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Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(5): 545-552, May 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011190


Abstract Background: Obesity can be characterized by low-grade chronic inflammation and is associated with an excesso production of reactive oxygen species, factors that contribute to coronary heart disease and other cardiomyopathies. Objective: To verify the effects of resistance exercise training on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters on mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: 24 Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups: standard diet (SD), SD + resistance exercise (SD + RE), diet-induced obesity (DIO), DIO + RE. The animals were fed SD or HFD for 26 weeks and performed resistance exercises in the last 8 weeks of the study. The insulin tolerance test (ITT) and body weight monitoring were performed to assess the clinical parameters. Oxidative stress and inflammation parameters were evaluated in the cardiac tissue. Data were expressed by mean and standard deviation (p < 0.05). Results: The DIO group had a significant increase in reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation with reduction after exercise. Superoxide dismutase and the glutathione system showed no significant changes in DIO animals, with an increase in SD + RE. Only catalase activity decreased with both diet and exercise influence. There was an increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the DIO group, characterizing a possible inflammatory condition, with a decrease when exposed to resistance training (DIO+RE). Conclusion: The DIO resulted in a redox imbalance in cardiac tissue, but the RE was able to modulate these parameters, as well as to control the increase in TNF-α levels.

Resumo Fundamento: A obesidade pode ser caracterizada por uma inflamação crônica de baixo grau e está associada à produção excessiva de espécies reativas de oxigênio, fatores que contribuem para doenças coronarianas e outras cardiomiopatias. Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos do treinamento resistido sobre os parâmetros de estresse oxidativo e parâmetro inflamatório em camundongos com obesidade induzida por dieta hiperlipídica (DIO). Métodos: 24 camundongos Swiss foram divididos em 4 grupos: dieta padrão (DP), DP + exercício resistido (DP+ER), obesidade induzida por DIO, DIO + ER. Os animais foram alimentados por 26 semanas com DP ou hiperlipídica realizando treinamento resistido nas 8 semanas finais do estudo. Para avaliar parâmetros clínicos foi realizado o teste de tolerância à insulina (TTI) e monitoramento do peso corporal. No tecido cardíaco foram avaliados parâmetros de estresse oxidativo e inflamação. Dados expressos por média e desvio padrão (p < 0,05). Resultados: O grupo DIO teve um aumento significativo nos níveis espécies reativas e peroxidação lipídica com redução após o exercício. A superóxido dismutase e o sistema glutationa não demonstraram alterações importantes nos animais DIO, com elevação perante DP+ER. Somente a atividade da catalase reduziu tanto com influência da dieta como do exercício. Ocorreu um aumento do fator de necrose tumoral-alfa (TNF-α) no grupo DIO, caracterizando um possível quadro inflamatório, com redução quando expostos ao treino resistido (DIO+ER). Conclusão: A DIO ocasionou um desequilíbrio redox no tecido cardíaco, porém o ER foi capaz de modular estes parâmetros, bem como controlar o aumento do TNF-α.

Animals , Male , Rats , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Resistance Training , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Myocardium/chemistry , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Time Factors , Insulin Resistance , Inflammation/physiopathology
Acta cir. bras ; 33(9): 806-815, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973500


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of oxidative stress in pregnant rats submitted to acute and chronic stress, relating to alterations in the uterus, placenta and fetus. Methods: Twenty-four female Wistar albino (Rattus norvegicus), were divided into four groups, for induction of oxidative stress the animals were submitted to cold and physical immobilization. Plasma fasting glucose and MDA were determined in all groups and the fetuses and placentas were measured. Results: There were no statistical differences in the levels of malonic dialdehyde (MDA), however the averages of chronic stress group were higher compared to control groups, which could explain the observed adverse effects; there was no correlation between puppies' size, the weight of the placenta and MDA values. Conclusions: Chronic stress causes adverse effects, when compared to control groups; chronic stress group had fetuses, placentas and number of puppies, significantly lower compared to other groups. The rats exposed to chronic stress, also presented a higher frequency of fetal resorption.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Placenta/physiopathology , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Uterus/physiopathology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Fetus/physiopathology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Rats, Wistar , Fetal Weight/physiology , Disease Models, Animal
Acta cir. bras ; 33(9): 753-761, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973501


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the oxidative stress, resulting from ischemia and hepatic reperfusion, in mice with non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. Methods: C57BL/6 male mice were used. Part of them were ob/ob mice, and the other part was fed with standard or MCD diets - this last used to develop steatohepatitis. The animals - MCD-I/R, ob/ob-I/R and I/R groups - were submitted to 30 minutes of partial hepatic ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. The blood was collected, for biochemical analysis of AST, and the liver removed for assessment of TBARS and nitrite, and of histology. Results: After the I/R, the animal fed with MCD diet presented higher AST levels (MCD-I/R: 967±349U/L / ob/ob-I/R: 606±18 U/L / I/R: 311±172 U/L), TBARS (MCD-I/R: 7±1 nM/mg protein / ob/ob-I/R: 3±1 nM/mg protein / I/R: 3±1 nM/mg protein) and nitrite (MCD-I/R: 614±87 µg/mL / ob/ob-I/R: 512±81 µg/mL / I/R: 459±29 µg/mL) than the ob/ob mice, when both groups were compared to animals fed with standard diet. Regarding histology, the steatosis level (azonal macrovesicular steatosis of level 3 - >66%) and hepatic fibrosis (periportal and perisinusoidal of level 2) was also more intense, but both animal models presented lobular inflammation of level 3 (>66%). Conclusions: The murine model fed with MCD diet is suitable for the assessment of oxidative stress in hepatic I/R injury associated with the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although both murine models showed inflammatory infiltrate and macro and micro vesicular steatosis.

