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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): 114-122, abril 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151867

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La obesidad infantil puede causar hiperlipidemia y esteatosis hepática y complicaciones crónicas. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la relación entre el espesor de la grasa subcutánea abdominal (GSA) y la esteatosis hepática, las transaminasas y los lípidos séricos en niños obesos.Población y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo en niños (4-18 años) que acudieron a los consultorios externos. Se evaluaron las asociaciones entre el espesor de la GSA mediante ecografía y la esteatosis hepática, alanina aminotransferasa (ALT), aspartato aminotransferasa (AST) y el perfil lipídico sérico.Resultados. Se identificaron 95 niños con esteatosis hepática; el grado 1 fue el más frecuente (73,6 %, n: 70), seguido del grado 2 (21,1 %) y del 3 (5,3 %). El espesor medio (en mm) de la GSA de línea media y flancos fue 38,48 ± 11,53 y 20,91 ± 8,00 en grado 1; 41,23 ± 10,03 y 19,84 ± 6,75 en grado 2, y 63,12 ± 12,08 y 23,22 ± 5,92 en grado 3, respectivamente. El espesor de la GSA de línea media y flancos se correlacionó positivamente con triglicéridos en grado 3; el espesor de la GSA de línea media se correlacionó con el índice de masa corporal, colesterol total, colesterol LDL y AST (r: 0,9; p: 0,037; r: 0,648; p: 0,001; r: 0,387; p: 0,001; r: 0,406; p: 0,001; r: 0,463; p: 0,001; respectivamente) en grado 1.Conclusión. El espesor de la GSA mediante ecografía puede predecir hiperlipidemia en niños obesos con esteatosis hepática de grado 3 e hipercolesterolemia en grado 1.


Introduction. Childhood obesity can cause hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis at early age and chronic disease complications in adult life. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness (ASFT) and hepatic steatosis, serum lipid and transaminase levels in obese children.Population and methods. A retrospective study was conducted with children (aged 4-18 years) who presented to outpatient clinic due to obesity. Associations between ASFT as assessed by ultrasonography (US) and hepatic steatosis, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and serum lipid profile were evaluated.Results. We identified 95 children, all of which were diagnosed as having hepatic steatosis; the most common type was grade 1 (73.6 %, n: 70), followed by grade 2 (21.1 %) and grade 3 (5.3 %). The mean values of midline and flank ASFT were measured as 38.48 ± 11.53 mm and 20.91 ± 8.00 mm in grade 1; 41.23 ± 10.03 and 19.84 ± 6.75 in grade 2 and 63.12 ± 12.08 and 23.22 ± 5.92 in grade 3 hepatic steatosis, respectively. Midline and flank ASFT correlated positively with triglycerides in grade 3 steatosis, while midline ASFT correlated with body mass index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and AST (r: 0.9; p: 0.037; r: 0.648, p: 0.001; r: 0.387, p: 0.001; r: 0.406, p: 0.001, r: 0.463, p: 0.001; respectively) in grade 1 steatosis.Conclusion. ASFT as assessed by US may be of predictive value for hyperlipidemia in grade 3 and for hypercholesterolemia in grade 1 hepatic steatosis in obese children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Pediatric Obesity , Turkey/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Lipid Metabolism , Fatty Liver/diagnostic imaging , Transaminases
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 61-77, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151421

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é caracterizada pelo aumento excessivo da gordura corporal e está ligada ao estilo de vida, ao meio ambiente e a genética do indivíduo. O equilíbrio entre ingestão e gasto energético é controlado por mecanismos neurais, hormonais, químicos e genéticos. Estudos sugerem que o gene FTO (Fat mass and obesity associated) atua como regulador primário do acúmulo de gordura corporal, quando associado a SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) específicos, predispõe à obesidade. O propósito deste trabalho foi verificar a produção científica, analisar e catalogar os estudos de polimorfismos no gene FTO associados à obesidade e suas comorbidades. A busca por publicações entre 2009 e 2018 foi realizada na base de dados SciELO com a palavra-chave "FTO". Foram encontrados 23 artigos originais dentro dos critérios da pesquisa que correlacionam o FTO à obesidade. O nome do autor principal, país, idioma, ano de publicação, título, objetivo, polimorfismo associado e os resultados dos estudos foram extraídos e organizados para facilitar a tabulação dos dados. Também foram pesquisados os números de citações de cada artigo, utilizando-se a plataforma Google Acadêmico. Embora o Brasil se encontre em primeiro lugar em produção científica para o gene FTO na base de dados prospectada, o número de artigos originais ainda é muito modesto. Assim, os resultados encontrados podem servir de subsídio no delineamento de novas pesquisas sobre os polimorfismos do gene FTO e as causas da obesidade.


