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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 61-77, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151421

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é caracterizada pelo aumento excessivo da gordura corporal e está ligada ao estilo de vida, ao meio ambiente e a genética do indivíduo. O equilíbrio entre ingestão e gasto energético é controlado por mecanismos neurais, hormonais, químicos e genéticos. Estudos sugerem que o gene FTO (Fat mass and obesity associated) atua como regulador primário do acúmulo de gordura corporal, quando associado a SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) específicos, predispõe à obesidade. O propósito deste trabalho foi verificar a produção científica, analisar e catalogar os estudos de polimorfismos no gene FTO associados à obesidade e suas comorbidades. A busca por publicações entre 2009 e 2018 foi realizada na base de dados SciELO com a palavra-chave "FTO". Foram encontrados 23 artigos originais dentro dos critérios da pesquisa que correlacionam o FTO à obesidade. O nome do autor principal, país, idioma, ano de publicação, título, objetivo, polimorfismo associado e os resultados dos estudos foram extraídos e organizados para facilitar a tabulação dos dados. Também foram pesquisados os números de citações de cada artigo, utilizando-se a plataforma Google Acadêmico. Embora o Brasil se encontre em primeiro lugar em produção científica para o gene FTO na base de dados prospectada, o número de artigos originais ainda é muito modesto. Assim, os resultados encontrados podem servir de subsídio no delineamento de novas pesquisas sobre os polimorfismos do gene FTO e as causas da obesidade.


Obesity is characterized by the excessive increase in body fat and is correlated to the lifestyle, environment, and also to the genetics of the individual. The balance between energy intake and expenditure is controlled by neural, hormonal, chemical, and genetic mechanisms. Studies suggest that the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated), a gene associated with fat mass, plays a role as a primary regulator of body fat buildup, when associated to specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), causing predisposition to obesity. This paper aimed at reviewing, analyzing, and cataloguing the studies on FTO gene polymorphisms associated with obesity and its comorbidities. The search was carried out in SciELO database, checking articles published between 2009 and 2018 using the keyword "FTO". Twenty-three original articles, matching the research criteria, correlating FTO either positively or negatively with obesity, were found. The main author's name, country, language, year of publication, title, objective, associated polymorphism, and the study results were extracted and organized to facilitate data tabulation. The citation numbers for each article were also searched by using the Google Scholar platform. Although Brazil ranks first in scientific production on the FTO gene in the surveyed database, the number of original articles is still very modest. Therefore, the results found in this paper may be used as a basis for the design of new research on the FTO gene polymorphisms and the causes of obesity.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetics , Obesity/genetics , Satiety Response , Energy Intake/genetics , Body Mass Index , Adipose Tissue , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Nutrigenomics , Fats , Genotype , Life Style , Metabolism/genetics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878541

ABSTRACT

In recent years, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been proved to be involved in the regulation of biological processes at various levels, attracting research interests in life science. LncRNA possesses the unique capability and exert discrete effects on transcription, translation and post-translational modification of the target genes through interacting with DNA, RNA and protein. Current studies have revealed that lncRNA plays an important role in hepatic metabolism via diverse pathways. This review focuses on the function of lncRNA and its relationship with hepatic energy metabolism and the correlated diseases, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and prospects of lncRNA researches.


Subject(s)
Glucose/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Liver/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1064-1069, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Thyroid dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of thyroid function in lipid metabolism remains partly unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the causal association between thyroid function and serum lipid metabolism via a genetic analysis termed Mendelian randomization (MR).@*METHODS@#The MR approach uses a genetic variant as the instrumental variable in epidemiological studies to mimic a randomized controlled trial. A two-sample MR was performed to assess the causal association, using summary statistics from the Atrial Fibrillation Genetics Consortium (n = 537,409) and the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (n = 188,577). The clinical measures of thyroid function include thyrotropin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels, FT3:FT4 ratio and concentration of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb). The serum lipid metabolism traits include total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The MR estimate and MR inverse variance-weighted method were used to assess the association between thyroid function and serum lipid metabolism.@*RESULTS@#The results demonstrated that increased TSH levels were significantly associated with higher TC (β = 0.052, P = 0.002) and LDL (β = 0.041, P = 0.018) levels. In addition, the FT3:FT4 ratio was significantly associated with TC (β = 0.240, P = 0.033) and LDL (β = 0.025, P = 0.027) levels. However, no significant differences were observed between genetically predicted FT4 and TPOAb and serum lipids.@*CONCLUSION@#Taken together, the results of the present study suggest an association between thyroid function and serum lipid metabolism, highlighting the importance of the pituitary-thyroid-cardiac axis in dyslipidemia susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879949

