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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(3): 304-308, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038536

ABSTRACT

Abstract The effect of third and second-generation type of beta-blocker on substrate oxidation especially during high-intensity exercises are scarce. The objective of the study is to explore differences of beta-blocker regimens (vasodilating vs. non-vasodilating beta-blockers) for substrate oxidation during in high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) in chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Eighteen CHF males (58.8 ± 9 years), 8 under use of β1 specific beta-blockers+alfa 1-blocker and 10 using β1 non-specific beta-blockers, were randomly assigned to 4 different HIIE, in a cross-over design. The 4 protocols were: 30 seconds (A and B) or 90 seconds (C and D) at 100% peak power output, with passive (A and C) or active recovery (50% of PPO; B and D). Energy expenditure (EE; kcal/min), quantitative carbohydrate (CHO) and lipid oxidation (g/min) and qualitative (%) contribution were calculated. Two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used (p-value ≤ 0.05) to compare CHO and lipid oxidation at rest and at 10min. Total exercise time or EE did not show differences for beta-blocker use. The type of beta-blocker use showed impact in CHO (%) and lipid (g/min and %) for rest and 10 min, but absolute contribution of CHO (g/min) was different just at 10min (Interaction p = 0.029). Higher CHO oxidation was found in vasodilating beta-blockers when comparing to non-vasodilating. According to our pilot data, there is an effect of beta-blocker type on substrate oxidation during HIIE, but no influence on EE or exercise total time in HFrEF patients.


Resumo Os dados sobre efeito do tipo de betabloqueador de terceira e segunda geração na oxidação do substrato, especialmente durante exercícios de alta intensidade, são escassos. O objetivo do estudo é explorar as diferenças de tratamentos com betabloqueadores (betabloqueadores vasodilatadores vs. não-vasodilatadores) na oxidação de substratos durante exercícios intermitentes de alta intensidade (HIIE) na insuficiência cardíaca crônica e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo reduzida (ICFEr). Dezoito pacientes do sexo masculino com ICC (58,8 ± 9 anos), 8 em uso de betabloqueadores β1 específicos + bloqueador α-1 e 10 utilizando betabloqueadores β1 não-específicos, foram aleatoriamente designados para 4 diferentes HIIE, em um desenho cruzado. Os 4 protocolos foram: 30 segundos (A e B) ou 90 segundos (C e D) a 100% da potência de pico de saída (PPO), com recuperação passiva (A e C) ou ativa (50% de PPO; B e D). O gasto energético (GE; kcal/min), a ingestão de carboidratos quantitativos (CHO) e oxidação lipídica (g/min) e qualitativa (%) foram calculados. Anova de dois fatores e teste post-hoc de Bonferroni foram usados (p-valor ≤ 0,05) para comparar a oxidação de CHO e lipídios em repouso e aos 10 minutos. O tempo total de exercício ou GE não mostraram diferenças de acordo com o uso de betabloqueadores. O tipo de betabloqueador mostrou impacto em CHO (%) e lípides (g/min e %) para repouso e aos 10 min, mas a contribuição absoluta de CHO (g/min) foi diferente apenas aos 10 minutos (Interação p = 0,029). Foram encontradas maiores oxidações de CHO com betabloqueadores vasodilatadores quando comparados com os não-vasodilatadores. De acordo com nossos dados piloto, há um efeito do tipo do betabloqueador na oxidação do substrato durante o HIIE, mas nenhuma influência no GE ou no tempo total de exercício nos pacientes com ICFEr.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise/physiology , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Carbohydrate Metabolism/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/metabolism , Cross-Over Studies , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Heart Failure/metabolism
2.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(4): e158360, Dezembro 03, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1048071

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the existence of difference of fat deposition and lipid metabolism in horses with different races and skills that were used for the same kind of sport. 20 Purebred Arabian and 20 Thoroughbred horses trained for flat race were evaluated. The analyses performed were body condition score, weight and blood collected for determination of triglycerides, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids. Ultrasonography of the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer was performed on the Longissimus dorsi muscle between the 17th and 18th rib, the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer on the Gluteus medius muscle using the acetabulum as reference, and the cross section of the same muscle. Race-trained Arabian horses showed greater fat layer deposition in the Gluteus medius and Longissimus dorsei muscles than Thoroughbred horses. These facts indicate that there is a metabolic difference, besides the phenotype, between the races. They also indicate the need to study specific physical conditioning programs for each kind of race.(AU)


