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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 197-204, feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528841

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Obesity-related pathophysiologies such as insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome show a markedly increased risk for type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This risk appears to be linked to alterations in adipose tissue function, leading to chronic inflammation and the dysregulation of adipocyte-derived factors. Brassica rapa have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutritional stress induced by a high-fat and high-sucrose diet on the pathophysiology of visceral adipose tissue and the therapeutic effect of Brassica rapa in male Wistar rats. We subjected experimental rats to a high-fat (10 %) high-sucrose (20 %)/per day for 11 months and treated them for 20 days with aqueous extract Br (AEBr) at 200 mg/kg at the end of the experiment. At the time of sacrifice, we monitored plasma and tissue biochemical parameters as well as the morpho-histopathology of visceral adipose tissue. We found AEBr corrected metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers in homogenized visceral adipose tissue and reduced hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and lipid droplets. These results suggest that AEBr enhances anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and a protective effect on adipose tissue morphology in type 2 diabetes and obesity.


La fisiopatología relacionadas con la obesidad, como la resistencia a la insulina y el síndrome metabólico, muestran un riesgo notablemente mayor de diabetes tipo 2 y enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica. Este riesgo parece estar relacionado con alteraciones en la función del tejido adiposo, lo que lleva a una inflamación crónica y a la desregulación de los factores derivados de los adipocitos. Brassica rapa se ha utilizado en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades, incluida la diabetes. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto del estrés nutricional inducido por una dieta rica en grasas y sacarosa sobre la fisiopatología del tejido adiposo visceral y el efecto terapéutico de Brassica rapa en ratas Wistar macho. Sometimos a ratas experimentales a una dieta rica en grasas (10 %) y alta en sacarosa (20 %)/por día durante 11 meses y las tratamos durante 20 días con extracto acuoso de Br (AEBr) a 200 mg/kg al final del experimento. En el momento del sacrificio, monitoreamos los parámetros bioquímicos plasmáticos y tisulares, así como la morfohistopatología del tejido adiposo visceral. Encontramos parámetros metabólicos corregidos por AEBr y marcadores inflamatorios en tejido adiposo visceral homogeneizado y reducción de hipertrofia, hiperplasia y gotitas de lípidos. Estos resultados sugieren que AEBr mejora el efecto antidiabético, antiinflamatorio y protector sobre la morfología del tejido adiposo en la diabetes tipo 2 y la obesidad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Brassica rapa/chemistry , Insulin Resistance , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Glucose/toxicity , Inflammation , Lipids/toxicity , Obesity/drug therapy
2.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 122-132, Junio 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443513

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La dislipidemia es uno de los problemas más frecuentes en los niños y adolescentes y su estudio es importante debido a su fuerte correlación con la enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en adultos. Muchos países desarrollaron valores de referencia nacionales investigando los lípidos séricos utilizando datos basados en la población nacional propia. Nuestro objetivo fue verificar el intervalo de referencia del perfil lipídico calculando las curvas de percentiles a través del método indirecto en nuestra población pediátrica. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron los resultados de nuestra base de datos utilizando el método indirecto. Luego de aplicar filtros y criterios de exclusión se calcularon los percentiles 25, 50, 75, 95 y 99 para colesterol total (CT), colesterol HDL (C-HDL), colesterol no HDL (C-no-HDL), triglicéridos (TG) y colesterol LDL (C-LDL) y para el C-HDL además se calculó el percentil 10. El valor de referencia para el cambio (RCV) se utilizó para determinar si existía diferencia clínicamente significativa entre los valores de percentiles obtenidos y los utilizados en el consenso de la SAP. Resultados: No se evidenció diferencia clínicamente significativa contra los valores propuesto por la SAP, excepto para los TG para las edades 1,5,7 años en el percentil 95 y para la edad de 8 años en el percentil 75 y 95; para el C-HDL en el percentil 10 para las edades 1,16 y 17 años. Discusión: Se obtuvieron los percentiles de los lípidos y se compararon con los valores de referencia utilizados por el consenso en el que están basados las guías (AU)


