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1.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 89(1): 10-16, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282992

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Las recomendaciones de esquemas para erradicar Helicobacter pylori se encuentran ampliamente dis- ponibles. Este es un patógeno de alta prioridad para búsqueda y desarrollo de nuevos y efectivos tratamientos. Objetivo: Descri- bir la respuesta terapéutica con terapia de rescate para infección por H. pylori, Hospital Escuela, Tegucigalpa, diciembre 2016-abril 2017. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo longitudinal retrospectivo en pacientes consecutivos con sintomatología gastrointestinal e in- fección conirmada por H. pylori. Mediante el registro del Servi- cio de Gastroenterología, Departamento de Medicina Interna, se identiicaron pacientes positivos por H. pylori. Se registraron datos sociodemográicos, clínicos y diagnósticos. El tratamiento de res- cate brindado fue, vía oral por 10 días: levoloxacina 500 mg/día, esomeprazol 40 mg dos veces/día, amoxicilina 1 gr dos veces/ día. La conirmación de la erradicación fue realizada 4-8 semanas postratamiento. Se registró información sobre la adherencia al tra- tamiento y los efectos secundarios. Resultados: Se analizaron 30 casos; 56.7% (17) pacientes nuevos y 43.3% (13) pacientes con al menos un fracaso. En el 16.0% (5) no hubo conirmación de erra- dicación; se obtuvo una tasa de erradicación del 72.0% (18/25), IC95% 50.6-87.9; siendo 78.5% (11/14) en pacientes nuevos ver- sus 63.6% (7/11) en fracasos previos, IC95% -9.6-54.0, p=0.318. Discusión: La tasa de erradicación en este grupo de pacientes no fue satisfactoria. Actualmente el tratamiento con levoloxacina es recomendado como terapia de segunda línea o de rescate en regiones con baja o alta resistencia a la claritromicina, aunque la resistencia a quinolonas ha aumentado en los últimos años en va- rios países...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Helicobacter pylori/pathogenicity , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin/therapeutic use
2.
Brasília; s.n; 20 maio 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097388

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 16 artigos e 7 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Sulbactam/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Ampicillin/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 111-116, abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125050

ABSTRACT

La resistencia bacteriana a ciertos antibióticos condiciona el éxito del tratamiento erradicador de la infección gástrica por Helicobacter pylori y es motivo de creciente preocupación a nivel mundial. Dada la escasa evidencia publicada en Argentina sobre este tema, nuestro objetivo fue investigar factores asociados a la persistencia de H. pylori post-tratamiento antibiótico. Se determinó la frecuencia de fracaso terapéutico en 81 pacientes con gastritis por H. pylori tratados en nuestro Servicio y sometidos al estudio de urea en aire espirado para confirmar la erradicación de la infección. La edad promedio fue 58±12 y 43.2% eran hombres. La frecuencia de fracaso terapéutico fue 17.3%. De los dos esquemas más utilizados, la frecuencia de fracaso fue mayor con claritromicina + amoxicilina que con levofloxacina + amoxicilina (25% vs. 6.6%, p=0.04). Como factores de riesgo investigamos las siguientes variables: edad, género, síntomas, tabaquismo, consumo de anti-inflamatorios, diabetes, obesidad, tipo y duración de tratamiento. En el análisis univariado, el uso de esquemas con claritromicina y el género masculino se asociaron significativamente a persistencia de la infección [OR 4.2 (1.1-15.6) y 5.2 (1.1-26.4)]. En el análisis multivariado, el uso de esquema con claritromicina permaneció asociado al fracaso terapéutico [OR 5.38 (1.1-29.5)]. Concluimos que la inclusión de claritromicina en el esquema terapéutico para la gastritis por H. pylori se asoció a mayor fracaso terapéutico. Este fracaso es atribuible a alta prevalencia de resistencia de H. pylori a ese antibiótico en la población atendida en nuestro hospital y cuestiona las prácticas habituales de tratamiento en nuestro medio.


Antibiotic resistance may hinder the efficacy of eradication therapy against Helicobacter pylori infection and it has become a major concern worldwide. Due to the relatively scarce evidence published in Argentina on this topic, our aim was to describe factors associated with H. pylori persistence after antibiotic treatment. The therapeutic failure rate was described among 81 patients with H. pylori gastritis treated in our Hospital with a post-treatment urea breath test to determine successful eradication. Mean age was 58 ± 12 and 43.2% were male subjects. H. pylori persistence was observed in 17.3% of subjects. Therapeutic failure was more common among patients receiving clarithromycin + amoxicillin therapy that among those receiving levofloxacin + amoxicillin (25% vs. 6.6%, p = 0.04). The following variables were assessed: age, gender, referral symptoms, smoking, anti-inflammatory use, diabetes, obesity, treatment type and duration. Clarithromycin-based therapy and male gender were associated with infection persistence on univariate analysis [OR 4.2 (1.1-15.6) and 5.2 (1.1-26.4)]. On multivariate analysis, clarithromycin-based was associated with infection persistence [5.38 (1.1-29.5)]. We conclude that clarithromycin-based therapy is significantly associated with treatment failure. This failure may be due to an elevated prevalence of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin in the population under study and raises the question on the utility of such therapeutic alternative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gastritis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Treatment Failure , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Gastritis/microbiology , Amoxicillin/therapeutic use
4.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(supl.1): S18-S25, 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116305

