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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258276, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360199


Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) has attracted the attention of many researchers, especially that of microbial origin due to its biological importance to the consumer. The current study aims to extract LA Isomerase enzyme from Lactobacillus paracasei bacteria from milk and to use the enzyme in the production of CLA. Selective media, including MRS and MRS-Dagatose, were used in isolating local strains. The selected bacterial isolates were tested for their ability to produce LA-Isomerase enzyme. The isolate with high enzymatic activity was selected. After extraction and partial purification of the enzyme, the optimal conditions for the production of conjugated fatty acid were studied, and the reaction products were diagnosed using GC-MS technology. It was found that 11 isolates have the ability to produce CLA at different concentrations, H1 isolate showed the highest production of conjugated fatty acid at a concentration of 120.45, this isolate was selected as the source for enzyme extraction. The enzymatic activity of the crude extract and partially purified with ammonium sulfate was estimated using color methods at wavelength of 233 nm. The effect of the optimum conditions (pH, temperature, linoleic acid concentration and enzyme concentration) on the CLA product was studied using the partially purified LA Isomerase enzyme, the optimum conditions for production were 6.5, 45 °C, 100 µ and 0.7 ml, respectively. The GC-MS technique showed the presence of a number of reaction products that are isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (C9T11, T9T12, T10C12) with different concentrations.

O Ácido Linoleico Conjugado (CLA) tem chamado a atenção de diversos pesquisadores, principalmente aquele de origem microbiana, devido à sua importância biológica para o consumidor. O presente estudo visa extrair a enzima LA Isomerase da bactéria Lactobacillus paracasei do leite e usar essa enzima na produção de CLA. Meios seletivos, incluindo MRS e MRS-Dagatose, foram usados no isolamento de cepas locais. Os isolados bacterianos selecionados foram testados quanto à sua capacidade de produzir a enzima LA-Isomerase. Foi selecionado o isolado com alta atividade enzimática. Após a extração e purificação parcial da enzima, as condições ideais para a produção de ácido graxo conjugado foram estudadas e os produtos da reação foram identificados usando a tecnologia GC-MS. Verificou-se que 11 isolados possuem capacidade de produzir CLA em diferentes concentrações. O isolado H1 apresentou a maior produção de ácido graxo conjugado, na concentração de 120,45, e este isolado foi selecionado como fonte para extração enzimática. A atividade enzimática do extrato bruto e parcialmente purificado com sulfato de amônio foi estimada por métodos de coloração em comprimento de onda de 233 nm. O efeito das condições ótimas (pH, temperatura, concentração de ácido linoleico e concentração de enzima) no produto CLA foi estudado usando a enzima LA Isomerase parcialmente purificada e as condições ótimas para produção foram 6,5, 45 °C, 100 µ e 0,7 mL, respectivamente. A técnica de GC-MS mostrou a presença de uma série de produtos de reação que são isômeros do ácido linoleico conjugado (C9T11, T9T12, T10C12) com diferentes concentrações.

Linoleic Acid , Milk , Fatty Acids , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 237-245, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430520


SUMMARY: We aimed to investigate the protective effect of linoleic acid on liver toxicity induced by methotrexate. The study was carried out in partnership with the Department of Anatomy and Department of Medical Pharmacology of Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, using the laboratory facilities of the Department of Medical Pharmacology. Human hepatocyte cell line (CRL- 11233) cells obtained from the American Type Culture Collection Organization (ATCC) were used. Expressions of apoptotic pathway markers, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), BAX, BCL 2, GADD 153, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), and CASPASE-3 were evaluated. All analyzes were examined in four groups (Group 1; control, Group 2; linoleic acid given, Group 3; methotrexate given and Group 4; linoleic acid and methotrexate given). The mean ± standard error values of the obtained results as nanogram / milliliter (ng / ml) are in Group I, Group II, Group III and Group IV, respectively; AIF values, 0.4150 ± 0.1208, 0.3633 ± 0.2389, 1.792 ± 0.3611 and 1.077 ± 0.1646, BAX values, 0.900 ± 0.1864, 1.002 ± 0.2098, 8.352 ± 1.467 and 4.295 ± 1.522, BCL 2 values, 13.93 ± 1.198, 13.92 ± 1.739, 2.938 ± 1.059 and 9.250 ± 1.492, GADD 153, 0.7333 ± 0.1751, 0.7067 ± 0.2115, 1.650 ± 0.2950 and 1.237 ± 0.1805, GRP78, 0.4767 ± 0.1804, 0.5233 ± 0.1590, 2.183 ± 0.2639 and 1.112 ± 0.2693, CASPASE-3 values , 1.127 ± 0.2033, 0.8317 ± 0.3392, 13.50 ± 1.871 and 8.183 ± 1.030. It was determined that linoleic acid has a protective effect on methotrexate-induced liver toxicity.

