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Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 336-341, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935091


Objective: To retrospectively analyze the data of Chinese patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) to preliminarily discuss the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics. Methods: From February 2004 to June 2020, patients with newly diagnosed APL aged ≥ 15 years who were admitted to the Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College were chosen. Clinical and laboratory features were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 790 cases were included, with a male to female ratio of 1.22. The median age of the patients was 41 (15-76) years. Patients aged between 20 and 59 predominated, with 632 patients (80%) of 790 patients classified as low and intermediate risk and 158 patients (20%) of 790 patients classified as high risk. The white blood cell, platelet, and hemoglobin levels at diagnosis were 2.3 (0.1-176.1) ×10(9)/L, 29.5 (2.0-1220.8) ×10(9)/L, and 89 (15-169) g/L, respectively, and 4.8% of patients were complicated with psoriasis. The long-form type of PML-RARα was most commonly seen in APL, accounting for 58%. Both APTT extension (10.3%) and creatinine>14 mg/L (1%) are rarely seen in patients at diagnosis. Cytogenetics was performed in 715 patients with newly diagnosed APL. t (15;17) with additional chromosomal abnormalities were found in 155 patients, accounting for 21.7%; among which, +8 was most frequently seen. A complex karyotype was found in 64 (9.0%) patients. Next-generation sequencing was performed in 178 patients, and 113 mutated genes were discovered; 75 genes had an incidence rate>1%. FLT3 was the most frequently seen, which accounted for 44.9%, and 20.8% of the 178 patients present with FLT3-ITD. Conclusions: Patients aged 20-59 years are the most common group with newly diagnosed APL. No obvious difference was found in the ratio of males to females. In terms of risk stratification, patients divided into low and intermediate risk predominate. t (15;17) with additional chromosomal abnormalities accounted for 21% of 715 patients, in which +8 was most commonly seen. The long-form subtype was most frequently seen in PML-RARα-positive patients, and FLT3 was most commonly seen in the mutation spectrum of APL.

Adult , Aged , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Female , Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
Med. lab ; 26(3): 273-286, 2022. Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412400


Introducción. La leucemia promielocítica aguda (LPA) es un subtipo poco frecuente de leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA), que se caracteriza por un comportamiento clínico particularmente agresivo, y en ausencia de tratamiento, su curso generalmente es fatal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las características clínicas y citogenéticas de una cohorte de pacientes con LPA, con la finalidad de evaluar su relación con las complicaciones, el pronóstico y el desenlace de estos pacientes. Metodología. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo de los pacientes mayores de 15 años con diagnóstico de LPA, atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación, entre los años 2012 a 2020. Resultados. Un total de 32 pacientes fueron incluidos. La edad media del diagnóstico fue 37 años. El 84,4% de los pacientes tenía la traslocación (15;17) en el cariotipo, y el 93,75% tenían FISH positivo. El 12,5% de los casos tenían cariotipo complejo. La mortalidad en los primeros 30 días fue del 15,6%, siendo el sangrado la causa de muerte más frecuente. Todos los pacientes que sobrevivieron alcanzaron la remisión completa (84,3%). En un promedio de seguimiento de 24 meses, el 14,8% de los casos recayeron. En el análisis bivariado se encontró relación entre sexo masculino y tener cariotipo complejo (p=0,015). No se encontró relación entre cariotipo complejo y mortalidad temprana (p=0,358), tampoco entre cariotipo complejo y recaída (p=0,052). Conclusiones. Se presentan las características clínicas y citogenéticas de una cohorte de pacientes con LPA en Colombia. El sangrado en el sistema nervioso central fue la principal causa de mortalidad temprana, todos los pacientes que sobrevivieron alcanzaron la remisión completa con la terapia de inducción. Las tasas de mortalidad, remisión completa y recaída fueron similares a las reportadas por otras series latinoamericanas, pero inferiores a estudios provenientes de países europeos. Contrario a lo reportado en otros estudios, no se encontró relación entre el cariotipo complejo y la mortalidad temprana o recaída.