ABSTRACT

The gene is frequently mutated and abnormally activated in many cancers,and plays an important role in cancer development. Metabolic reprogramming occurs in malignant tumors,which can be one of the key targets for anti-tumor therapy. gene can regulate lipid metabolism through AKT-mTORC1 single axis or multiple pathways,such as lipid synthesis pathways and degradation pathways. Similarly,lipid metabolism can also modify and activate RAS protein and its downstream signaling pathways. This article overviews the current research progress on the interaction between lipid metabolism and ,to provide insight in therapeutic strategies of lipid metabolism for -driven tumors.


Subject(s)
Genes, ras , Humans , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Signal Transduction , ras Proteins/metabolism
5.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 107 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-981779

ABSTRACT

Introdução: no contexto das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT), vários estudos associam a presença de determinados polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (SNP) ao risco de desfechos metabólicos, como a obesidade e a dislipidemia. Objetivo: avaliar a presença de SNP associados à adiposidade corporal e ao metabolismo lipídico sobre o índice de massa corporal (IMC), o consumo alimentar, o perfil lipídico e a concentração plasmática de biomarcadores inflamatórios em indivíduos adultos participantes do estudo de base populacional (ISA-Capital). Métodos: 244 indivíduos adultos de ambos os gêneros (idade entre 20-59 anos) participaram do estudo, no qual foram realizadas as avaliações antropométricas e do consumo alimentar por meio do questionário de 24 horas (R24h) e a coleta de sangue para avaliação da concentração de biomarcadores inflamatórios. O índice de qualidade da dieta revisado (IQDR) foi utilizado no estudo. Foi realizada a genotipagem de oito genes e 13 SNP (FTO rs9939609, rs8050136, rs9930506; LDLR rs688, rs5925; APOB rs693, rs1367117, APOA5 rs662799; LIPC rs2070895, rs1800588; FADS1 rs174546; MYRF rs174537 e ELOVL2 rs953413) pelo sistema TaqMan Open Array. A partir dos resultados da genotipagem, foi elaborado um escore de risco genético (ERG). Resultados: foi verificada associação negativa entre o consumo de vegetais totais (P=0,004) e vegetais verdes-escuros e alaranjados e leguminosas (P=0,002) e leite e derivados (P=0,009) com o IMC. O consumo de cereais totais (P=0,029) e de carboidratos totais (P=0,011) mostrou interação negativa para o ERG, enquanto o consumo de carnes, ovos e leguminosas teve interação positiva (P=0,028) ao influenciar o IMC. As concentrações plasmáticas de HDL-c tiveram associação negativa (P=0,026) com o IQDR e associação positiva (P=0,007) com o componente Gord_AA (valor energético proveniente da gordura sólida, álcool e açúcar de adição). Foi encontrada interação significativa entre o consumo de óleos (lipídios insaturados) (P=0,019) e de Gord_AA (P<0,001). Concentrações plasmáticas de HDL-c e de LDL-c são significativamente menores nos carreadores do alelo variante T para os SNP que correspondem às atividades das enzimas dessaturases (FADS1 e MYRF). As concentrações do ácido oleico foram maiores nos indivíduos com genótipo CT/TT no gene da FADS1 e AG/GG no gene da ELOVL2 em relação aos genótipos selvagens. Apenas os carreadores do alelo T tanto em FADS1 quanto em MYRF tiveram concentrações de ácido linoleico e linolênico superiores em relação aos genótipos selvagens. Por outro lado, as concentrações de ácido araquidônico, de ácido docosapentaenoico (DPA), de ácidos graxos saturados e de poli-insaturados totais foram menores nos indivíduos carreadores dos alelos variantes para os três polimorfismos avaliados. O conteúdo de ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA) foi menor nos carreadores do alelo T dos genes FADS1 e MYRF, enquanto o conteúdo de ácido esteárico foi menor apenas nos carreadores do alelo G do gene ELOVL2, sendo que nestes indivíduos as concentrações plasmáticas do conteúdo total de ácidos monoinsaturados foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao genótipo selvagem (AA). Observou-se também que a atividade estimada da enzima estearoil CoA dessaturase (SDC_18) é maior nos genótipos CT/TT da FADS1 e da ELOVL2. Contudo, a estimativa da atividade da enzima delta-5 dessaturase (D5D) foi estatisticamente menor na presença do alelo polimórfico para os três SNP estudados (FADS1 CT/TT; MYRF GT/TT; ELOVL2 AG/GG). Apenas para os carreadores do alelo T da FADS1 (CT/TT), a estimativa da atividade da enzima delta-6 dessaturase (D6D) foi estatisticamente menor em relação ao genótipo selvagem CC. Conclusões: a presença dos SNP estudados na população de São Paulo mostraram associações em relação ao aumento do risco para adiposidade corporal e dislipidemias, podendo também apresentar associações com a qualidade da dieta dos participantes. Nesse sentido, a aplicação do IQDR junto com o ERG pode ser uma ferramenta útil na identificação de associações entre gene-nutriente e o impacto nas doenças metabólicas.