Animals , Male , Rats , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Nitrites/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(2): 212-215, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887198


Abstract: Background: Previous studies have shown oxidative stress in pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus, nevertheless, it remains unknown whether a similar response is characteristic of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Peru. Objectives: To determine the oxidative stress response in endemic pemphigus foliaceus patients and subjects with positive for anti-desmoglein1 antibodies (anti-dsg1) from endemic areas of Peru. Subjects and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The study population included 21 patients with Endemic Pemphigus foliaceus and 12 healthy subjects with anti-dsg1 antibodies from the Peruvian Amazon (Ucayali), as well as 30 healthy control subjects. Malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation by free radicals, was measured in serum. Results: We collected 21 cases of endemic pemphigus foliaceus, 15 of them with active chronic disease and 6 in clinical remission. Serum malondialdehyde values in patients with chronic active evolution and healthy subjects with anti-dsg1 antibodies were statistically higher than those of healthy controls (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between serum values of localized and generalized clinical forms. Study limitations: The main limitation of this present study is the small number of patients with endemic pemphigus and healthy subjects positive for desmoglein 1 antibodies. Conclusions: The increased serum levels of malondialdehyde in patients with chronic active endemic pemphigus foliaceus and healthy subjects from endemic areas with anti-dsg1 antibodies may suggest a contribution of systemic lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of endemic pemphigus foliaceus.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pemphigus/immunology , Pemphigus/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Desmoglein 1/immunology , Malondialdehyde/blood , Antibodies/blood , Peru , Reference Values , Remission, Spontaneous , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Endemic Diseases , Desmoglein 1/blood
Clinics ; 73: e335, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974905


OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of the redox state via malondialdehyde (MDA) as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity (HAC) with dietary, anthropometric, demographic, socio-economic and clinical variables as well as the serum concentrations of vitamins in children aged 20-36 months. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2013 to May 2014 and included a total of 100 children. METHODS: The variables studied included anthropometric measurements, dietary intake by the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), socio-demographic features, clinical attributes, serum redox status, and serum vitamin concentrations. RESULTS: Children with a family income above the minimum wage and adequate body mass index (BMI) presented higher HAC. The MDA concentration was higher in children older than 24 months. Breastfeeding for up to 120 days provided greater antioxidant capacity. Children classified in the 2nd tertile for "fruit and vegetables" and "milk and dairy products" consumption showed lower levels of MDA. There was a positive correlation of MDA with serum vitamin A levels. These results show that among children in the 20-36 months age group, family income, breastfeeding, BMI and intake of fruits and vegetables can have an influence on the imbalance of the redox state. CONCLUSION: One strategy to prevent the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants could be for health professionals to raise awareness among families, as such knowledge could repress/prevent the progression/initiation of several diseases in adult life.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Nutritional Status/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Oxidation-Reduction , Socioeconomic Factors , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(4): 644-651, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892875


ABSTRACT Purpose To determine enzymatic antioxidant and lipid peroxidation levels in seminal plasma of patients orchiectomized for testicular tumors. Materials and Methods The study included 52 patients: 26 control men and 26 orchiectomized patients for testicular tumor, of which 12 men had seminoma tumor and 14 men non-seminoma tumor. After semen analysis performed according to the WHO guidelines, an aliquot of semen was centrifuged and the seminal plasma was collected. Lipid peroxidation was performed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay and antioxidant profile was assessed by analyzing catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide anion (SOD) activities using colorimetric assays with a standard spectrophotometer. Data were tested for normality and compared using one-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Results Seminoma and non-seminoma groups presented lower sperm concentration and morphology when compared to control group (p=0.0001). Both study groups (seminoma and non-seminoma) presented higher TBARS levels when compared to control group (p=0.0000013). No differences were observed for SOD (p=0.646) andGPx (p=0.328). It was not possible to access the enzymatic activity of catalase in any group. Conclusion Patients with testicular tumor present increased semen oxidative stress, but no differences were observed in antioxidant levels, even after orchiectomy. This indicates that most likely an increased generation of oxidative products takes place in these patients.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Semen/enzymology , Testicular Neoplasms/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Seminoma/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Oligospermia , Sperm Count , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Testicular Neoplasms/surgery , Orchiectomy , Catalase/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Semen Analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Middle Aged
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(2): 152-159, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838433