Introduction. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), characterized by a particularly aggressive clinical behavior, that in the absence of treatment is usually fatal. The objective of this work was to determine the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of a cohort of patients with APL, in order to evaluate their relationship with the outcome and prognosis of these patients. Methodology. An observational, descriptive, retrospective study of patients older than 15 years with a diagnosis of APL treated at the Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación, between 2012 and 2020, was carried out. Results. A total of 32 patients were included. The mean age at diagnosis was 37 years, 84.4% of the patients had the t(15;17) in the karyotype, and 93.75% had positive FISH. 12.5% of cases had a complex karyotype. Mortality in the first 30 days was 15.6%, with bleeding being the most common cause of death. All patients who survived achieved complete remission (84.3%). In an average follow-up of 24 months, 14.8% of cases relapsed. In the bivariate analysis, a relationship was found between the male sex and having a complex karyotype (p<0.015). No relationship was found between complex karyotype and early mortality (p=0.358), nor between complex karyotype and relapse (p=0.052). Conclusions. We present the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of a cohort of patients with APL in Colombia. Central nervous system bleeding was the main cause of early mortality, with all surviving patients achieving complete remission on induction therapy. Mortality, complete remission and relapse rates were similar to those reported by other Latin American series, but lower than studies from European countries. Contrary to what has been reported in other studies, no relationship was found between complex karyotype and early mortality or relapse

Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Tretinoin , Idarubicin , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotype , Arsenic Trioxide
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 370-375, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929570


Objective: To investigate the prognostic significance of interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) expression and identify its role as a potential therapeutic target in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) . Methods: The gene expression profile and survival data applied in the bioinformatic analysis were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Beat acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cohorts. A dox-induced lentiviral system was used to induce the expression of PML-RARα (PR) in U937 cells, and the expression level of IRF9 in U937 cells treated with or without ATRA was examined. We then induced the expression of IRF9 in NB4, a promyelocytic leukemia cell line. In vitro studies focused on leukemic phenotypes triggered by IRF9 expression. Results: ①Bioinformatic analysis of the public database demonstrated the lowest expression of IRF9 in APL among all subtypes of AML, with lower expression associated with worse prognosis. ②We successfully established a PR-expression-inducible U937 cell line and found that IRF9 was downregulated by the PR fusion gene in APL, with undetectable expression in NB4 promyelocytic cells. ③An IRF9-inducible NB4 cell line was successfully established. The inducible expression of IRF9 promoted the differentiation of NB4 cells and had a synergistic effect with lower doses of ATRA. In addition, the inducible expression of IRF9 significantly reduced the colony formation capacity of NB4 cells. Conclusion: In this study, we found that the inducible expression of PR downregulates IRF9 and can be reversed by ATRA, suggesting a specific regulatory relationship between IRF9 and the PR fusion gene. The induction of IRF9 expression in NB4 cells can promote cell differentiation as well as reduce the colony forming ability of leukemia cells, implying an anti-leukemia effect for IRF9, which lays a biological foundation for IRF9 as a potential target for the treatment of APL.

Cell Differentiation , Humans , Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit/metabolism , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/metabolism , Phenotype , Tretinoin/therapeutic use , U937 Cells
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928672


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate herpes zoster reactivation induced by arsenic in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 212 patients with APL treated in the Department of Hematology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from 2008 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed to observe the activation of varicella zoster virus induced by arsenic. Kaplan-Meier analysis, chi-square test, and boxplot were used to analyze and describe the cumulative dose of arsenic and the time from the beginning of arsenic treatment to the occurrence of herpes zoster.@*RESULTS@#Excluding early death cases and early automatic discharge cases, 17 cases developed herpes zoster reactivation in 175 patients with APL treated with arsenic, and the cumulative median dose of arsenic was 6.2(2-12) mg/kg. Precise risk of reactivation of herpes zoster with 10 months in APL patients treated by arsenic was 9.7%.@*CONCLUSION@#Arsenic treatment can induce high reactivation rate of herpes zoster virus.

