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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1570-1574, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521038

ABSTRACT

En la literatura actual se encuentra escasa información referente a la fóvea de la cabeza del fémur (fóvea de la cabeza del hueso fémur). Este estudio tuvo como propósito recolectar datos morfológicos y biométricos respecto a la fóvea de la cabeza del fémur y reconocer variaciones que podrían ser de utilidad en las diversas patologías de la región. Se utilizaron 46 huesos fémures humanos pertenecientes al Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. Para la medición de datos se utilizó material ad hoc y los datos fueron analizados el programa Excel y los softwares ImageJ e Image Pro Plus. La longitud promedio de los huesos fémures fue de 43,8 ± 2,9 cm; el ángulo de torsión del cuello fue de 23,0 ± 2,0°. En el 100 % de las muestras se observó una fóvea en el cuadrante posteroinferior de la cabeza del fémur. El área promedio de la fóvea de la cabeza del fémur fue de 1,51 ± 0,7 cm2. El perímetro fue de 4,72 ± 1,0 cm; la forma de la fóvea fue: 60,9% ovalada, 23,9% triangular y 15,2 % circular, teniendo como base la fórmula derivada del índice craneal, dejando la fórmula como feret mínimo/feret máximo, con el cual los valores mayores a 0,8 se clasificaban como circulares y los menores como ovalados. Conocer la ubicación de la fóvea de la cabeza del fémur adquiere implicancia médica, ya que una fóvea en posición anormalmente alta, en imágenes radiológicas, es un indicador de displasia pélvica. La importancia de las variaciones de la fóvea de la cabeza del fémur debe ser más investigadas para una correcta comprensión de las patologías que afectan a la cabeza femoral.


SUMMARY: In the current literature there is little information regarding the fovea for ligament of head of femur. The aim of this study was to collect morphological and biometric data regarding the fovea for ligament of head of femur and recognize variations that could be useful in the various pathologies of the region. Forty six human femur bones belonging to the Department of Basic Sciences of the University of La Frontera, Chile were used. For data measurement, ad hoc material was used and the data were analyzed with the Excel program and the ImageJ and Image Pro Plus software. The average length of the femur bones was 43.8 ± 2.9 cm; the neck torsion angle was 23.0 ± 2.0°. In 100% of the samples, a fovea was observed in the posteroinferior quadrant of the head of femur. The average area of the fovea for ligament of head of femur was 1.51 ± 0.7 cm3. The perimeter was 4.72 ± 1.0 cm; The shape of the fovea was: 60.9% oval, 23.9% triangular and 15.2% circular, based on the formula derived from the cranial index, leaving the formula as minimum feret/maximum feret, with which the values greater than 0.8 were classified as circular and those less as oval. Knowing the location of the fovea for ligament of head of femur acquires medical implications, since a fovea in an abnormally high position, in radiological images, is an indicator of pelvic dysplasia. The importance of variations in the fovea for ligament of head of femur must be further investigated for a correct understanding of the pathologies that affect the femoral head.


Subject(s)
Humans , Femur/anatomy & histology , Ligaments/anatomy & histology , Femur Head/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(5): 755-759, Sept.-Oct. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529955

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Considerable attention has been paid to meniscotibial ligaments (MTLs), also known as coronary ligaments, especially after the "Save the Meniscus" initiative gained importance among knee surgeons. Technically challenging, the diagnosis and treatment of ramp lesion show the importance of MTLs. These ligaments were discovered long ago, but their contribution to knee stability has only recently been studied and still lacks information. Thus, the aim of the present study was to describe step-by-step an dissection technique of the medial MTL, efficient, reproducible and that may lead to further research. Method Twenty fresh cadaver knees were used, with no preference for sex or age. The knees were dissected using the same technique standardized by our team. Each dissection step was recorded digitally. Results The medial MTL was found in all 20 knees studied using the aforementioned technique. In our sample, the medial MTL exhibited an average length of 70.0 ± 13.4 mm and width of 32.25 ± 3.09 mm, thickness of 35.3 ± 2.7 mm and weight of 0.672 ± 0.134 g. In all the cases, the medial MTL originated proximally and deeply to the deep MTL in the tibia. Conclusion We describe a simple effective and reproducible medial MTL dissection technique that makes it possible to identify the ligament over the entire medial extension of the knee.


Resumo Objetivo Considerável atenção tem sido dada aos ligamentos meniscotibiais (LMT), também conhecidos como ligamentos coronários, especialmente depois que a iniciativa "Salve o Menisco" ganhou importância entre os cirurgiões de joelho. Tecnicamente desafiadores, o diagnóstico e o tratamento da lesão em rampa são importantes nos LMTs. Esses ligamentos foram descobertos há muito tempo, mas sua contribuição para a estabilidade do joelho foi recentemente estudada e ainda carece de informações. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi descrever passo a passo uma técnica de dissecção medial do LMT que é eficiente, reprodutível e que possa levar a novas pesquisas. Métodos Foram utilizados 20 joelhos de cadáveres frescos, sem preferência por sexo ou idade. Os joelhos foram dissecados com a mesma técnica padronizada por nossa equipe. Cada etapa da dissecação foi gravada digitalmente. Resultados O LMT medial foi encontrado em todos os 20 joelhos estudados com a técnica supracitada. Em nossa amostra, o LMT medial apresentou comprimento médio de 70,0 ± 13,4 mm e largura de 32,25 ± 3,09 mm, além de espessura de 35,3 ± 2,7 mm e peso de 0,672 ± 0,134 g. Em todos os casos, a origem do LMT medial era proximal e profunda em relação ao LMT profundo na tíbia. Conclusão Descrevemos uma técnica de dissecção simples do LMT medial que é eficaz, reprodutível e permite a identificação do ligamento em toda a extensão medial do joelho.