ABSTRACT Background Obesity is characterized by a deposition of abnormal or excessive fat in adipose tissue, and is linked with a risk of damage to several metabolic and pathological processes associated with oxidative stress. To date, salivary oxidative biomarkers have been minimally explored in obese individuals. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the concentrations of salivary oxidative biomarkers (ferric-reducing antioxidant power, uric acid, sulfhydryl groups) and lipid peroxidation in obese and overweight young subjects. Materials and methods Levels of lipid peroxidation, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, uric acid, and SH groups were determined in the saliva and serum of 149 young adults, including 54 normal weight, 27 overweight, and 68 obese individuals. Anthropometric measurements were also evaluated. Results Salivary levels of ferric-reducing antioxidant power, sulfhydryl groups, and lipid peroxidation, as well as serum levels of ferric-reducing antioxidant power, uric acid, and lipid peroxidation were higher in obese patients when compared with individuals with normal weight. There were correlations between salivary and serum ferric-reducing antioxidant power and salivary and serum uric acid in the obese and normal-weight groups. Conclusions Our results indicate that the increase in salivary levels of ferric-reducing antioxidant power, sulfhydryl groups, and lipid peroxidation, and serum levels of ferric-reducing antioxidant power, uric acid, and lipid peroxidation could be related to the regulation of various processes in the adipose tissue. These findings may hold promise in identifying new oxidative markers to assist in diagnosing and monitoring overweight and obese patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Saliva/metabolism , Saliva/chemistry , Uric Acid/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Overweight/blood , Antioxidants/analysis , Obesity/blood , Oxidation-Reduction , Reference Values , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Statistics, Nonparametric , Oxidative Stress/physiology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(3): 229-235, Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956434


Summary Introduction: Obesity refers to the accumulation of fatty tissues and it favors the occurrence of oxidative stress. Alternatives that can contribute to body weight reduction have been investigated in order to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species responsible for tissue damage. The aim of the current study was to assess whether the oxidant and antioxidant markers of obese women before and after bariatric surgery were able to reduce oxidative damage. Method: We have assessed 16 morbidly obese women five days before and 180 days after the surgery. The control group comprised 16 non-obese women. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, carbonylated proteins, reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid were assessed in the patients' plasma. Results: Levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in the pre-surgical obese women were higher than those of the controls and post-surgical obese women. Levels of reduced glutathione in the pre-surgical obese women were high compared to the controls, and declined after surgery. Levels of ascorbic acid fell in the pre--surgical obese women compared to the control and post-surgical obese women. Conclusion: Body weight influences the production of reactive oxygen species. Bariatric surgery, combined with weight loss and vitamin supplementation, reduces cellular oxidation, thus reducing tissue damage.

Resumo Introdução: Na obesidade, verifica-se um acúmulo de tecido adiposo, o que favorece a ocorrência de estresse oxidativo. A fim de diminuir a produção das espécies reativas que levam a danos teciduais, buscam-se alternativas que contribuam para a redução do peso corporal. Este estudo avaliou se os marcadores oxidantes e antioxidantes de obesas antes e após cirurgia bariátrica reduziram o dano oxidativo. Método: Foram avaliadas 16 mulheres obesas mórbidas cinco dias antes e 180 dias após o procedimento cirúrgico. O grupo controle constituiu-se de 16 mulheres não obesas. Os níveis das substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico, das proteínas carboniladas, da glutationa reduzida e do ácido ascórbico foram avaliados no plasma dessas pacientes. Resultados: Os níveis de lipoperoxidação e da carbonilação de proteínas nas obesas pré-cirúrgicas eram mais elevados quando comparados ao controle e às obesas pós-cirúrgicas; os níveis de glutationa reduzida eram maiores nas obesas pré-cirúrgicas em comparação ao controle e diminuíram após a cirurgia; os níveis de ácido ascórbico eram menores nas obesas pré-cirúrgicas em relação ao controle e às obesas pós-cirúrgicas. Conclusão: Observou-se que a massa corporal influenciou na produção das espécies reativas. A cirurgia bariátrica, somada à perda de peso e à suplementação vitamínica, diminui a oxidação celular e, com isso, reduz os danos teciduais.

Humans , Female , Adult , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Obesity/surgery , Obesity/metabolism , Postoperative Period , Ascorbic Acid/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Analysis of Variance , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Protein Carbonylation/physiology , Glutathione/blood , Middle Aged , Antioxidants/analysis
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(5): 443-449, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798174


ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in an experimental model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Materials and methods Wistar, adult, male rats were used in the study. Animals were divided in the following groups: Citrate (control, citrate buffer 0.01M, pH 4.2 was administrated intravenously - i.v - in the caudal vein), Uninephrectomy+Citrate (left uninephrectomy-20 days before the study), DM (streptozotocin, 65 mg/kg, i.v, on the 20th day of the study), Uninephrectomy+DM. Physiological parameters (water and food intake, body weight, blood glucose, kidney weight, and relative kidney weight); renal function (creatinine clearance), urine albumin (immunodiffusion method); oxidative metabolites (urinary peroxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and thiols in renal tissue), and kidney histology were evaluated. Results Polyphagia, polydipsia, hyperglycemia, and reduced body weight were observed in diabetic rats. Renal function was reduced in diabetic groups (creatinine clearance, p < 0.05). Uninephrectomy potentiated urine albumin and increased kidney weight and relative kidney weight in diabetic animals (p < 0.05). Urinary peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were increased, and the reduction in thiol levels demonstrated endogenous substrate consumption in diabetic groups (p < 0.05). The histological analysis revealed moderate lesions of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion This study confirms lipid peroxidation and intense consumption of the antioxidant defense system in diabetic rats. The association of hyperglycemia and uninephrectomy resulted in additional renal injury, demonstrating that the model is adequate for the study of diabetic nephropathy.