Foi investigada a existência de diferença na deposição de gordura e no metabolismo lipídico em cavalos de duas raças distintas, com aptidões diferentes, porém, utilizadas para o mesmo esporte. Foram avaliados 20 cavalos Puro Sangue Árabe e 20 cavalos Puro Sangue Ingleses treinados para corrida. As avaliações foram escore de condição corporal, peso e colheita de sangue para determinação de triglicerídeos, colesterol total e ácidos graxos não esterificados. Foi realizada a ultrassonografia da espessura de camada de gordura subcutânea sobre o músculo Longissimus dorsi entre a 17º e 18º costela, a espessura de camada de gordura subcutânea sobre o músculo glúteo médio utilizando o acetábulo como referência e o corte transversal do mesmo músculo. Os cavalos Árabes de corrida apresentaram maior deposição de gordura na camada subcutânea dos músculos glúteo médio e Longissimus dorsei que os cavalos Puro Sangue Ingleses. Tais fatos indicam uma diferença racial que o treinamento, ainda que semelhante a todos, não foi capaz de igualar.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Triglycerides/analysis , Body Composition/physiology , Horses/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/physiology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 464-471, Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951584

ABSTRACT

Abstract The fish may experience periods of food deprivation or starvation which produce metabolic changes. In this study, adult Rhamdia quelen males were subjected to fasting periods of 1, 7, 14, and 21 days and of refeeding 2, 4, 6, and 12 days. The results demonstrated that liver protein was depleted after 1 day of fasting, but recovered after 6 days of refeeding. After 14 days of fasting, mobilization in the lipids of the muscular tissue took place, and these reserves began to re-establish themselves after 4 days of refeeding. Plasmatic triglycerides increased after 1 day of fasting, and decreased following 2 days of refeeding. The glycerol in the plasma oscillated constantly during the different periods of fasting and refeeding. Changes in the metabolism of both protein and lipids during these periods can be considered as survival strategies used by R. quelen. The difference in the metabolic profile of the tissues, the influence of the period of fasting, and the type of reserves mobilized were all in evidence.


Resumo Os peixes podem sofrer períodos de privação de alimentos ou de fome, que produzem mudanças metabólicas. Neste estudo, jundiás machos adultos foram submetidos a jejum períodos de 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias e realimentação 2, 4, 6, e 12 dias. Os resultados demonstraram que a proteína do fígado foi esgotada depois de um dia de jejum, mas restabeleceu após 6 dias de realimentação. Após 14 dias de jejum, ocorreu a mobilização dos lípidos no tecido muscular sendo que estas reservas começaram a re-estabelecer-se após 4 dias de realimentação. Os triglicérides plasmáticos aumentam após um dia de jejum, e diminuiram após 2 dias de realimentação. O glicerol no plasma oscilou constantemente durante os diferentes períodos de jejum e realimentação. As alterações no metabolismo de proteína e lipídios durante estes períodos podem ser consideradas uma estratégias de sobrevivência utilizada pelo Rhamdia quelen. Sendo que a diferença no perfil metabólico tecidual bem como a influência do período de jejum e o tipo de reserva a ser mobilizada foram observadas neste estudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Catfishes/physiology , Fasting/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Feeding Behavior , Adaptation, Physiological , Fasting/metabolism , Glycogen/metabolism , Lipids/blood , Animal Feed , Muscles
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(4): 507-511, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891425

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Obesity is characterized by an excessive increase in the adipose tissue mass, and is associated with higher incidence of several chronic metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Therefore, its increasing prevalence is a public health concern, and it is important to better understand its etiology to develop new therapeutic strategies. Evidence accumulated over the years indicates that obesity is associated with a marked activation in adipose tissue of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a signaling pathway that controls lipid metabolism, and adipocyte formation and maintenance. Curiously, mTORC1 is also involved in the control of nonshivering thermogenesis and recruitment as well as browning of white adipose tissue. In this review, we explored mTORC1 functions in adipocytes and presented evidence, suggesting that mTORC1 may either increase or reduce adiposity, depending on the conditions and activation levels.


RESUMO A obesidade é caracterizada pelo aumento excessivo da massa de tecido adiposo, estando associada à maior incidência de diversas doenças metabólicas crônicas, como diabetes tipo 2. Sua crescente prevalência é uma questão de saúde pública, e faz-se importante compreender melhor sua etiologia, para desenvolver novas estratégias terapêuticas. As evidências acumuladas por muitos anos indicam que a obesidade está associada à significativa ativação no tecido adiposo do complexo 1 da proteína alvo mecanístico da rapamicina (mTORC1), uma via de sinalização que regula o metabolismo de lipídeos, bem como a formação e manutenção de adipócitos. Curiosamente, mTORC1 também está envolvido no controle da termogênese, independente do tremor muscular, e no recrutamento e browning de tecido adiposo branco. Nesta revisão, exploramos as diferentes funções do mTORC1 em adipócitos e apresentamos evidências que sugerem que o mTORC1 pode aumentar ou reduzir a adiposidade, dependendo das condições e de seu nível de ativação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adiposity/physiology , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/physiology , Obesity/metabolism , Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , Thermogenesis/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism
6.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 54(4): 185-195, dic. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-957988