Arsenic , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928665


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of monoammonium glycyrrhizinate on the stem cell-like characteristics, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells NB4.@*METHODS@#CCK-8 method was used to detect the viability of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells NB4, and the appropriate dose was screened; Cloning method was used to detect the proliferation rate of NB4 cell; Western blot was used to detect the expression of cell cycle-related protein; flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis and sort NB4 stem cells positive (CD133+); Stem cell markers (Oct4, ABCG2, Dclk1) were detected by RT-PCR; ROS was detected by fluorescence; The kit was used to detect the level of oxidative stress markers (MDA); The flow cytometry was used to detect the change of mitochondrial membrane potential; Western blot was used to detect the expression of mitochondrial damage index-related proteins (Bax/BCL-2).@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, if the concentration of MAG was less than 5 μmol/L, the cell NB4 viability showed no significant difference; if the concentration was higher than 5 μmol/L, the inhibitory effect on the growth of cell NB4 increased and showed significant difference (P<0.05), according to the results of CCK-8 experiment, four groups were set based on the concentration of MAG 0 μmol/L, MAG 5 μmol/L, MAG 10 μmol/L, and MAG 20 μmol/L; compared with the control group (MAG 0 μmol/L), the cells in MAG 5 μmol/L group showed no significant difference, while the proliferation rate, cyclin expression, mitochondrial membrane potential, stem cell CD133+ ratio, and marker mRNA level ( Oct4, ABCG2, Dclk1) of NB4 cell were significantly reduced (P<0.05); the apoptosis rate, reactive oxygen species, MDA content and Bax/BCL-2 expression of NB4 cell significantly increased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Monoammonium glycyrrhizinate has a significant inhibitory effect on acute promyelocytic leukemia cells NB4, which may be related to the regulation of stem cell-like characteristics, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function.

Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Doublecortin-Like Kinases , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Mitochondria , Oxidative Stress , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Stem Cells
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939586


Objective@#Most acute promyelocytic leukemia cases are characterized by the PML-RARa fusion oncogene and low white cell counts in peripheral blood.@*Methods@#Based on the frequent overexpression of miR-125-family miRNAs in acute promyelocytic leukemia, we examined the consequence of this phenomenon by using an inducible mouse model overexpressing human miR-125b.@*Results@#MiR-125b expression significantly accelerates PML-RARa-induced leukemogenesis, with the resultant induced leukemia being partially dependent on continued miR-125b overexpression. Interestingly, miR-125b expression led to low peripheral white cell counts to bone marrow blast percentage ratio, confirming the clinical observation in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients.@*Conclusion@#This study suggests that dysregulated miR-125b expression is actively involved in disease progression and pathophysiology of acute promyelocytic leukemia, indicating that targeting miR-125b may represent a new therapeutic option for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

Animals , Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/metabolism , Mice , MicroRNAs/genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/therapeutic use
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 476-481, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350816


ABSTRACT Introduction: We performed cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses of the modified International Consortium on Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia protocol in Mexico for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia. Methods: We performed a three-state Markov analysis: stable disease (first line complete response [CR]), disease event (relapse, second line response and CR) and death. The modified IC-APL protocol is composed of three phases: induction, consolidation and maintenance. Cost and outcomes were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs); quality-adjusted life-years were used to calculate incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs). Results: The CR was achieved in 18 patients (90%), treated with the IC-APL protocol as the first-line option; one patient (5%) died in induction, another one never achieved CR (5%); of the 18 patients that achieved CR, 1 relapsed (5.5%). The median treatment cost of the IC-APL protocol was $21,523 USD. The average life-year in our study was 7.8 years, while the average quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) was 6.1 years. When comparing the ICER between the IC-APL and the all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus arsenic trioxide (ATO) protocols, we found the different costs of $6497, $19,133 and $17,123 USD in Italy, the USA and Canada, respectively. In relation to the ICUR, we found the different costs to be $13,955 and $11,979 USD in the USA and Canada, respectively. Conclusion: Taking into account the similar response rates, lower cost and easy access to the modified IC-APL regimen, we consider it a cost-effective and cost-utility protocol, deeming it the treatment of choice for our population.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Tretinoin/therapeutic use , Clinical Protocols , Cost-Benefit Analysis
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 309-312, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346267