Animals , Male , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Peroxides/urine , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Creatinine/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/chemically induced , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Albuminuria/urine , Disease Models, Animal , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(4): 339-347, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827852


Abstract Background: Coronary artery disease is 2-3 times more common in diabetic individuals. Dietary nitrate/nitrite has beneficial effects in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It also has protective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in healthy animals. However, the effects of nitrate on myocardial IR injury in diabetic rats have not yet been investigated. Objective: We examined the effects of dietary nitrate on myocardial IR injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Method: Rats were divided into four groups (n=7 in each group): control, control+nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes+nitrate. Type 2 diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Nitrate (sodium nitrate) was added to drinking water (100 mg/L) for 2 months. The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus at 2 months and assessed before (baseline) and after myocardial IR for the following parameters: left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), minimum and maximum rates of pressure change in the left ventricle (±dP/dt), endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO metabolites (NOx). Results: Recovery of LVDP and ±dP/dt was lower in diabetic rats versus controls, but almost normalized after nitrate intake. Diabetic rats had lower eNOS and higher iNOS expression both at baseline and after IR, and dietary nitrate restored these parameters to normal values after IR. Compared with controls, heart NOx level was lower in diabetic rats at baseline but was higher after IR. Diabetic rats had higher MDA levels both at baseline and after IR, which along with heart NOx levels decreased following nitrate intake. Conclusion: Dietary nitrate in diabetic rats provides cardioprotection against IR injury by regulating eNOS and iNOS expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the heart.

Resumo Fundamentos: A doença arterial coronariana é duas a três vezes mais comum em indivíduos diabéticos. O nitrato/nitrito dietético tem efeitos benéficos tanto para o diabetes quanto para a doença cardiovascular, assim como efeitos protetores contra a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão (IR) miocárdica em animais saudáveis. Porém, os efeitos do nitrato na lesão de IR miocárdica em ratos diabéticos ainda não foram investigados. Objetivos: Foram examinados os efeitos sobre a lesão de IR miocárdica da adição de nitrato à dieta de ratos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 induzido por estreptozotocina-nicotinamida. Métodos: Os ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos (n = 7 em cada grupo): controle, controle+nitrato, diabetes e diabetes+nitrato. O diabetes foi induzido nos animais por injeção de estreptozotocina e nicotinamida. Nitrato (nitrato de sódio) foi adicionado à água de beber (100 mg/L) por 2 meses. Os corações foram perfundidos em sistema de Langendorff aos 2 meses e avaliados antes (basal) e após IR miocárdica em relação aos seguintes parâmetros: pressão desenvolvida no ventrículo esquerdo (PDVE), taxas máximas de variação positiva e negativa da pressão ventricular esquerda (±dP/dt), expressão do RNAm da óxido nítrico (NO) sintase (NOS) endotelial (eNOS) e da NOS induzível (iNOS), além de níveis de malondialdeído (MDA) e metabólitos do óxido nítrico (NOx). Resultados: A recuperação da PDVE e ±dP/dt foi inferior nos ratos diabéticos versus controles, mas quase normalizou após ingestão de nitrato. Ratos diabéticos apresentaram expressão diminuída de eNOS e aumentada de iNOS tanto no estado basal quanto após IR, e o consumo dietético de nitrato restaurou estes valores para o estado normal após a IR. O nível de NOx cardíaco foi menor nos ratos diabéticos em comparação aos controles no momento basal, mas foi superior após a IR. Ratos diabéticos apresentaram níveis mais elevados de MDA tanto no estado basal quanto após IR que, juntamente com os níveis cardíacos de NOx, reduziram após consumo dietético do nitrato. Conclusões: O consumo dietético de nitrato por ratos diabéticos ofereceu cardioproteção contra a lesão de IR através da regulação da expressão de eNOS e iNOS e inibição da peroxidação lipídica no coração.

Animals , Male , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Myocardial Ischemia/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Nitrates/therapeutic use , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Streptozocin , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Hemodynamics , Malondialdehyde/analysis
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(3): e5026, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771944


