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2.
Novelty in Biomedicine. 2016; 4 (1): 24-27
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176347

ABSTRACT

Background: Pediculosis capitis is a common parasitic infection of children, which has been neglected in many areas as well in Shahriar County, Tehran province. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among pupils in primary schools of Shahriar County


Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Shahriar for the period of 2012 to 2013. Data were collected by questionnaires and direct head inspection. The prevalence rate was determined in three primary schools and 750 girls participated, which were selected by a randomized cluster method. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences [SPSS16] and Chi-square test


Results: Among the 750 girls who were examined, head pediculosis was observed in 36 cases [4.8%]. There was a significant relationship between head lice infestation and two factors, father's job and using private tools in hair salon


Conclusion: The results showed that pediculosis capitis could be a potentially health threatening problem for school children. It is necessary to give health education to families in order to prevent pediculosis in the study areas


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Prevalence , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(3): 239-244, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752601

ABSTRACT

A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease.


Estudo sobre a pediculose do couro cabeludo em jovens, adultos e idosos foi realizado de agosto de 2010 a julho de 2013 em Manaus - AM, região norte do Brasil. Amostras de cabelos obtidas de 1.860 indivíduos em 18 barbearias e salões de beleza foram examinadas à procura do parasito. Procurou-se verificar a ocorrência da pediculose e sua associação com fatores tais como: sexo, idade, etnia, características dos cabelos e perfil socioeconômico dos clientes dos salões, localização dos salões e variação sazonal. A taxa de ocorrência encontrada foi 2,84%. Ela foi maior em amostras de cabelos de não negros e dos idosos. Também se observou maior prevalência no período de férias escolares do ensino fundamental e médio. Os resultados indicam que a ocorrência da pediculose em jovens, adultos e idosos em Manaus é relativamente baixa em comparação com as encontradas em crianças e as encontradas em outras regiões do país. Depois das crianças, os idosos seriam os mais acometidos. O estudo também indica a necessidade de adotar procedimentos adicionais para melhor amostrar a faixa da população com menor ou com nenhum poder aquisitivo, a qual geralmente é a mais acometida por esta ectoparasitose.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hair/parasitology , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Pediculus , Barbering , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225144

ABSTRACT

To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Enterobiasis/epidemiology , Enterobius/genetics , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Male , Orphanages/statistics & numerical data , Pediculus/genetics , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
5.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 85(3): 312-318, jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-719138

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Pediculosis es una ectoparasitosis que ha recibido poca atención en el norte de Chile, a pesar de que es recurrente en la población infantil escolar. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de Pediculus humanus capitis, en la población escolar básica de la Provincia de Arica. Pacientes y Método: Se estudió un grupo de 665 alumnos de enseñanza básica del sistema municipalizado, de la Provincia de Arica, durante agosto a noviembre de 2010. Se seleccionaron 467 niños que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. Previo consentimiento informado de los alumnos y apoderados, el diagnóstico se llevó a cabo a través de la revisión a ojo descubierto de la cabeza de los escolares participantes, en dependencias de cada establecimiento, registrando la presencia de Pediculus humanus capitis, grado de infestación y estadio del ectoparásito. Resultados: De la población analizada, el 40,3 por ciento (188/467) presentó Pediculosis, afectando a las seis escuelas estudiadas. Las mujeres presentaron Pediculosis en un 55,2 por ciento (138/250) y los hombres un 23 por ciento (50/217). Conclusión: La población escolar de la Provincia de Arica está significativamente afectada por Pediculosis y su prevalencia es similar a otras regiones del país.