Obesity is characterized by the excessive increase in body fat and is correlated to the lifestyle, environment, and also to the genetics of the individual. The balance between energy intake and expenditure is controlled by neural, hormonal, chemical, and genetic mechanisms. Studies suggest that the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated), a gene associated with fat mass, plays a role as a primary regulator of body fat buildup, when associated to specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), causing predisposition to obesity. This paper aimed at reviewing, analyzing, and cataloguing the studies on FTO gene polymorphisms associated with obesity and its comorbidities. The search was carried out in SciELO database, checking articles published between 2009 and 2018 using the keyword "FTO". Twenty-three original articles, matching the research criteria, correlating FTO either positively or negatively with obesity, were found. The main author's name, country, language, year of publication, title, objective, associated polymorphism, and the study results were extracted and organized to facilitate data tabulation. The citation numbers for each article were also searched by using the Google Scholar platform. Although Brazil ranks first in scientific production on the FTO gene in the surveyed database, the number of original articles is still very modest. Therefore, the results found in this paper may be used as a basis for the design of new research on the FTO gene polymorphisms and the causes of obesity.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetics , Obesity/genetics , Satiety Response , Energy Intake/genetics , Body Mass Index , Adipose Tissue , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Nutrigenomics , Fats , Genotype , Life Style , Metabolism/genetics
3.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 178-207, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880961

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies that seriously threaten women's health. In the process of the malignant transformation of breast cancer, metabolic reprogramming and immune evasion represent the two main fascinating characteristics of cancer and facilitate cancer cell proliferation. Breast cancer cells generate energy through increased glucose metabolism. Lipid metabolism contributes to biological signal pathways and forms cell membranes except energy generation. Amino acids act as basic protein units and metabolic regulators in supporting cell growth. For tumor-associated immunity, poor immunogenicity and heightened immunosuppression cause breast cancer cells to evade the host's immune system. For the past few years, the complex mechanisms of metabolic reprogramming and immune evasion are deeply investigated, and the genes involved in these processes are used as clinical therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Here, we review the recent findings related to abnormal metabolism and immune characteristics, regulatory mechanisms, their links, and relevant therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Cell Proliferation , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Energy Metabolism , Female , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Signal Transduction
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879954

ABSTRACT

Cholesterol is an important lipid in the body of mammals and an essential component of membrane structures. Cholesterol homeostasis is critical for the maintenance of cellular and body activities, and is mainly regulated by the balance of cholesterol biosynthesis and the exogenous cholesterol uptake. Aberrantly regulated cholesterol metabolism promotes tumor cell proliferation,survival,invasion and metastasis,and their adaptability into the tumor microenvironment. Therefore,targeting cholesterol biosynthesis and reduction of plasma cholesterol levels and cholesterol esterification will provide new strategies for cancer treatment. This review summarizes the current understanding in cholesterol homeostasis regulation and its function in the occurence and development of cancer,as well as current metabolism-targeted cancer treatments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Cholesterol , Homeostasis , Lipid Metabolism , Neoplasms , Tumor Microenvironment
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879949

ABSTRACT

The gene is frequently mutated and abnormally activated in many cancers,and plays an important role in cancer development. Metabolic reprogramming occurs in malignant tumors,which can be one of the key targets for anti-tumor therapy. gene can regulate lipid metabolism through AKT-mTORC1 single axis or multiple pathways,such as lipid synthesis pathways and degradation pathways. Similarly,lipid metabolism can also modify and activate RAS protein and its downstream signaling pathways. This article overviews the current research progress on the interaction between lipid metabolism and ,to provide insight in therapeutic strategies of lipid metabolism for -driven tumors.