Hypertension is characterized by a pro-inflammatory status, including redox imbalance and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may be exacerbated after heat exposure. However, the effects of heat exposure, specifically in individuals with inflammatory chronic diseases such as hypertension, are complex and not well understood. This study compared the effects of heat exposure on plasma cytokine levels and redox status parameters in 8 hypertensive (H) and 8 normotensive (N) subjects (age: 46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years old, body mass index: 25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure: 98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively). They remained at rest in a sitting position for 10 min in a thermoneutral environment (22°C) followed by 30 min in a heated environmental chamber (38°C and 60% relative humidity). Blood samples were collected before and after heat exposure. Plasma cytokine levels were measured using sandwich ELISA kits. Plasma redox status was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). Hypertensive subjects showed higher plasma levels of IL-10 at baseline (P<0.05), although levels of this cytokine were similar between groups after heat exposure. Moreover, after heat exposure, hypertensive individuals showed higher plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR1) and lower TBARS (P<0.01) and FRAP (P<0.05) levels. Controlled hypertensive subjects, who use angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors), present an anti-inflammatory status and balanced redox status. Nevertheless, exposure to a heat stress condition seems to cause an imbalance in the redox status and an unregulated inflammatory response.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Cytokines/blood , Hypertension/physiopathology , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Heart Rate/physiology , Hot Temperature , Hypertension/blood , Inflammation/physiopathology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Oxidation-Reduction , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(10): e5310, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951650


Although it is well known that physical training ameliorates brain oxidative function after injuries by enhancing the levels of neurotrophic factors and oxidative status, there is little evidence addressing the influence of exercise training itself on brain oxidative damage and data is conflicting. This study investigated the effect of well-established swimming training protocol on lipid peroxidation and components of antioxidant system in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were randomized into trained (5 days/week, 8 weeks, 30 min; n=8) and non-trained (n=7) groups. Forty-eight hours after the last session of exercise, animals were euthanized and the brain was collected for oxidative stress analysis. Swimming training decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels (P<0.05) and increased the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.05) with no effect on brain non-enzymatic total antioxidant capacity, estimated by FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power) assay (P>0.05). Moreover, the swimming training promoted metabolic adaptations, such as increased maximal workload capacity (P<0.05) and maintenance of body weight. In this context, the reduced TBARS content and increased SOD antioxidant activity induced by 8 weeks of swimming training are key factors in promoting brain resistance. In conclusion, swimming training attenuated oxidative damage and increased enzymatic antioxidant but not non-enzymatic status in the rat brain.

Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Swimming/physiology , Brain/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Antioxidants/metabolism , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors , Body Weight , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Antioxidants/analysis
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(11): 996-1003, Nov. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762900


Exercise is known to cause a vasodilatory response; however, the correlation between the vasorelaxant response and different training intensities has not been investigated. Therefore, this study evaluated the vascular reactivity and lipid peroxidation after different intensities of swimming exercise in rats. Male Wistar rats (aged 8 weeks; 250-300 g) underwent forced swimming for 1 h whilst tied to loads of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8% of their body weight, respectively (groups G3, G4, G5, G6 and G8, respectively; n=5 each). Immediately after the test, the aorta was removed and suspended in an organ bath. Cumulative relaxation in response to acetylcholine (10−12-10−4 M) and contraction in response to phenylephrine (10−12-10−5 M) were measured. Oxidative stress was estimated by determining malondialdehyde concentration. The percentages of aorta relaxation were significantly higher in G3 (7.9±0.20), G4 (7.8±0.29), and G5 (7.9±0.21), compared to the control group (7.2±0.04), while relaxation in the G6 (7.4±0.25) and G8 (7.0±0.06) groups was similar to the control group. In contrast, the percentage of contraction was significantly higher in G6 (8.8 ±0.1) and G8 (9.7±0.29) compared to the control (7.1±0.1), G3 (7.3±0.2), G4 (7.2±0.1) and G5 (7.2±0.2%) groups. Lipid peroxidation levels in the aorta were similar to control levels in G3, G4 and G5, but higher in G6 and G8, and significantly higher in G8 (one-way ANOVA). These results indicate a reduction in vasorelaxing activity and an increase in contractile activity in rat aortas after high-intensity exercise, followed by an increase in lipid peroxidation.

Animals , Male , Aorta/physiology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Vasodilation/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Aorta/metabolism , Exercise Test , Heart/physiology , Isometric Contraction/physiology , Lactic Acid/blood , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Swimming/physiology
Colomb. med ; 46(3): 135-143, July-Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-765514


Objective: Our objective was to systematically review the published observational research related to the role of oxidative-nitrosative stress in pathogenesis of dengue. Methods: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, The COCHRANE library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS via Virtual Health Library, Google Scholar) using the term: dengue, dengue virus, severe dengue, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, antioxidants, oxidants, free radicals, oxidized lipid products, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Articles were selected for review by title and abstract excluding letter, review, in vivo and in vitro studies, and duplicates studies. Selected articles were reviewed for study design, original purposes, sample size, main outcomes, methods, and oxidative-nitrosative stress markers values. Results: In total, 4,331 non-duplicates articles were identified from electronic databases searches, of which 16 were eligible for full text searching. Data from the observational studies originate from Asian countries (50%; 8/16), South American countries (31.2%; 5/16), and Central America and the Caribbean countries (18.8%; 3/16). Case-control study was the type of design most common in researches reviewed. The 1997 World Health Organization (WHO) dengue case classification criteria were used in all studies included in this review. Conclusions: Based on published data found in peer-reviewed literature, oxidative and nitrosative stress are demonstrated by changes in plasma levels of nitric oxide, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation markers in patients with dengue infection. Additionally, elevated serum protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde levels appear to be associated with dengue disease severity.