Pediculosis is an ectoparasitosis infestation that has not received much attention in northern Chile despite it is a common reoccurring condition among school-age children. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in elementary schools of Arica. Patients and Method: A group of 665 elementary school students from the Province of Arica were screened between August and November 2010; 467 children who met the inclusion criteria were selected. After parents and students signed an informed consent, the diagnosis was carried out through examination of the head with naked eye in each participating school, recording the presence of Pediculus humanus capitis, infestation level and parasite stage. Results: 40.3 percent (188) of the children presented Pediculosis; the six schools studied were affected. Pediculosis infestation in girls reached 55.2 percent (138/250) and 23 percent (50/217) in boys. Conclusion: The school population of Arica is significantly affected by Pediculosis and its prevalence is similar to other regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Age Factors , Cultural Factors , Chile/epidemiology , Data Collection , Geography , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution
6.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 53(6): 325-327, Nov.-Dec. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-608550

ABSTRACT

We conducted an analytical cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with active head lice infestation. In total 140 children, aged 6 to 16-years, from a public school in rural Yucatan, Mexico, were examined by wet-combing. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on individuals and the conditions in the surrounding environment. Head lice infestation was found in 19 out of the 140 children tested (13.6 percent) and this was associated with both lower income (OR 9.9, 95 percent CI 2.15-45.79, p = 0.003) and a higher frequency of hair washing (OR 8, 95 percent CI 1.58-50, p = 0.012). Intersectoral control programs that take into account the socioeconomic differences of children should be implemented.


Foi conduzido um estudo numa escola publica de área rural em Yucatan, Mexico com o objetivo de estimar a prevalência de pediculose e fatores de risco associados. Das 140 crianças incluídas 19 (13.6 por cento) apresentaram pediculose. A infestação de piolho foi associada com baixa renda (OR 9.9, 95 por cento CI 2.15-45.79, p = 0.003) e maior frequência de lavagem de cabelos (OR 8, 95 por cento CI 1.58-50, p = 0.012). Programas intersetoriais de controle da pediculose que levam em conta as características socioeconômicas das crianças deveriam ser executados.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Pediculus , Scalp Dermatoses/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lice Infestations/diagnosis , Mexico/epidemiology , Prevalence , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Scalp Dermatoses/diagnosis
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 28(5): 435-439, oct. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-603083

ABSTRACT

Several parasitic diseases affect the skin and appendages in humans, the most common are head lice and scabies. Both diseases have worldwide distribution with geographical variations. In Chile, the reported prevalence of head lice is 20-25 percent and of scabies 1-5 percent. Other ectoparasites include fleas and mite, causing transient parasitosis related to human and animal contact. These parasites are associated with various factors such as poor personal hygiene, promiscuity, long hair, crowding, and sharing of combs, among others. Various effective pharmacological therapies are available, which base on several active compounds. Important therapeutic options include topical treatments with pyrethroids, lindane, crotamiton, and malathion as well as oral medications such as ivermectin, which is used in case of drug intolerance, poor treatment response, infections with multiple parasites or concomitant bacterial infections. For some drugs, resistance has been reported in patients received multiple dosis.


Existen varias enfermedades parasitarias capaces de comprometer piel y fanéreos en el humano, siendo los más frecuentes la pediculosis y la escabiosis. Ambas enfermedades tienen distribución mundial variable según la localidad. En Chile, se describe una prevalencia de pediculosis capitis cercana a 20-25 por ciento y de escabiosis, entre 1 y 5 por ciento. Otras ectoparasitosis son la pulicosis y la acarosis, parasitosis transitorias relacionadas al contacto humano y animal. Estos agentes se asocian a diversos factores entre los que se encuentran escasa higiene personal, promiscuidad, uso de cabello largo, hacinamiento, intercambio de peines, entre otros. Las terapias farmacológicas disponibles son variadas y eficaces. Hay diversos compuestos activos entre los que destacan tratamientos tópicos como derivados piretroides, lindano, crotamitón y malatión; y medicamentos orales como ivermectina, utilizada en casos de mala tolerancia, escasa respuesta a tratamiento tópico, infestación múltiple o infección bacteriana concomitante. Se ha descrito resistencia a algunos compuestos en pacientes que han recibido múltiples dosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lice Infestations , Scabies , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Chile/epidemiology , Lice Infestations/diagnosis , Lice Infestations/drug therapy , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Scabies/diagnosis , Scabies/drug therapy , Scabies/epidemiology
8.
Rev. patol. trop ; 40(3): 263-270, jul.-set. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607673