Nuestro objetivo fue investigar el efecto protector del ácido linoleico sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por metotrexato. El estudio se llevó a cabo en colaboración con el Departamento de Anatomía y el Departamento de Farmacología Médica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Çukurova, utilizando las instalaciones del laboratorio del Departamento de Farmacología Médica. Se usaron células de la línea celular de hepatocitos humanos (CRL-11233) obtenidas de la American Type Culture Collection Organisation (ATCC). Se evaluaron las expresiones de marcadores de vías apoptóticas, factor inductor de apoptosis (AIF), BAX, BCL 2, GADD 153, proteína regulada por glucosa de 78 kDa (GRP78) y CASPASE-3. Todos los análisis se examinaron en cuatro grupos (Grupo 1; control, Grupo 2; se administró ácido linoleico, Grupo 3; se administró metotrexato y Grupo 4; se administró ácido linoleico y metotrexato). Los valores medios ± error estándar de los resultados obtenidos como nanogramo/mililitro (ng/ml) se encuentran en el Grupo I, Grupo II, Grupo III y Grupo IV, respectivamente; Valores de AIF, 0,4150 ± 0,1208, 0,3633 ± 0,2389, 1,792 ± 0,3611 y 1,077 ± 0,1646, valores de Bax, 0,900 ± 0,1864, 1,002 ± 0,2098, 8,352 ± 1,467 y 4,295 ± 1,522, BCL 2 valores, 13,93 ± 1,199. 2,938 ± 1,059 y 9,250 ± 1,492, GADD 153, 0,7333 ± 0,1751, 0,7067 ± 0,2115, 1,650 ± 0,2950 y 1,237 ± 0,1805, Grp78, 0,4767 ± 0,1804, 0,5233 ± 0,1590, 2,183, ± 1,263. 1,127 ± 0,2033, 0,8317 ± 0,3392, 13,50 ± 1,871 y 8,183 ± 1,030. Se determinó que el ácido linoleico tiene un efecto protector sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por metotrexato.

Humans , Methotrexate/toxicity , Linoleic Acid/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cells, Cultured , Protective Agents , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Apoptosis Inducing Factor , Caspase 3 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , Liver/cytology , Liver/drug effects , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/toxicity
Acta cir. bras ; 37(9): e370902, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402980


Purpose: To investigate the active ingredients of walnut ointment (WO) and its mechanism in repairing wounds. Methods: The ingredients of WO were detected by gas chromatography­mass spectrometry. The effect of linoleic acid (LA) was tested by in vitro Alamar Blue (AB) reagent. Image J software, histological and immunohistochemical analysis were used to confirm the healing effect of LA in the porcine skin model. The animals were euthanized after the experiment by injection of pentobarbital sodium. Results: LA, 24% in WO, promotes keratinocytes and fibroblasts proliferation, which were 50.09% and 15.07% respectively higher than control (p < 0.05). The healing rate of the LA group (96.02% ± 2%, 98.58% ± 0.78%) was higher than the saline group (82.11% ± 3.37%, 88.72% ± 1.73%) at week 3 and week 4 (p < 0.05). The epidermal thickness of the LA was 0.16 ± 0.04 mm greater and the expression of the P63 and CK10 proteins was stronger in the LA group than the control (p < 0.05). Conclusions: LA, which is the main components in WO can promote full-thickness burning wounds (FBWs) by stimulating cell proliferation and differentiation.

Ointments/chemistry , Wound Healing/drug effects , Keratinocytes/drug effects , Linoleic Acid/therapeutic use , Nuts/chemistry , Burns/therapy , Fibroblasts
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e175224, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1343348


In dairy cattle, supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is considered to be an important tool to decrease the negative energy balance of periparturient dairy cows and improve the reproductive and immune systems. The most common PUFAs added to ruminant diets are omega 3 (n-3 PUFA) as linolenic acid and omega 6 (n-6 PUFA) as linoleic acid. This paper aims to review the potential effects of n-3 PUFA. We consider the effects of n-3 PUFA on the bovine immune system, especially on immune cells, and on in vivo and in vitro reproductive parameters, emphasizing how n-3 PUFAs act as modulators through one or more molecular mechanisms. The incorporation of n-3 PUFA in the dairy cow diet has positive effects on animal fertility and immunity. Future research on n-3 PUFA should be more explored concerning reproduction and immune function, starting from the investigation of basic biology to their potential for application in the clinical and preventive medicine fields.(AU)

