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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 832-837, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010294

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect of arsenic-containing Qinghuang Powder (QHP) and low-intensity chemotherapy (LIC) in treatment of elderly acute myeloid leukemia (eAML) patients.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 80 eAML patients treated at Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences from January 2015 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment scheme was designed by real world study according to patients' preference, and patients were divided into a QHP group (35 cases) and a LIC group (45 cases). The median overall survival (mOS), 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates, and incidence of adverse events were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The mOS of 80 patients was 11 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were 45.51%, 17.96%, and 11.05%, respectively. The QHP and LIC groups demonstrated no significant difference in mOS (12 months vs. 10 months), 1- (48.57% vs. 39.65%), 2- (11.43% vs. 20.04%), and 3-year OS rates (5.71% vs. 13.27%, all P>0.05). Moreover, the related factors of mOS demonstrated no significant difference in patients with age>75 years (11 months vs. 8 months), secondary AML (11 months vs. 8 months), poor genetic prognosis (9 months vs. 7 months), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score ⩾ 3 (10 months vs. 7 months) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant comorbidity index ⩾ 4 (11 months vs. 7 months) between the QHP and LIC groups (all P>0.05). However, the incidence of myelosuppression was significantly lower in the QHP group than that in the LIC group (28.57% vs. 73.33%, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#QHP and LIC had similar survival rates in eAML patients, but QHP had a lower myelosuppression incidence. Hence, QHP can be an alternative for eAML patients who do not tolerate LIC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Arsenic/therapeutic use , Powders/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Prognosis , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
2.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 742-748, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012223

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics, cytogenetics, molecular biology, treatment, and prognosis of patients with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/AML) secondary to malignancies. Methods: The clinical data of 86 patients with t-MDS/AML in West China Hospital of Sichuan University between January 2010 and April 2023 were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical characteristics, primary tumor types, and tumor-related therapies were analyzed. Results: The study enrolled a total of 86 patients with t-MDS/AML, including 67 patients with t-AML, including 1 patient with M(0), 6 with M(1), 27 with M(2), 9 with M(3), 12 with M(4), 10 with M(5), 1 with M(6), and 1 with M(7). Sixty-two patients could be genetically stratified, with a median overall survival (OS) of 36 (95% CI 22-52) months for 20 (29.9%) patients in the low-risk group and 6 (95% CI 3-9) months for 10 (14.9%) in the intermediate-risk group. The median OS time was 8 (95% CI 1-15) months in 32 (47.8%) patients in the high-risk group. For patients with non-acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and AML, the median OS of the low-risk group was 27 (95% CI 18-36) months, which was significantly longer than that of the non-low-risk group (χ(2)=5.534, P=0.019). All 9 APL cases were treated according to the initial treatment, and the median OS was not reached, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were 100.0%, (75.0±6.2) %, and (75.0±6.2) % respectively. Of the 58 patients with non-APL t-AML (89.7%), 52 received chemotherapy, and 16 achieved complete remission (30.8%) after the first induction chemotherapy. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates of the non-APL t-AML group were (42.0 ± 6.6) %, (22.9±5.7) %, and (13.4±4.7) %, respectively. The median OS of patients who achieved remission was 24 (95% CI 18-30) months, and the median OS of those who did not achieve remission was 6 (95% CI 3-9) months (χ(2)=10.170, P=0.001). Bone marrow CR was achieved in 7 (53.8%) of 13 patients treated with vineclar-containing chemotherapy, with a median OS of 12 (95% CI 9-15) months, which was not significantly different from that of vineclar-containing chemotherapy (χ(2)=0.600, P=0.437). In 19 patients with t-MDS, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were (46.8±11.6) %, (17.5±9.1) %, and (11.7±9.1) % with a median OS of 12 (95% CI 7-17) months, which was not significantly different from that in t-AML (χ(2)=0.232, P=0.630) . Conclusions: Breast cancer, bowel cancer, and other primary tumors are common in patients with t-MDS/AML, which have a higher risk of adverse genetics. Patients with APL had a high induction remission rate and a good long-term prognosis, whereas patients without APL had a low remission rate and a poor long-term prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/therapy , Prognosis , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , Neoplasms, Second Primary/drug therapy , Remission Induction , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
3.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 649-653, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012207