ABSTRACT

A pediculose do couro cabeludo é um problema de saúde pública que, embora seja mais prevalente em crianças, pode ocorrer em todas as faixas etárias. De julho 2009 a fevereiro 2010, 976 crianças de 0 a 12 anos de idade, frequentadoras de três creches e quatro escolas em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil, foram examinadas para que se investigasse a ocorrência de pediculose da cabeça. A taxa de prevalência verificada foi de 18,5por cento, sendo as crianças negras (X2 0.05 (1) igual 4,655), do sexo feminino (X2 0.05(1) igual 151,324) e de cabelos escuros (X20.05(1) igual 9,942) as que apresentaram as maiores taxas. O tipo (X2 0.05 (2) igual 6,660) e o comprimento dos cabelos (X2 0.05 (2)igual 58,042) também influenciaram significativamente a taxa de prevalência desta ectoparasitose. A faixa etária mais acometida foi a de 10 a 12 anos (X20.05 (3) igual 59,891). As respostas aos questionários mostraram que a coceira intensa na cabeça foi o sintoma mais observado pelos pais/responsáveis nas crianças acometidas. A catação manual e o uso de inseticidas foram os principais métodos adotados para o controle da pediculose. Os pais/responsáveis sugeriram como possíveis fontes da infestação as instituições educacionais. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de implantação de um programa integrado de controle que inclua a participação dos pais e/ou responsáveis, estudantes, professores e demais funcionários das instituições educacionais municipais e estaduais.


Head lice infestation is a public health problem, which, though more prevalent in children, may occur in all age groups. From July 2009 to February 2010 a total of 976 children aged 0-12 yearswho attended four schools and three day-care centers in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, were screened for the presence of head lice. The prevalence rate was 18.5%, with black (X20.05 (1) = 4.655) female children (X20.05(1) = 151.324) with dark hair (X20.05(1) = 9.942) showing the highestprevalence rates. The type (X2 0.05 (2) = 6.660) and length of hair (X2 0.05 (2) = 58.042) also significantly influenced the prevalence of this ectoparasitosis. The age group most affected was the 10-12 year-old (X2 0.05 (3) = 59.891). Questionnaire answers revealed that intense itching of the head was the most frequently observed symptom by the parents/guardians of affected children and that manual scavenging and pesticides are the main methods of controlling lice. Parents/guardians suggest the indicated educational institutions as the main sources of infestations. The results indicate the need to implement an integrated program to control this ectoparasitosis in the majority of the institutions surveyed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Child Day Care Centers , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Scalp Dermatoses , Schools , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(3): 1257-1264, Sept. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638158

ABSTRACT

Raptorial birds harbor a variety of ectoparasites and the mayority of them are host specific. The aim of this study was to identify the ectoparasites of captive birds of prey from Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health of infested birds. Raptorial birds were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS) in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. Seventy-four birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eigth Strigiformes) of 15 species were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. We examined both juvenile and adult birds from both sexes. The overall prevalence was 16.2%; 66.7% of raptors were infested with a single type of external parasite. Lice were the most prevalent ectoparasites (91.7%), followed by feather mites and fleas (8.3%). Degeeriella fulva (72.7%), Craspedorrhynchus sp. (45.4%) and Strigiphilus aitkeni (9.1%) (Ischnocera, Philopteridae) were recovered from wings, head and neck regions of red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni), Harris’s hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) and Barn owl (Tyto alba). Low lice infestation level was observed. Nymphs and females of feather mites Kramerella sp. (Pterolichoidea, Kramerellidae) were recovered solely from Barn owl (T. alba); while one Caracara (Caracara cheriway) was infested by the sticktight flea Echidnophaga gallinacea (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae). No clinical signs were observed in any infested bird. Probably the periodic use of organophosphorates was responsible of the low prevalence and lice infestation levels. The diversity of external parasites illustrates the importance of detailed revision of incoming and long-term captive raptors as part of responsible captive management. Five new hosts and geographic records are presented. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3): 1257-1264. Epub 2011 September 01.