ABSTRACT

En esta parte de la revisión se describe la relación funcional entre el metabolismo de los lípidos y los hidratos de carbono y su interdependencia, desde el ciclo glucosa-ácido grasos y la hipótesis portal de la insulinorresistencia a los nuevos conocimientos sobre los adipocitos marrones y beiges, con énfasis en el normal funcionamiento de un patrón endocrino cuya disfunción es clave en la fisiopatología de la DMT2 y la obesidad. Se discute la ectopia o el asiento de grasa en el tejido magro por incapacidad del tejido adiposo para seguir acopiando lípidos y la actividad endocrina del adipocito, con la producción de moléculas (adipoquinas) que influyen sobre los mecanismos inductores de insulinorresistencia (leptina, adiponectina, TNF-α, resistina, etc.) y disfunción de la célula beta. Se describen la disminución de la capacidad oxidativa en la cadena respiratoria mitocondrial y el renacer del concepto de lipogénesis de novo, ambas favoreciendo el acopie de lípido intracelular. En tejidos magros existen pequeñas reservas intracelulares de lípidos que mantienen la regulación de funciones esenciales, aunque si aparece una sobrecarga lipídica el fenómeno conduciría a una disfunción (lipotoxicidad) y a la muerte celular (lipoapoptosis). La tormentosa relación entre los lípidos y el islote de Langerhans va más allá del esfuerzo funcional que impone la insulinorresistencia periférica sobre la célula β, por efectos directos de los lípidos o de sus derivados sobre la función del islote pancreático. Sin déficit de insulina no se desarrolla diabetes.


In this part of the review, the functional relationship between lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms and their interdependence is described, from the glucose-fatty acid cycle and the portal hypothesis of insulin resistance to the new knowledge on brown and beige adipocytes, with emphasis on the normal functioning of an endocrine pattern in which its dysfunction is a key factor in the pathophysiology of T2DM and obesity. Ectopic fat deposition in lean tissues due to the inability of the adipose tissue to continuously collect lipids and the endocrine activity of adipocytes is discussed. The production of molecules (adipokines) influencing some of the mechanisms involved in the development of insulin resistance (leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, resistin, etc.) and beta cell dysfunction is also revisited. The decrease in the oxidative capacity in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the rebirth of the concept of de novo lipogenesis are described, both effects favouring intracellular lipid accumulation. In lean tissues there are small intracellular lipid reserves that help to maintain the regulation of essential functions; however, when a lipid overload occurs the phenomenon could lead to severe cell dysfunction (lipotoxicity), and death (lipo-apoptosis). The stormy relationship between lipids and the Langerhans' islets goes beyond the functional effort imposed by peripheral insulin-resistance on the β cells, either by the direct effect of lipids or by their derivatives on overall pancreatic islet function. Within a scenario of no insulin deficit, diabetes does not develop.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Adipogenesis , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Adipokines/metabolism
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(11): e6389, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888946

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to observe the infection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and its effect on the expression of single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSBP1) and on lipid metabolism in endothelial cells. We screened the differential expression of mRNAs after HCMV infection by suppression subtractive hybridization and the expression levels of SSBP1 mRNA and protein after HCMV infection by real-time PCR and western blot. After verification of successful infection by indirect immunofluorescent staining and RT-PCR, we found a differential expression of lipid metabolism-related genes including LDLR, SCARB, CETP, HMGCR, ApoB and LPL induced by HCMV infection. The expression levels of SSBP1 mRNA and protein after HCMV infection were significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, we found that upregulation of SSBP1 inhibited the expression of atherosclerosis-associated LDLR, SCARB, HMGCR, CETP as well as the accumulation of lipids in the cells. The results showed that the inhibition of SSBP1 by HCMV infection promotes lipid accumulation in the cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytomegalovirus Infections/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/virology , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/virology , Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins/metabolism , Cholesterol/analysis , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics , Receptors, LDL/metabolism , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/metabolism , Time Factors
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(2): 265-270, mar.-abr. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-779777

ABSTRACT

Suplementação com óleos vegetais tem sido usada frequentemente na dieta de equinos atletas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o metabolismo lipídico em testes de longa duração em equinos suplementados com óleo de soja ou óleo de arroz. Doze equinos da raça Árabe, não treinados, foram distribuídos em dois grupos, e cada grupo foi suplementado com óleo de soja ou de arroz por um período de seis semanas. Antes e após esse período, esses animais foram submetidos a um teste de longa duração (TLD) em esteira, quando foram coletadas amostras de sangue antes, durante e após o exercício. No TLD houve aumento nos valores séricos de ácidos graxos livres (AGL) e redução nos valores de triglicérides nos animais após suplementação nos dois grupos (P<0,05). Em ambos os grupos não houve alterações significativas nos valores de HDL no TLD após a suplementação. Nos animais após suplementação com óleo houve aumento da disponibilidade de energia no exercício de longa duração por meio do aumento de AGL e da manutenção dos níveis de lactato. As alterações no metabolismo lipídico causadas pela suplementação com óleo vegetal podem favorecer o desempenho desses animais em testes de longa duração.