Introduction: excess weight and changes in lipid profile may be associated with environmental factors, such as diet quality, and non-modifiable factors, such as genetic inheritance. In the context of chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), several studies associate the presence of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to the risk of metabolic outcomes, such as obesity and dyslipidemia. Objective: to evaluate the presence of SNP associated with body fat and lipid metabolism on body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, lipid profile and plasma concentration of inflammatory biomarkers in adult individuals participating in the population-based study (ISA-Capital). Methods: 244 adult subjects of both genders (ages 20-59 years) participated in the study, in which the anthropometric traits were evaluated, and food consumption evaluations were performed using the 24- hour questionnaire (R24h) and blood collection for evaluation of concentration of inflammatory biomarkers. The Brazilian healthy eating index revised (BHEIR) was used in the study. Genotyping of eight genes and 13 SNP (FTO rs9939609, rs8050136, rs9930506; LDLR rs688, rs5925; APOB rs693, rs1367117, APOA5 rs662799; LIPC rs2070895, rs1800588; FADS1 rs174546; MYRF rs174537 and ELOVL2 rs953413) were performed by the TaqMan Open Array system. From the results of the genotyping, a genetic risk score (GRS) was elaborated. Results: there was a negative association between the consumption of total vegetables (p = 0.004) and dark green and orange vegetables and legumes (p = 0.002), milk and dairy (p=0.009) with BMI. Total cereal consumption (p = 0.029) and total carbohydrates (p = 0.011) showed negative interaction for GRS (categories 3 to 5), while meat, egg and legume consumption had a positive interaction (p = 0.028) influence BMI. Of the BHEIR components, plasma HDL-c concentrations were negatively associated (p = 0.026) with the BHEIR and positive association (p = 0.007) with the SoFAAS component (energy value from solid fat, alcohol and addition sugar). Significant interaction was observed between the consumption of oils (unsaturated lipids) (p = 0.019) and SoFAAS (p <0.001). About the enzymes associated with biosynthesis of omega 3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids 6, plasma HDL-c and LDL-c plasma concentrations are significantly lower in carriers of the T variant allele for SNP that correspond to the activities of desaturases (FADS1 and MYRF). Oleic acid concentrations were statistically higher in individuals with CT / TT genotypes in the FADS1 and AG / GG gene in the ELOVL2 gene in relation to wild genotypes. In addition, only the T allele carriers in both FADS1 and MYRF had higher concentrations of linoleic and linolenic acid than wild genotypes. The concentrations of arachidonic acid, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), saturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids were lower in the carriers of the variant alleles for the three evaluated polymorphisms. The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content was lower in the T allele carriers of the FADS1 and MYRF genes, while the stearic acid content was lower only in the G allele carriers of the ELOVL2 gene, where in these individuals the plasma concentrations of the total content of monounsaturated acids were significantly higher when compared to the wild-type (AA) genotype. It was also observed that the estimated activity of the stearoyl CoA desaturase enzyme (SDC_18) is higher in the CT / TT genotypes of FADS1 and ELOVL2. However, the estimate of the activity of the enzyme delta-5 desaturase (D5D) was statistically lower in the presence of the polymorphic allele for the three SNP studied (FADS1 CT/ TT; MYRF GT / TT; ELOVL2 AG / GG). Only for the FADS1 (CT / TT) allele carriers, the estimate of the activity of the enzyme delta-6 desaturase (D6D) was statistically lower than the wild-type CC genotype. Conclusions: the presence of SNP studied in the population of São Paulo showed associations in relation to the increased risk for body fatness and dyslipidemia and may also present associations with the quality of the participants' diet. In this sense, the application of BHEIR together with GRS may be a useful tool in the identification of genenutrient associations and the impact on metabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Eating , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Nutrigenomics , Obesity , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Genetics, Population , Inflammation , Metabolism/genetics
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(11): e6389, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888946