Las aves rapaces albergan una gran variedad de ectoparásitos y la mayoría de ellos son específicos de acogida. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los ectoparásitos de aves de presa en cautiverio en México y verificar su impacto en la salud de las aves. Se estudiaron 74 rapaces (66 Falconiformes y ocho Strigiformes) de 15 especies, juveniles y adultos de ambos sexos que fueron confiscadas y mantenidas en el Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS) en Los Reyes La Paz (20º22’ N, 98º59’ W), estado de México. La prevalencia fue de 16.2%; 66.7% de las rapaces estaban infestadas por un único tipo de ectoparásito. Los piojos fueron los más prevalentes (91.7%), seguidos por los ácaros y las pulgas (8.3%). Los piojos Degeeriela fulva (72.7%), Craspedorhynchus sp. (45.4%) y Strigiphilus aitkeni (9.1%) fueron extraídos de las alas, cabeza y cuello de aguililla cola-roja (Buteo jamaicensis), aguililla migratoria (B. swainsoni), aguililla de Harris (Parabuteo unicinctus) y lechuza de campanario (Tyto alba). El ácaro Kramerella sp. fue extaído de T. alba; mientras que un Caracara (Caracara cheriway) estaba infestado por la pulga Echidnophaga gallinacea. No se observaron signos clínicos en ninguna de las aves infestadas. Probablemente el uso periódico de organofosforatos fue el responsable de la baja prevalencia y de los niveles de ingesta de piojos. La diversidad de ectoparásitos identificados ilustra la importancia de una detallada revisión de las rapaces en cautiverio. Cinco nuevos hospederos y registros geográficos son presentados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Falconiformes/parasitology , Flea Infestations/veterinary , Lice Infestations/veterinary , Mite Infestations/veterinary , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Flea Infestations/epidemiology , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Mite Infestations/epidemiology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222440

ABSTRACT

Head louse infestation (HLI) is one of the most frequently occurring parasitic diseases in children. This study was conducted to investigate the socioeconomic and personal factors influencing HLI in the Republic of Korea. A total of 2,210 questionnaires about various factors related to HLI were obtained from children in 17 primary schools throughout the country. The rate of HLI was significantly lower in children who lived together with mother or in a family where both parents worked. In addition, HLI was lower in children whose fathers or mothers were public officers or teachers. However, HLI was higher in children who had small families and washed their hair less often. Education levels of parents and the number of children in family were not significant. Improvement of socioeconomic factors and personal hygiene will be helpful for reducing HLI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Educational Status , Family , Female , Humans , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Male , Pediculus/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. 2010; 4 (1): 42-46
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-105745

ABSTRACT

Pediculus capitis [Anoplura: Pediculidae] or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite transmitted mainly through physical contact. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of head lice infestation rate and some risk factors in Primary School pupils, in Khajeh City East Azerbaijan Province, Iran We selected 20 primary schools of Khajeh City during 2008 and 2009. Totally 500 pupils including 200 boys and 300 girls from all grade 1-5 were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling in rural areas of Khajeh City and were examined for lice. In addition, a standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each pupil. Results were analyzed by SPSS software. The total prevalence of head lice infestation in this study was 4.8%. and the prevalence rate was significantly higher in girls [6.66%] than in boys [2%]. Epidemiological factors such as: sex, school grade, family size, parent's education, type of house, hair washing [per week], number of using comb per day, were evaluated and results showed significant difference in head lice infestation and sex, school grade, family size, father education, and type of house [P<0.05]. Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world, and due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in crowded families, family by lower levels of father's education and socioeconomic status in our study and rural area, it is necessary to give health education for families to prevent of pediculosis in this area


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Insecta , Cross-Sectional Studies , Schools , Epidemiology , Lice Infestations/epidemiology
12.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2010; 40 (2): 425-437
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-113063