Vegetable oil supplementation has often been used in high performance horse feeding. The aim of the current study is to evaluate lipidic metabolism during the low intensity tests in fat-supplemented horses. Twelve untrained Arabian horses were divided into two groups, in which each group was supplemented with soybean oil or rice bran oil for a period of six weeks. Before and after this period they were submitted to low intensity test (TLD) on a high-speed treadmill, and blood samples were taken before, during and after exercise. In TLD there was an increase in serum free fat acids (AGL) levels and decrease in serum triacylglycerol levels in fat-supplemented horses in both groups (P<0,05). No significant difference was observed in HDL values in TLD after supplementation. There was an increase in energy availability during low intensity exercise by increasing AGL and the maintenance of the lactate levels in fat-supplemented horses. Changes in the lipidic metabolism provided by vegetable oil supplementation are favorable for performance during TLD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Horses/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Plant Oils/analysis , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Biomarkers , Diet/veterinary , Fatty Acids , Substrates for Biological Treatment
9.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 31(3): 424-427, 2016. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-2315

ABSTRACT

Paciente do sexo feminino, saudável, meia-idade e com história prolongada de massas com crescimento lento localizadas bilateralmente e simetricamente nos membros superiores e inferiores, próximas às principais articulações. Exames de imagem e patológicos após excisão das massas revelaram massas constituídas por gordura subcutânea normal. Não houve evidências de lipomas bem-circunscritos. Na revisão de literatura, destacaram-se diversos distúrbios lipo-hipertróficos, com possível apresentação simétrica. As características das afecções encontradas não eram, porém, totalmente concordantes com as características de nossa paciente. Embora não de modo absoluto, a doença que mais estreitamente se assemelhou ao caso foi lipodistrofia simétrica rara, conhecida como doença de Madelung. Dos 150 casos relatados, em apenas 3 foi descrito comprometimento dos membros inferiores, como ocorreu em nosso caso. Este relato apresenta descrição detalhada do caso, seu manejo e seguimento no pós-operatório. Os tipos distintos de lipodistrofias simétricas também são discutidos.


A middle-aged healthy woman who presented with longstanding history of slow growing masses located bilaterally and symmetrically on the upper and lower extremities closed to major joints. Imaging and pathology tests following excision of masses revealed normal subcutaneous fat. There was no evidence of well-circumscribed lipomas. A review of the literature identified a number of lipohypertrophic disorders, which may be present in a symmetrical fashion. The characteristics of the disorders, however, did not fully agree with characteristics observed in our patient. Although not absolute, the closest disease found to fit our case is a rare symmetrical lipodystrophy known as Madelung's disease. Of 150 reported cases, only 3 described involvement of lower extremities as seen in our case. We report a detailed description of a case, its management and post-operative follow-up. Different types of symmetrical lipodytrophies are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , History, 21st Century , Surgery, Plastic , Lipomatosis, Multiple Symmetrical , Diagnostic Imaging , Review Literature as Topic , Adipose Tissue , Lower Extremity , Subcutaneous Fat , Lipid Metabolism , Lipodystrophy , Lipoma , Lipomatosis , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Lipomatosis, Multiple Symmetrical/surgery , Lipomatosis, Multiple Symmetrical/pathology , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Adipose Tissue/physiology , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Lower Extremity/surgery , Lower Extremity/pathology , Subcutaneous Fat/surgery , Subcutaneous Fat/growth & development , Subcutaneous Fat/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Lipodystrophy/surgery , Lipoma/surgery , Lipoma/pathology , Lipomatosis/surgery , Lipomatosis/pathology
10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(5): 458-468, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766255

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: several studies have evaluated the utilization of lipid biomarkers in an attempt to correlate them with clinical cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the investigation of clinical conditions under specific plasmatic levels of lipoproteins for long periods presents limitations due to inherent difficulties that are related to the follow-up of individuals throughout their lives. Better understanding of the clinical response and occasional resistance to the action of hypolipidemic drugs in several clinic scenarios is also necessary. Objectives: to determine the role of evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the metabolism of lipids, and its implications in different clinical scenarios. Methods: a search of the literature in English and Spanish languages was performed in Medline, Lilacs via Bireme, IBECS via Bireme, and Cochrane databases. The expected results included information regarding plasmatic lipid profile and SNPs, cardiovascular clinical outcomes and polymorphisms related to the effectiveness of statins in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Results: in order to perform this analysis, 19 studies were included from a total of 89 identified citations. The evaluation of the results suggests that low plasmatic levels of LDL-c are associated with a reduction in the risk of heart attacks, although this was not observed for the rise of plasmatic levels of HDL-c. Conclusion: polymorphisms in different populations and clinical perspectives may bring important contributions for a better understanding and adequacy of plasmatic lipoproteins aiming at reducing cardiovascular risk.