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to observe the infection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and its effect on the expression of single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSBP1) and on lipid metabolism in endothelial cells. We screened the differential expression of mRNAs after HCMV infection by suppression subtractive hybridization and the expression levels of SSBP1 mRNA and protein after HCMV infection by real-time PCR and western blot. After verification of successful infection by indirect immunofluorescent staining and RT-PCR, we found a differential expression of lipid metabolism-related genes including LDLR, SCARB, CETP, HMGCR, ApoB and LPL induced by HCMV infection. The expression levels of SSBP1 mRNA and protein after HCMV infection were significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, we found that upregulation of SSBP1 inhibited the expression of atherosclerosis-associated LDLR, SCARB, HMGCR, CETP as well as the accumulation of lipids in the cells. The results showed that the inhibition of SSBP1 by HCMV infection promotes lipid accumulation in the cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytomegalovirus Infections/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/virology , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/virology , Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins/metabolism , Cholesterol/analysis , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics , Receptors, LDL/metabolism , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/metabolism , Time Factors
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(5): e5129, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951677

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on triglyceride deposition and the expression of musclin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in a rat model of insulin resistance. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, weight 160±10 g) were fed a high-fat diet (40% calories from fat) and randomly divided into high-fat control group and swimming intervention group. Rats fed with standard food served as normal control. We found that 8-week swimming intervention significantly decreased body weight (from 516.23±46.27 to 455.43±32.55 g) and visceral fat content (from 39.36±2.50 to 33.02±2.24 g) but increased insulin sensitivity index of the rats fed with a high-fat diet. Moreover, swimming intervention improved serum levels of TG (from 1.40±0.83 to 0.58±0.26 mmol/L) and free fatty acids (from 837.80±164.25 to 556.38±144.77 μEq/L) as well as muscle triglycerides deposition (from 0.55±0.06 to 0.45±0.02 mmol/g) in rats fed a high-fat diet. Compared with rats fed a standard food, musclin expression was significantly elevated, while GLUT4 expression was decreased in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In sharp contrast, swimming intervention significantly reduced the expression of musclin and increased the expression of GLUT4 in the muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, increased musclin expression may be associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and exercise training improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity probably by upregulating GLUT4 and downregulating musclin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Insulin Resistance/genetics , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Muscle Proteins/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Time Factors , Transcription Factors , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Random Allocation , Gene Expression Regulation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Glucose Transporter Type 4/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Muscle Proteins/genetics
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158208

ABSTRACT

A new hallmark of cancer involves acquisition of a lipogenic phenotype which promotes tumorigenesis. Little is known about lipid metabolism in melanomas. Therefore, we used BRB (Biometrics Research Branch) class comparison tool with multivariate analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in human cutaneous melanomas, compared with benign nevi and normal skin derived from the microarray dataset (GDS1375). The methods were validated by identifying known melanoma biomarkers (CITED1, FGFR2, PTPRF, LICAM, SPP1 and PHACTR1) in our results. Eighteen genes regulating metabolism of fatty acids, lipid second messengers and gangliosides were 2-9 fold upregulated in melanomas of GDS-1375. Out of the 18 genes, 13 were confirmed by KEGG pathway analysis and 10 were also significantly upregulated in human melanoma cell lines of NCI-60 Cell Miner database. Results showed that melanomas upregulated PPARGC1A transcription factor and its target genes regulating synthesis of fatty acids (SCD) and complex lipids (FABP3 and ACSL3). Melanoma also upregulated genes which prevented lipotoxicity (CPT2 and ACOT7) and regulated lipid second messengers, such as phosphatidic acid (AGPAT-4, PLD3) and inositol triphosphate (ITPKB, ITPR3). Genes for synthesis of pro-tumorigenic GM3 and GD3 gangliosides (UGCG, HEXA, ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1) were also upregulated in melanoma. Overall, the microarray analysis of GDS-1375 dataset indicated that melanomas can become lipogenic by upregulating genes, leading to increase in fatty acid metabolism, metabolism of specific lipid second messengers, and ganglioside synthesis.