ABSTRACT

A preliminary survey of domestic rodent species and their ectoparasites tick, mite and lice was carried out in ten centers of Menoufia [Quesna, Shebeen El-Kom, Berka El-Saabe, El-Bagour, El-Shohada, Tala, Menoff, Searth El-Lian, Ashmon and El-Sadat] Governorate. Frequency of rodent species and ectoparasites indices [tick, mite and lice] were recorded in spring [2009]. The main species of rodent was Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus the grey-bellied rat, Rattus rattus alexandrinus the white-bellied rat, Rattus rattus frugivorus and the house mouse, Mus musculus. The common tick species attacking rodents were: Rhipicephalus sp. and Hyalomma sp. The common mite species attacking rodents were: Dermanyssus sangineus, Orithonysus bacoti, Haemolaelaps glasgowi, Laelaps nutalli, Radfordia sp. and Myobia sp. The only common lice species was Polyplax spinulosa. The fur mites Radfordia sp. and Myobia sp. were recorded at Quesna, Searth El-Lian and El-Sadat centers on R. norvegicus for the first time at Menoufia Governorate


Subject(s)
Insecta , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Mite Infestations/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/epidemiology
13.
New Egyptian Journal of Medicine [The]. 2010; 43 (1): 22-24
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-125186

ABSTRACT

To determine the frequency of head lice among children at Marou, Kufer Al-Ma'a in northern Jordan. During the annual survey in northern part of the country, a team formed of three Doctors, six nurses, two laboratory technicians and one pharmacist. Over a period of one week, from November 15[th]-November 21st 2008, a total of three hundred and ninety-four children [aged one month-15 years] who attended that program were examined to identify the frequency of head lice among this age group of children. The median age was 6.4 years in males and 5.3 in females. The median age for both sexes was 5.8years. A total of 394 children attended that program during the study period, 30 of them representing 7.6% were infested with head lice. Females outnumbered males 1.7:1. The frequency of head lice among children is relatively high and it is more common in females than in males


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Child
14.
Rev. bras. crescimento desenvolv. hum ; 18(3): 298-307, dez. 2008.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-519237

ABSTRACT

A Pediculose é uma doença de importância para a saúde pública. Acredita-se que medidas educacionais colaborem para o sucesso do tratamento e da prevenção desta patologia. Este trabalho, realizado em escolas do Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brasil, apresenta o discurso de professores de ensino fundamental sobre a forma como a Pediculose é transmitida. As informações foram obtidas através de entrevistas e analisadas pelo Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Revelaram-se quatorze categorias. Algumas apresentavam formas corretas de transmissão: através de contato físico e corporal do tipo "cabeça com cabeça", com pessoas que têm Pediculose. Porém, outras revelaram o seu desconhecimento: o piolho voa, o piolho pula de uma cabeça para outra, através das lêndeas. Estes resultados demonstram a existência de professores que desconhecem a forma como a patologia é transmitida. Isto diminui a possibilidade que estes profissionais têm para colaborarem efetivamente na prevenção desta patologia nas escolas, assim como para a promoção da saúde de seus alunos.


Pediculosis is a public health pathology. Educational methods would certainly colaborate to the success of the treatment and prevention of this pathology. This study, developed in Rio de Janeiro's schools (RJ), Brazil, demonstrates the primary teachers' discourse on how pediculosis is transmitted. The pieces of information were obtained from interviews and analized by the Discourse of the Collective Subject method. Fourteen categories were revealed. Some correct ways of transmission were presented, for example: through physical and corporal contact, like "head to head", with people who have pediculosis. On the other hand, some of these categories revealed lack of knowledge about the subject: the lice fly; the lice jump from one's head to anothers'; through the nits. These results demonstrated that there are teachers that don't know about the transmission of this pathology. For this reason, the possibility that these teachers have to collaborate effectively to its prevention in schools diminishes; the same occurs with the health promotion of their students.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Faculty , Health Education , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Promotion , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Lice Infestations/prevention & control , Lice Infestations/transmission , School Health Services , Schools , Socioeconomic Factors
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 28(2): 245-251, jun. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-503169