Resumo Introdução: muitos estudos tem avaliado a utilização de biomarcadores lipídicos na tentativa de correlacioná-los com eventos clínicos cardiovasculares. Contudo, a investigação de condições clínicas sob níveis plasmáticos específicos de lipoproteínas por longos períodos, apresenta limitações devido às dificuldades inerentes relacionadas ao acompanhamento de indivíduos ao longo de suas vidas. Adicionalmente, há a necessidade de melhor compreensão da resposta clínica e eventual resistência da ação de drogas hipolipemiantes em diversos cenários clínicos. Objetivos: determinar o papel da avaliação de polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (SNPs) relacionadas com o metabolismo lipídico e suas implicações em diferentes cenários clínicos. Métodos: foi realizada uma pesquisa na literatura de língua inglesa e espanhola nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacas via Bireme, IBECS via Bireme e Cochrane. Os resultados esperados incluíam informações sobre o perfil lipídico plasmático e SNPs, desfechos clínicos cardiovasculares e polimorfismos relacionadas à efetividade de estatinas quanto ao tratamento da hipercolesterolemia. Resultados: para esta análise foram incluídos 19 estudos de um total de 89 citações identificadas. Os dados resultantes e avaliados sugerem que baixos níveis plasmáticos de LDL-c estão associados com redução do risco de infarto do miocárdio o que não foi observado para o aumento nos níveis plasmáticos de HDL-c. Conclusão: os polimorfismos em diferentes populações e perspectivas clínicas podem trazer importantes contribuições para a melhor compreensão e adequação de metas de lipoproteínas plasmáticas que visem a redução de risco cardiovascular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Dyslipidemias/blood , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/drug effects , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/drug effects
11.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Dec ; 51(6): 506-511
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156530

ABSTRACT

N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) is an essential eukaryotic enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of the myristoyl group to the terminal glycine residue of a number of proteins including those involved in signal transduction and apoptotic pathways. In higher eukaryotes, two isoforms of NMT have been identified (NMT1 and NMT2) which share about 76% amino acid sequence identity in humans. Protein-protein interactions of NMTs reveal that m-calpain interacts with NMT1 whereas caspase-3 interacts with NMT2. These findings reveal differential interactions of both isoforms of NMT with various signaling molecules. This minireview provides an overview of the regulation of N-myristoyltransferase by calpain and caspase systems.


Subject(s)
Acyltransferases/metabolism , Animals , Calpain/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/physiology , Humans , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Models, Biological , Signal Transduction/physiology
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Oct; 51(5): 365-371
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154265

ABSTRACT

Caloric restriction, defined as a reduction in calorie intake below ad libitum, without malnutrition can have beneficial effects. In this study, we evaluated the impact of caloric restriction of 30 and 60% on calorimetric parameters and oxidative stress in cardiac tissue in rats. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 8): G1 = control; G2 = rats exposed to dietary restriction of 30%; and G3 = rats exposed to dietary restriction of 60%. Energy restriction decreased final body weight, oxidation of carbohydrates and lipid, oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), resting metabolic rate (RMR), but elevated respiratory quotient (RQ). G3 animals also displayed an imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant system, as revealed by the decrease in the lipid hydroperoxide (LH) level and GSH-Px activity in heart tissue. In conclusion, dietary restriction decreased oxidative metabolism, as seen by the colorimetric profiles and controlled oxidative stress in cardiac tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight/physiology , Caloric Restriction/methods , Calorimetry, Indirect , Energy Intake/physiology , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Male , Myocardium/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Rats , Rats, Wistar
13.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-11, 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver regeneration (LR) after 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) is one of the most studied models of cell, organ, and tissue regeneration. Although the transcriptional profile analysis of regenerating liver has been carried out by many reserachers, the dynamic protein expression profile during LR has been rarely reported up to date. Therefore, this study aims to detect the global proteomic profile of the regenerating rat liver following 2/3 hepatectomy, thereby gaining some insights into hepatic regeneration mechanism. RESULTS: Protein samples extracted from the sham-operated and the regenerating rat livers at 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 168 h after PH were separated by IEF/SDS-PAGE and then analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Compared to sham-operated groups, there were totally 220 differentially expressed proteins (including 156 up-regulated, 62 down-regulated, and 2 up/down-regulated ones) identified in the regenerating rat livers, and most of them have not been previously related to liver regeneration. According to the expression pattern analysis combined with gene functional analysis, it showed that lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were enhanced at the early phase of LR and continue throughout the regeneration process. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that YWHAE protein (one of members of the 14-3-3 protein family) was located at the center of pathway networks at all the timepoints after 2/3 hepatectomy under our experimental conditions, maybe suggesting a central role of this protein in regulating liver regeneration. Additionally, we also revealed the role of Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42) in the termination of LR. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, our proteomic analysis suggested an important role of YWHAE and pathway mediated by this protein in liver regeneration, which might be helpful in expanding our understanding of LR amd unraveling the mechanisms of LR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Proteomics , Hepatectomy , Liver/metabolism , Liver Regeneration/physiology , Time Factors , Protein Biosynthesis/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Signal Transduction/physiology , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/methods , cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein/metabolism , 14-3-3 Proteins/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Carbohydrate Metabolism/physiology , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Liver/anatomy & histology
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(7): 836-844, 1jan. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696009

