients who progressed from PMF with splenomegaly (81.4% vs. 57.9% , P=0.05) , a myelofibrosis grade of ≥2 (93.6% vs. 63.2% , P=0.004) , and a shorter duration from diagnosis to the transformation to AP/BP (28.7 vs. 81 months, P=0.001) . ② JAK2V617F, CALR, and MPLW515 were detected in 41 (61.2% ) , 13 (19.4% ) , and 3 (4.5% ) patients, respectively, whereas 10 (14.9% ) patients did not have any driver mutations (triple-negative) . Other than driver mutations, the most frequently mutated genes were ASXL1 (42.2% , n=27) , SRSF2 (25% , n=16) , SETBP1 (22.6% , n=15) , TET2 (20.3% , n=13) , RUNX1 (20.3% , n=13) , and TP53 (17.2% , n=11) . The ASXL1 mutation was more enriched (51.1% vs. 21.1% , P=0.03) , and the median variant allele fraction (VAF) of the SRSF2 mutation (median VAF, 48.8% vs. 39.6% ; P=0.008) was higher in patients who progressed from PMF than those who progressed from other MPNs. ③ In the multivariate analysis, the complex karyotype (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-6.05; P=0.036) was independently associated with worse overall survival (OS) . Patients who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) (median OS, 21.3 vs. 3 months; P=0.05) or acute myeloid leukemia-like (AML-like) therapy (median OS, 13 vs. 3 months; P=0.011) had significantly better OS than those who received supportive therapy. Conclusion: The proportions of patients with PMF-AP/BP with splenomegaly, myelofibrosis grade ≥2, a higher LDH level, and a shorter duration from diagnosis to the transformation to AP/BP were higher than those of patients with other Philadelphia-negative MPN-AP/BP. The complex karyotype was an independent prognostic factor for OS. Compared with supportive therapy, AML-like therapy and allo-HSCT could prolong the OS of patients with MPN-AP/BP.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Blast Crisis/drug therapy , Primary Myelofibrosis/genetics , Prognosis , Splenomegaly , Retrospective Studies , Myeloproliferative Disorders/genetics , Mutation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Janus Kinase 2/genetics
17.
Philippine Journal of Pathology ; (2): 21-26, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984489

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Among patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), the karyotype at diagnosis is an important prognostic indicator for predicting outcomes. Several studies have been done to identify the most common cytogenetic abnormalities seen in patients in other countries, however, limited studies have been done in our setting.@*OBJECTIVE@#The study aims to determine the most common abnormalities present among patients with AML referred for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute.@*METHODOLOGY@#The study included 131 adult patients with a mean age o 46. Fluorescence in situ Hybridization was used to identify the following cytogenetic abnormalities: t(8;21), 11q23 (MLL), 16q22 (CBFB-MYH11), t(15;17) (PML/RARA), t(9;22) (BCR/ABL), 7q31 deletion, and Monosomy 7.@*RESULTS@#FISH was negative in 40% (n=53) of patients. 7q31 deletion is the most frequently identified cytogenetic abnormality among patients with a single abnormality (n=17, 13%) present and is the most frequently identified abnormality among patients with multiple abnormalities (n=26). 7q31 deletion is more frequently observed among patients between the ages 51 to 60 years old and among patients with AML with monocytic differentiation. 22% (n=29) of patients have multiple abnormalities, with the most common abnormalities to occur together are 7q31 deletion and t(8;21) (n=20, 15%). Patients with negative results and patients with multiple cytogenetic abnormalities are commonly seen within the 41 to 50 age group.@*CONCLUSION@# The current study provides a single-institution view of the cytogenetic abnormalities among adult Filipino patients with AML using FISH. Further investigation on the clinical history of these patients, with correlation with other methods, as well as epidemiologic studies are needed to better understand the similarities and differences seen from previously reported incidences.


Subject(s)
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Cytogenetics , Hematology
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1563-1568, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010006