Objetivo: Sistematizar las evidencias observacionales sobre la relación entre el estrés oxidativo-nitrosativo y la patogénesis del dengue. Métodos: Revisión sistemática de estudios observacionales en las bases de datos (PubMed, EMBASE, The COCHRANE library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS via Virtual Health Library, Google Scholar) utilizando las siguientes palabras clave: dengue, dengue virus, severe dengue, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, antioxidants, oxidants, free radicals, oxidized lipid products, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide y nitric oxide synthase. La selección inicial fue realizada a partir del título y resumen excluyéndose: cartas para editor, revisiones, estudios in vivo/in vitro y duplicados. A cada artículo seleccionado, se le revisó el diseño del estudio, objetivo, tamaño de la muestra, resultados principales y niveles plasmáticos de los marcadores de estrés oxidativo-nitrosativo. Resultados: De 4,331 publicaciones encontradas, 16 estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. El 50% (8/16) de los estudios revisados fueron realizados en países de Sur América, Centro América y del Caribe. El diseño de casos y controles fue el más frecuente. El anterior sistema de clasificación de casos (OMS-1997) fue utilizado en todos los estudios incluidos en esta revisión. Conclusiones: El estrés oxidativo-nitrosativo se encuentra presente en el curso de la infección por virus dengue, demostrado por los cambios en las concentraciones plasmáticas de óxido nítrico, antioxidantes y marcadores de lipoperoxidación y de oxidación de proteínas. Por último, parece existir una asociación entre la elevación de los niveles plasmáticos de los carbonilos proteicos y malondialdehído con la severidad del dengue.

Animals , Humans , Dengue/physiopathology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Antioxidants/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Proteins/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(4): 417-424, July-Aug. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763166


AbstractObjective:The aim of this prospective study was to assess the dynamics of oxidative stress during coronary artery bypass surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods:Sixteen patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were enrolled. Blood samples were collected from the systemic circulation during anesthesia induction (radial artery - A1), the systemic venous return (B1 and B2) four minutes after removal of the aortic cross-clamping, of the coronary sinus (CS1 and CS2) four minutes after removal of the aortic cross-clamping and the systemic circulation four minutes after completion of cardiopulmonary bypass (radial artery - A2). The marker of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, was measured using spectrophotometry.Results:The mean values of malondialdehyde were (ng/dl): A1 (265.1), B1 (490.0), CS1 (527.0), B2 (599.6), CS2 (685.0) and A2 (527.2). Comparisons between A1/B1, A1/CS1, A1/B2, A1/CS2, A1/A2 were significant, with ascending values (P<0.05). Comparisons between the measurements of the coronary sinus and venous reservoir after the two moments of reperfusion (B1/B2 and CS1/CS2) were higher when CS2 (P<0.05). Despite higher values ​​after the end of cardiopulmonary bypass (A2), when compared to samples of anesthesia (A1), those show a downward trend when compared to the samples of the second moment of reperfusion (CS2) (P<0.05).Conclusion:The measurement of malondialdehyde shows that coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass is accompanied by increase of free radicals and this trend gradually decreases after its completion. Aortic clamping exacerbates oxidative stress but has sharper decline after reperfusion when compared to systemic metabolism. The behavior of thiobarbituric acid species indicates that oxidative stress is an inevitable pathophysiological component.

ResumoObjetivo:O objetivo deste estudo prospectivo foi avaliar a dinâmica do estresse oxidativo durante a cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica com circulação extracorpórea.Métodos:Participaram 16 pacientes submetidos à revascularização miocárdica. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas da circulação sistêmica, no momento da indução anestésica (artéria radial - A1), do retorno venoso sistêmico (B1 e B2), quatro minutos após a remoção do pinçamento aórtico, do seio coronariano (SC1 e SC2), quatro minutos após a remoção do pinçamento aórtico, e da circulação sistêmica, quatro minutos após finalização da circulação extracorpórea (artéria radial - A2). O marcador do estresse oxidativo, malondialdeído, foi dosado utilizando espectrofotometria.Resultados:Os valores médios de malondialdeído foram (ng/dl): A1 (265,1), B1 (490,0), SC1 (527,0), B2 (599,6), SC2 (685,0) e A2 (527,2). As comparações entre A1/B1, A1/SC1, A1/B2, A1/SC2, A1/A2 foram significativas, com valores ascendentes (P<0,05). As comparações entre as dosagens do seio coronário e reservatório venoso após os dois momentos de reperfusão (B1/SC1 e B2/SC2) foram mais elevadas no momento SC2 (P<0,05). Apesar dos valores mais elevados após o término da circulação extracorpórea (A2), quando comparadas às amostras da indução anestésica (A1), aqueles apresentam tendência de queda quando comparadas as amostras do segundo momento de reperfusão (SC2) (P<0,05).Conclusão:As dosagens de malondialdeído mostram que a revascularização miocárdica com circulação extracorpórea é acompanhada de aumento de radicais livres com tendência deste diminuir progressivamente após seu término. O pinçamento aórtico exacerba o estresse oxidativo, porém apresenta queda mais acentuada após a reperfusão quando comparadas ao do metabolismo sistêmico. O comportamento das espécies reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico indica que o estresse oxidativo é um componente patofisiológico inevitável.