Em rebanhos leiteiros, a suplementação com ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (PUFAs) é considerada uma ferramenta importante para diminuir o balanço energético negativo de vacas leiteiras durante o periparto e contribuir para a reprodução e sistema imunológico. Os efeitos da suplementação com PUFA sobre estes sistemas têm sido pouco explorados na literatura. Os PUFAs mais comuns na dieta dos ruminantes são Ômega-3 (n-3 PUFA) como ácido linolênico e Ômega-6 (n-6 PUFA) como ácido linoleico. Esta revisão abordará os aspectos gerais do n-3 PUFA, seus efeitos mais relevantes no sistema imune, principalmente seus efeitos nas células imunes, bem como seus efeitos na parte reprodutiva, tanto in vivo como in vitro, enfatizando a ação do n-3 PUFA através de mecanismos moleculares. A incorporação de n-3 PUFAs na dieta de vacas leiteiras exerce efeitos positivos na fertilidade e imunidade. Mais estudos a fim de explorar a função do n-3 PUFA na modulação do sistema imune e parâmetros reprodutivos, desde a investigação da biologia básica até a aplicação a campo de modo clínico e preventivo, devem ser requeridos.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Reproduction/physiology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Linoleic Acid , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis , Immunity , Immune System
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1000-1008, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129715


The addition of different oil blends in the feed of finishing pigs was evaluated. Twenty-four castrated male finishing pigs were used in a randomized block design containing four treatments and six replicates. The treatments consisted of: Reference ration (RR) - 100% soybean oil feed; and the combination of the different oils: Blend1 - 50.0% soybean oil (SO), 25.0% flaxseed oil (FO), 12.5% olive oil (OO) and 12.5% canola oil (CO); Blend2 - 25.0% SO, 50.0% FO, 12.5% OO and 12.5% CO; and Blend3 - 25.0% SO, 12.5% FO, 12.5% OO and 50.0% CO. The performance, quantitative and qualitative carcass parameters, fatty acids profile and economic feasibility of the diets were evaluated. The use of blends in the diets did not influence the performance or carcass quality, but increased marbling and carcass yield. The fatty acid profile of the loin presented greater amounts of stearic acid in Blend3 and higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in animals fed with Blend1. The fatty tissue presented greater amounts of myristic acid in Blend1 and oleic acid in Blend3. The reference ration was the most economic. The Blends did not affect performance or carcass characteristics and improved the fatty acid profile.(AU)

Foi avaliada a utilização de diferentes blends de óleo em dietas de suínos em terminação. Foram utilizados 24 suínos, machos, castrados, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração referência (RR) - 100% de ração com utilização de óleo de soja; e a combinação de diferentes óleos: Blend1 - 50,0% de óleo de soja (OS), 25,0% de óleo de linhaça (OL), 12,5% de óleo de oliva (OO) e 12,5% de óleo de canola (OC); Blend2 - 25,0% OS; 50,0% OL; 12,5% OO e 12,5% OC; e Blend3 - 25,0% OS; 12,5% OL; 12,5% OO e 50,0% OC. Foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho, a qualidade de carcaça, o perfil de ácidos graxos e a viabilidade econômica. O uso de blends nas dietas não influenciou o desempenho ou a qualidade da carcaça, mas aumentou o marmoreio e o rendimento de carcaça. O perfil de ácidos graxos do lombo apresentou maiores quantidades de ácido esteárico com a utilização do Blend3 e maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos insaturados nos animais alimentados com o Blend1. O tecido adiposo apresentou maiores quantidades de ácido mirístico quando se forneceu o Blend1 e de ácido oleico com o Blend3. A ração testemunha foi a mais econômica. As misturas não afetaram o desempenho e as características de carcaça e melhoraram o perfil de ácidos graxos da carne.(AU)

Animals , Swine/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/administration & dosage , Linoleic Acid , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Food, Fortified
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1185-1192, 01-06-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147231