Subject(s)
Genes, ras , Humans , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Signal Transduction , ras Proteins/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 500-512, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878578

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome is a global chronic epidemic. Its pathogenesis is determined by genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic modification is reported to regulate gene expression without altering its nucleotide sequences. In recent years, epigenetic modification is sensitively responded to environmental signals, further affecting the gene expression and signaling transduction. Among these regulators, chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose non fermentable, SWI/SNF) complex subunit Baf60a plays an important role in maintaining energy homeostasis in mammals. In this paper, we described the pathophysiological roles of Baf60a in maintaining the balance of energy metabolism, including lipid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, urea metabolism, as well as their rhythmicity. Therefore, in-depth understanding of Baf60a-orchestrated transcriptional network of energy metabolism will provide potential therapeutic targets and reliable theoretical supports for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Energy Metabolism/genetics , Homeostasis , Lipid Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878541

ABSTRACT

In recent years, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been proved to be involved in the regulation of biological processes at various levels, attracting research interests in life science. LncRNA possesses the unique capability and exert discrete effects on transcription, translation and post-translational modification of the target genes through interacting with DNA, RNA and protein. Current studies have revealed that lncRNA plays an important role in hepatic metabolism via diverse pathways. This review focuses on the function of lncRNA and its relationship with hepatic energy metabolism and the correlated diseases, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and prospects of lncRNA researches.


Subject(s)
Glucose/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Liver/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 263-274, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878255

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise on lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin-resistant (IR) rats and the underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at age of 10 weeks were fed with HFD for 10 weeks to establish IR model. The IR rats were then randomly assigned into 3 groups, including IR control (IR) group, aerobic exercise (AE) group and resistance exercise (RE) group. An additional chow diet sedentary control (CON) group was used as well. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin (FIN), glucagon and lipids, as well as triacylglycerol (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and the protein expression of fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) in skeletal muscles were measured after 8-week exercise interventions. The results showed that the contents of FBG, FIN, and LDL-C were increased by IR compared with CON group, and significantly decreased by aerobic exercise and resistance exercise; while aerobic exercise induced an increase in HDL-C as well. Furthermore, IR exhibited no significant effects on TG content of skeletal muscles, but significantly increased FFA level. Both aerobic and resistance exercise led to a decrease in TG content, and FFA level was increased by aerobic exercise but deceased by resistance exercise. In addition, the protein expression of FAT/CD36, SCD-1 and PPARγ was increased and that of CPT-1 was decreased by IR, while both types of exercise resulted in a decrease in the protein expression of FAT/CD36, SCD-1 and PPARγ, and an increase in CPT-1. In conclusion, aerobic and resistance exercise may attenuate IR through decreasing HFD-induced ectopic fat deposition and increasing β-oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle cells, and resistance exercise shows a greater improvement in lipid metabolism of skeletal muscles than aerobic exercise.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Male , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1064-1069, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Thyroid dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of thyroid function in lipid metabolism remains partly unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the causal association between thyroid function and serum lipid metabolism via a genetic analysis termed Mendelian randomization (MR).@*METHODS@#The MR approach uses a genetic variant as the instrumental variable in epidemiological studies to mimic a randomized controlled trial. A two-sample MR was performed to assess the causal association, using summary statistics from the Atrial Fibrillation Genetics Consortium (n = 537,409) and the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (n = 188,577). The clinical measures of thyroid function include thyrotropin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels, FT3:FT4 ratio and concentration of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb). The serum lipid metabolism traits include total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The MR estimate and MR inverse variance-weighted method were used to assess the association between thyroid function and serum lipid metabolism.@*RESULTS@#The results demonstrated that increased TSH levels were significantly associated with higher TC (β = 0.052, P = 0.002) and LDL (β = 0.041, P = 0.018) levels. In addition, the FT3:FT4 ratio was significantly associated with TC (β = 0.240, P = 0.033) and LDL (β = 0.025, P = 0.027) levels. However, no significant differences were observed between genetically predicted FT4 and TPOAb and serum lipids.@*CONCLUSION@#Taken together, the results of the present study suggest an association between thyroid function and serum lipid metabolism, highlighting the importance of the pituitary-thyroid-cardiac axis in dyslipidemia susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786081