Subject(s)
Meniscus/surgery , Ligaments
3.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(2): 206-210, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449791

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To perform a systematic review of the literature on the anatomy of the medial meniscotibial ligaments (MTLs), and to present the most accepted findings, as well as the evolution of the anatomical knowledge on this structure. Materials and Methods An electronic search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases with no date restrictions. The following index terms were used in the search: anatomy AND meniscotibial AND ligament AND medial. The review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. We included anatomical studies of the knee were included, such as cadaver dissections, histological and/or biological investigations, and/or imaging of the medial MTL anatomy. Results Eight articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected. The first article was published in 1984 and the last, in 2020. The total sample in the 8 articles was of 96 patients. Most studies are purely descriptive in terms of the macroscopic morphological and microscopic histological findings. Two studies evaluated the biomechanical aspects of the MTL, and one, the anatomical correlation with the magnetic resonance imaging examination. Conclusion The main function of the medial MTL, a ligament that originates in the tibia and is inserted in the lower meniscus, is to stabilize and maintain the meniscus in its position on the tibial plateau. However, there is a limited amount of information regarding medial MTLs, primarily in terms of anatomy, especially vascularization and innervation.


Resumo Objetivos Fazer uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre a anatomia dos ligamentos meniscotibiais (LMTs) mediais, e apresentar os achados mais aceitos e a evolução das informações anatômicas sobre essa estrutura. Materiais e Métodos A busca eletrônica foi realizada nos bancos de dados MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE e Cochrane, sem restrições de data. Os seguintes termos de indexação foram utilizados: anatomy AND meniscotibial AND ligament AND medial. A revisão seguiu as recomendações da declaração de Principais Itens para Relatar Revisões Sistemáticas e Metanálises (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, PRISMA, em inglês). Foram incluídos estudos anatômicos do joelho, como dissecções de cadáveres, investigações histológicas e/ou biológicas, e/ou imagens da anatomia do LMT medial. Resultados Oito artigos atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e foram selecionados. O primeiro foi publicado em 1984, e o último, em 2020. A amostra total nos 8 artigos foi de 96 pacientes. A maioria dos estudos é puramente descritiva em relação aos achados morfológicos macroscópicos e histológicos microscópicos. Dois estudos avaliaram os aspectos biomecânicos do LMT, e um analisou a correlação anatômica com o exame de ressonância magnética. Conclusão A principal função do LMT medial, ligamento que se origina na tíbia e se insere no menisco inferior, é estabilizar e manter a posição do menisco no platô tibial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tibia/anatomy & histology , Meniscus/anatomy & histology , Knee/anatomy & histology , Ligaments
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 264-267, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430529

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The corporo-glans ligament is the ligament connecting the corpus cavernosum and the glans of the penis. The anatomical description of the corporo-glans ligaments shape is still uncertain, this knowledge affects penile reconstructive procedures. The anatomy of the corporo-glans ligament was analyzed and recorded via observing sagittal sections of 10 different penile P45 plastination sections. According to the P45 plastination sections, the corporo-glans junction displayed a fibrous tissue band connecting the distal ends of the two corpus cavernous (CC) with the glans penis (GP). The fibrous band was a round-obtuse shape and ran deep into the glans of the penis and occupied about 2/3 of the whole GP. The original end was laid in a socket embedded in the GP. The density of the fibers of the ligament at the original end close to the tunica albuginea was less than that of the other parts. The fibers originating from the tunica albuginea, directly extended to the blind end of the two CC, covering the distal end of the two CC.


El ligamento cuerpo cavernoso-glande es el ligamento que conecta el cuerpo cavernoso y el glande del pene. La descripción anatómica de la forma de los ligamentos cuerpo cavernoso -glande aún es incierta; este conocimiento afecta los procedimientos reconstructivos del pene. La anatomía del ligamento cuerpo cavernoso-glande se analizó y registró mediante la observación de 10 secciones sagitales diferentes del pene a través de plastinación P45. Según las secciones de plastinación, la unión cuerpo-glande mostraba una banda de tejido fibroso que conectaba los extremos distales de los dos cuerpos cavernosos con el glande del pene. La banda fibrosa tenía una forma redonda y obtusa y se adentraba profundamente en el glande del pene ocupando alrededor de 2/3 de él. En su origen se coloca en un espacio profundo en el glande del pene. La densidad de las fibras del ligamento cuerpo cavernoso-glande en su origen cercano a la túnica albugínea era menor que el de las otras partes. Las fibras que se originan en la túnica albugínea, se extienden directamente hasta el extremo ciego de los dos cuerpos cavernosos, cubriendo el extremo distal de estos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Penis/anatomy & histology , Plastination/methods , Ligaments/anatomy & histology
5.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(6): 375-380, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423747

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El prolapso de órganos pélvico (POP) es una patología frecuente que afecta hasta el 60% de las mujeres. La fijación alta al ligamento uterosacro (FAUS) transvaginal es una alternativa para el tratamiento del prolapso apical con buenos resultados, tiempos operatorios y de recuperación acotados, además de bajas tasas de complicaciones. Objetivo: Evaluar la tasa de éxito anatómico y subjetivo en pacientes portadoras de un prolapso apical sometidas a FAUS en el Hospital de Quilpué a 24 meses de seguimiento. Materiales y método: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo observacional descriptivo, seleccionando a todas las pacientes sintomáticas con un prolapso apical ≥ 2 de la clasificación de POP-Q, sometidas a una FAUS entre septiembre de 2014 y octubre de 2019. Los datos fueron obtenidos desde la base de datos de la unidad de uroginecología del Hospital de Quilpué, previa aprobación del comité de ética. El éxito objetivo se definió como un punto C a 1 centímetro sobre el himen y el éxito subjetivo con una escala de impresión de mejora global del paciente (PGI-I) mejor o mucho mejor y/o una escala visual analógica (EVA) mayor al 80%, a 24 meses de seguimiento. Resultados: Se incluyeron 46 pacientes. La tasa de éxito objetivo fue del 84% y de éxito subjetivo del 70%. Conclusiones: La FAUS transvaginal con suturas permanentes es una excelente alternativa para el tratamiento del prolapso apical con una tasa de éxito similar al gold standard a 24 meses de seguimiento.