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative bacteria that survives in the gastric acid environment. The infection is acquired mainly during childhood. Fifty to 70% of adult population has the infection. However, in the last 10 year, a decrease in the prevalence of this infection has been observed in all age groups, in particular in pediatric population and elderly patients over 60 years old. The evolution of the infection depends on bacterial factors (virulence and toxins) and host immune response. People infected mainly develop gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and MALT lymphoma. H. pylori infection is the main risk factor of gastric cancer and for that reason, the eradication is recommended if H. pylori has been detected through invasive or non-invasive tests. Among children, eradication is not recommended unless there is a clinical manifestation that merits. H. pylori eradication is recommended in symptomatic adults and there is a controversy about massive eradication in asymptomatic population due to the risk of development of antibiotic resistance. Treatment is based on the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) associated to antibiotics, that should be chosen taking into account the increasing antibiotic resistance, and local availability. Clarithromycin (CLA) and levofloxacin resistance is increasingly high, and CLA-free quadruple therapy schemes are currently recommended for first-line therapy. H. pylori eradication must be confirmed with invasive or non-invasive tests. Second-line therapy based on antibiotics not previously used, PPI high doses and bismuth is recommended.


Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) es una bacteria gramnegativa que sobrevive en el medio ácido gástrico. La infección se adquiere principalmente en la niñez. Un 50 a 70% de la población adulta es portadora, pero en los últimos 10 años, se ha observado una disminución en la prevalencia de infección en todos los grupos etarios, en particular en población pediátrica y mayores de 60 años. La evolución de la infección depende de factores propios de la bacteria (virulencia, toxinas) y de la respuesta inmune del huésped. Los individuos infectados desarrollan principalmente patologías gastrointestinales como gastritis, úlcera péptica y linfoma MALT. La infección por H. pylori es el principal factor de riesgo del cáncer gástrico por lo que se recomienda su erradicación en caso de haberse detectado mediante test invasivo o no invasivo. En niños, no es recomendable la erradicación a menos que exista una manifestación clínica que lo amerite. Se recomienda su erradicación en adultos sintomáticos y existe controversia respecto a la erradicación masiva en población asintomática debido al riesgo de desarrollar resistencia antibiótica. El tratamiento se basa en el uso de inhibidores de la bomba de protones asociado a antibióticos, los cuales deben ser escogidos teniendo en cuenta la tasa de resistencia antimicrobiana y disponibilidad local. La resistencia a claritromicina (CLA) y levofloxacino es creciente, por lo que se recomienda el uso de esquemas de cuadriterapia libre de CLA en esquemas de primera línea. Se recomienda confirmar su erradicación con test no invasivos y retratar con esquema de segunda línea con antibióticos no utilizados previamente, asociado a dosis altas de inhibidores de bomba de protones y sales de bismuto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Remission Induction , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Helicobacter pylori/pathogenicity , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/physiopathology , Age Factors , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use
5.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2018; 34 (1): 10-14
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-170982

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the efficacy of therapeutic endoscopy in combination with quadruple therapy in treating bleeding caused by gastric ulcer and investigate the factors inducing rebleeding


Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with bleeding caused by gastric ulcer who were admitted to Binzhou People's Hospital, Shandong, China between April 2015 and April 2016 were selected as research subjects. The patients were randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group. Patients in the control group were treated by quadruple therapy, while patients in the observation group received therapeutic endoscopy treatment in addition to the same treatment as the control group. The treatment efficacy, adverse reaction, H pylori [Hp] clearance rate and rebleeding were compared between the two groups


Results: The effective rate of the observation group was 98.1%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group [80.2%], and the difference had statistical significance [P<0.05]. The incidence of adverse reactions in the observation group was lower than that in the control group. The Hp clearance rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group, and the difference had statistical significance [P<0.05]. The multi-factor analysis on rebleeding suggested that whether therapeutic endoscopy was performed or not, hemoglobin level and presence of peptic ulcer stage A1 were independent risk factors


Conclusion: Endoscopic treatment in combination with quadruple therapy is better in the treatment of bleeding caused by gastric ulcer as compared to medical treatment alone. Patients with high-risk factors such as low content of hemoglobin and ulcer at stage A1 should be monitored more carefully to prevent the occurrence of rebleeding


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Stomach Ulcer/complications , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin/therapeutic use , Lansoprazole/therapeutic use , Bismuth/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination
6.
Govaresh. 2018; 22 (4): 261-265
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192476

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical trials and meta-analyses have reported about 20% failure rates in first-line Helicobacter pylori [H. pylori] eradication. This reflects the need for effective second-line eradication regimens


Materials and Methods: 61 patients with H. pylori infection who had failed previous non-bismuth clarithromycin-containing first line therapies entered the study. They were given a 14-day levofloxacin-containing triple regimen consisted of pantoprazole 40 mg, amoxicillin 1gr, and levofloxacin 500mg, each given twice daily. Eight weeks after the treatment, H. pylori eradication was assessed by 14C-urea breath test