ABSTRACT

Lipophorin (Lp) is the main haemolymphatic lipoprotein in insects and transports lipids between different organs. In adult females, lipophorin delivers lipids to growing oocytes. In this study, the interaction of this lipoprotein with the ovaries of Rhodnius prolixus was characterised using an oocyte membrane preparation and purified radiolabelled Lp (125I-Lp). Lp-specific binding to the oocyte membrane reached equilibrium after 40-60 min and when 125I-Lp was incubated with increasing amounts of membrane protein, corresponding increases in Lp binding were observed. The specific binding of Lp to the membrane preparation was a saturable process, with a Kdof 7.1 ± 0.9 x 10-8M and a maximal binding capacity of 430 ± 40 ng 125I-Lp/µg of membrane protein. The binding was calcium independent and pH sensitive, reaching its maximum at pH 5.2-5.7. Suramin inhibited the binding interaction between Lp and the oocyte membranes, which was completely abolished at 0.5 mM suramin. The oocyte membrane preparation from R. prolixus also showed binding to Lp from Manduca sexta. When Lp was fluorescently labelled and injected into vitellogenic females, the level of Lp-oocyte binding was much higher in females that were fed whole blood than in those fed blood plasma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Lipoproteins/physiology , Oocytes/physiology , Rhodnius/physiology , Blood , Feeding Behavior , Lipoproteins/metabolism , Oocytes/metabolism , Plasma , Rhodnius/metabolism
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(4): 494-500, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678285

ABSTRACT

In this study, we describe the fate of fatty acids that are incorporated from the lumen by the posterior midgut epithelium of Rhodnius prolixus and the biosynthesis of lipids. We also demonstrate that neutral lipids (NL) are transferred to the haemolymphatic lipophorin (Lp) and that phospholipids remain in the tissue in which they are organised into perimicrovillar membranes (PMMs). 3H-palmitic acid added at the luminal side of isolated midguts of R. prolixus females was readily absorbed and was used to synthesise phospholipids (80%) and NL (20%). The highest incorporation of 3H-palmitic acid was on the first day after a blood meal. The amounts of diacylglycerol (DG) and triacylglycerol synthesised by the tissue decreased in the presence of Lp in the incubation medium. The metabolic fates of 3H-lipids synthesised by the posterior midgut were followed and it was observed that DG was the major lipid released to Lp particles. However, the majority of phospholipids were not transferred to Lp, but remained in the tissue. The phospholipids that were synthesised and accumulated in the posterior midgut were found to be associated with Rhodnius luminal contents as structural components of PMMs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Digestive System/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Phospholipids/metabolism , Rhodnius/metabolism , Membrane Lipids/metabolism , Rhodnius/physiology
16.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 27(3): 387-391, jul.-set. 2012. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-668137

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: O início do tratamento da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS) com a terapia antirretroviral de alta atividade (HAART), na década de 1990, aumentou, consideravelmente, a longevidade e a qualidade de vida dos portadores da doença. A redução da morbidade e da mortalidade associadas a doenças infecciosas e neoplásicas oportunistas, porém, tem sido acompanhada pelo aumento da prevalência de outras doenças, entre elas a lipodistrofia associada ao vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). A lipodistrofia decorre da toxicidade de drogas utilizadas na terapia antirretroviral, sendo atribuída aos inibidores de protease e aos inibidores da transcriptase reversa análogos do nucleosídeo. Este trabalho aborda a lipoatrofia facial, que confere um aspecto de envelhecimento precoce e traz de volta o velho estigma da "facies da AIDS", podendo impactar negativamente na qualidade de vida dos portadores de HIV. MÉTODO: Neste estudo foram incluídos 41 pacientes apresentando lipoatrofia facial, que foram submetidos a preenchimento com polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA) no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (HU-UFJF) e na clínica Plastic Center, Clínica de Cirurgia Plástica em Juiz de Fora, no período entre janeiro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2012. RESULTADOS: O número de procedimentos realizados em cada paciente variou de 1 a 4, sendo respeitado um intervalo mínimo de 90 dias entre eles. A quantidade de PMMA utilizado variou de acordo com o grau e a região a serem corrigidos, ficando entre 3 ml e 18 ml por procedimento. Em todos os pacientes, o resultado obtido foi favorável esteticamente. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos pela bioplastia com PMMA foram considerados satisfatórios pelos pacientes. O material utilizado possui alta adaptabilidade às áreas receptoras, necessitando apenas da modelagem e da quantidade adequada para que apresente bom padrão estético.