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of Venetoclax combined with multidrug chemotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R ETP-ALL) . Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed 15 patients with R/R ETP-ALL who received Venetoclax combined with multidrug chemotherapy from December 2018 to February 2022. Among them, eight cases were combined with demethylated drugs, four cases were combined with demethylated drugs and HAAG chemotherapy regimen, two cases were combined with demethylated drugs and CAG regimen, and one case was combined with Cladribine. Specific usage and dosage of Venetoclax: 100 mg on day 1, 200 mg on day 2, 400 mg on day 3-28, orally; when combined with azole antifungal drugs, dosage was reduced to 100 mg/d. Results: Fifteen patients (10 males and 5 females) with R/R ETP-ALL were treated with Venetoclax and multidrug chemotherapy with a median age of 35 (12-42) years old. Of 4 refractory and 11 relapsed patients, the efficacy was evaluated on the 21th day following combined chemotherapy: the overall response rate, the complete response (CR) rate, and the CR with incomplete hematological recovery (CRi) rate were 67.7% (10/15), 60.0% (9/15), and 6.7% (1/15), respectively. For the overall study population, the 12-month overall survival (OS) rate was 60.0%, and the median OS was 17.7 months. The disease-free survival (DFS) rate of all CR patients at 12 months was 60.0%, and the median DFS did not reach. About 14 patients had Ⅲ-Ⅳ hematological toxicity, but these adverse reactions were all controllable. No adverse reaction in the nervous system and tumor lysis syndrome occurred in this study, and no adverse reaction of organs above grade Ⅲ occurred. Conclusion: Venetoclax combined with multidrug chemotherapy may be a safe and promising treatment option for patients with R/R ETP-ALL.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Precursor Cells, T-Lymphoid , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 287-291, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971138

ABSTRACT

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is not "transcriptional noise". It can regulate gene expression at pre-transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic level and participate in the occurrence and development of diseases. A large number of studies have shown that the abnormal expression of lncRNA plays an important role in the occurrence and development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and drug resistance. LncRNA can participate in the occurrence, development and drug resistance of AML by acting on target genes and regulating related signal pathways. Detection of its expression has a certain prognostic value. Therefore, this article briefly discusses the research progress of lncRNA in AML, hoping to provide ideas for clinical diagnosis and targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Prognosis
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 45-49, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical significance of translocator proteins (TSPO) gene in the treatment of FLT3-ITD/DNMT3A R882 double-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#Seventy-six patients with AML hospitalized in the Department of Hematology of the Affiliated People's Hospital of Ningbo University from June 2018 to June 2020 were selected, including 34 patients with FLT3-ITD mutation, 27 patients with DNMT3A R882 mutation, 15 patients with FLT3-ITD/DNMT3A R882 double mutation, as well as 19 patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) hospitalized during the same period as control group. RNA was routinely extracted from 3 ml bone marrow retained during bone puncture, and TSPO gene expression was detected by transcriptome sequencing (using 2-deltadeltaCt calculation).@*RESULTS@#The expression of TSPO gene in FLT3-ITD group and DNMT3A R882 group at first diagnosis was 2.02±1.04 and 1.85±0.76, respectively, which were both higher than 1.00±0.06 in control group, but the differences were not statistically significant (P=0.671, P=0.821). The expression of TSPO gene in the FLT3-ITD/DNMT3A R882 group was 3.98±1.07, wich was significantly higher than that in the FLT3-ITD group and DNMT3A R882 group, the differences were statistically significant (P=0.032, P=0.021). The expression of TSPO gene in patients who achieved complete response after chemotherapy in the FLT3-ITD/DNMT3A R882 group was 1.19±0.87, which was significantly lower than that at first diagnosis, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.011).@*CONCLUSION@#TSPO gene may be used as an indicator of efficacy in FLT3-ITD /DNMT3A R882 double-mutated AML.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases/genetics , DNA Methyltransferase 3A , Mutation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Nucleophosmin , Prognosis , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3/genetics , Receptors, GABA/therapeutic use
6.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 124-131, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969687