Results: All patients completed the study. The eradication rate was 91.8% [95% confidence interval = 84.9% - 98.6%] by both intention to treat and per-protocol analyses. Side effects of therapy were reported by eight patients [13.1%], but they were severe in only two patients [3.2%]


Conclusion: According to the high H. pylori eradication rate and the very low rate of severe adverse effects, levofloxacin-containing triple therapy seems to be a suitable second-line option in case of previous failure by clarithromycin-containing therapies. We suggest further studies with shorter duration of treatment or lower dose of levofloxacin


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Disease Eradication , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin , Drug Therapy, Combination
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(5): 295-303, Oct. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841596

ABSTRACT

La profilaxis con fluorquinolonas ha demostrado utilidad en la prevención de infecciones en pacientes neutropénicos de alto riesgo. Nuestro objetivo fue describir y comparar las características clínicas, microbiológicas, terapéuticas y la evolución en pacientes durante el primer episodio de neutropenia febril, según hubieran o no recibido profilaxis con levofloxacina. Fue un estudio prospectivo observacional, que incluyó los episodios de internados por neutropenia febril, (febrero 1997 a noviembre 2014), y los primeros episodios en un mismo paciente en diferentes internaciones; en total fueron 946 episodios. En 821 el episodio de neutropenia febril fue de alto riesgo, y en 264 (27.9%) se administró profilaxis con levofloxacina. Este grupo estaba compuesto por mayor proporción de neutropenias febriles de alto riesgo (99.2% vs. 82.3%, p = 0.0001) y casos con trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (67.8% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.0001) comparado con los que no recibieron profilaxis, y presentó una frecuencia similar de infecciones clínicamente documentadas pero una menor proporción de infecciones microbiológicamente documentadas (28.8% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.012). Las bacteriemias en el grupo con quimioprofilaxis fueron más frecuentemente causadas por organismos multirresistentes (OMR) (34.5% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.007) y por enterobacterias productoras de beta lactamasas de espectro extendido (19.0% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.0001). En ese grupo con profilaxis la proporción que recibió tratamiento antibiótico empírico adecuado fue menor (69.7% vs. 83.7%, p = 0.009). La evolución fue similar en ambos grupos. Sugerimos que cuando se observe un aumento en la frecuencia de infecciones por OMR en esta población se considere la interrupción de la profilaxis antibiótica con levofloxacina.


Fluorquinolone-prophylaxis has proven useful in preventing infections in high risk neutropenic patients. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical, microbiological and therapeutic characteristics, and outcome of patients in the first episode of febrile neutropenia, comparing those who received levofloxacin prophylaxis with those who didn't. It was a prospective observational study that included all the episodes of inpatients with febrile neutropenia (February 1997- November 2014), also including the first episode in a same patient in different hospitalizations. Of 946 episodes here included, 821 presented high risk febrile neutropenia. A total of 264 cases (27.9%) received levofloxacin prophylaxis. This group consisted of a higher proportion of high risk febrile neutropenia (99.2% vs. 82.3%, p = 0.0001) and patients that had received an hematopoietic stem cell transplant (67.8% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.0001) compared to those who didn't receive prophylaxis. Those who received levofloxacin prophylaxis presented a similar frequency of clinically diagnosed but a lower proportion of microbiologically documented infections (28.8% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.012) than those who didn´t receive prophylaxis. The episodes of bacteremia that occurred in the first group were more frequently caused by multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB) (34.5% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.007) and by extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (19% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.0001). The group that received prophylaxis had a lower proportion of adequate empirical antibiotic treatment (69.7% vs. 83.7%, p = 0.009), with similar outcomes in both groups. We suggest that levofloxacin prophylaxis should be stopped whenever there is a rise in the frequency of MDRB infections in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Febrile Neutropenia/prevention & control , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Febrile Neutropenia/microbiology
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 197-202, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50982

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the epithelial wound healing response of two preservative-free fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin, in patients who underwent cataract surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, evaluator-masked, randomized clinical trial, 59 eyes of 50 patients who underwent cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive moxifloxacin 0.5% (n=32 eyes) or levofloxacin 0.5% (n=27 eyes). All patients instilled moxifloxacin or levofloxain four times daily for 1 week prior to surgery and 2 weeks after surgery. The epithelial wound healing status in the corneal incision site was scanned with a raster scan mode of fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). The number of eyes showing epithelial defect images and average number of corneal epithelial defect cuts per eye were compared between groups. All patients were evaluated on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, and 10. RESULTS: On postoperative days 1, 2, and 3, the number of eyes showing epithelial defects in FD-OCT was not statistically different (all p>0.05). The average number of corneal epithelial defect cuts was also not statistically different between the two groups (all p>0.05). No eyes showed epithelial defects on postoperative day 10 in either group. CONCLUSION: There were no differences on epithelial wound healing comparing these two different fluoroquinolones at the incision site of cataract surgery.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aza Compounds/therapeutic use , Cataract Extraction , Cornea/drug effects , Female , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Humans , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Wound Healing/drug effects
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