Among the main factors that affect the productivity of crops is deficiency of nutrients. Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants, and sunflower is one of the most sensitive plants to deficiency of the element. Its inadequate supply can impair sunflower plants' metabolism and grain and oil yield. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different boron doses on the production of sunflower grains and the content and quality of the oil obtained from them. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme with three cultivars (Helio251, BRS323, BRS324) and four B doses (0, 2.5, 5.0, 8.0 kg ha-1). Two harvests were performed, the first in the R5 reproductive stage and the second at the end of the R9 cycle. In both cases, the levels of B in the capitulum were measured. At the end of the cycle, the grain yield, crude protein and oil content in the grains and fatty acid profile were analyzed. The cultivars responded differently to the treatments with B. The boron fertilization influenced the grain yield and oil content, but was not correlated with the profile of the majority unsaturated fatty acids and crude protein in the grains. Variations were observed in the fatty acid profile between the cultivars, an important aspect that needs to be evaluated according to the purpose of the production. In soil with lower availability of B, cultivar BRS323 was most efficient in B uptake, grain yield and oil content and quality.

Dentre os principais fatores que afetam a produtividade das culturas está a deficiência de nutrientes. O Boro (B) é um micronutriente essencial para plantas, e o girassol é uma das mais sensíveis à deficiência desse elemento. Seu fornecimento inadequado pode prejudicar o metabolismo, a produção de óleo e grãos das plantas de girassol. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de boro na produção de grãos, conteúdo a qualidade do óleo de girassol. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial com três cultivares (Helio251, BRS323, BRS324) e quatro doses de B (0; 2,5; 5,0; 8,0 kg ha-1). Foram realizadas duas coletas, a primeira na fase reprodutiva R5 e a segunda no final do ciclo R9. Em ambos os casos, os níveis de B no capítulo foram medidos. No final do ciclo, foram analisados a produção de grãos, teor de proteína bruta e óleo nos grãos e perfil de ácidos graxos. Os cultivares responderam diferentemente aos tratamentos com B. A adubação com boro influenciou o rendimento de grãos e teor de óleo, mas não se correlacionou com o perfil da maioria dos ácidos graxos insaturados e da proteína bruta nos grãos. Foram observadas variações no perfil de ácidos graxos entre cultivares, um aspecto importante que precisa ser avaliado de acordo com a finalidade da produção. No solo com menor disponibilidade de B, o cultivar BRS323 foi mais eficiente na absorção de B, rendimento de grãos, teor e qualidade de óleo.

Boron , Linoleic Acid , Helianthus
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190177, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132206


Abstract: This article describes the chemical composition of Vernonia chalybaea essential oil, and investigates its antimicrobial, antioxidant and hemolytic activities. The evaluation of the antifungal activity was performed by the broth microdilution method using strains of yeasts and dermatophytic fungi. The checkerboard technique to find antimicrobial modulatory effects was performed using ketoconazole as standard drug. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH scavenging assay and β-carotene/linoleic-acid system. The toxicity was characterized by the brine shrimp lethality test and hemolysis bioassays. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS method, showing to be rich in the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (39.06%) and bicyclogermacrene (19.69%), and also demonstrated a relevant antifungal activity against strains of Trichophyton rubrum. In the modulatory activity assay, the essential oil of V. chalybaea and β-caryophyllene demonstrated a synergistic interaction with ketoconazole, with increasing of its antifungal action. The antioxidant activity was evidenced mainly by β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with IC50 value of 35.87 ± 0.32 µg/mL. The results suggest that V. chalybaea essential oil and β-caryophyllene are valuable natural medicinal agents with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

Humans , Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Vernonia/chemistry , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Artemia , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Linoleic Acid/pharmacology , beta Karyopherins/pharmacology , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765769


Oenothera biennis with the common name of “evening primrose” is containing a valuable fixed oil with commercial name of EPO. Evening primrose oil has two types of omega-6-fatty acid including linoleic acid (60%–80%) and γ-linoleic acid (8%–14%). Essential fatty acids are considered as essential compounds for body health, especially among women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of evening primrose oil in the management of women ailments. The document was prepared by investigation in scientific articles of electronic resources (Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley, Scopus, and Springer) by keywords of evening primrose oil and women. The results of our investigations showed that evening primrose oil has been the subject of several clinical studies, including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), hot flash, mastalgia, fibroadenomas, gestational diabetes, cervical ripening, and dilation. The major clinical studies are focused on mastalgia, followed by PMS. The results of studies confirmed the evening primrose oil's efficacy in women health, but the immediate response should not be expected from it, therefore, it should be regularly used up to 4 or 6 months.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Cervical Ripening , Diabetes, Gestational , Fatty Acids, Essential , Fibroadenoma , Linoleic Acid , Mastodynia , Oenothera biennis , Premenstrual Syndrome
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740550


PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between atopic dermatitis and dietary fat and fatty acid (FA) intakes in 9 ~ 11 year old children. METHODS: We analyzed data from the combined 2013 ~ 2015 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Subjects were divided into two groups according to atopic dermatitis (AD); with AD and without AD. Data pertaining to macronutrients and FA intakes were obtained by a single 24-h dietary recall. Food sources were identified based on the amounts of total fat and FA consumption according to each food. The associations between each FA intake and atopic dermatitis were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and income levels were adjusted as covariates. RESULTS: Of the participants, 17.69% suffered from atopic dermatitis. Children with AD had significantly lower fat percentages of total energy and higher carbohydrate percentages of total energy than normal children. Percentages of energy and intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 FA and n-6 FA in children with AD were significantly lower than those in normal children. In the FA, linoleic acid, γ-linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid levels of children with AD were significantly lower than those of normal children. However, the P/S ratio and n-6/n-3 ratio did not differ significantly between children with AD and normal children. Soybean oil was the main contributor to PUFA, n-3 FA and n-6 FA in both groups, while perilla seed oil and mackerel were the major food sources of n-3 FA in children with atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis was significantly correlated with low-fat and high-carbohydrate diets. The adjusted odds ratios were 0.966, 0.776 and 0.963 for PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA intakes, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present study provides reliable evidence regarding the relationship between fat and FA intakes and AD in Korean children 9 ~ 11 years of age.

Child , Humans , Body Mass Index , Dermatitis, Atopic , Diet , Dietary Fats , Linoleic Acid , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Perciformes , Perilla , Soybean Oil
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760613


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adequate dietary fatty acid intake is important for toddlers between 12–24 months of age, as this is a period of dietary transition in conjunction with rapid growth and development; however, actual fatty acid intake during this period seldom has been explored. This study was conducted to assess the intake status of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids by toddlers during the 12–24-month period using 2010–2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data of 12–24-month-old toddlers (n = 544) was used to estimate the intakes of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6), as well as the major dietary sources of each. The results were compared with the expected intake for exclusively breastfed infants in the first 6 months of life and available dietary recommendations. RESULTS: Mean daily intakes of ALA, EPA, DHA, LA, and AA were 529.9, 22.4, 37.0, 3907.6, and 20.0 mg/day, respectively. Dietary intakes of these fatty acids fell below the expected intake for 0–5-month-old exclusively breastfed infants. In particular, DHA and AA intakes were 4 to 5 times lower. The dietary assessment indicated that the mean intake of essential fatty acids ALA and LA was below the European and the FAO/WHO dietary recommendations, particularly for DHA, which was approximately 30% and 14–16% lower, respectively. The key sources of the essential fatty acids, DHA, and AA were soy (28.2%), fish (97.3%), and animals (53.7%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the prevailing view of DHA and AA requirements on early brain development, there remains considerable room for improvement in their intakes in the diets of Korean toddlers. Further studies are warranted to explore how increasing dietary intakes of DHA and AA could benefit brain development during infancy and early childhood.

Animals , Humans , Infant , Arachidonic Acid , Brain , Diet , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Essential , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Growth and Development , Korea , Linoleic Acid , Nutrition Surveys
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741646


Microbial wound infection prolonged the hospitalization and increase the cost for wound management. Silver is commonly used as antimicrobial wound dressing. However, it causes several adverse side effects. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficiency of Swietenia macrophylla seed extract on clinical wound pathogens. Besides, the bioactive constituents of the seed extract were also determined. S. macrophylla seeds were extracted with methanol by maceration method. The seed extract inhibited 5 test bacteria and 1 yeast on disc diffusion assay. The antibacterial activity was broad spectrum, as the extract inhibited both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. On kill curve analysis, the antibacterial activity of the seed extract was concentration-dependent, the increase of extract concentration resulted in more reduction of bacterial growth. The extract also caused 99.9% growth reduction of Bacillus subtilis relative to control. A total of 21 compounds were detected in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The predominant compounds present in the extract were oleic acid (18.56%) and linoleic acid (17.72%). In conclusion, the methanolic extract of S. macrophylla seeds exhibited significant antimicrobial activity on clinical wound pathogens. Further investigations should be conducted to purify other bioactive compounds from the seeds of S. macrophylla.