ABSTRACT

The heart faces the challenge of adjusting the rate of fatty acid uptake to match myocardial demand for energy provision at any given moment, avoiding both too low uptake rates, which could elicit an energy deficit, and too high uptake rates, which pose the risk of excess lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity. The transmembrane glycoprotein cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), a scavenger receptor (B2), serves many functions in lipid metabolism and signaling. In the heart, CD36 is the main sarcolemmal lipid transporter involved in the rate-limiting kinetic step in cardiac lipid utilization. The cellular fatty acid uptake rate is determined by the presence of CD36 at the cell surface, which is regulated by subcellular vesicular recycling from endosomes to the sarcolemma. CD36 has been implicated in dysregulated fatty acid and lipid metabolism in pathophysiological conditions, particularly high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Thus, in conditions of chronic lipid overload, high levels of CD36 are moved to the sarcolemma, setting the heart on a route towards increased lipid uptake, excessive lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, and eventually contractile dysfunction. Insight into the subcellular trafficking machinery of CD36 will provide novel targets to treat the lipid-overloaded heart. A screen for CD36-dedicated trafficking proteins found that vacuolar-type H⁺-ATPase and specific vesicle-associated membrane proteins, among others, were uniquely involved in CD36 recycling. Preliminary data suggest that these proteins may offer clues on how to manipulate myocardial lipid uptake, and thus could be promising targets for metabolic intervention therapy to treat the failing heart.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies , Endosomes , Glycoproteins , Heart , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , R-SNARE Proteins , Receptors, Scavenger , Recycling , Sarcolemma
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786078

ABSTRACT

Like other bodily materials, lipids such as plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterols, and free fatty acids are in a dynamic state of constant turnover (i.e., synthesis, breakdown, oxidation, and/or conversion to other compounds) as essential processes for achieving dynamic homeostasis in the body. However, dysregulation of lipid turnover can lead to clinical conditions such as obesity, fatty liver disease, and dyslipidemia. Assessment of “snap-shot” information on lipid metabolism (e.g., tissue contents of lipids, abundance of mRNA and protein and/or signaling molecules) are often used in clinical and research settings, and can help to understand one's health and disease status. However, such “snapshots” do not provide critical information on dynamic nature of lipid metabolism, and therefore may miss “true” origin of the dysregulation implicated in related diseases. In this regard, stable isotope tracer methodology can provide the in vivo kinetic information of lipid metabolism. Combining with “static” information, knowledge of lipid kinetics can enable the acquisition of in depth understanding of lipid metabolism in relation to various health and disease status. This in turn facilitates the development of effective therapeutic approaches (e.g., exercise, nutrition, and/or drugs). In this review we will discuss 1) the importance of obtaining kinetic information for a better understanding of lipid metabolism, 2) basic principles of stable isotope tracer methodologies that enable exploration of “lipid kinetics” in vivo, and 3) quantification of some aspects of lipid kinetics in vivo with numerical examples.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol , Dyslipidemias , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Fatty Liver , Homeostasis , Kinetics , Lipid Metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Obesity , Plasma , RNA, Messenger , Triglycerides
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787142

ABSTRACT

Medium- and long-chain triglyceride (MCT/LCT) propofol is widely used as an intravenous anesthetic, especially in the intensive care unit. The present study aimed to assess whether MCT/LCT propofol is safe in the hyperlipidemic population for long-term use. Free fatty acids (FFAs) were used to establish high-fat stimulation of HepG2 and Huh7 cells. Subsequently, these cells were treated with propofol at the concentration of 0, 4, or 8 µg/ml for 24 and 48 h. The results indicated that the cell viability was notably decreased when the cells were stimulated with 2 mmol/L FFAs and treated with 12 µg/ml MCT/LCT propofol. Accordingly, we chose 2 mmol/L FFAs along with 4 and 8 µg/ml MCT/LCT propofol for the subsequent experiments. Four and 8 µg/ml MCT/LCT propofol inhibited FFA-induced lipid accumulation in the cells and significantly reversed acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) activity. In addition, MCT/LCT propofol not only significantly promoted the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC, but also reversed the FFA-induced decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. In conclusion, MCT/LCT propofol reverses the negative effects caused by FFAs in HepG2 and Huh7 cells, indicating that MCT/LCT propofol might positively regulate lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Cell Survival , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Hepatocytes , Intensive Care Units , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Metabolism , Phosphorylation , Propofol , Triglycerides
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880736