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate treatment responses, outcomes, and prognostic factors in adults with secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) . Methods: Between January 2008 and February 2021, date of consecutive cases of younger than 65 years of adults with sAML were assessed retrospectively. Clinical characteristics at diagnosis, treatment responses, recurrence, and survival were evaluated. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards model were employed to determine significant prognostic indicators for treatment response and survival. Results: 155 patients were recruited, including 38, 46, 57, 14 patients belonging to t-AML, and AML with unexplained cytopenia, post-MDS-AML, and post-MPN-AML, respectively. In the 152 evaluable patients, the rate of MLFS after the initial induction regimen was 47.4%, 57.9%, 54.3%, 40.0%, and 23.1% in the four groups (P=0.076) . The total rate of MLFS after the induction regimen was 63.8%, 73.3%, 69.6%, 58.2%, and 38.5% (P=0.084) , respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that male gender (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, P=0.038 and OR=0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8, P=0.015) , SWOG cytogenetic classification into unfavorable or intermediate (OR=0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.6, P=0.014 and OR=0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.3, P=0.004) and receiving low-intensity regimen as induction regimen (OR=0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.3, P=0.003 and OR=0.1, 95%CI 0.1-0.2, P=0.001) were typical adverse factors impacting the first CR and the final CR; PLT<45 × 10(9)/L (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.2-0.9, P=0.038) and LDH ≥258 U/L (OR=0.3, 95%CI 0.1-0.7, P=0.005) were independent factors for CR. Among the 94 patients with achieving MLFS, 46 cases had allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. With a median follow-up period of 18.6 months, the probabilities of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years were 25.4% and 37.3% in patients with transplantation, and in patients with chemotherapy, the probabilities of RFS and OS at 3-year were 58.2% and 64.3%, respectively. At the time of achieving MLFS, multivariate analysis revealed that age ≥46 years (HR=3.4, 95%CI 1.6-7.2, P=0.002 and HR=2.5, 95%CI 1.1-6.0, P=0.037) , peripheral blasts ≥17.5% at diagnosis (HR=2.5, 95%CI 1.2-4.9, P=0.010 and HR=4.1, 95%CI 1.7-9.7, P=0.002) , monosomal karyotypes (HR=4.9, 95%CI 1.2-19.9, P=0.027 and HR=28.3, 95%CI 4.2-189.5, P=0.001) were typical adverse factors influencing RFS and OS. Furthermore, CR after induction chemotherapy (HR=0.4, 95%CI 0.2-0.8, P=0.015) and transplantation (HR=0.4, 95%CI 0.2-0.9, P=0.028) were substantially linked to longer RFS. Conclusion: Post-MDS-AML and post-MPN-AML had lower response rates and poorer prognoses than t-AML and AML with unexplained cytopenia. In adults with male gender, low platelet count, high LDH, and SWOG cytogenetic classification into unfavorable or intermediate at diagnosis, and receiving low-intensity regimen as the induction regimen predicted a low response rate. Age ≥46 years, a higher proportion of peripheral blasts and monosomal karyotype had a negative effect on the overall outcome. Transplantation and CR after induction chemotherapy were greatly linked to longer RFS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Induction Chemotherapy , Recurrence , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 922-926, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982152

ABSTRACT

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematopoietic tumor originated from hematopoietic stem cells. FLT3 is an important receptor tyrosine kinase in cell signal transduction pathway and one of the common mutated genes in AML. AML patients with FLT3-ITD mutation have a poor prognosis and tendency to relapse. Therefore, early identification of FLT3 gene mutation and selection of appropriate treatment are particularly important. Currently, the small moleculetargeted drugs have been new treatment methods for AML patients with FLT3-ITD mutation, but accompanied drug resistance need to be solved. This paper reviews the mechanism of FLT3 mutation, the clinical significance of FLT3 mutation in AML, FLT3 inhibitors and drug resistance mechanism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3/genetics
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 338-343, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982064