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La pediculosis es una de las infestaciones crónicas más importante en escolares en el mundo.Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia y describir la estacionalidad de la pediculosis durante siete meses en un jardín infantil y explorar su asociación con las variables socioeconómicas, las prácticas de higiene y las características del cabello. Materiales y métodos. Ciento setenta y ocho niños entre 3 y 60 meses de edaddel jardín infantil de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia participaron en el estudio. En cada niño se exploró la presencia de Pediculus humanus mensualmente por siete meses y se midió el grosor y la longitud del cabello al comienzo del seguimiento. Se realizó una encuesta a los cuidadores de los sujetos de estudio sobre prácticas higiénicas y condiciones socioeconómicas.Resultados. Se encontraron mayores prevalencias en el grupo de edad entre 48 a 59 meses, al principio del año escolar. Estos resultados sugieren una asociaciónpositiva entre la pediculosis y tener una longitud del cabello mayor de 11,5 centímetros [Razón de prevalencia (RP): 2,0; intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95 por ciento:0,82-4,8 ], el bañarse la cabeza menos de tres veces a la semana (RP: 1,58; IC 95 por ciento: 0,58-4,7), el compartir implementos de aseo (RP:1,31; IC 95 por ciento: 0,38-4,46) y el vivir más de cinco personas en la casa (RP; 2,04: IC 95 por ciento: 0,8-5,06). Conclusión. La infestación por P. humanus capitis tiene altas prevalencias en los escolares del jardín. Esta infestación se encuentra asociada a las malas prácticas higiénicas, al hacinamiento y la longitud del cabello.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Lice Infestations/prevention & control , Lice Infestations , Risk Factors
16.
Rev. chil. tecnol. méd ; 28(2): 1454-1459, 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-534998

ABSTRACT

Por la importancia médica que reviste, la ectoparasitosis más importante es la pediculosis humana variedad capitis, que podría definirse como la infestación de la cabeza por piojos. Dada la alta prevalencia de pediculosis, sobre todo en la población pediátrica, es vital el conocer las características epidemiológicas de esta patología. Por otra parte, son cada vez más los reportes tanto a nivel nacional coma internacional. de resistencia al tratamiento por parte de los parásitos, por lo que saber cuáles son los tratamientos más usados por la población, si estos tienen o no indicación médica y cuáles fueron sus resultados, es relevante. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en el Consultorio Esmeralda, comuna de Colina, aplicando una encuesta prediseñada que consignaba los siguientes datos: numero de habitantes del hogar (especificando niños y adultos), grado de hacinamiento, probable fuente de contagio, tratamiento utilizado, quién indicó el tratamiento y efectividad de este. Los datos se tabularon y analizaron expresando los resultados en porcentajes. Un total de 320 encuestas consignó 951 casos de pediculosis. El grado de hacinamiento fue en promedia de 2,4 personas por dormitorio. El promedio de edad de los infestados fue de 13,03 alias (rango entre 0 y 53 años), observándose que un 78,65 por ciento correspondía a menores de 16 años. En cuanto a la probable fuente de contagio, un 93,7 por ciento consideraba que el origen de la infestación familiar era el establecimiento educacional de uno de las niños de la casa. Del total de los casos un 96,6 por ciento recibió tratamiento farmacológico, de los cuales solo un 35,9 por ciento tenía indicación por algún profesional de la salud. Destacó dentro del tratamiento farmacológico, el uso de Lindano (30,1 por ciento) y de champú pediculicida (69,90 por ciento).


By the medical importance that has, the most important ectoparasites is the human pediculosis variety capitis, that could be defined as the infestation of the head by lice. Given the high prevalence of pediculosis, coverall in the paediatric population, is vital knowing the characteristic epidemiologists of this pathology on the other hand, they are more and more the reports as much at national level as International, of resistance to the treatment on the part of the parasites, reason why to know which are the treatments more used by the population, if these has or medical indication and which were not their results, is excellent. A descriptive study was realised of cross section in the Emerald Health Consulting Institution, commune of Colina, applying a predesigned survey that bnefed the following data: number of inhabitants of the home (specifying young and adult), overcrowding degree, probable source of contagion, used treatment, who indicated the treatment and effectiveness of this one. The data were tabularon and analyzed expressing the results in percentage. A total of 320 surveys briefed 957 cases of pediculosis. The overcrowding degree was in average of 2.4 people by dormitory The average of age of the infested ones was of 13.03 years (rank between 0 and 53 years), being observed that a 78.65 percent corresponded to minors of 16 years. As far as the probable source of contagion, a 93.7 percent considered that the origin of the familiar infestation was the educational establishment of one of the children of the house. From the total of the cases a 96.6 percent received pharmacological treatment, of which a 35.9 percent only had indication by some professional of the health. It emphasized within the pharmacological treatment, the use of Lindane (30.7 percent) and pediculicide shampoo (69.90 percent).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Lice Infestations/drug therapy , Pediculus , Age Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Data Collection , Drug Resistance , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Hexachlorocyclohexane/therapeutic use , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
Journal of Family and Community Medicine. 2008; 15 (3): 7-16
in Arabic | IMEMR | ID: emr-87829