Bacillus subtilis , Bacteria , Bandages , Diffusion , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hospitalization , Linoleic Acid , Meliaceae , Methanol , Methods , Oleic Acid , Silver , Wound Infection , Wounds and Injuries , Yeasts
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761796


Free fatty acid (FFA) intake regulates blood pressure and vascular reactivity but its direct effect on contractility of systemic arteries is not well understood. We investigated the effects of saturated fatty acid (SFA, palmitic acid), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, linoleic acid), and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, oleic acid) on the contractility of isolated mesenteric (MA) and deep femoral arteries (DFA) of Sprague–Dawley rats. Isolated MA and DFA were mounted on a dual wire myograph and phenylephrine (PhE, 1–10 µM) concentration-dependent contraction was obtained with or without FFAs. Incubation with 100 µM of palmitic acid significantly increased PhE-induced contraction in both arteries. In MA, treatment with 100 µM of linoleic acid decreased 1 µM PhE-induced contraction while increasing the response to higher PhE concentrations. In DFA, linoleic acid slightly decreased PhE-induced contraction while 200 µM oleic acid significantly decreased it. In MA, oleic acid reduced contraction at low PhE concentration (1 and 2 µM) while increasing it at 10 µM PhE. Perplexingly, depolarization by 40 mM KCl-induced contraction of MA was commonly enhanced by the three fatty acids. The 40 mM KCl-contraction of DFA was also augmented by linoleic and oleic acids while not affected by palmitic acid. SFA persistently increased alpha-adrenergic contraction of systemic arteries whereas PUFA and MUFA attenuated PhE-induced contraction of skeletal arteries. PUFA and MUFA concentration-dependent dual effects on MA suggest differential mechanisms depending on the types of arteries. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms of the various effects of FFA on systemic arteries.

Animals , Rats , Arteries , Blood Pressure , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Femoral Artery , Linoleic Acid , Mesenteric Arteries , Oleic Acid , Oleic Acids , Palmitic Acid , Phenylephrine , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha , Vasoconstriction
Annals of Dermatology ; : 409-416, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716506


BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is related to a deficiency of delta-6-desaturase, an enzyme responsible for converting linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). Evening primrose oil (EPO) as a source of GLA has been of interest in the management of AD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EPO in Korean patients with AD. METHODS: Fifty mild AD patients with an Eczema Area Severity Index (EASI) score of 10 or less were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. The first group received an oval unmarked capsule containing 450 mg of EPO (40 mg of GLA) per capsule, while placebo capsules identical in appearance and containing 450 mg of soybean oil were given to the other group. Treatment continued for a period of four months. EASI scores, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin hydration were evaluated in all the AD patients at the baseline, and in months 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the study. RESULTS: At the end of month 4, the patients of the EPO group showed a significant improvement in the EASI score (p=0.040), whereas the patients of the placebo group did not. There was a significant difference in the EASI score between the EPO and placebo groups (p=0.010). Although not statistically significant, the TEWL and skin hydration also slightly improved in the EPO patients group. CONCLUSION: We suggest that EPO is a safe and effective medicine for Korean patients with mild AD.

Humans , Capsules , Clinical Study , Dermatitis, Atopic , Eczema , gamma-Linolenic Acid , Linoleic Acid , Linoleoyl-CoA Desaturase , Oenothera biennis , Skin , Soybean Oil , Water
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739621


Studies have reported different changes in the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) total lipids in patients with various types of cancer. It has been indicated that n-3/n-6 ratio plays a key role in the general consequence of skin photocarcinogenesis. However, to our knowledge there was no study examining the unsaturated fatty acid profile in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients. So, we explore the fatty acid composition of RBCs in newly diagnosed BCC patients in a hospital-based case-control study. This study has been conducted on new case BCC patients in Razi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Fatty acid concentration in erythrocyte membranes defined as relative values after extraction, purification and preparation, by gas chromatography.Analysis revealed that heptadecenoic acid (p = 0.010) and oleic acid (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in BCC patients in comparison with control group. Among polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid (LA), and arachidonic acid (AA) were significantly higher in BCC patients (p < 0.001). It has been indicated that n-3 was significantly lower (p = 0.040) and n-6 was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in BCC patients. In addition, total PUFA (p < 0.001) and n-6 PUFAs/n-3 PUFAs (p = 0.002) were significantly higher in BCC patients compared to the control group. Here we indicated that new case BCC patient had significantly higher n-6 PUFA and lower n-3 along with other differences in unsaturated fatty acid in comparison with healthy subjects. Our study provides evidence that lipids are important in BCC development.