BACKGROUND: When the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) began in the 1990s, it considerably increased the life expectancy and quality of life of AIDS patients. However, the decrease in morbidity and mortality associated with opportunistic infectious and neoplastic diseases was accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of other diseases, including HIV-associated lipodystrophy. Lipodystrophy is due to the toxicity of drugs used in antiretroviral therapy, including protease inhibitors and nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors. This article discusses the treatment of facial lipodystrophy, which confers an appearance of premature aging and brings back the old stigma of the "AIDS face," which negatively impacts the quality of life of HIV carriers. METHODS: Forty-one patients with facial lipoatrophy received filling with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) at the Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (HU-UFJF) and at the Plastic Center Clinic, Plastic Surgery Clinic in Juiz de Fora between January 2010 and February 2012. RESULTS: Patients received 1 to 4 procedures with a minimum interval of 90 days between procedures. The amount of PMMA used ranged from 3 to 18 mL per procedure according to the degree and region to be corrected. The results were aesthetically favorable in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained through bioplasty with PMMA are considered satisfactory by patients. The material used is highly adaptable to the receiving areas, requiring only modeling and an adequate amount in order to obtain good aesthetic results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , History, 21st Century , Surgery, Plastic , Aging , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Polymethyl Methacrylate , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Lipid Metabolism , Face , Lipodystrophy , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Aging/drug effects , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , Polymethyl Methacrylate/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/surgery , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/therapy , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Face/surgery , Lipodystrophy/surgery , Lipodystrophy/drug therapy
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(10): 966-972, Oct. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-600687

ABSTRACT

Dietary fat composition can interfere in the development of obesity due to the specific roles of some fatty acids that have different metabolic activities, which can alter both fat oxidation and deposition rates, resulting in changes in body weight and/or composition. High-fat diets in general are associated with hyperphagia, but the type of dietary fat seems to be more important since saturated fats are linked to a positive fat balance and omental adipose tissue accumulation when compared to other types of fat, while polyunsaturated fats, omega-3 and omega-6, seem to increase energy expenditure and decrease energy intake by specific mechanisms involving hormone-sensitive lipase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and others. Saturated fat intake can also impair insulin sensitivity compared to omega-3 fat, which has the opposite effect due to alterations in cell membranes. Obesity is also associated with impaired mitochondrial function. Fat excess favors the production of malonyl-CoA, which reduces GLUT4 efficiency. The tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation are temporarily uncoupled, forming metabolite byproducts that augment reactive oxygen species production. Exercise can restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity, which may be crucial for a better prognosis in treating or preventing obesity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Body Composition/physiology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Exercise/physiology , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Obesity/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/physiology , Energy Intake/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Obesity/etiology
19.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 22(2): 78-90, Mayo.-ago. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-628229

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la relación obesidad-resistencia insulínica-diabetes mellitus-hipertensión arterial adquiere cada día mayor importancia, por el papel cada vez más relevante de la obesidad en el desarrollo de cada una de ellas. Los obesos constituyen alrededor de 20 a 30 por ciento de la población cubana, y esta enfermedad o condición patológica cada día se torna un problema más importante. Objetivo: estudiar la relación entre el grado de obesidad y la resistencia a la insulina en sujetos obesos, así como posibles cambios en el metabolismo lipídico y de compuestos nitrogenados.Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional con individuos adultos obesos de ambos sexos entre 18 y 60 años de edad, atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología en el período comprendido entre 2006 y 2008. También fueron incluidos sujetos aparentemente sanos, normopesos, seleccionados en instituciones de salud de la atención primaria del municipio Plaza. Todos los sujetos (N=214) fueron clasificados en 4 grupos: normopesos (IMC entre 18,5 y 24,9), preobesos I (IMC entre 25 y 29,9), obeso grado II (IMC de 30 a 34,9), obeso grado III (IMC de 35 a 39,9). Además del examen clínico y mediciones antropométricas se tomó una muestra de sangre en ayunas para determinar en el suero los analitos siguientes: glucemia, insulina, colesterol total, triglicéridos, creatinina y ácido úrico. Se calculó además la resistencia a la insulina a partir de la glucemia y la cifra de insulinemia según el índice HOMA. Resultados: se observó una asociación significativa entre la circunferencia abdominal y el índice de masa corporal con el valor del índice resistencia a la insulina. Además, esta mostró una correlación significativa (p< 0,05) con la cifra de ácido úrico en plasma. Se observó que a medida que fue mayor el índice de masa corporal también se observaron incrementos importantes en los valores medios en plasma de glucosa, insulina, triglicéridos, colesterol total, creatinina y ácido úrico. Conclusión: a medida que progresa la obesidad tienen lugar importantes cambios metabólicos en el metabolismo glucídico, lipídico y también de algunos compuestos nitrogenados como la creatinina y el ácido úrico(AU)