Abstract Introduction: Little attention is given to thrombosis associated with pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). This study describes the thrombotic and hemorrhagic manifestations of APL in pediatric patients and evaluates their hemostasis, based on coagulation tests. Methods: Inclusion criteria were age 0-18 years and APL diagnosis between April 2005 and November 2017. Patients who had received blood transfusion prior to coagulation tests were excluded. Baseline coagulation tests, hematologic counts, and hemorrhagic/thrombotic manifestations were evaluated. Results: Median age was 10.7 years (1-15 years). The initial coagulation tests revealed a median Hgb of 8.3 g/dL (4.7-12.9 g/dL), median leucocyte count of 10.9 × 109/L (1.1-95.8 × 109/L), median platelet count of 31.8 × 109/L (2.0-109.0 × 109/L), median activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of 31.7 s (23.0-50.4 s), median aPTT ratio of 1.0 (0.78-1.6), median thromboplastin time (PT) of 17.5 s (13.8-27.7 s), median PT activity of 62% (25-95 %), and median fibrinogen of 157.7 mg/dL (60.0-281.0 mg/dL). Three patients (13%) had thrombosis. At diagnosis, 21 patients (91.3%) had bruising, one patient (4.3%) had splenic vein and artery thrombosis and one patient (4.3%) presented without thrombohemorrhagic manifestations. During treatment, two patients (8.6%) had thrombosis. Conclusion: Knowledge of thrombosis in pediatric APL is important to determine its risk factors and the best way to treat and prevent this complication.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Thrombosis , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Hemostasis
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(3): e1505, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341404


Introducción: Con el protocolo LPM-TOA para el tratamiento de la leucemia promielocítica se obtienen excelentes resultados, se prolonga la sobrevida global y es posible la curación de los enfermos. En la de inducción a la remisión se utilizan dos drogas, una antraciclina y trióxido de arsénico, y en la consolidación los enfermos reciben de nuevo una dosis elevada de arsénico. Objetivo: Evaluar la toxicidad hepática tardía en pacientes con leucemia promielocítica tratados según el protocolo LPM-TOA. Métodos: Se realizó estudio longitudinal prospectivo que incluyó20 pacientes tratados con dicho protocolo, todos con más de dos años de haberlo suspendido. Se revisaron las historias clínicas para evaluar mediante los valores iniciales y evolutivos de las enzimas hepáticas, la función hepática inicial y evolutiva. Se determinó el índice de Ritis para predecir evolución a la cronicidad de existir daño hepático. Resultados: Hombres y mujeres se presentaron con la misma frecuencia y la media para la edad del sexo masculino fue 36,39 y para el femenino 39, con desviación estándar de ±14,02 y ±9,43, respectivamente. La variedad morfológica más frecuente fue la hipergranular, el promedio del índice de Ritis fue de solo 1,006 con desviación estándar de 0,745. Conclusiones: No hubo evidencias clínica ni enzimática de toxicidad hepática tardía en los pacientes estudiados(AU)

