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Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 373-379, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984632


Objective: To explore the molecular features of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) . Methods: According to 2022 World Health Organization (WHO 2022) classification, 113 CMML patients and 840 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients from March 2016 to October 2021 were reclassified, and the clinical and molecular features of CMML patients were analyzed. Results: Among 113 CMML patients, 23 (20.4%) were re-diagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), including 18 AML with NPM1 mutation, 3 AML with KMT2A rearrangement, and 2 AML with MECOM rearrangement. The remaining 90 patients met the WHO 2022 CMML criteria. In addition, 19 of 840 (2.3%) MDS patients met the WHO 2022 CMML criteria. At least one gene mutation was detected in 99% of CMML patients, and the median number of mutations was 4. The genes with mutation frequency ≥ 10% were: ASXL1 (48%), NRAS (34%), RUNX1 (33%), TET2 (28%), U2AF1 (23%), SRSF2 (21.1%), SETBP1 (20%), KRAS (17%), CBL (15.6%) and DNMT3A (11%). Paired analysis showed that SRSF2 was frequently co-mutated with ASXL1 (OR=4.129, 95% CI 1.481-11.510, Q=0.007) and TET2 (OR=5.276, 95% CI 1.979-14.065, Q=0.001). SRSF2 and TET2 frequently occurred in elderly (≥60 years) patients with myeloproliferative CMML (MP-CMML). U2AF1 mutations were often mutually exclusive with TET2 (OR=0.174, 95% CI 0.038-0.791, Q=0.024), and were common in younger (<60 years) patients with myelodysplastic CMML (MD-CMML). Compared with patients with absolute monocyte count (AMoC) ≥1×10(9)/L and <1×10(9)/L, the former had a higher median age of onset (60 years old vs 47 years old, P<0.001), white blood cell count (15.9×10(9)/L vs 4.4×10(9)/L, P<0.001), proportion of monocytes (21.5% vs 15%, P=0.001), and hemoglobin level (86 g/L vs 74 g/L, P=0.014). TET2 mutations (P=0.021) and SRSF2 mutations (P=0.011) were more common in patients with AMoC≥1×10(9)/L, whereas U2AF1 mutations (P<0.001) were more common in patients with AMoC<1×10(9)/L. There was no significant difference in the frequency of other gene mutations between the two groups. Conclusion: According to WHO 2022 classification, nearly 20% of CMML patients had AMoC<1×10(9)/L at the time of diagnosis, and MD-CMML and MP-CMML had different molecular features.

Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic/genetics , Prognosis , Splicing Factor U2AF/genetics , Mutation , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 476-482, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982083


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors and efficacy of hypomethylating agent (HMA) in patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 37 newly diagnosed patients with CMML was analyzed retrospectively, and their clinical characteristics and the efficacy of HMA were summarized. Kaplan-Meier and Log-rank test were used for univariate survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for multivariate analysis.@*RESULTS@#The median age at diagnosis was 67 years old. Their common manifestations included fatigue, bleeding, abnormal blood routine and fever. Most patients had splenomegaly. According to FAB classification, there were 6 cases of myelodysplastic CMML and 31 cases of myeloproliferative CMML, while according to WHO classification, 8 patients belonged to CMML-0, 9 patients to CMML-1 and 20 patients to CMML-2. At the time of diagnosis, the median white blood cell count was 32.84×109/L, median hemoglobin (Hb) was 101 g/L, median platelet count was 65×109/L, median absolute monocyte count was 9.53×109//L, median absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was 11.29×109//L and median lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was 374 U/L. Cytogenetic abnormalities were found in 4 cases among the 31 patients who underwent karyotype analysis or fluorescence in situ hybridization detection. There were 12 patients who had analyzable results and gene mutations were identified in 11 cases, including ASXL1, NRAS, TET2, SRSF2 and RUNX1. Among the 6 patients who were treated with HMA and could be evaluated for efficacy, 2 patients achieved complete remission, 1 patient achieved partial remission and 2 patients achieved clinical benefit. Compared with the non-HMA treatment group, overall survival (OS) time was not significantly prolonged in the HMA treatment group. Univariate analysis showed that Hb<100 g/L, ANC≥12×109/L, LDH≥250 U/L and peripheral blood (PB) blasts ≥5% were significantly associated with poor OS, while WHO classification CMML-2, Hb<100 g/L, ANC≥12×109/L, LDH≥250 U/L and PB blasts≥5% were significantly associated with poor leukemia-free survival (LFS) (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that ANC≥12×109/L and PB blasts≥5% were significantly associated with poor OS and LFS (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#CMML has high heterogeneity in clinical characteristics, genetic changes, prognosis and treatment response. HMA can not significantly improve the survival of CMML patients. ANC≥12×109/L and PB blasts≥5% are independent prognostic factors of OS and LFS in patients with CMML.

Humans , Aged , Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic/genetics , Retrospective Studies , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Survival Analysis , Prognosis