Introduction: the relation obesity-insulin resistance-diabetes mellitus-high blood pressure is more and more significant due to the more relevant role of obesity in the development of each of them. The obese persons are about the 20 to 30 percent of Cuban population and this disease or pathologic condition every day is a more important health problem. Objective: an observational study was conducted in obese adult subjects of both sexes aged between 18 and 60, seen in the National Institute of Endocrinology from 2006 to 2008. In present study also were included those subjects apparently healthy, with a normal height, selected from health institutions of primary care of Plaza municipality. All subjects (N= 214) were classified in 4 groups: body mass index (BMI) between 18,5 and 24,9), pre-obese I (BMI between 25 and 29,9), obese grade II (BMI from 30 to 34,9), obese grade III (BMI between 35 and 39,9). As well as the clinical examination and anthropometric measurements, a fasting blood sample was taught to determine the following serum analytes: glycemia, insulin, to total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and uric acid. Also, the insulin resistance was measured from glycemia and the insulinemia figure according HOMA index. Results: there was a significant association between abdominal circumference and the body mass index with the insulin resistance rate. Also, this showed a significant correlation (p< 0,05) with the uric acid figure in plasma. It was noted the as the body mass index was greater there were significant increases mean values in glucose plasma, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, creatinine and uric acid. Conclusion: according to a progression in obesity there are significant metabolic changes in glucidic and lipid metabolism and also in some nitrogenous compounds like the creatinine and uric acid(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Observational Study
20.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2011. 68 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-617850

ABSTRACT

O sobrepeso induzido por uma dieta rica em gordura atrasa a cicatrização através do prolongamento da fase inflamatória, entretanto, quando recebem uma dieta obesogênica, alguns ratos são suscetíveis a desenvolver sobrepeso, enquanto outros são resistentes. Drogas anti-inflamatórias não-esteróides são frequentemente utilizadas para reduzir a inflamação. Este estudo investigou a cicatrização cutânea em ratos propensos a obesidade induzida por dieta (DIO) e em ratos resistentes a dieta (DR) e avaliou a participação da administração do celecoxibe na cicatrização cutânea destes animais. Ratos machos foram alimentados com uma dieta padrão (Controle, C) ou com uma dieta rica em gordura saturada (30%). Após 19 semanas, o grupo experimental foi subdividido nos grupos DIO e DR. Uma lesão excisional foi feita e os animais foram mortos 7 ou 14 dias depois. Os grupos tratados receberam uma dose diária de 5 ou 10 mg/kg/dia de celecoxibe a partir de dois dias antes da lesão até 7 dias após a lesão, quando foram mortos. O peso corporal foi maior no grupo DIO comparado aos grupos C e DR. A gordura retroperitoneal foi maior no grupo DIO do que nos grupos C e DR e foi maior no grupo DR do que no grupo C. O tratamento com o celecoxibe não alterou o maior peso corporal apresentado pelo grupo DIO ou a maior porcentagem de gordura retroperitoneal apresentada pelos grupos DIO e DR. Todos os grupos tratados com celecoxibe 10 mg apresentaram atraso na cicatrização e não foram mais analisados. O grupo DIO apresentou intolerância a glicose, e ambos os grupos DIO e DR apresentaram atraso na contração e na reepitelização da lesão. O tratamento com celecoxibe 5 mg reverteu a intolerância a glicose no grupo DIO e a contração atrasada nos grupos DIO e DR. Comparado ao grupo DR, o grupo DIO apresentou maior quantidade de células inflamatórias, assim como maiores níveis de peroxidação lipídica. O tratamento com celecoxib (5 mg) não reduziu o número de PMN, mas reduziu o número de mastócitos...


Overweight induced by high-fat diet delays wound healing through elongation of inflammatory phase, however, when receiving on obesogenic diet, some rats are susceptible to developing the overweight phenotype, whereas others are resistant. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are frequently used to reduce the inflammation. This study investigated cutaneous wound healing in diet-induced obesity (DIO)-prone and diet-resistant (DR) rats and evaluated the contribution of celecoxib administration on cutaneous wound healing of these animals. Male rats were fed with a standard (Control, C) or high-saturated fat (30%) diet. After 19 weeks, experimental group was subdivided into DIO and DR groups. An excisional lesion was made and the animals were killed 7 or 14 days later. Treated groups received a daily dose of celecoxib 5 or 10 mg/kg/day from two days before wounding until 7 days after wounding when were killer. The body weight was higher in the DIO group compared to the C and DR groups. Retroperitoneal fat was higher in the DIO group than in the C and DR groups and was higher in the DR group than in the C group. Celecoxib-treatment did not alter the higher body weight presented by DIO group of higher retroperitoneal fat percentage displayed by DIO and DR groups. All groups treated with celecoxib 10 mg showed delayed wound healing, and weren't further analysed. The DIO group presented glucose intolerance, and both the DIO and DR groups presented delayed wound contraction and re-epithelialisation. The celecoxib 5 mg-treatment reversed the glucose intolerance in the DIO group and the delayed contraction in the DIO and DR groups. Compared to the DR group, the DIO group displayed higher amounts of inflammatory cells as well as higher levels of lipid peroxidation. Celecoxib-treatment (5 mg) did not reduce the number of PMN, but reduce mast cells number in DIO group and macrophages number and lipid peroxidation in both groups. Myofibroblastic differentiation...


Subject(s)
Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Wound Healing/physiology , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/drug therapy , Skin/injuries , Overweight/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar
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