Introduction: With the LPM-TOA protocol for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, excellent results are obtained, overall survival is prolonged and the patients are cured, in the induction to remission two drugs are used, an anthracycline and arsenic trioxide, and in consolidation the patients again receive a high dose of arsenic. Objective: To assess late liver toxicity in patients with promyelocytic leukemia treated according to the PML-TOA protocol. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was carried out that included 20 patients treated with this protocol, all with more than two years of having suspended treatment. The clinical histories were reviewed and by means of the initial and evolutionary values of liver enzymes, the initial and evolutionary liver function was evaluated and the Ritis index was determined to predict evolution to chronicity if there is liver damage. Results: Men and women presented with the same frequency and the mean age for males was 36.39 and for females it was 39, with a standard deviation of ± 14.02 and ± 9.43 respectively. The most frequent morphological variety was hypergranular, the average Ritis index was only 1.006 with a standard deviation of 0.745. Conclusions: There was no clinical or enzymatic evidence of late liver toxicity in the patients studied(AU)

Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Arsenic Trioxide/toxicity , Survival Analysis , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341403


Introducción: La leucemia promielocítica presenta particularidades biológicas y clínicas con respecto al resto de las leucemias mieloides agudas. El descubrimiento de los detalles moleculares de su patogénesis, posibilitó que su tratamiento, constituya una de las mejores representaciones de la investigación traslacional y esto hace que establezca un modelo para el desarrollo de terapias dirigidas a dianas moleculares con enfoque curativo en pacientes con cáncer. Objetivo: Abordar los principales avances en la terapia de la LPM desde el descubrimiento de los agentes diferenciadores hasta su estado actual. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva en bases de datos como Scielo, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Redalyc y se utilizaron como referencias los artículos actualizados publicados principalmente en los últimos cinco años. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Se abordaron los principales avances en la terapia de este tipo de leucemia, desde el descubrimiento de los agentes diferenciadores hasta su estado actual, haciendo énfasis en su mecanismo de acción y nuevas opciones terapéuticas. Conclusiones: Los aportes realizados en el estudio etiopatogénico y molecular de la leucemia promielocítica y su impacto objetivo en la investigación clínica, constituyen uno de los mejores ejemplos de tratamiento dirigido a alteraciones moleculares específicas y representa un modelo de integración biológica, clínica y terapéutica en beneficio de los pacientes afectados con esta enfermedad(AU)

Introduction: Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a biologically and clinically different type from other acute myeloid leukemias. The discovery of molecular details in its pathogenesis enabled its treatment to constitute one of the best examples of translational research and makes a model for the development of targeted therapies with a curative approach in cancer patients. Objective: To analize the main advances in PML therapy from the discovery of differentiating agents to their current state. Methods: An exhaustive search was carried out in the databases as Scielo, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Redalyc, and updated articles published mainly in the last five years were used as references. Analysis and synthesis of the information: The article addressed the main advances in the therapy of this type of leukemia, from the discovery of differentiating agents to its current state, emphasizing its mechanism of action and new therapeutic options. Conclusions: The contributions made in the etiopathogenic and molecular study of promyelocytic leukemia and its objective impact on clinical research constitute one of the best examples of treatment aimed at specific molecular alterations and represents a model of biological, clinical and therapeutic integration in benefit of patients affected with this disease(AU)

Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/therapy , SUMO-1 Protein , Translational Research, Biomedical
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341400


Introducción: En los últimos años se ha comprobado que el riesgo de trombosis en pacientes con enfermedades oncohematológicas es elevado. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, con diagnóstico de leucemia promielocítica, recibió tratamiento de inducción con trióxido de arsénico y ya alcanzada la remisión morfológica de la leucemia, y sin antecedentes personales ni familiares de eventos trombóticos, presentó una trombosis venosa profunda del miembro inferior izquierdo, se trató con heparina de bajo peso molecular y warfarina. Conclusiones: El paciente evolutivamente tuvo una evolución favorable del evento trombótico y se alcanzó la remisión completa hematológica, citogenética y molecular con una adecuada calidad de vida que permitió su reinserción a su vida personal, familiar y social(AU)