Humans , Arachidonic Acid , Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Case-Control Studies , Erythrocyte Membrane , Erythrocytes , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Healthy Volunteers , Iran , Linoleic Acid , Oleic Acid , Skin
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741689


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sageretia thea is traditionally used as a medicinal herb to treat various diseases, including skin disorders, in China and Korea. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of Sageretia thea fruit on melanogenesis and its underlying mechanisms in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The active chemical compounds in anti-melanogenesis were determined in Sageretia thea. MATERIALS/METHODS: Solvent fractions from the crude extract were investigated for anti-melanogenic activities. These activities and the mechanism of anti-melanogenesis in B16F10 cells were examined by determining melanin content and tyrosinase activity, and by performing western blotting. RESULTS: The n-hexane fraction of Sageretia thea fruit (HFSF) exhibited significant anti-melanogenic activity among the various solvent fractions without reducing viability of B16F10 cells. The HFSF suppressed the expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1). The reduction of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression by the HFSF was mediated by the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) signaling pathway, which promotes the reduction of β-catenin. Treatment with the GSK3β inhibitor 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO) restored HFSF-induced inhibition of MITF expression. The HFSF bioactive constituents responsible for anti-melanogenic activity were identified by bioassay-guided fractionation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis as methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that HFSF and its constituents, methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate, could be used as whitening agents in cosmetics and have potential for treating hyperpigmentation disorders in the clinic.

Animals , Mice , alpha-Linolenic Acid , Bleaching Agents , Blotting, Western , Camellia , China , Fruit , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Hyperpigmentation , Korea , Linoleic Acid , Melanins , Melanoma , Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Phosphotransferases , Plants, Medicinal , Skin
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727938


Ethyl linoleate is an unsaturated fatty acid used in many cosmetics for its various attributes, such as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and clinically proven to be an effective anti-acne agent. In this study, we investigated the effect of ethyl linoleate on the melanogenesis and the mechanism underlying its action on melanogenesis in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Our results revealed that ethyl linoleate significantly inhibited melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-induced B16F10 cells, but it did not directly inhibit activity of mushroom tyrosinase. Ethyl linoleate inhibited the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP1) in governing melanin pigment synthesis. We observed that ethyl linoleate inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and reduced the level of β-catenin, suggesting that ethyl linoleate inhibits melanogenesis through Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin signal pathway. Therefore, we propose that ethyl linoleate may be useful as a safe whitening agent in cosmetic and a potential therapeutic agent for reducing skin hyperpigmentation in clinics.

Agaricales , Glycogen Synthase Kinases , Hyperpigmentation , Linoleic Acid , Melanins , Melanoma , Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Phosphorylation , Signal Transduction , Skin
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202902


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated whether Gelidium amansii extract (GAE) ameliorates obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: The mice were maintained on a high-fat diet (HD) for 5 weeks to generate the DIO mouse model. And then mice fed HD plus 0.5% (GAE1), 1% (GAE2) or 2% (GAE3) for 8 weeks. RESULTS: After the experimental period, GAE-supplemented groups were significantly lower than the HD group in body weight gain and liver weight. GAE supplemented groups were significantly lower than the HD group in both epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissue mass. The plasma leptin level was significantly higher in the HD group than in GAE-supplemented groups. The leptin level of HD+GAE3 group was significantly lower than that of the HD+conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) group. In contrast, plasma adiponectin level of the HD group was significantly lower than those of HD+GAE2 and HD+GAE3 groups. The expression levels of adipogenic proteins such as fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α in the GAE supplemented groups were significantly decreased than those in HD group, respectively. In addition, the expression levels of HD+GAE2 and HD+GAE3 groups are significantly decreased compared to those of HD+CLA group. On the contrary, the expression levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase, proteins associated with lipolysis, were significantly increased in the GAE supplemented groups compared to those in the HD group. HD+GAE3 group showed the highest level among the GAE supplemented groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that GAE supplementation stimulated the expressions of lipid metabolic factors and reduced weight gain in HD-fed C57BL/6J obese mice.