Introduction: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a frequent pathology that affects up to 60% of women. Transvaginal uterosacral ligament high fixation (USLs: utero-sacral ligaments) is an alternative for the treatment of apical prolapse with good results, limited operative and recovery times, as well as low rates of complications. Objective: To evaluate the anatomical and subjective success rate in patients with an apical prolapse undergoing STALUS at the Quilpué Hospital at 24 months of follow-up. Materials and method: A descriptive observational retrospective study was carried out, selecting all symptomatic patients with an apical prolapse ≥ 2 of the POP Q classification, submitted to a FAUS between September 2014 and October 2019. The data were obtained from the database of the Urogynecology Unit of the Quilpué Hospital, prior approval of the ethics committee. Objective success was defined as a C-point 1 centimeter above the hymen and subjective success with better or much better Patient Global Impression-Improvement (PGI-I) scale and/or a greater than 80% Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), at 24 months of follow-up. Results: 46 patients were included. The objective success rate was 84% and the subjective success rate was 70%. Conclusions: The transvaginal FAUS with permanent sutures is an excellent alternative for the treatment of apical prolapse with a success rate similar to the gold standard at 24 months of follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Suture Techniques , Pelvic Organ Prolapse/surgery , Ligaments/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Uterine Prolapse/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Operative Time , Length of Stay
6.
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 36(1)abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409048

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Por más de 20 años la litotricia extracorpórea se ha aplicado con éxito en el mundo. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la terapia por ondas de choque en el tratamiento a pacientes que presentan lesiones en los tendones y ligamentos del sistema osteomioarticular. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, con 107 pacientes diagnosticados con lesiones en los tendones y ligamentos del sistema osteomioarticular, los cuales fueron tratados con el equipo Well Wave (ondas de choque extracorpóreas) en el Complejo Científico Ortopédico Internacional Frank País, en el período comprendido entre marzo de 2019 y abril de 2020. Se realizó el análisis de las variables edad, sexo, dolor y discapacidad. Se obtuvieron frecuencias absolutas y relativas, y con ellas se confeccionaron las tablas que resumen la información estadística de la investigación. Resultados: Predominó el sexo femenino (71,9 por ciento), de 51 - 60 años (28 por ciento). El 40,2 por ciento de los pacientes fueron atendidos por presentar una tendinitis del supraespinoso. Todos los pacientes presentaban dolor antes de la aplicación de la terapia. Luego del tratamiento el 78,5 por ciento de los enfermos dejaron de sentirlo y el 71 por ciento presentó ausencia de discapacidad según escala de DASH. Según los criterios de evaluación de la respuesta al tratamiento los resultados fueron satisfactorios en el 56 por ciento de los pacientes. Conclusiones: La terapia con las ondas de choque posibilitó una rápida recuperación de los pacientes atendidos y su incorporación a las actividades diarias(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Over more than 20 years, extracorporeal lithotripsy has been successfully used worldwide. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of shock wave therapy in the treatment of patients with injuries to the tendons and ligaments of the osteomioarticular system. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out with 107 patients diagnosed with injuries to the tendons and ligaments of the osteomioarticular system. These subjects were treated with the Well Wave equipment (extracorporeal shock waves) at Frank País International Orthopedic Scientific Center, from March 2019 to April 2020. The variables age, sex, pain and disability were analyzed. Absolute and relative frequencies were obtained, and the results of statistical information of the investigation was shown in summarizing tables. Results: The female sex prevailed (71.9percent), 51 - 60 years old (28 percent). 40.2 percent of the patients were treated for supraspinatus tendinitis. All patients had pain before the use of therapy. After treatment, 78.5 percent of the patients stopped feeling pain and 71 percent showed no disability according to DASH scale. According to the treatment response evaluation criteria, the results were satisfactory in 56percent of the patients. Conclusions: This therapy enabled rapid recovery of the patients treated and their integration into daily activities(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Tendon Injuries , Tendons , Treatment Outcome , Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy/methods , Ligaments/injuries , Musculoskeletal System , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1395-1399, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405303

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Ocasionalmente la incisura escapular puede ser reemplazada por un foramen óseo producto de la osificación del ligamento transverso superior de la escápula. Esta formación ósea se considera un factor precipitante de la compresión del nervio supraescapular. Ciento noventa y cinco escápulas de individuos adultos pertenecientes a osteotecas de universidades de Colombia (114 escápulas) y de Chile (81 escápulas), fueron estudiadas macroscópicamente para determinar la presencia de un foramen escapular óseo. Ambas escápulas de un mismo individuo colombiano (1,75 % del total) presentaban el foramen escapular y una escápula izquierda (1,23 %) presentaba esta formación en un individuo chileno. La prevalencia de la osificación del ligamento transverso superior de la escápula es muy variable en los distintos estudios y tiende a situarse inferior al 10 %, sin embargo, puede constituirse en un factor de riesgo debido al atrapamiento o compresión del nervio supraescapular, hecho conocido como neuropatía supraescapular.