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of an antiviral regimen of protease inhibitors combined with Arbidol (umifenovir) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia patients. The genomic sequence of SARS-CoV-2 is highly homologous to that of SARS-CoV (Zhou et al., 2020). Previously published basic and clinical research on anti-SARS-CoV treatment found that lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) could improve the prognosis of SARS patients (Chan et al., 2003; Chu et al., 2004). Darunavir (DRV) is another protease inhibitor that blocks the binding of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (Omotuyi et al., 2020). The broad-spectrum antiviral drug Arbidol (umifenovir) also shows in vitro anti-SARS-CoV activity (Khamitov et al., 2008).


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , China , Darunavir , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lipid Metabolism , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e9201, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089347

ABSTRACT

Methylophiopogonanone A (MO-A), a homoisoflavonoid extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been shown to attenuate myocardial apoptosis and improve cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the hypolipidemic effects remain unknown. This study was performed to investigate a potential hypolipidemic effect of MO-A in hyperlipidemia rats, as well as its underlying mechanism of action. A rat model of hyperlipidemia was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals were randomly divided into three groups (n=8/group): normal control group (NC), HFD group, and HFD+MO-A (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) treatment group. The effects of MO-A on serum lipids, body weight, activity of lipoprotein metabolism enzyme, and gene expression of lipid metabolism were evaluated in HFD-induced rats. In HFD-induced rats, pretreatment with MO-A decreased the body weight gain and reduced serum and hepatic lipid levels. In addition, pretreatment with MO-A improved the activities of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase in serum and liver, down-regulated mRNA expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and up-regulated mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in the liver. Our results indicated that MO-A showed strong ability to ameliorate the hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced rats. MO-A might be a potential candidate for prevention of overweight and dyslipidemia induced by HFD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ophiopogon/chemistry , Benzodioxoles/pharmacology , Lipid Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Hyperlipidemias/prevention & control , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Benzodioxoles/isolation & purification , Feces/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hyperlipidemias/metabolism , Isoflavones/isolation & purification , Lipids/analysis
15.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180234, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132179

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was performed to assess the proximate and nutrient content of rainbow trout flesh, cultured in the Doi Inthanon Fisheries Research Unit, Chiang Mai Inland Fisheries Research and Development Center, Thailand. 240 fish were randomly distributed across 12 cages with 20 fish cage-1. Sixteen individual fish from each cage were randomly collected at different ages of 10, 12 and 24 months. Body composition, pH, water-holding capacity, shear force, collagen content analysis, sensory, lipid oxidation, and fatty acids profile were evaluated. The results indicated that body composition and carcass length were significantly higher in fish aged 24 months, except for carcass and viscero-somatic index percentages (P ≤ 0.05). Fish at 24 months showed significantly higher pH, moisture, fat, shear force, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total collagen content values than fish at 10 and 12 months (P ≤ 0.05). However, protein percentage, sensory measurement and water-holding capacity were significantly higher in younger fish at 10 and 12 months. The average lipid content and n-6/n-3 ratios were significantly greater in fish at 12 months and in ventral fillets (P ≤ 0.05). However, polyunsaturated fatty acids: saturated fatty acid ratio was higher in fish at 24 months and in dorsal fillets. In conclusion, rainbow trout cultured in sub-tropical, montane conditions can be valuable sources of protein, unsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acids, and docosahexaenoic acids.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Nutritive Value , Thailand , Body Composition , Nutrients , Lipid Metabolism , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Fisheries
16.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 22: 1-9, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141561

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Relacionar a evolução do perfil lipídico, glicêmico e pressórico de prematuro do nascimento aos 2 anos de idade corrigida com a classificação de peso ao nascer e sexo. Metodologia: Estudo longitudinal, amostra inicial de 71 prematuros, destes, 31 completaram o acompanhamento ambulatorial. Avaliados ao nascer, alta, 6 meses e 2 anos de idade corrigida (peso, idade gestacional, perfil lipídico, glicêmico, pressão arterial). Resultados: Glicemia, colesterol total, pressão arterial e triglicerídeos, não foram estatisticamente significantes em relação ao peso ao nascer e ao longo do seguimento. Colesterol total (p=0,18) e glicemia sofreram efeito de interação com o sexo. Pressão arterial acima do esperado aos 2 anos. Crescimento foi uniforme independente do sexo. Conclusão: O perfil lipídico, glicêmico e pressórico dos prematuros ao longo do acompanhamento não foi influenciado pela classificação de peso ao nascer. O sexo influenciou as concentrações de colesterol e a glicemia.