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed to assess the problem of head lice among primary female students in the city of Al Khobar, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. A model [DPSEEA] adopted by the World Health Organization [WHO] was used. It is also aimed to find the geographical distribution of head lice. A total of 100 female children manifested with head lice were identified from 40 schools in Al Khobar city. They were interviewed in the School Health Clinic in Al-Khobar using a structured questionnaire. Their weight and height were measured, BMI was calculated. The results showed that the mean number of family members of the studied population was nine persons living mostly in an apartment of 3-4 rooms. About 55% of the infested girls had sisters with similar problem. Thirty per cent did not use any medication or does not know the name of the medicine previously used More than half of the girls used sharing combs and 40% used sharing towels. About 36% of the mothers claimed that the schools were the source of the infestation. There was a statistically significant association between use of medications by infected girls and father's education, and a statistically significant association between use of personal towel by infected girls and mother's education, father's education, and number of family members respectively. A map of head lice distribution that had been produced in this study, using GIS, showed that "Al Thoqba" area reported the highest infestation. A matrix for future strategies was produced in order to control this health problem


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Schools , Students , Lice Infestations/transmission , Educational Status , Parents , Family , Lice Infestations/prevention & control
19.
Iranian Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2007; 2 (2): 87-90
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-83039

ABSTRACT

Pediculosis and scabies are infectious diseases that can spread easily in overcrowded places, like prisons. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of these diseases in Ghezel Hesar prison [a male prison]. For this descriptive study, 1404 prisoners in Ghezel Hesar prison were included. The prisoners were evaluated clinically by two experienced dermatologists for scabies and pediculosis. Of 1404 prisoners, 31 [2.2%] were infested with Sarcoptes scabiei and 12 [0.9%] with body louse. There were no cases of head or crab lice. All of the subjects with scabies and 83% of Pediculosis corporis infestation had intense pruritus. There was a significant reverse association between the duration of imprisonment and these diseases. Pediculosis and scabies were more common among new prisoners [p<0.001]. Scabies was more common in overcrowded cells. In Pediculosis group there were more opium addicted individuals [p<0.01]. We recommend examining the newly admitted prisoners for scabies and pediculosis by a dermatologist or a trained doctor in order to reduce the spread of these diseases


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prisons
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-33041

ABSTRACT

Head lice infestation contributes a significant morbidity among schoolchildren in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of head lice infestation among primary schoolchildren in Kelantan, Malaysia. Six schools were randomly selected from three sub-districts of Kuala Krai, Kelantan. A total of 463 eleven-year-old pupils were screened by visual scalp examination and fine-toothed combing. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography and associated factors of head lice infestation. The prevalence of head lice infestation was 35.0% (95% Cl: 30.6, 39.3) with 11.9% inactive, 23.1% active, 18.2% light and 16.8% heavy infestations. The associated factors were girls; family income of RM247 or less; head lice infestation of family member and having four or more siblings. The high prevalence of head lice infestation in this study indicates the need for regular school health program that emphasis on the eradication of head lice. The significant associated factors identified in this study reconfirm the importance of controlling the transmissibility of head lice. Pupils and parents should be informed regarding factors that may facilitate the transmission of head lice.


Subject(s)
Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family , Female , Humans , Income , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sex Distribution
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