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy, prognosis and safety of decitabine combined with modified EIAG regimen in the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 44 patients with relapsed/refractory AML and high-risk MDS admitted to our hospital from January 2017 to December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were equally divided into D-EIAG group (decitabine combined with EIAG regimen) and D-CAG group (decitabine combined with CAG regimen) according to clinical treatment regimen. The complete response (CR), CR with incomplete hematologic recover (CRi), morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS), partial response (PR), overall response rate (ORR), modified composite complete response (mCRc), overall survival (OS) time, 1-year OS rate, myelosuppression and adverse reactions between the two groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#In D-EIAG group, 16 patients (72.7%) achieved mCRc (CR+CRi+MLFS), 3 patients (13.6%) achieved PR, and ORR (mCRc+PR) was 86.4%. In D-CAG group, 9 patients (40.9%) achieved mCRc, 6 patients (27.3%) achieved PR, and ORR was 68.2%. Difference was observed in mCRc rate between the two groups (P=0.035), but not in ORR (P>0.05). The median OS time of D-EIAG group and D-CAG group was 20 (2-38) months and 16 (3-32) months, and 1-year OS rate was 72.7% and 59.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference in 1-year OS rate between the two groups (P>0.05). After induction chemotherapy, the median time for absolute neutrophil count recovery to 0.5×109/L in D-EIAG group and D-CAG group was 14 (10-27) d and 12 (10-26) d, for platelet count recovery to 20×109/L was 15 (11-28) d and 14 (11-24)d, the median red blood cell suspension transfusion volume was 8 (6-12) U and 6 (6-12) U, and the median apheresis platelet transfusion volume was 4 (2-8) U and 3 (2-6) U, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in comparison of the above indicators between the two groups (P>0.05). The hematological adverse reactions of patients were mainly myelosuppression. Grade III-IV hematological adverse events occurred in both groups (100%), with no increase in the incidence of non-hematological toxicities such as gastrointestinal reactions or liver function damage.@*CONCLUSION@#Decitabine combined with EIAG regimen in the treatment of relapsed/refractory AML and high-risk MDS can improve remission rate, provide an opportunity for subsequent therapies, and have no increase in adverse reactions compared with D-CAG regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Decitabine/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Cytarabine , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Bone Marrow Diseases/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 327-332, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982062

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of venetoclax (VEN) combined with demethylating agents (HMA) in the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (R/R AML).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 26 adult R/R AML patients who received the combination of VEN with azacitidine (AZA) or decitabine (DAC) in Huai'an Second People's Hospital from February 2019 to November 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment response, adverse events as well as survival were observed, and the factors of influencing the efficacy and survival were explored.@*RESULTS@#The overall response rate (ORR) of 26 patients was 57.7% (15 cases), including 13 cases of complete response (CR) and CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) and 2 cases of partial response (PR). Among the 13 patients who got CR/CRi, 7 cases achieved CRm (minimal residual disease negative CR) and 6 cases did not, with statistically significant differences in overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) between the two groups (P=0.044, 0.036). The median OS of all the patients was 6.6 (0.5-15.6) months, and median EFS was 3.4 (0.5-9.9) months. There were 13 patients in the relapse group and refractory group, respectively, with response rate of 84.6% and 30.8% (P=0.015). The survival analysis showed that the relapse group had a better OS than the refractory group (P=0.026), but there was no significant difference in EFS (P=0.069). Sixteen patients who treated for 1-2 cycles and 10 patients who treated for more than 3 cycles achieved response rates of 37.5% and 90.0%, respectively (P=0.014), and patients treated for more cycles had superior OS and EFS (both P<0.01). Adverse effects were mainly bone marrow suppression, complicated by various degrees of infection, bleeding, and gastrointestinal discomfort was common, but these could be all tolerated by patients.@*CONCLUSION@#VEN combined with HMA is an effective salvage therapy for patients with R/R AML and is well tolerated by patients. Achieving minimal residual disease negativity is able to improve long-term survival of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm, Residual/drug therapy , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/adverse effects , Recurrence , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
10.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 550-555, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985907

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of decitabine combined with low dose chemotherapy (LDC) in the treatment of high-risk, refractory and relapsed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods: Clinical data of 19 AML children treated with decitabine combined with LDC in the Department of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University from April 2017 to November 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. The therapeutic response, adverse effects and survival status were analyzed,and the outcomes of patients were followed up. Results: Among 19 AML cases, there were 10 males and 9 females. Five cases were high-risk AML, 7 cases were refractory AML, and 7 cases were relapsed AML. After one course of decitabine+LDC treatment, 15 cases achieved complete remission, 3 cases got partial remission, and only 1 case didn't get remission. All patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as consolidation therapy. The follow-up time of all cases was 46 (37, 58) months, 14 children had survived. The cumulative three-year overall survival rate was (79±9) %, events free survival rates was (68±11) %, and recurrence free survival rate was (81±10) %. The most common adverse effects related to the induction treatment were cytopenia (19 cases) and infection (16 cases).There were no treatment-related death during the therapy. Conclusion: Decitabine combined with LDC is a safe and effective option for high-risk, refractory and relapsed AML children, which provides an opportunity for HSCT.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Child , Decitabine , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1905-1909, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010058