Objective: To relate the evolution of the lipid, glycemic and blood pressure profile of premature infants from birth to 2 years corrected age with the classification of birth weight and sex. Methodology: Longitudinal study, initial sample of 71 premature infants, of which 31 completed outpatient follow-up. Evaluated at birth, discharge, 6 months and 2 years corrected age (weight, gestational age, lipid, glycemic, blood pressure profile). Results: Blood glucose, total cholesterol, blood pressure and triglycerides were not statistically significant in relation to birth weight nor throughout follow-up. Total cholesterol (p=0.18) and blood glucose underwent interaction with sex. Blood pressure was higher than expected at 2 years old. Growth was uniform regardless of sex. Conclusion: The lipid, glycemic and blood pressure profile of premature infants during follow-up was not influenced by the birth weight classification. The cholesterol and blood glucose concentrations were influenced by sex.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Infant, Premature , Continuity of Patient Care , Lipid Metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Neonatal Nursing , Arterial Pressure
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781693

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on liver lipid metabolism in rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and related mechanism.@*METHODS@#A rat model of IUGR was established by food restriction during entire pregnancy, and then the rats were randomly divided into an IUGR group and an EGCG group (n=8 each). The rats in the EGCG group were fed with water containing EGCG from after weaning to 10 weeks. Eight pup rats born from the pregnant maternal rats without food restriction were used as the control group. At the age of 13 weeks, body weight was measured. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected to measure fasting total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), and liver lipids. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and adipose insulin resistance (adipo-IR) were calculated. Pathological sections of the liver were observed and quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of related genes in the liver.@*RESULTS@#At the age of 13 weeks, there was no significant difference in body weight between groups (P=0.067). There were significant differences between groups in FPG, FFA, FINS, HOMA-IR, and adipo-IR (P0.05), while the IUGR group had significantly higher levels of TC and TG in the liver than the EGCG group (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early EGCG intervention can down-regulate the de novo synthesis of fatty acids through the Ampk/Srebf1 signaling pathway and reduce hepatic lipid accumulation in IUGR rats by improving insulin resistance of hepatocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catechin , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Liver , Pregnancy , Rats
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827997

ABSTRACT

The animal model of hyperlipidemia in rats was established to investigate the lipid-lowering effect and mechanism of Danhong Injection on hyperlipidemic rats. SD rats were selected as the research object. The rats in normal group were fed with basic diet, and the rats in other groups were fed with high-fat diet to establish hyperlipidemia model. The successfully modeled rats were randomly divided into model group, Danhong Injection low, medium, high dose(1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mL·kg~(-1)) groups, and simvastatin(2.0 mg·kg~(-1)) group. Danhong Injection groups received intraperitoneal administration, and simvastatin group received intragastrical administration, once a day for 4 weeks. At the first, second, third, and fourth weekends after administration, blood was collected from the orbital vein to detect the levels of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C), and then the atherosclerosis index(AI) was calculated. After 4 weeks of administration, the animals were sacrificed, and their heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and adipose tissue were extracted and weighed respectively to calculate the organ index of each group. The expressions of acyl-coaoxidase 1(Acox1), adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase alpha(AMPK-α), bile salt export pump(BSEP), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma(PPAR-γ), catalase(CAT) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) mRNA in liver tissues were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR; the content of cholesteryl ester transfer protein(CETP) and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase(LCAT) in serum was detected by ELISA. The results showed that as compared with the normal group, the levels of serum TC, TG and LDL-C in the model group were significantly increased, and the level of HDL-C was significantly decreased, indicating that the hyperlipidemia rat model was successfully constructed. As compared with the model group, Danhong Injection could decrease the contents of TC, TG, LDL-C and increase the content of HDL-C in hyperlipidemia rats; reduce the body weight of hyperlipidemia rats, and reduce the liver weight, liver index, fat weight and fat index; it had no significant effect on the main organ indexes such as heart, spleen, lung and kidney; but it could increase the expressions of Acox1, AMPK-α, BSEP, PPAR-γ, CAT and SOD mRNA in liver tissues of rats; it could also reduce the level of CETP and increase the level of LCAT in serum; and the regulatory effect of Danhong Injection groups all showed a dose-dependent effect. It can be concluded that Danhong Injection can regulate the blood lipid contents, reduce the blood lipid levels and alleviate the accumulation of body fat in rats with hyperlipidemia. The mechanism may be related to inhibiting lipid metabolism disorder and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet feeding, and improving the imbalance of lipid transport system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hyperlipidemias , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Liver , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Triglycerides
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 804-816, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878228