SUMMARY: Occasionally the scapular notch can be replaced by a bony foramen product of the ossification of the superior transverse scapular ligament. This bone formation is considered a precipitating factor for compression of the suprascapular nerve. One hundred and ninety-five adult scapulae from Colombian (114 scapulae) and Chilean (81 scapulae) university osteotheques were studied macroscopically to determine the presence of a bony scapular foramen. Both scapulae of the same Colombian individual (1.75% of the total) presented the scapular foramen and one left scapula (1.23%) presented this formation in a Chilean individual. The prevalence of ossification of the superior transverse scapular ligament is highly variable in the different studies and tends to be less than 10%; however, it can become a risk factor due to entrapment or compression of the suprascapular nerve, a fact known as suprascapular neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Scapula/pathology , Ossification, Heterotopic , Ligaments/pathology , Scapula/anatomy & histology , Chile , Colombia , Ligaments/anatomy & histology , Nerve Compression Syndromes
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(2): 507-515, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385604

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The complete petrosphenoidal foramen, or canal, is an eventual and atavistic bony formation at the boundary between the posterior and middle cranial fossa, by occurrence of ossification of the superior petrosphenoidal ligament. This ligament ossification, which has important clinical and surgical significance, can be complete or incomplete, in variable degrees, and is associated with the passageway of neurovascular structures, such as the abducens nerve and the inferior petrosal sinus. This study, conducted with 175 dry skulls that belong to the University of São Paulo's collection (USP), São Paulo, Brazil, established criteria for a morphological classification of the incomplete petrosphenoid foramen in nine types. In addition, anatomical parameters were established for the morphometric determination of two diameters: the Oblique Diameter (ObDi) and the Maximum Transverse Diameter (MTD). Thus, of the 175 skulls, 146 (83.42 %) presented some of the incomplete forms of the petrosphenoid foramen, and 43 skulls (29.45 %), due to their conservation characteristics, were habilitated to the morphological study, in the classification and in the morphometry (the types I and II of our classification). The type II (incomplete foramen with bony projections of the petrosal tubercle, of the margin of the dorsum of the hypophyseal fossa or of the posterior clinoid process with a distance between them greater than 1mm) and type V (incomplete foramen with a bony projection only in one of the referential structures - posterior clinoid process) were the most common in this study (50 % of the 86 hemiskulls). Morphometry was attributed only to the types: I selar (incomplete foramen with bony projections from the petrosal tubercle and the margin of the dorsum of the hypophyseal fossa with a distance between them less than or equal to 1mm) and to the type II of this classification. The type I selar (9.3 % of the 43 skulls) resulted in an average of 3.25 mm of MTD and 4.63 mm, on average, of ObDi. The type II (25.58 % of the 43 skulls) showed, on average, 4.93 mm of MTD and 7.01 mm of ObDi.


RESUMEN: El foramen o canal petroesfenoidal completo es una formación ósea eventual y atávica en el límite entre las fosas craneal posterior y media, por osificación del ligamento petroesfenoidal superior. Esta osificación del ligamento, que tiene un importante significado clínico y quirúrgico, puede ser completa o incompleta, en grados variables, y está asociada al paso de estructuras neurovasculares, como el nervio abducente y el seno petroso inferior. Este estudio se realizó en 175 cráneos secos pertenecientes a la colección de la Universidad de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brasil. Se establecieron criterios para una clasificación morfológica del foramen petrosfenoidal incompleto en nueve tipos. Además, se establecieron parámetros anatómicos para la determinación morfométrica de dos diámetros: el Diámetro Oblicuo (ObDi) y el Diámetro Transversal Máximo (MTD). Así, de los 175 cráneos, 146 (83,42 %) presentaron alguna de las formas incompletas del foramen petrosfenoidal, y 43 cráneos (29,45 %), por sus características de conservación, fueron habilitados para el estudio morfológico, en la clasificación y en la morfometría (los tipos I y II de nuestra clasificación). El Tipo II (foramen incompleto con proyecciones óseas del tubérculo petroso, del margen del dorso de la fosa hipofisaria o del proceso clinoides posterior con una distancia entre ellos mayor de 1 mm) y el Tipo V (foramen incompleto con proyección ósea solamente en una de las estructuras referenciales - proceso clinoides posterior) fueron los más comunes en este estudio (50 % de los 86 hemiscráneos). La morfometría se atribuyó únicamente al Tipo I selar (foramen incompleto con proyecciones óseas desde el tubérculo petroso y el margen del dorso de la fosa hipofisaria con una distancia entre ellos menor o igual a 1mm) y al Tipo II de esta clasificación. El Tipo I selar (9,3 % de los 43 cráneos) resultó en un promedio de 3,25 mm de MTD y 4,63 mm, en promedio, de ObDi. El Tipo II (25,58 % de los 43 cráneos) mostró, en promedio, 4,93 mm de MTD y 7,01 mm de ObDi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Petrous Bone/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Ligaments/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Classification
9.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1199-1208, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970659

ABSTRACT

A micro silicone oil liquid spring was designed and manufactured in this article. The performance of the liquid spring was studied by simulation analysis and mechanical test. A self-force source power-assisted knee orthosis was designed based on the liquid spring. This power-assisted knee orthosis can convert the kinetic energy of knee flexion into the elastic potential energy of liquid spring for storage, and release elastic potential energy to generate assisted torque which drives the knee joint for extension. The results showed that the average maximum reset force of the liquid spring was 1 240 N, and the average maximum assisted torque for the knee joint was 29.8 N·m. A musculoskeletal multibody dynamic model was used to analyze the biomechanical effect of the knee orthosis on the joint during knee bending (90°knee flexion). The results showed that the power-assisted knee orthosis could effectively reduce the biomechanical load of the knee joint for the user with a body weight of 80 kg. The maximum forces of the femoral-tibial joint force, patellar-femoral joint force, and quadriceps-ligament force were reduced by 24.5%, 23.8%, and 21.2%, respectively. The power-assisted knee orthosis designed in this article provides sufficient assisted torque for the knee joint. It lays a foundation for the subsequent commercial application due to its small size and lightweight.