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Disease Progression/analysis , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Genetic Association Studies/methods , Humans , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Microarray Analysis/methods , Microarray Analysis/statistics & numerical data
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139249

ABSTRACT

Background. We used recombinant adeno-associated virus vector of adiponectin (AAV2/1-Acrp30) to study the effects of increased levels of adioponectin (by the administration of rAAV2/1-Acrp30) on arteriosclerosis, glucose and lipid metabolism in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats with arteriosclerosis. Methods. Thirty GK rats with arteriosclerosis were divided into 3 equal groups: control group 1, control group 2 and the rAAV2/1-Acrp30-administered group. Saline, virus vector or rAAV2/1-Acrp30 (1012 ng/ml) vector genomes administered to the rats in the corresponding group by intramuscular injection to the posterior limb by single administration, respectively. After 8 weeks, fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, serum insulin, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were measured in each group, and the ultrastructure of the aorta was seen by light and electron microscopy. Results. Compared with control groups 1 and 2, in the rAAV2/1-Acrp30 group, there was a decrease in urine volume, fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein, and an increase in body weight and high-density lipoprotein (p<0.05), while the level of serum insulin was not changed (p>0.05). Ultrastructure studies of the aorta showed that aortosclerosis in the rAAV2/1-Acrp30-administered group was less, and fewer lipid droplet vacuoles were seen in the vascular endothelial cytoplasm. Also various cell organelles and internal elastic lamina were seen, and there was no formation of lipid droplet and foam cells in the cytoplasm of the media of the smooth muscle. Conclusion. Adiponectin could improve blood glucose and lipid parameters and decrease atherosclerosis in the aorta of GK rats.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Adiponectin/genetics , Animals , Aorta/pathology , Aorta/ultrastructure , Aortic Diseases/metabolism , Aortic Diseases/pathology , Aortic Diseases/therapy , Arteriosclerosis/metabolism , Arteriosclerosis/pathology , Arteriosclerosis/therapy , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Genetic Therapy/methods , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Male , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Recombinant Proteins/genetics
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Plasma lipid profiles and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The knowledge of lipid profile may estimate the potential victims of cardiovascular disease before its initiation and progression and offers the opportunity for primary prevention. The most common ApoE polymorphism has been found to influence plasma lipid concentrations and its correlation with CVD has been extensively investigated in the last decade. METHODS: The ApoE polymorphism and its influence on plasma lipid were investigated in healthy woman workers. The information on confounding factors was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire and ApoE polymorphism was investigated using PCR. RESULTS: The relative frequencies of alleles E2, E3 and E4 for the study population (n=305) were 0.127, 0.750 and 0.121, respectively. ApoE polymorphism was associated with variations in plasma HDL-cholesterol lipid profile. In order to estimate the independent effects of alleles E2 and E4, as compared with E3, on lipid profile, multiple regression was performed after adjustment for confounding variables such as age, BMI, blood pressure, education status, insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, menopause. ApoE2 had a negative association with HDL cholesterol and ApoE4 had a positive association with LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified that the ApoE and CVD risk factors contribute to the lipid profiles, similar to other studies. The analysis including dietary intake and other gene in further studies may help to identify clear effects on lipid profiles as risk factor for CVD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Apolipoproteins E/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cholesterol, HDL/genetics , Female , Genotype , Humans , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Primary Prevention
11.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 53(2): 129-138, Mar. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-513766

ABSTRACT

Body weight excess has an increasingly high prevalence in the world. Obesity is a complex disease of multifactorial origin with a polygenic condition affected by environmental factors. Weight loss is a primary strategy to treat obesity and its morbidities. Weight changes through life depend on the interaction of environmental, behavioral and genetic factors. Interindividual variation of weight loss in response to different types of interventions (behavioral, caloric restriction, exercise, drug or surgery) has been observed. In this article, currently available data on the role of candidate gene polymorphisms in weight loss are reviewed. Even though control of weight loss by genotype was described in twin and family studies, it is premature to recommend use of genotyping in the design of therapeutic diets or drug treatment. Future studies will have to be large in order to assess the effects of multiple polymorphisms, and will have to control factors other than diet.