Female , Humans , Male , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Malondialdehyde/blood , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Coronary Sinus/physiology , Perioperative Period , Prospective Studies , Radial Artery/chemistry , Spectrophotometry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis
Int. j. morphol ; 33(2): 660-665, jun. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755525


Physical effort stimulates an increase in oxygen consumption in tissues, generating toxic chemical species derived from oxygen (ROS), which are considered the initiators of the lipid peroxidation process (LPO), the major mechanism of cellular injury. As the essential mechanism for maintaining the electrolyte balance depends on an effective kidney function, oxidative stress in this organ can be a key factor in the development and persistence of hypertension. This study aimed to determine the kidney changes induced by a combination of fluid restriction and exercise in rats. The study consisted of 24 male Wistar rats of 90 days of age, divided into four groups, two of which were submitted to water restriction and exercise on a treadmill.Twenty-four hours after the last training session, the animals were euthanized and the left kidney was removed.The upper part of the kidney was used for the histological procedures and the lower part for the quantification of membrane lipoperoxides.Analysis of variance was applied after testing the normality of data, and the comparison between groups was performed using the Bonferroni test, adopting a significance of p<0.05. The restriction had an influence on body weight; kidney weight; proximal tubule maximum diameter; and area, perimeter and diameter of glomeruli, whereas the exercise affected the weight and the minimum diameter of the proximal tubule. According to the TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) method, there was a difference between the G1 (control) and G3 (sedentary with water restriction) and between the G2 (exercised with water) and G4 (exercised with water restriction) compared to G1. The treadmill exercise combined with the water restriction promoted structural changes in the glomeruli and promoted oxidative stress, although neither variable corroborated for the potentiating of lipid peroxidation.

El esfuerzo físico estimula un aumento en el consumo de oxígeno en los tejidos, generando variedades químicas tóxicas derivadas de oxígeno (ROS), que son considerados iniciadores del proceso de peroxidación lipídica (LPO), principal mecanismo de lesión celular. Como el mecanismo esencial para mantener el equilibrio de los electrolitos depende de una función renal eficaz, el estrés oxidativo en este órgano puede ser un factor clave en el desarrollo y persistencia de la hipertensión. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar los cambios renales en ratas, inducidos por una combinación de restricción de líquidos y ejercicio. Esta investigación se realizó en 24 ratas Wistar machos de 90 días de edad, divididos en cuatro grupos, dos de los cuales fueron sometidos a restricción de agua, mientras que los dos grupos restantes fueron ejercitados en una caminadora. Veinticuatro horas después de la última sesión de entrenamiento, los animales fueron sacrificados y se realizó la extracción del riñón izquierdo. La parte superior del riñón se usó para los procedimientos histológicos y la parte inferior para la cuantificación de peróxidos lipídicos en la membrana. El análisis de varianza se aplicó después de probar la normalidad de los datos, y la comparación entre grupos se realizó mediante la prueba de Bonferroni, adoptando una significación de p<0,05. La restricción hídrica tuvo influencia sobre: el peso corporal, peso de los riñones, diámetro máximo del túbulo proximal, y área, perímetro y diámetro de los glomérulos. Mientras que el ejercicio afectó el peso y el diámetro mínimo del túbulo proximal de las ratas. Según el método SRAT (sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico), existió una diferencia entre el G1 (control) y G3 (sedentarismo con restricción de agua) y entre el G2 (ejercicio con agua) y G4 (ejercicio con restricción de agua) en comparación con G1. El ejercicio rodante combinado con la restricción de agua promovió cambios estructurales en los glomérulos y estimuló el desarrollo de estrés oxidativo, aunque ninguna variable fue corroborada para establecer la potenciación de la peroxidación lipídica.

Animals , Male , Rats , Exercise/physiology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/physiology , Water Deprivation/physiology , Body Weight , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Rats, Wistar
Acta toxicol. argent ; 23(1): 15-24, mayo 2015. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757032


Chronic oiling affects seabirds, with short (individual survival) and long-term (dynamics of population) effects. Magellanic penguin is the most affected species in Argentina. The aim was to evaluate the use of blood biochemical-molecular biomarkers (MT and TBARs) to assess health status of Magellanic penguin exposed to chronic environmental oiling, in addition with routine hematological analyses (differential WBC count and PCV). Oiled specimens presented significant higher RBC metallothionein and TBARs concentrations than those from shelter; while routine hematological parameters were within normal levels for penguins and did not show any difference between both groups. These results demonstrated the higher sensibility of both biomarkers, evidencing effects on health status by chronic oiling; furthermore, they are the first report in blood metallothionein and oxidative stress in S. magellanicus. These studies will be useful for a better assessment of the health condition in rehabilitation centers (short term); and, as early warning signals in natural colonies (long term).