Subject(s)
Biomechanical Phenomena , Knee Joint , Femur , Ligaments , Orthotic Devices
10.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 68(1): 19-36, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1352090

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las evaluaciones clínica y radiológica son técnicas que se emplean para el diagnóstico de ruptura de ligamento cruzado anterior (RLCA) y para la evaluación posoperatoria de cirugías correctivas. Se planteó como objetivo describir los resultados posoperatorios de la técnica avance de tuberosidad tibial en caninos con RLCA utilizando hueso de origen bovino conservado en glicerina al 98%. Fueron intervenidos 5 caninos con la patología y sin cambios radiológicos marcados en las columnas óseas relacionadas. El heteroim-plante óseo se cortó a manera de cuña y, para determinar su tamaño, se tuvo en cuenta la medida prequirúrgica que necesitaba la rodilla para alcanzar el ángulo de avance de la cresta tibial. Seguidamente se fijó al receptor local con implantes metálicos (agujas de Kirschner y alambre ortopédico). En el posoperatorio, se evaluaron por 90 días signos clínicos como claudicación, dolor al movimiento flexión-extensión e inflamación, según la circunferencia de la rodilla, y se evaluó por 120 días el ángulo de avance tibial y la radiopacidad del heteroimplante con respecto al hueso circunvecino (tuberosidad tibial y tibia caudal). El estudio estableció que los parámetros clínicos y radiológicos tienen un efecto estadísticamente significativo; sin embargo, la evaluación del ángulo de avance tibial no tiene un efecto significativo entre el paciente y los días posquirúrgicos. Durante el periodo de evaluación el heteroimplante óseo bovino demostró ser efectivo para estabilizar una rodilla con RLCA en caninos.


ABSTRACT The clinical and radiological evaluations are techniques used for the diagnosis of the anterior cruciate ligament rupture (LCAR) and the post-operatory assessment of corrective surgeries. It was proposed as an objective to describe the post-operatory results of the advance technique of tibial tuberosity in canines with LCAR using bovine bone conserved in 98% glycerin. Five canines were intervened and with no other radiological changed in the related bone columns. The bone heteroimplant was cut in a wedge-like manner and for its size it was taken into account the pre-operatory measurement that the knee needed to reach the advancement angle of the tibial crest. Next, the bone implant was fixated to the local receptor with metallic implants (Kirschner needles and orthopedic wire). In the post-op, the canines were evaluated for 90 days for clinical signs such as claudication, pain when flexing and extending and inflammation according to the knee circumference, and for 120 days the advancement angle of the tibia and the radiopacitry of the heteroimplant in relation to the surrounding bone. The trial established that the clinical and radiological parameters have a statistically significant effect; however, the evaluation of the tibial advancement angle does not have a significant effect between the patient and the post-operatory days. During the evaluation period, the heteroimplant bovine bone proved to be effective to stabilize the knee in canines with LCAR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Tibia , Bone and Bones , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries , Glycerol , Ligaments , Postoperative Care , Cattle , Dogs
11.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(1): 135-144, Fev. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253110

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A postura anterior da cabeça é considerada o desequilíbrio postural musculoesquelético mais comum, causando protrusão da cabeça anterior ao tronco. Os órgãos internos são interconectados e fixados posteriormente à coluna por meio das membranas de suporte. A tensão nessas membranas de suporte pode ainda causar restrições mecânicas, afetando a mobilidade do órgão visceral e a estrutura musculoesquelética associada em um mecanismo de mão dupla. OBJETIVO: Explorar o efeito da manipulação visceral específica de órgão na postura, incapacidade, força e dor em indivíduos com dor cervical crônica inespecífica. De acordo com a hipótese deste estudo, a manipulação visceral tem como objetivo explorar o efeito da manipulação da fáscia específica do órgão na postura, incapacidade, força e dor em indivíduos com dor cervical crônica inespecífica. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: cinco indivíduos com dor cervical inespecífica crônica com postura anterior da cabeça foram recrutados usando o método de amostragem de conveniência. Este estudo foi conduzido em um departamento de Fisioterapia de um hospital multi-especializado reconhecido, Mohali. Os indivíduos foram encaminhados após o diagnóstico de dor cervical crônica dos departamentos. Uma única sessão de manipulação visceral placebo foi administrada na primeira semana, seguida de uma única sessão de manipulação visceral da cúpula pleural e ligamentos pericárdicos na segunda semana. Aplicação móvel de tela de postura (postura), unidade de biofeedback de pressão (ativação muscular), Índice de Incapacidade Pescoço e Escalas Visuais Analógicas foram utilizados para medir os resultados pré e pós. RESULTADO: a comparação entre os grupos do desfecho mostrou diferença estatisticamente significativa na EAV (p = 0,001), aplicação da triagem postural (p = 0,02) e NDI (p = 0,07). Não foram observadas mudanças significativas no desfecho força. CONCLUSÃO: Sessão única de manipulação visceral da cúpula pleural e ligamentos pericárdicos pode se beneficiar na melhora da postura anterior da cabeça, incapacidade cervical e redução da dor.