ABSTRACT

Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) is a research hotspot in the field of cellular immunotherapy in recent years, and CAR-T cells therapy are developing rapidly in hematological malignant tumors, but their clinical application is still limited by related risks. It is particularly important to find more optimized immunoreactive cells. Natural killer (NK) cells, as key effector cells of innate immunity, can kill tumor or infected cells quickly without prior sensitization. Autologous or allogeneic NK cell infusion has become an effective cell therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CAR-NK cells combine the advantages of CAR targeting tumor specific antigens and enhancing immune cells activity with the innate antitumor function of NK cells to enhance the targeting and lytic activity of NK cells to AML primordial cells. At present, most of the CAR-NK treatments for AML are still in the stage of specific target screening and verification. This article reviews the latest research progress of CAR-NK cell therapy in the field of AML therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Killer Cells, Natural , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Immunotherapy
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1252-1256, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009982

ABSTRACT

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has highly heterogeneous clinical manifestations and poor prognosis, and traditional chemotherapy is the main treatment. In recent years, with the in-depth development of next-generation sequencing technology, the treatment of AML is gradually exploring the precise targeted therapy in the direction of molecular biology and immunophenotype. The advent of various small-molecule inhibitors and immune-targeted drugs has brought hope to patients who cannot tolerate intensive chemotherapy or with relapsed/refractory AML. Compared with traditional chemotherapy, targeted therapy has the advantages of significant curative effect and fewer adverse effects. This article reviews the latest research progress of targeted drug therapy for AML.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Immunotherapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 203-207, abr. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388341

ABSTRACT

Resumen Presentamos el caso de un escolar de 10 años, con el diagnóstico de una recaída de una leucemia mieloide aguda que cursó con un episodio de una neutropenia febril de alto riesgo, posterior a un ciclo intensivo de quimioterapia, evolucionando con una infección fúngica invasora demostrada por histopatología. Se inició tratamiento con voriconazol intravenoso, evolucionando con concentraciones plasmáticas erráticas que requirieron sucesivos ajustes de dosis, lo que también ocurrió con la administración oral del medicamento. Finalmente, tuvo una respuesta favorable al tratamiento, a pesar de la dificultad de la dosificación para alcanzar niveles terapéuticos. La búsqueda activa y la terapia antifúngica anticipada, así como la monitorización seriada de concentraciones terapéuticas de voriconazol, permitieron un tratamiento antifúngico óptimo y oportuno, mejorando el pronóstico del paciente.


Abstract We present a 10-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML), presenting with high-risk febrile neutropenia (HRFN), after a cycle of intensive chemotherapy, evolving with an invasive fungal infection demonstrated by histopathology. Treatment with intravenous voriconazole was started, with erratic plasmatic levels, which require successive dose adjustments which also occurred with oral administration. Finally, he had a favorable response to treatment, despite of the dosing difficulties to reach therapeutic levels. Active search as well as preemptive antifungal therapy, together with plasmatic level monitorization of voriconazole allowed a prompt recovery and improved the patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/microbiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 287-292, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929637