Introduction: In recent years it has been proven that the risk of thrombosis in patients with oncohematological diseases has increased. Case presentation: A 51-year-old male patient, diagnosed with Promyelocytic Leukemia, received induction treatment with arsenic trioxide and the morphological remission of the leukemia had already been achieved and with no personal or family history of thrombotic events, presented a deep vein thrombosis of the left lower limb. He was treated with low molecular weight heparin and warfarin. Conclusions: The patient progressively had a favorable evolution of the thrombotic event and complete hematological, cytogenetic and molecular remission was achieved with an adequate quality of life that allowed his reinsertion into his personal, family and social life(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/complications , Thrombophilia/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/complications
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341396


Introducción: La leucemia promielocítica es un subtipo de leucemia mieloide aguda que se presenta frecuentemente con una coagulopatía potencialmente mortal, por lo que representa una emergencia médica. En la gran mayoría de los pacientes ocurre la t(15;17)(q24;q21) que genera el gen aberrante PML-RARA. Mediante diferentes técnicas de citogenética y de la biología molecular que detectan dichas aberraciones es posible diagnosticar la entidad de manera inequívoca y estudiar la enfermedad mínima residual. Objetivo: Describir, comparar y analizar las técnicas de citogenética y de la biología molecular que son útiles para el diagnóstico y el seguimiento del paciente con leucemia promielocítica. Así como señalar sus ventajas y limitaciones. Métodos: Se realizó revisión de la bibliografía científica de los últimos cinco años relacionada con el tema a través de PUBMED. Se realizó análisis y resumen de la información. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Se describen dos técnicas de citogenética y tres moleculares basadas en la aplicación de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se comparan y analizan sus ventajas y limitaciones. Conclusiones: Algunas de estas técnicas son útiles únicamente para el diagnóstico, mientras que otras, por su alta sensibilidad, se recomiendan para el seguimiento del paciente con leucemia promielocítica(AU)

Introduction: Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia that frequently presents with a potentially fatal coagulopathy, therefore it represents a medical emergency. In the vast majority of patients, the t (15; 17) (q24; q21) occurs, which generates the aberrant gene PML-RARA. Using different cytogenetic and molecular biology techniques that detect these aberrations, it is possible to unequivocally diagnose the entity and study minimal residual disease. Objective: To describe, compare and analyze cytogenetics and molecular biology techniques that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up of the patient with Promyelocytic leukemia. As well as pointing out its advantages and limitations. Methods: A review of the scientific bibliography of the last five years related to the subject was carried out through PUBMED. An analysis and summary of the information was made. Analysis and synthesis of the information: Two cytogenetic and three molecular techniques are described based on the application of the polymerase chain reaction. Its advantages and limitations are compared and analyzed. Conclusions: Some of these techniques are only useful for diagnosis, while others, due to their high sensitivity, are recommended for monitoring the patient with Promyelocytic leukemia(AU)

Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Aftercare , Cytogenetics/methods , Molecular Biology
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(1): e1249, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251713


Introducción: Con el protocolo LPM-TOA para tratamiento de la leucemia promielocítica, se han obtenido excelentes resultados, ya que se logra sobrevida global prolongada y posible curación de los enfermos. En la inducción se utilizan dos drogas cardiotóxicas: las antraciclinas y el trióxido de arsénico y en la consolidación los enfermos reciben una dosis elevada de arsénico. Objetivo: Evaluar la toxicidad cardíaca tardía en pacientes con leucemia promielocítica tratados según el protocolo LPM-TOA. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, prospectivo y longitudinal que incluyó 20 pacientes tratados con protocolo LPM-TOA, seguidos en consulta entre enero y julio 2019. Los pacientes tenían más de dos años de haber recibido las drogas cardiotóxicas. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y se determinó la fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda y la deformidad longitudinal global, mediante ecocardiograma. Resultados: Se presentaron hombres y mujeres con igual frecuencia, edad promedio 41,5 ± 11,0 años. Durante la inducción, en menos de la mitad de los enfermos se suspendió el arsénico por elevación del segmento QT corregido; en la mayoría solo se suspendió por uno o dos días. La mayor parte de los pacientes tuvo la fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda con valores entre 61 y 70 por ciento y la deformidad longitudinal global fue - 24 - 22 por ciento Conclusiones: En los pacientes estudiados, el tiempo de haber recibido el trióxido de arsénico y la dosis recibida, no influyó en la función cardíaca(AU)