INTRODUCTION: Forward head posture is considered to be the most common musculoskeletal postural imbalance causing protrusion of head anterior to trunk. Internal organs are interconnected and attached posteriorly to the spine through the support membranes. Tension in these support membranes may further cause mechanical restrictions, thereby affecting the mobility of the visceral organ and associated musculoskeletal structure in a two-way mechanism. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of organ-specific visceral manipulation on posture, disability, strength, and pain in subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. According to this study hypothesis visceral manipulation aim to explore the effect of organ-specific fascia manipulation on posture, disability, strength, and pain in subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Five subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain with forwarding head posture were recruited using a convenience sampling method. This study was conducted in a Physiotherapy department of a recognized multispecialty hospital, Mohali. Subjects were referred after diagnosis from chronic neck pain from the departments. A single session of placebo visceral manipulation was administered in the first week, followed by a single session of visceral manipulation of the pleural dome and pericardial ligaments in the second week. Posture screen mobile application (posture), Pressure biofeedback unit (muscular activation), Neck Disability Index, and Visual Analog Scales were used to measure the pre and post outcomes. RESULT: Between-group comparison of the outcome showed a statistically significant difference in the VAS (p=0.001), Posture screening application (p=0.02), and NDI (p=0.07). No significant changes were observed in the strength outcome. CONCLUSION: Single session of visceral manipulation for the pleural dome and pericardial ligaments may benefit in improving the forward head posture, neck disability and reducing the pain.


Subject(s)
Chronic Pain , Neck Pain , Ligaments
12.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(1): 47-52, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288647

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by indirect trauma and increased posterior tibial inclination. Methods Retrospective study, performed by analysis of medical records and digital radiographs of patients, present in a database of a tertiary orthopedic hospital. The sample consisted of two groups, the first group consisting of patients diagnosed with ACL injury by indirect trauma, and a control group matched by age. Results Each group consisted of 275 patients, whose measurements of posterior tibial inclination were measured by three specialists. It was observed that the group of patients with ACL lesion presented a significantly higher tibial slope (in degrees) than the control group in the total sample and in the subsamples stratified by gender. The best cutoff point for the first group was identified as a posterior tibial inclination ≥ 8º, achieving a sensitivity of 63.3% and a specificity of 62.5%. The first group also had a tibial slope ratio ≥ 8º (63.3%), significantly higher than the control group (37.5%), with an odds ratio of 2.8. Conclusion It was concluded that the increase of the posterior tibial inclination is associated with an increased risk for injury of the ACL by indirect trauma, mainly for values ≥ 8º.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a relação entre pacientes com lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA) por trauma indireto e o aumento da inclinação posterior da tíbia. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo, realizado por análise de prontuários e radiografias digitais de pacientes, presentes em banco de dados de um hospital terciário de ortopedia e traumatologia. A amostra foi composta por dois grupos, sendo o primeiro formado por pacientes com diagnóstico de lesão do LCA, por trauma indireto, e um grupo controle pareado por idade. Resultados Cada grupo foi formado por 275 pacientes, cujas medidas de inclinação tibial posterior foram aferidas por 3 especialistas. Observou-se que o grupo dos pacientes com lesão do LCA apresentou slope tibial (em graus) significativamente maior que o grupo controle na amostra total e nas subamostras estratificadas por gênero. Identificou-se como o melhor ponto de corte (cutoff) para o primeiro grupo uma inclinação tibial posterior ≥ 8º, atingindo uma sensibilidade de 63,3% e uma especificidade de 62,5%. O primeiro grupo também apresentou proporção de slope tibial ≥ 8º (63,3%), significativamente maior que o grupo controle (37,5%), com razão de chances de 2,8. Conclusão Concluiu-se que o aumento da inclinação tibial posterior está associado com um maior risco para lesão do LCA por trauma indireto, principalmente para valores ≥ 8º,


Subject(s)
Humans , Tibia , Anterior Cruciate Ligament , Knee Injuries , Ligaments
13.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(1): 24-30, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288658

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present research aims to compare the outcomes from the combined reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) with the standard isolated ACL reconstruction in patients with chronic ACL injury. To do so, a meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether the combined ACL and ALL reconstruction would lead to a significant improvement in knee function according to the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), the Lysholm test and KT-2000 evaluation scores and lower graft rupture rates in comparison with isolated reconstruction. To identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the combined ACL and ALL reconstruction with the isolated ACL reconstruction, papers published between 2010 and 2019 were searched in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, LILACS and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. The stability of the knee joint is only marginally improved with the combined reconstruction of ACL and ALL, and both reconstruction techniques show functional results. The main outcomes sought were patient function and graft stability and rupture rates after ACL reconstruction. Out of the 421 studies identified, 6 were included in our meta-analysis. Study quality (internal validity) was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool; in general, the studies included presented moderate-quality evidence. The graft rupture rate was higher in patients undergoing isolated ACL reconstruction (relative risk, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.41; p < 0.00001).


Resumo O objetivo da presentepesquisa é comparar, por meio de uma metanálise, os resultados da reconstrução combinada do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA) e do ligamento anterolateral (LLA), comparado com a reconstrução isolada padrão, em pacientes com lesão crônica do ligamento cruzado anterior. Buscando alcançar o objetivo da pesquisa, foi realizada uma meta-análise para determinar se a combinação da reconstrução combinada LCA e LLA levaria àmelhoria significativa da função do joelho, medida pelos escores de avaliação International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm, KT-2000 e menor taxa de ruptura do enxerto, em comparação com a reconstrução isolada. Para identificar ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) comparando a reconstrução combinada do LCA e LLA com a reconstrução isolada do LCA, foram pesquisados artigos publicados entre 2010 e 2019 nas bases MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, LILACS e Cochrane Central RegisterofControlledTrials e seguiram os critérios de Itens de Relatórios Preferidos para Revisões Sistemáticas e Metanálises (PRISMA). A estabilidade da articulação do joelho é apenas marginalmente aprimorada com a reconstrução combinada de LCA e LLA, e ambas as técnicas de reconstrução mostram resultados funcionais. Os principais desfechos procurados foram a função do paciente e as taxas de estabilidade e ruptura do enxerto após a reconstrução do LCA. Dos 421 estudos identificados, 6estudos foram incluídos em nossa meta-análise. A qualidade do estudo (validade interna) foi avaliada usando o instrumento Cochrane risco-de-viés; em geral, foi encontrada uma qualidade moderada de evidências dos estudos incluídos. Os pacientes submetidos à reconstrução isolada do LCA mostraram maior taxa de ruptura do enxerto (RR 0,22; índice de confiança [IC]95%: 0,12-0,41; p< 0,00001).