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity profiles of idarubicin, cytarabine, and cyclophosphamide (IAC) in relapse/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) . Methods: This study was a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial with the registration number NCT02937662. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was treated with an IAC regimen, and the regimen of the control group was selected by doctors according to medication experience. After salvage chemotherapy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) was conducted as far as possible according to the situation of the patients. We aimed to observe the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of the IAC regimen in relapse/refractory AML and to explore which is the better regimen. Results: Forty-two patients were enrolled in the clinical trial, with a median age of 36 years (IAC group, 22 cases and control groups, 20 cases) . ①The objective response rate was 71.4% in the IAC group and 40.0% in the control group (P=0.062) ; the complete remission (CR) rate was 66.7% in the IAC group and 40.0% in the control group (P=0.121) . The median follow-up time of surviving patients was 10.5 (range:1.7-32.8) months; the median overall survival (OS) was 14.1 (range: 0.6-49.1) months in the IAC group and 9.9 (range: 2.0-53.8) months in the control group (P=0.305) . The 1-year OS was 54.5% (95%CI 33.7%-75.3%) in the IAC group and 48.2% (95%CI 25.9%-70.5%) in the control group (P=0.305) , with no significant difference between these two regimens. ②The main hematologic adverse events (AEs) were anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. The incidence of grade 3-4 hematologic AEs in the two groups was 100% (22/22) in the IAC group and 95% (19/20) in the control group. The median time of neutropenia after chemotherapy in the IAC group and control group was 20 (IQR: 8-30) and 14 (IQR: 5-50) days, respectively (P=0.023) . ③The CR rate of the early relapse (relapse within 12 months) group was 46.7% and that of the late relapse (relapse after 12 months) group was 72.7% (P=0.17) . The median OS time of early recurrence was 9.9 (range:1.7-53.8) months, and that of late recurrence patients was 19.3 (range: 0.6-40.8) months (P=0.420) , with no significant differences between the two groups. The 1-year OS rates were 45.3% (95%CI 27.2%-63.3%) and 66.7% (95%CI 40.0%-93.4%) , respectively (P=0.420) . Survival analysis showed that the 1-year OS rates of the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation group and non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation group were 87.5% (95%CI 71.2%-100%) and 6.3% (95%CI 5.7%-18.3%) , respectively. The OS rate of the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation group was significantly higher than that of the non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation group (P<0.001) . Conclusion: The IAC regimen is a well-tolerated and effective regimen in relapsed/refractory AML; this regimen had similar efficacy and safety with the regimen selected according to the doctor's experience for treating relapsed/refractory AML. For relapsed/refractory patients with AML, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be attempted as soon as possible to achieve long-term survival.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Idarubicin/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Neutropenia , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
15.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 370-375, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929570

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the prognostic significance of interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) expression and identify its role as a potential therapeutic target in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) . Methods: The gene expression profile and survival data applied in the bioinformatic analysis were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Beat acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cohorts. A dox-induced lentiviral system was used to induce the expression of PML-RARα (PR) in U937 cells, and the expression level of IRF9 in U937 cells treated with or without ATRA was examined. We then induced the expression of IRF9 in NB4, a promyelocytic leukemia cell line. In vitro studies focused on leukemic phenotypes triggered by IRF9 expression. Results: ①Bioinformatic analysis of the public database demonstrated the lowest expression of IRF9 in APL among all subtypes of AML, with lower expression associated with worse prognosis. ②We successfully established a PR-expression-inducible U937 cell line and found that IRF9 was downregulated by the PR fusion gene in APL, with undetectable expression in NB4 promyelocytic cells. ③An IRF9-inducible NB4 cell line was successfully established. The inducible expression of IRF9 promoted the differentiation of NB4 cells and had a synergistic effect with lower doses of ATRA. In addition, the inducible expression of IRF9 significantly reduced the colony formation capacity of NB4 cells. Conclusion: In this study, we found that the inducible expression of PR downregulates IRF9 and can be reversed by ATRA, suggesting a specific regulatory relationship between IRF9 and the PR fusion gene. The induction of IRF9 expression in NB4 cells can promote cell differentiation as well as reduce the colony forming ability of leukemia cells, implying an anti-leukemia effect for IRF9, which lays a biological foundation for IRF9 as a potential target for the treatment of APL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Differentiation , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/metabolism , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/metabolism , Phenotype , Tretinoin/therapeutic use , U937 Cells
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 407-412, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the influence of serum levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the therapeutic effect of high-dose cytarabine (HD-AraC) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#98 patients with AML treated in our hospital from January 2019 to June 2020 were selected as the research subjects, all patients were treated with HD-AraC for 1 course of treatment every week. The effect of 2 groups were evaluated during after one course of treatment and divided into effective group and ineffective group, statistical table of baseline data was designed, the baseline data of 2 groups were counted in detail, the baseline data and serum levels of TGF-β1 and EGFR of 2 groups were compared, Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the levels of serum TGF-β1, EGFR and the therapeutic effect of HD-AraC in patients with AML, the value of serum TGF-β1 and EGFR levels in predicting the therapeutic effect of HD-AraC in AML patients was analyzed based on ROC curve and decision curve.@*RESULTS@#After 1 course of treatment, among the 98 patients, 26 cases had complete remission, 38 cases had partially remission and 34 cases no remission, the total effective rate was 65.31% (64/98); after comparing data of 2 groups, Logistic regression analysis showed that the overexpression of serum EGFR before treatment might be a risk factor for the ineffective treatment of HD-AraC in AML patients (OR>1, P<0.05), overexpression of serum TGF-β1 before treatment might be a protective factor for the ineffective treatment of HD-AraC in AML patients (OR<1, P<0.05); the ROC curve results showed that the AUC of serum EGFR and TGF-β1 before treatment in predicting the risk of ineffective HD-AraC treatment in AML patients were >0.70, which had certain predictive value. The decision curve results showed that in the threshold range of 0.15-044, the prediction model combined with serum EGFR and TGF-β1 levels in predicting the net benefit rate of HD-AraC treatment in AML patients was better than that of serum EGFR or serum TGF-β1 alone.@*CONCLUSION@#The levels of serum TGF-β1 and EGFR affect the therapeutic effect of HD-AraC in patients with AML and increase the risk of ineffective treatment, serum TGF-β1 and EGFR can be used to predict the risk of ineffective HD-AraC treatment in AML patients, and the combined prediction of net benefit rate is higher.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/blood , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Remission Induction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/blood
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 373-380, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928723