Introduction: The PML-ATO protocol for the treatment of promyelocytic leukemia has obtained excellent results, achieving high overall survival rates and the possible healing of patients. Two cardiotoxic drugs are used in the induction process: anthracyclines and arsenic trioxide, whereas during consolidation patients receive a high dose of arsenic. Objective: Evaluate the late cardiotoxicity in patients with promyelocytic leukemia treated by the PML-ATO protocol. Methods: An observational prospective longitudinal descriptive study was conducted of 20 patients treated with the PML-ATO protocol and followed-up in outpatient consultation from January to July 2019. More than two years had elapsed since the patients received the cardiotoxic drugs. A review was carried out of the patients' medical records and echocardiographic determination was made of left ventricular ejection fraction and overall longitudinal deformity. Results: Men and women presented the same frequency; mean age was 41.5 ± 11.0 years. During induction, arsenic was suspended in less than half the patients due to corrected QT elevation. In most it was only suspended for one or two days. Most patients had left ventricular ejection fraction values between 61 percent and 70 percent, whereas overall longitudinal deformity was - 24 percent - 22 percent. Conclusions: In the patients studied, cardiac function was not affected by the time elapsed since arsenic trioxide administration or the dose received(AU)

Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/mortality , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/therapy , Anthracyclines , Arsenic Trioxide/therapeutic use , Medical Records , Survival Rate , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy
Iatreia ; 34(1): 42-53, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154357


RESUMEN La leucemia promielocítica aguda (LPA) es un subtipo de leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) que se origina por una traslocación balanceada entre los cromosomas 15 y 17, involucra al gen que codifica para el receptor alfa del ácido retinoico (RARA) en el cromosoma 17 y el de la leucemia promielocítica (PML) en el cromosoma 15, lo que da origen a la traslocación t(15;17) PML/RARA. Dicho reordenamiento origina la proteína de fusión PML/RAR alfa, que bloquea la diferenciación de las células madre mieloides en el estadio de promielocito. La LPA afecta con mayor frecuencia a adultos jóvenes y conlleva un alto riesgo de mortalidad temprana, en especial por el desarrollo de una coagulopatía grave, que sin tratamiento es definitivamente fatal. El diagnóstico temprano, el tratamiento de soporte y la introducción de fármacos que promueven la diferenciación terminal de los promielocitos patológicos como la tretinoina, también conocida como ácido todo transretinoico (ATRA) o trióxido de arsénico (ATO), ha hecho que en la actua-lidad esta sea una enfermedad curable con altas tasas de remisión completa.

SUMMARY Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that results from a balanced translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17, which involves the gene encoding the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) on chromosome 17 and the gene for promyelocytic leukemia (PML) on chromosome 15, causing the translocation t (15; 17) PML / RARA. This rearrangement originates the PML / RAR alpha fusion protein, which blocks the differentiation of myeloid stem cells at the promyelocyte stage. APL affects young adults more frequently and carries a high risk of early mortality, especially due to development of severe coagulopathy that, without treatment, is invariably fatal. Early diagnosis, supportive treatment, and the introduction of drugs that promote the terminal differentiation of pathological promyelocytes such as alltrans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), have currently made this a curable disease with high rates of complete remission.

Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(1): 21-27, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154299


ABSTRACT Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia, characterized by the presence of neoplastic promyelocytes, due to the reciprocal balanced translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17. Currently, with the use of agents that act directly on this molecular change, such as all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide, APL has shifted from a highly mortal to a curable disease. However, some cases are still at high risk of death, especially early death, and acquiring a better understanding of the clinical and biological factors involving APL is needed to correctly identify and treat such cases. The early suspected diagnosis and prompt initiation of the target therapy are important for better response rates. The follow-up and outcomes, using real-life data from 44 consecutive APL patients, were studied between 2001 and 2013. The overall survival rate was 82.7% and early death was 16%. Almost all patient deaths were due to severe bleeding, which was confirmed by multivariate analysis, as the most important prognostic factor leading to death. A better understanding the pathogenesis of the hemorrhagic complications in APL is needed, as well as the risk factors associated with early death in APL patients, as this has become synonymous with overall mortality.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/therapy , SUMO-1 Protein
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(1): 106-108, 20210102.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145507


El autor, luego de leer el artículo titulado "Leucemia promielocítica aguda M3. Reporte de un caso clínico", (1) publicado en la Revista Eugenio Espejo, tuvo la motivación por dirigirse al equipo editorial y el público en general para referir sus consideraciones al respecto.

The author, after reading the article entitled "Acute promyelocytic leukemia M3. Report of a clinical case", (1) published in the Eugenio Espejo Journal, it was motivated to address the edito- rial team and the general public to express some considerations in this regard.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Hematology , Medical Oncology , Reading , Unified Health System , Motivation
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021339, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345358


Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare extramedullary neoplasm of myeloid cells, which can arise before, concurrently with, or following hematolymphoid malignancies. We report 04 such cases of MS, diagnosed in this institute over a period of 6 years, during various phases of their respective myeloid neoplasms/leukemias. These cases include MS occurring as a relapse of AML (Case 1), MS occurring as an initial presentation of CML (Case 2), MS occurring during ongoing chemotherapy in APML (Case 3), and MS presenting as a progression of MDS to AML (Case 4). In the absence of relevant clinical history and unemployment of appropriate immunohistochemical (IHC) studies, these cases have a high risk of being frequently misdiagnosed either as Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) or small round cell tumors or undifferentiated carcinomas, which may further delay their management, making an already bad prognosis worse. This case series has been designed to throw light on the varied presentation of MS and the lineage differentiation of its neoplastic cells through the application of relevant IHC markers along with their clinical correlation.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Aged , Sarcoma, Myeloid/pathology , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/pathology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/pathology , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1065-1070, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888519


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PADI4) during the process of differentiation into granulocyte of NB4 cells induced by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and whether PADI4 is involved in the inflammatory cytokines expression.@*METHODS@#Granulocyte differentiation model of NB4 cells induced by ATRA was established. The cell morphology changes were observed by Wright-Giemsa staining. The expression of cell differentiation marker CD11b was analyzed by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of PADI4 was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interleukin (IL) 1β was analyzed by ELISA, and also examined with the knockdown of PADI4 expression by siRNA.@*RESULTS@#After NB4 cells induced by ATRA, the cytoplasm increased and the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic was reduced. Nuclear dented, and rod-shaped nucleus, lobulated phenomenon increased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry analysis results showed that the cell surface molecule CD11b expression increased (P<0.01). RT-PCR and Western blot showed the expression of PADI4 increased at both transcriptional and translational levels during the process of the differentiation. ELISA showed TNF-α and IL-1β secretion increased in differentiated macrophages, while they could be inhibited by PADI4-specific siRNA.@*CONCLUSION@#During the differentiation into granulocyte of NB4 cells induced by ATRA, PADI4 expression increased. Furthermore, PADI4 appeared to play a critical role in inflammatory cytokines secretion.

Cell Differentiation , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines/metabolism , Granulocytes , Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Protein-Arginine Deiminase Type 4/metabolism , Tretinoin/pharmacology