Subject(s)
Rupture , Wounds and Injuries , Anterior Cruciate Ligament , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries , Knee Joint , Ligaments
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 198-204, feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385332

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The Pterygospinous foramen and pterygoalar foramen (crotaphitico-buccinatorius) are variant and atavic formations of the skull base and arise respectively from complete or incomplete idiopathic ossifications of the pterygospinous and pterygoalar ligaments. By proximity with areas of relevance for diagnosis and surgery, such as access pathways to the parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal spaces, it is necessary to be aware of these conditions due to the difficulties generated in surgical maneuvers and the promotion of compressive syndromes of mandibular nerve branches. This study was conducted on 45 samples of dry skulls and disarticulated sphenoid bones belonging to the collection of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Governador Valadares campus, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Our results indicated a total incidence of complete and incomplete pterygospinous and pterygoalar foramen (crotaphitico- buccinatorius) in 15, 5 % (7 skulls), with a higher incidence for the incomplete form of pterygospinous foramen (Civinini foramen) in 4 skulls (8.8 %), with 3 presenting unilaterally and 3 presenting bilaterally. The pterygoalar foramen (crotaphitico-buccinatorius or Hyrtl) was noted bilaterally in 1 of the skulls (2.2 %). The pterygospinous foramen and pterygoalar foramen are important findings, sometimes incidental, of an area of great anatomical expressiveness and pathological occurrences, besides the indispensable and unclear studies of phylogenetic order.


RESUMEN: El foramen pterigoespinoso y el foramen pterigoalar (crotafítico-buccinatorius) son formaciones variantes y atávicas de la base del cráneo y surgen respectivamente de osificaciones idiopáticas completas o incompletas, de los ligamentos pterigoespinoso y pterigoalar. Debido a la proximidad con áreas de relevancia para el diagnóstico y la cirugía, como las vías de acceso a los espacios parafaríngeo y retrofaríngeo, es necesario conocer estas condiciones por las dificultades que se generan en las maniobras quirúrgicas. Este estudio se realizó en 45 muestras de cráneos secos y huesos esfenoides desarticulados pertenecientes a la colección de la Universidad Federal de Juiz de Fora, campus Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Nuestros resultados indicaron una incidencia total de foramen pterigoespinoso y pterigoalar completo e incompleto (crotafítico-buccinatorius) en el 15,5 % (7 cráneos), con una mayor incidencia de la forma incompleta de foramen pterigoespinoso (agujero de Civinini) en 4 cráneos (8,8 %), con 3 de presentación unilateral y 3 de presentación bilateral. El foramen pterigoalar (crotaphitico-buccinatorius o Hyrtl) se observó bilateralmente en 1 de los cráneos (2,2 %). El foramen pterigoespinoso y pterigoalar son hallazgos importantes, a veces incidentales, de un área de gran expresividad anatómica y ocurrencias patológicas, además de los estudios indispensables y poco claros de orden filogenético.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Ligaments/anatomy & histology , Skull Base , Foramen Ovale/anatomy & histology
15.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 32(2): 5566-5568, jun. 2021. imag
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427522

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 64 años de edad, con comorbilidades asociadas, quien acude al Instituto Hondureño de Seguridad Social por dolor y rigidez cervical de evolución crónica. En estudios de resonancia magnética se observa protrusión ósea con formación de puentes anteriores a los cuerpos vertebrales, que concuerda con las alteraciones halladas en tomografía y radiografía cervical. La hiperostosis esquelética difusa idiopática, o enfermedad de Forestier-Rotes-Querol, es una patología de la columna poco reconocida que puede cursar asintomática y desapercibida, pero ante dolor cervical la tomografía de columna es el método de estudio inicial e ideal para la valoración ósea en caso de patologías osificantes y degenerativas, que al complementar con resonancia magnética ayuda a realizar un diagnóstico preciso, para decidir entre un tratamiento quirúrgico o un manejo conservador.


The case of a 64-year-old female with associated comorbidities is presented, who attends the Honduran social security institute due to chronic cervical pain and stiffness. Magnetic resonance studies show bone protrusion with formation of anterior bridges of vertebral bodies that is consistent with the alterations visualized in tomography and cervical radiography. Idiopathic diffuse skeletal hyperostosis is a poorly recognized pathology of the spine that can be asymptomatic and unnoticed. In case of cervical pain, spinal tomography is the initial and ideal study method for bone assessment in case of ossifying and degenerative pathologies that, when complemented with magnetic resonance imaging, helps to make an accurate diagnosis and thus evaluate and decide between surgical treatment or conservative management


Subject(s)
Hyperostosis , Cervical Vertebrae , Ligaments
17.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 812-818, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888243

ABSTRACT

Ligaments are dense fibrous connective tissue that maintains joint stability through bone-to-bone connections. Ligament tears that due to sports injury or tissue aging usually require surgical intervention, and transplanting autologous, allogeneic, or artificial ligaments for reconstruction is the gold standard for treating such diseases in spite of many drawbacks. With the development of materialogy and manufacturing technology, engineered ligament tissue based on bioscaffold is expected to become a new substitute, which can lead to tissue regeneration by simulating the structure, composition, and biomechanical properties of natural tissue. This paper reviewed some recently published