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of acute leukemia complicated with multi-drug resistant bacterial septicemia in children.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of children with acute leukemia complicated with septicemia admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University from January 2013 to May 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Their flora composition and drug resistance were also analyzed. The children were divided into multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDRB) group and non-multi-drug resistant bacteria (non-MDRB) group according to the drug sensitivity results, and the differences in clinical data between the two group were compared.@*RESULTS@#A total of 108 children had drug sensitivity results, 47 cases in the MDRB group, including 26 strians of Gram-positive bacteria (G+), the most common multi-drug resistant G+ bacteria were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Staphylococcus aureus, and the most common multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria G- bacteria were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies pneumoniae. Compared with non-MDRB group, children in MDRB group had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) level and mortality rate (P <0.001, P =0.009), lower initial empirical anti-infection efficiency (P <0.001), and were more likely to have septic shock (P =0.003). Logistic analysis showed that the risk factors of acute leukemia complicated with MDRB septicemia in children were previous MDRB infection (OR =6.763, 95% CI: 1.141-40.092, P =0.035), duration of agranulocytosis before infection≥7 days (OR =3.071, 95% CI: 1.139-8.282, P =0.027), and previous use of antimicrobial drugs within 90 days before infection (OR =7.675, 95% CI: 1.581-37.261, P =0.011).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The clinical features of acute leukemia complicated with MDRB septicemia in children include a heavy inflammatory response, significantly elevated CRP, susceptibility to secondary septic shock, low efficiency of initial empirical anti-infective therapy, and high mortality rate. Previous MDRB infection, duration of agranulocytosis before infection≥7 days, and previous use of antimicrobial drugs within 90 days before infection are risk factors of acute leukemia complicated with MDRB septicemia in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Shock, Septic , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Risk Factors , Bacteria , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Acute Disease , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infective Agents , Agranulocytosis
19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1531-1536, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy combined with venetoclax followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for the treatment of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 3 patients with BPDCN undergoing allo-HSCT in Department of Hematology, Wuhan First Hospital from July 2017 to November 2021 were collected and retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 3 patients, there were 1 male and 2 females, aged 27-52 years old. Skin lesions were observed during initial diagnosis, and it could also be characterized by acute leukemia. Characteristic molecular markers of tumor cells, such as CD4, CD56, CD123, and CD303 were positive. In addition, the expression detection of Bcl-2 in 3 patients were positive. Chemotherapy combined with venetoclax in the initial induction of chemotherapy (1 case) or disease recurrence and progress (2 cases) was performed. There were 2 cases evaluated as complete remission (CR) and 1 case as partial remission (PR) before allo-HSCT. The patients all received a nonmyeloablative conditioning without total body irradiation (TBI). The prevention programme of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was antithymocyte globulin + mycophenolate mofetil + cyclosporin A/FK506 ± methotrexate. The number of mononuclear cell (MNC) count was (16.73-18.35)×108/kg, and CD34+ cell count was (3.57-4.65)×106/kg. The 3 patients were evaluated as CR after allo-HSCT (+21 to +28 d), the donor-recipient chimerism rate was 100%, and Ⅲ-Ⅳ GVHD was not observed. One patient died at +50 d after transplantation, two patients were followed up for 28 months and 15 months, respectively, and achieved disease-free survival (DFS).@*CONCLUSIONS@#BPDCN is a highly aggressive malignant tumor with poor prognosis. Chemotherapy combined with venetoclax followed by allo-HSCT may lead to long-term DFS or even cure. Post-transplant maintenance is still unclear.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Acute Disease , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Myeloproliferative Disorders , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Dendritic Cells
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1333-1339, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009990

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the efficacy of venetoclax (VEN) plus azacitidine (AZA) in patients with FLT3-ITD mutated relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (FLT3-ITDmut R/R AML) and analyze the molecular genetic characteristics of the patients.@*METHODS@#Clinical baseline characteristics and follow-up data of 16 R/R AML patients treatd with VEN plus AZA in the hematology department of Shenzhen Second People's Hospital from November 2018 to April 2021 were collected. Leukemia related genes were detected by next-generation sequencing(NGS) or PCR. The relationship between the efficacy of VEN plus AZA and molecular genetics characteristics of patients with FLT3-ITDmut R/R AML were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#14.3% (1/7) of the patients in FLT3-ITDmut group and 22.2% (2/9) of the patients in FLT3-ITDwt group achieved complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi), respectively, with no significant difference (P=0.69). There was no significant difference in overall response rate (ORR) (CR/CRi+PR) between FLT3-ITDmut group and FLT3-ITDwt group [42.9%(3/7) vs 44.4%(4/9), P=0.95], too. The median overall survival (OS) time of FLT3-ITDmut patients was significantly shorter than that of FLT3-ITDwt patients (130 vs 300 days, respectively) (P =0.02). Co-existing mutations of FLT3-ITD and IDH1 were detected in one patient who achieved CR. Co-existing mutations of FLT3-ITD and SF3B1 were found in one patient who achieved PR. Three FLT3-ITDmut R/R AML patients accompanied with NPM1 mutation had no response to VEN plus AZA.@*CONCLUSION@#VEN plus AZA showed a certain effect on patients with FLT3-ITDmut R/R AML. To improve OS of the patients, bridging transplantation is need. IDH1 and SF3B1 mutations might predict that patients with FLT3-ITDmut R/R AML have treatment response to VEN plus AZA, while the combination of NPM1 mutation may indicate poor response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nucleophosmin , Prognosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Mutation , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3/genetics
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