Animals , Mice , Adipogenesis , Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue , Body Weight , Carrier Proteins , Diet, High-Fat , Leptin , Linoleic Acid , Lipolysis , Liver , Mice, Obese , Obesity , Peroxisomes , Plasma , Protein Kinases , Sterol Esterase , Transcription Factors , Weight Gain
Vitae (Medellín) ; 23(2): 134-145, 2016. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-988482


Background: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a generic term used to describe a group of geometric and positional isomers of linoleic acid with a conjugated double bond system. CLA-isomers have been widely studied because of their important biological activity and their protective effects against several diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Consequently, these biomolecules have attracted much attention from the dairy industry, since they are naturally found in ruminants' milk, and because the development of CLA-enriched dairy foods can be a good economic opportunity given the growth of the functional foods market, in which the dairy industry plays an important role. Objectives: This work presents a comprehensive review of the following aspects: (i) The synthesis and concentration of the CLA-isomers in milk, and the main strategies employed to increase their content in a natural manner; (ii) The influence of the main technological treatments applied to milk on the concentration of CLA-isomers; and (iii) The effects of milk fermentation on the content of CLA-isomers, and the challenges of this technological process, which has been though as a promissory alternative to naturally increase the content of CLA in fermented dairy products. Methods: Information available in various databases was reviewed. A total of 103 articles were selected on the basis of their relevance and scientific-technical quality. Results: The CLA concentration in cows' milk normally ranges between 2 and 37 mg/g fat, and is mainly affected by the dietary regime offered to the animals. From the total CLA-isomers, rumenic acid represents between 75 and 90%. The technological processes normally applied to milk (thermal processing, high pressure processing, and fermentation) might cause slight changes on the CLA concentration, but the mechanisms causing these changes have not been still established. The increase in CLA concentration by milk fermentation is strain-dependent, because of the different linoleate isomerase activity of the species. . Conclusions: Although several studies have reported increases in the concentration of CLA in milk and fermented milks in a natural manner, they are fairly moderate, and the obtained levels of CLA are significantly lower than those recommended to achieve therapeutic effects

Antecedentes: El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) es un término genérico utilizado para describir el grupo de isómeros geométricos y posicionales del ácido linoleico con un sistema de dobles enlaces conjugados. Los isómeros de CLA han sido ampliamente estudiados debido a su importante actividad biológica y a sus efectos protectores contra varias enfermedades, como la obesidad, arteriosclerosis, enfermedades inflamatorias crónicas y el cáncer. En consecuencia, estas biomoléculas han despertado mucho interés en la industria láctea, dado que están presentes naturalmente en la leche de rumiantes, y porque el desarrollo de productos lácteos enriquecidos con CLA puede representar una oportunidad económica interesante, dado el crecimiento del mercado de alimentos funcionales, en el cual la industria láctea tiene una participación importante. Objetivos: En este trabajo se presenta una revisión detallada de los siguientes aspectos: (i) El origen de los isómeros de CLA en la leche, sus concentraciones promedio y las principales estrategias utilizadas para incrementar su contenido de manera natural; (ii) La influencia de los principales tratamientos tecnológicos aplicados a la leche en la concentración de los isómeros del CLA; y (iii) Los efectos de la fermentación de la leche en el contenido de isómeros de CLA, y los retos de este proceso tecnológico concebido como promisorio para aumentar naturalmente el contenido de CLA en leches y productos lácteos fermentados. Métodos: Se revisó la información disponible en varias bases de datos. Un total de 103 artículos fueron seleccionados con base en su pertinencia y calidad técnico-científica. Resultados: La concentración de CLA en la leche de vaca normalmente oscila entre 2 y 37 mg/g grasa, y es afectada principalmente por la dieta suministrada a los animales. Del total de isómeros de CLA, el ácido ruménico representa entre 75 y 90%. Los procesos tecnológicos aplicados normalmente a la leche (procesado térmico, procesamiento por altas presiones y fermentación) pueden causar ligeras modificaciones en la concentración de CLA, pero los mecanismos que causan estos cambios no han sido aún establecidos. El incremento en la concentración de CLA por fermentación de la leche es dependiente de la cepa, debido a diferencias en la actividad de la linoleato isomerasa de las especias. Conclusiones: Aunque varios estudios han reportado incrementos en la concentración de CLA en leche y leches fermentadas de manera natural, estos son bastante moderados, y los niveles de CLA obtenidos son significativamente menores que los recomendados para alcanzar los efectos terapéuticos.

Humans , Linoleic Acid , Milk , Yogurt , Probiotics , Functional Food
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 339-346, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337410


Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

Acetic Acid , Biofuels , Biomass , Culture Media , Fatty Acids , Hydrolysis , Industrial Microbiology , Lignin , Chemistry , Linoleic Acid , Lipids , Oleic Acid , Rhodotorula , Metabolism