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Bionics , Bone and Bones , Ligaments , Tissue Engineering , Wound Healing
18.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 283-287, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878733

ABSTRACT

Median arcuate ligament syndrome(MALS)is compression of the celiac trunk by the median arcuate ligament.Median arcuate ligament release is the corner stone for the surgical treatment of MALS.Open surgery,laparoscopic surgery,and robot-assisted surgery have been developed,among which laparoscopic surgery has been proposed as the preferred approach in view of its minimal trauma and short hospital stay.Auxiliary celiac plexus neurolysis could further alleviate the patient's discomfort.Moreover,vascular reconstitution is of vital importance in the case of persistent stenosis in the celiac artery despite of median arcuate ligament decompression.Vascular reconstruction has satisfactory long-term patency rate,while endovascular treatment is less invasive.This article aims to summarize the consensuses and advances and shed light on the surgical treatment of MALS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Celiac Artery/surgery , Constriction, Pathologic/surgery , Decompression, Surgical , Laparoscopy , Ligaments/surgery , Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome/surgery
19.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 800-803, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156198

ABSTRACT

Abstract Intraarticular dislocation of the patella is an uncommon condition, with displacement in the horizontal or vertical plane, which may be associated with total or partial lesion/rupture of the quadriceps tendon, with osteochondral or collateral ligament injury. Risk factors are ligament laxity, patellar hypermobility, high patella, and trochlear dysplasia. This condition is more common in young people and may require blood reduction. Cases of intraarticular dislocation of the patella are rare events, requiring diagnostic suspicion and differentiated management. The aim of the present study is to report a rare case of intraarticular dislocation of the patella, as well as its clinical condition, diagnosis, management and literature review.


Resumo Luxação intra-articular da patela é uma afecção incomum, podendo ocorrer deslocamento no plano horizontal ou vertical; pode se associar com lesão/ruptura do tendão do quadríceps, total ou parcial, com lesão osteocondral ou dos ligamentos colaterais. Fatores de risco são: frouxidão ligamentar, hipermobilidade patelar, patela alta e displasia troclear, e é mais comum em jovens, podendo necessitar de redução cruenta. Casos de luxação intra-articular da patela são eventos raros, sendo necessários uma suspeição diagnóstica e um manejo diferenciado. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar um caso raro de luxação intra-articular da patela, assim como seu quadro clínico, diagnóstico, conduta e revisão da literatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Patella , Risk Factors , Collateral Ligaments , Patellar Dislocation , Joint Dislocations , Joint Instability , Knee Joint , Ligaments
20.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 771-777, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156205

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate different femoral fixation devices for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction and compare their effectiveness regarding fixation strength up to failure in porcine knees. Methods Thirty porcine knees were used, divided into three groups of 10 knees. The removed grafts were dissected from the extensor tendons of porcine feet. In each group, the graft was fixed to the femur with an interference screw, an anchor, or adductor tenodesis. The three methods were subjected to biomechanical tests using a universal Tensile testing machine at a speed of 20 mm/minute. Results The highest average linear resistance under lateral traction occurred in group 1, "screw fixation" (185.45 ± 41.22 N), followed by group 2, "anchor fixation" (152.97 ± 49, 43 N); the lower average was observed in group 3, "tenodesis fixation" (76.69 ± 18.90 N). According to the fixed error margin (5%), there was a significant difference between groups (p < 0.001); in addition, multiple comparison tests (between group pairs) also showed significant differences. Variability was small, since the variance coefficient was lower than 33.3%. Conclusion Interference screws in bone tunnels and mountable anchors fixation with high resistance wire are strong enough for femoral fixation in porcine medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction. Adductor tenodesis, however, was deemed fragile for such purpose.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar diferentes dispositivos de fixação femoral na reconstrução do ligamento patelofemoral medial para comparar sua eficácia quanto à força de fixação até a falha em joelhos suínos. Métodos Foram ensaiados 30 joelhos de suínos subdivididos em 3 grupos de 10 joelhos. Os enxertos retirados foram dissecados de tendões extensores das patas dos suínos. Cada grupo teve o enxerto fixado ao fêmur com parafuso de interferência, âncora, ou tenodese no tendão adutor. Os 3 métodos foram submetidos à testes biomecânicos utilizando uma máquina universal de ensaio de tração com uma velocidade de 20 mm/min. Resultados Verificamos que a média mais elevada da resistência linear sob tração lateral (185,45 ± 41,22 N) ocorreu no grupo 1: "fixação por parafuso," seguido do grupo 2: "fixação por âncora" (152,97 ± 49,43 N), e a média foi menor no grupo 3: "fixação por tenodese" (76,69 ± 18,90 N). Para a margem de erro fixada (5%), comprovou-se a diferença significativa entre os grupos (p < 0,001) e também através dos testes de comparações múltiplas (entre os pares de grupos) verificou-se a ocorrência de diferenças significativas. A variabilidade expressada por meio do coeficiente de variação mostrou-se reduzida, já que a referida medida foi inferior a 33,3%. Conclusão O uso de parafusos de interferência no túnel ósseo de joelhos porcinos é suficientemente forte para fixação femoral na reconstrução do ligamento patelofemoral medial, assim como a fixação com âncoras montáveis com fio de alta resistência. Entretanto, a tenodese no tendão adutor mostrou-se frágil para essa finalidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Orthopedic Fixation Devices , Swine , Tendons , Traction , Effectiveness , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone and Bones , Suture Techniques , Transplants , Models, Animal , Tenodesis , Patellofemoral Joint , Femur , Ligaments , Methods
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