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical effects of CCLG-AML-2015 protocol on newly diagnosed children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 60 newly diagnosed AML children in the Department of Hematology and Oncology, Wuhan Children's Hospital from August 2015 to September 2019 were summarized, the effect of chemotherapy using the CCLG-AML-2015 regimen (hereinafter referred to as the 2015 regimen) were retrospectively analyzed. 42 children with AML treated by the AML-2006 regimen (hereinafter referred to as the 2006 regimen) from February 2010 to July 2015 were used as control group.@*RESULTS@#There were no statistical differences between the 2015 regimen group and the 2006 regimen group in sex, age at first diagnosis, and risk stratification (P>0.05). The complete remission rate of bone marrow cytology after induction of 1 course of chemotherapy (84.7% vs 73.1%, P=0.155), and minimal residual disease detection (MRD) negative (42.3% vs 41.4%, P=0.928) in the 2015 regimen group were not statistically different than those in the 2006 regimen group. The bone marrow cytology CR (98.1% vs 80.6%, P=0.004) and MRD negative (83.3% vs 52.8%, P=0.002) in the 2015 regimen group after 2 courses of induction were higher than those in the 2006 regimen group. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate in the 2015 regimen group (62.3%±6.4% vs 20.6%±6.4%, P=0.001), the 5-year disease-free survival (EFS) rate (61.0%±6.4% vs 21.0% ±6.4% , P=0.001) were better than those in the 2006 regimen group. The 5-year OS and EFS of high-risk transplant patients in the 2015 regimen group were significantly better than those of high-risk non-transplant patients (OS: 86.6%±9.0% vs 26.7%±11.4%, P=0.000; EFS: 86.6%±9% vs 26.7%±11.4%, P=0.000).@*CONCLUSION@#The 2015 regimen can increase the CR rate after 2 courses of induction compared with the 2006 regimen. High-risk children receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can significantly improve the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Disease-Free Survival , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Prognosis , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 357-360, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical features, distribution of pathogenic bacteria, and drug resistance of bloodstream infection in children with acute leukemia.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 93 blood culture-positive children with acute leukemia from January 2015 to December 2019 in Department of Pediatrics, The Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#In these 93 cases, 78 cases were in the period of neutrophil deficiency. There were 54 Gram-negative bacteria (G-) (58.1%) found through blood culture, and the top 4 strains were Escherichia coli (15.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.5%), and Enterobacter cloacae (6.5%). There were 39 Gram-positive bacteria (G+) (41.9%) detected, and the top 4 strains were Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (6.5%), Staphylococcus hemolyticus (5.4%), and Staphylococcus human (5.4%). Among 74 strains of pathogenic bacteria from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children, there were 29 strains of G+ bacteria (39.2%) and 45 strains of G- bacteria (60.8%). While in 19 strains from acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patients, G- bacteria accounted for 47.4% and G+ bacteria accounted for 52.6%. In 15 ALL children without neutropenia, G+ bacteria made up the majority of the strains (66.7%). In the 93 strains of pathogenic bacteria, 13 (13.9%) strains were multidrug-resistant. Among them, extended-spectrum β-lactamases accounted for 42.9%, carbapenemase-resistant enzyme Klebsiella pneumoniae 15.4%, and carbapenemase-resistant enzyme Enterobacter cloacae strains 33.3%, which were detected from G- bacteria. While, 13.3% of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci accounted for 13.3% detected from G+ bacteria, but linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin Staphylococcus and Enterococcus resistant were not found. The average procalcitonin (PCT) value of G- bacteria infection was (11.02±20.282) ng/ml, while in G+ infection it was (1.81±4.911) ng/ml, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The mean value of C-reactive protein (CRP) in G- infection was (76.33±69.946) mg/L, and that in G+ infection was (38.34±57.951) mg/L. The prognosis of active treatment was good, and only one case died of septic shock complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and gastrointestinal bleeding caused by carbapenemase-resistant enzyme enterobacteriaceae.