El empetrolamiento crónico afecta a las aves marinas, con efectos a corto (supervivencia del individuo) y largo plazo (dinámica de la población). El pingüino de Magallanes es la especie más afectada en Argentina. El objetivo fue evaluar el uso de biomarcadores bioquímicos-moleculares (MT y TBARS) en sangre para evaluar el estado de salud del pingüino de Magallanes expuesto a empetrolamiento crónico ambiental, además de los análisis hematológicos de rutina (recuento diferencial de leucocitos y hematocrito). Los ejemplares empetrolados presentaron concentraciones significativamente mayores de metalotioneínas en fracción celular y peroxidación lipídica que aquellos de albergue; por el contrario, los parámetros hematológicos de rutina estuvieron dentro de los niveles normales para los pingüinos y no mostraron ninguna diferencia entre los grupos. Estos resultados demuestran la mayor sensibilidad de los dos biomarcadores, evidenciando efectos del empetrolamiento crónico sobre el estado de salud; además, este es el primer reporte de concentraciones de metalotioneínas en sangre y el estrés oxidativo en S. magellanicus. Estos estudios son de utilidad para una mejor evaluación del estado de salud en los centros de rehabilitación (corto plazo); y, como señales de alerta temprana en las colonias naturales (largo plazo).

Animals , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Metallothionein/blood , Argentina , Petroleum Pollution/analysis , Spheniscidae/blood
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206918


In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on lipid peroxidation and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) levels in the hippocampus of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and lean control rats (ZLC) during the onset of diabetes. At 7 weeks of age, ZLC and ZDF rats were either placed on a stationary treadmill or made to run for 1 h/day for 5 consecutive days at 16~22 m/min for 5 weeks. At 12 weeks of age, the ZDF rats had significantly higher blood glucose levels and body weight than the ZLC rats. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the hippocampus of the ZDF rats were significantly higher than those of the ZLC rats whereas SOD1 levels in the hippocampus of the ZDF rats were moderately decreased. Notably, treadmill exercise prevented the increase of blood glucose levels in ZDF rats. In addition, treadmill exercise significantly ameliorated changes in MDA and SOD1 levels in the hippocampus although SOD activity was not altered. These findings suggest that diabetes increases lipid peroxidation and decreases SOD1 levels, and treadmill exercise can mitigate diabetes-induced oxidative damage in the hippocampus.

Animals , Diabetes Mellitus/enzymology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Genotype , Hippocampus/enzymology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Rats , Rats, Zucker , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-10, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950780


BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of bioactive metabolites present in Newbouldia laevis leaf extract. RESULTS: Chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods were used in the study and modified where necessary in the study. Bioactivity of the extract was determined at 10 µg/ml, 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml, 200 µg/ml and 400 µg/ml concentrations expressed in % inhibition. The yield of the ethanolic leaf extract of N.laevis was 30.3 g (9.93%). Evaluation of bioactive metabolic constituents gave high levels of ascorbic acid (515.53 ± 12 IU/100 g [25.7 mg/100 g]), vitamin E (26.46 ± 1.08 IU/100 g), saponins (6.2 ± 0.10), alkaloids (2.20 ± 0.03), cardiac glycosides(1.48 ± 0.22), amino acids and steroids (8.01 ± 0.04) measured in mg/100 g dry weight; moderate levels of vitamin A (188.28 ± 6.19 IU/100 g), tannins (0.09 ± 0.30), terpenoids (3.42 ± 0.67); low level of flavonoids (1.01 ± 0.34 mg/100 g) and absence of cyanogenic glycosides, carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones. The extracts percentage inhibition of DPPH, hydroxyl radical (OH.), superoxide anion (O2 .-), iron chelating, nitric oxide radical (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), singlet oxygen (1O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and FRAP showed a concentration-dependent antioxidant activity with no significant difference with the controls. Though, IC50 of the extract showed significant difference only in singlet oxygen (1O2) and iron chelating activity when compared with the controls. CONCLUSIONS: The extract is a potential source of antioxidants/free radical scavengers having important metabolites which maybe linked to its ethno-medicinal use.

Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Free Radical Scavengers/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Bignoniaceae/chemistry , Metabolome/physiology , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Phenols/analysis , Vitamins/isolation & purification , Vitamins/metabolism , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Iron Chelating Agents/isolation & purification , Reactive Oxygen Species/isolation & purification , Hydroxyl Radical/analysis , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Secondary Metabolism/physiology , Nigeria , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(1): 14-20, 11/jan. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665797


The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of eccentric training on the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, oxidative stress, muscle damage, and inflammation of skeletal muscle. Eighteen male mice (CF1) weighing 30-35 g were randomly divided into 3 groups (N = 6): untrained, trained eccentric running (16°; TER), and trained running (0°) (TR), and were submitted to an 8-week training program. TER increased muscle oxidative capacity (succinate dehydrogenase and complexes I and II) in a manner similar to TR, and TER did not decrease oxidative damage (xylenol and creatine phosphate) but increased antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) similar to TR. Muscle damage (creatine kinase) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were not reduced by TER. In conclusion, we suggest that TER improves mitochondrial function but does not reduce oxidative stress, muscle damage, or inflammation induced by eccentric contractions.

Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Mitochondria, Muscle/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Mitochondria, Muscle/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Physical Exertion , Peroxidase/blood , Succinate Dehydrogenase/blood