A prevalência do excesso de peso cresce no mundo todo. De origem multifatorial, a obesidade é uma doença complexa, com condição poligênica afetada por fatores ambientais. A perda de peso é a estratégia primária utilizada para prevenir e tratar a obesidade bem como suas comorbidades. Mudanças de peso durante a vida dependem da interação entre fatores ambientais, comportamentais e genéticos. Observa-se grande variação da perda de peso entre indivíduos em resposta a diferentes modelos de intervenções (comportamentais, restrições da ingesta cálorica, exercícios físicos, drogas antiobesidade ou cirurgias). Este artigo é uma revisão atual da literatura disponível, que busca abordar o papel dos polimorfismos dos genes candidatos à obesidade e sua influência na perda de peso. Apesar da interação do genótipo na perda de peso corporal, descrita nos estudos de gêmeos e familiares, é prematuro recomendar o uso da genotipagem para estratégias de perda de peso. É necessário ampliar as pesquisas sobre os efeitos sinérgicos dos polimorfismos genéticos com coorte maior e associá-los não somente à restrição alimentar mas também às outras intervenções que auxiliam na perda de peso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Weight/genetics , Obesity/therapy , Polymorphism, Genetic , Weight Loss/genetics , Appetite Regulation/genetics , Body Fat Distribution , Diet , Energy Metabolism , Exercise , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Obesity/genetics
12.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 26(2)abr.-jun. 2007. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-486299

ABSTRACT

Se estudió un grupo de variables lipídicas, de madres sanas y de madres con algún factor de riesgo aterogénico y el de sus respectivos recién nacidos de 3 áreas de salud del municipio Centro Habana, en el último semestre. Se estudiaron las variables en suero materno y en suero obtenido de sangre del cordón umbilical en los recién nacidos: colesterol total, colesterol de las LDL, colesterol de las HDL, colesterol de las VLDL, triacilgliceroles e índice colesterol total/colesterol de las HDL. Se comparó el perfil lipídico de las madres con las de sus respectivos recién nacidos; se encontró un coeficiente de correlación significativo (r= 0,524) entre el valor colesterol en las madres sanas y el de los recién nacidos. La mayoría de los hijos de las madres con cifras de colesterol superior a los valores normales presentaron valores por encima de los normales. Los valores de colesterol total de los hijos de madres con algún factor de riesgo resultaron significativamente superiores a los de recién nacidos de madres sanas.


A group of lipidic variables of healthy mothers and of mothers with some atherogenic risk factor and also of their respective newborns were studied in the last six-month period. They belonged to three healthcare areas in Centro Habana municipality. Variables were studied in maternal serum and in serum from the umbilical cord of newborns, that is, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol index. The lipidic profile of mothers was compared to that of their newborns; a significant correlation coefficient was found (r=0,524) between healthy mothers´ cholesterol and that of their newborn children. Most of children of mothers with cholesterol figures exceeding the normal values also had higher cholesterol values. The total cholesterol values in children of mothers with some risk factor turned to be significantly higher than those observed in newborns of healthy mothers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mothers , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Risk Factors , Infant, Newborn/metabolism
13.
J Biosci ; 2006 Dec; 31(5): 565-73
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110620

ABSTRACT

The chicken is an important model organism that bridges the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates and provides a major protein source from meat and eggs throughout the world. Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is one of the main problems faced by the broiler industry nowadays. In order to visualize the mechanisms involved in the gene expression and regulation of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, cDNA microarray containing 9024 cDNA was used to construct gene expression profile and screen differentially expressed genes in adipose tissue between broilers and layers of 10 wk of age. Sixty-seven differentially expressed sequences were screened out, and 42 genes were found when blasted with the GenBank database. These genes are mainly related to lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, transcription and splicing factor, protein synthesis and degradation. The remained 25 sequences had no annotation available in the GenBank database. Furthermore, Northern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were developed to confirm 4 differentially expressed genes screened by cDNA microarray, and it showed great consistency between the microarray data and Northern blot results or semi-quantitative RT-PCR results. The present study will be helpful for clarifying the molecular mechanism of obesity in chickens.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Animals , Blotting, Northern , Chickens/classification , Gene Expression Profiling , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
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