@*CONCLUSION@#G- is the major bacteria in acute leukemia children with bloodstream infection, but the distribution of ALL and AML strains is different. G- bacteria dominates in ALL, while G+ bacteria and G- bacteria are equally distributed in AML. Non-agranulocytosis accompanied by bloodstream infections is dominant by G+ bacteria. The mean value of PCT and CRP are significantly higher in G- bacteria infection than in G+ bacteria.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteria , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy
19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 99-106, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics and risk factors of invasive fungal infection (IFI) occurenced in patients with acute leukemia (AL) during treatment in tropical regions.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 68 AL patients admitted to the Hainan Hospital of PLA General Hospital from April 2012 to April 2019 was retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the factors affecting the occurrence of IFI in AL patients.@*RESULTS@#Among the 68 patients, 44 were acute myeloid leukemia, 24 were acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 39 were male, 29 were female and the median age was 41(13-75) years old. The 68 patients received 242 times of chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(HSCT), including 73 times of initial chemotherapy or inducting chemotherapy after recurrence, 14 times of HSCT, 155 times of consolidating chemotherapy. Patients received 152 times of anti-fungal prophylaxis, including 77 times of primary anti-fungal prophylaxis and 75 times of secondary anti-fungal prophylaxis. Finally, the incidence of IFI was 31 times, including 24 times of probable diagnosis, 7 times of proven diagnosis, and the total incidence of IFI was 12.8%(31/242), the incidence of IFI in inducting chemotherapy was 24.66%(18/73), the incidence of IFI in HSCT patients was 28.57% (4/14), the incidence of IFI in consolidating chemotherapy was 5.80% (9/155). Multivariate analysis showed that inducting chemotherapy or HSCT, the time of agranulocytosis ≥7 days, risk stratification of high risk were the independent risk factors for IFI in AL patients during treatment in tropical regions.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of IFI in patients with AL in the tropics regions is significantly higher than that in other regions at homeland and abroad. Anti-fungal prophylaxis should be given to the patients with AL who have the high risk factors of inducting chemotherapy or HSCT, time of agranulocytosis ≥7 days and risk stratification of high risk.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 92-98, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928675

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical features of acute myeloid leukemia patients with hemophagocytic syndrome.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 2 patients with acute myeloid leukemia complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome were collected, and the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#There were two patients with acute myeloid leukemia, including 1 male and 1 female,aged for 67 and 40 years old,respectively. Hemophagocytic syndrome occurred in one patient after induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia and one patient after consolidation therapy. Both of the patients with hemophagocytic syndrome showed fever, hemocytopenia, high ferritin, high titer sCD25 levels and hemophagocytes in bone marrow. After achieved anti-infection, glucocorticoid, human immunoglobulin and etoposide regimens treatment, hemophagocytic syndrome was controlled in both of the two patients. One patient failed to induce acute myeloid leukemia and one patient achieved complete remission.@*CONCLUSION@#Acute myeloid leukemia complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome is rare. Early identification, early anti-infection combined with HLH94 regimen can control hemophagocytosis and improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Bone Marrow , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
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