ABSTRACT

Disturbance of the energy balance, when the energy intake exceeds its expenditure, is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) functions as a key regulator of energy metabolism and has become a hotspot in current researches. PGC-1α sensitively responds to the environmental stimuli and nutrient signals, and further selectively binds to different transcription factors to regulate various physiological processes, including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and circadian clock. In this review, we described the gene and protein structure of PGC-1α, and reviewed its tissue-specific function in the regulation of energy homeostasis in various mammalian metabolic organs, including liver, skeletal muscle and heart, etc. At the meanwhile, we summarized the application of potential small molecule compounds targeting PGC-1α in the treatment of metabolic diseases. This review will provide theoretical basis and potential drug targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Energy Metabolism , Homeostasis , Lipid Metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
20.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(2): 99-106, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1053037

ABSTRACT

La obesidad infantil representa un factor importante en el desarrollo del síndrome metabólico (SM). En este sentido el factor neurotrófico derivado del cerebro (BDNF: Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor) interviene en el metabolismo energético así como en vías que controlan el peso corporal y desórdenes metabólicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si hay una correlación entre el BDNF con los marcadores que definen al síndrome metabólico en una población infantil de México. Se integraron al estudio 100 niños con un rango de edad de 5-13 años, se estratificaron en tres grupos, normo peso, sobrepeso y obesidad, a los cuales se les determinaron las variables antropométricas, percentil de la tensión arterial sistólica y diastólica, concentraciones séricas de glucosa, triglicéridos, colesterol de alta densidad (HDL) y BDNF. Se aplicó ANOVA y una correlación de Pearson. Los resultados muestran que la prevalencia de SM utilizando los criterios de Cook y Weiss fue del 14%, mientras que por la Federación Internacional de Diabetes (IDF) es del 11%. La circunferencia de cintura, triglicéridos, colesterol HDL, presión arterial sistólica/diastólica y glucosa, mostraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos estudiados (*p<0,001). El BDNF se correlacionó positivamente con la desviación estándar del índice de masa corporal de acuerdo con la edad (DE-IMCE) (p=0,01), el percentil del perímetro de la cintura (p=0,00), la presión arterial sistólica (p=0,01) y las concentraciones plasmáticas de glucosa (p=0,02). Estos datos muestran que existe una correlación entre el BDNF con la DE-IMCE, la circunferencia de la cintura, la presión arterial sistólica y glucosa(AU)


Childhood obesity represents an important factor in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). In this sense, the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in energy metabolism as well as in pathways that control body weight and metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between BDNF with the markers that define the metabolic syndrome in a child population in Mexico. The study included 100 children with an age range of 5-13 years, stratified into three groups, normal weight, overweight and obesity, which were determined anthropometric variables, percentile of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, concentrations serum glucose, triglycerides, high density cholesterol (HDL) and BDNF. ANOVA and Pearson correlation were applied. The results show that the prevalence of MS using the Cook and Weiss criteria was 14%, while for the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) it is 11%. Waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, systolic/diastolic blood pressure and glucose showed significant differences between the groups studied (*p<0.001). The BDNF was positively correlated with the standard deviation of the body mass index according to age (DE-IMCE) (p=0.01), the percentile of the waist circumference (p=0.00), systolic blood pressure (p=0.01) and plasma glucose concentrations (p=0.02). These data show that there is a correlation between BDNF with DE-IMCE, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and glucose(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Body Weights and Measures , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/analysis , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Lipid Metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Anthropometry , Pediatric Obesity , Noncommunicable Diseases
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