Introduction: Dyslipidemia is one of the most common problems in children and adolescents and its study is important because of its strong correlation with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Many countries have developed national reference values investigating serum lipids using data based on their own national population. Our aim was to verify the lipid profile reference range by calculating percentile curves through the indirect method in our pediatric population. Materials and methods: The results of our database were analyzed using the indirect method. After applying filters and exclusion criteria, the 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were calculated for total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C); for HDL-C, the 10th percentile was also calculated. The reference change values (RCV) were used to determine whether there was a clinically significant difference between the percentile values obtained and those used in the consensus of the Argentine Association of Pediatrics (SAP). Results: There was no clinically significant difference with the values proposed by the SAP, except for TG for ages 1, 5, and 7 years at the 95th percentile and for age 8 years at the 75th and 95th percentile; and for HDL-C at the 10th percentile for ages 1, 16, and 17 years. Discussion: Lipid percentiles were obtained and compared with the reference values used by the consensus on which the guidelines are based (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Reference Values , Triglycerides/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Lipids/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Retrospective Studies
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(1): 32-41, mar. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427725

ABSTRACT

El suero lácteo y la moringa poseen alto valor nutricional; sin embargo, su uso en la elaboración de productos alimenticios es una alternativa viable pero poco utilizada. Objetivo. Elaborar una galleta fortificada por sustitución parcial de harina de moringa (HM) y polvo de suero lácteo (PSL). Materiales y métodos. Durante septiembre-diciembre 2021, se desarrollaron cuatro formulaciones con sustitución parcial de harina de trigo por HM y PSL (F0=100:0:0; F1=90:5:5; F2=80:10:10; F3=70:15:15). La aceptación del producto se determinó mediante una evaluación sensorial considerando los atributos sabor, olor, color, textura y aceptación general. Se realizó el análisis químico proximal a la HM, al PSL, a la formulación de mayor aceptación y a F0. Se compararon los distintos parámetros químico proximales y de aceptación mediante una anova de una vía, seguido de una prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey (p<0,05). Resultados. Conforme se incrementa el porcentaje de sustitución de harina de trigo por HM y PSL se obtiene menor aceptación de las galletas, siendo F1 la más aceptada. F1 registró un contenido proteico de 6,90±0,04%, significativamente mayor al observado en F0. Conclusiones. La buena aceptabilidad de F1 indica que la sustitución parcial por HM y PSL no influyen en su aceptación; además, F1 mostró un enriquecimiento de proteinas, lípidos y cenizas, así como contenido adecuado de humedad y carbohidratos(AU)


Introduction. Whey and moringa have high nutritional value; however, their use in the production of food products is a viable but rarely used alternative. Objective. To make a biscuit fortified by partial substitution of moringa flour (MF) and whey powder (WP). Materials and methods. During September-December 2021, four formulations were developed with different degrees of partial substitution of wheat flour for MF and WP (F0=100:0:0; F1=90:5:5; F2=80:10:10; F3=70:15:15). The acceptance of the product was determined through a sensory evaluation considering the attributes taste, odor, color, texture and general acceptance. A proximal chemical analysis was performed on the MF, WP, the most widely accepted formulation and F0. Proximal chemical parameters and acceptance attributes were compared using a one-way anova, followed by a Tukey mean comparison test (p<0.05). Results. As the percentage of substitution of wheat flour by MF and WP increases less acceptance of the biscuits is obtained, with F1 as the most accepted formulation. F1 registered a protein content of 6.90±0.04%, significantly higher than that observed in F0. Conclusions: The good acceptability of F1 indicates that the partial substitution of wheat flour for MF and WP do not influence its acceptance; in addition, F1, showed an enrichment of protein, lipid and ash, as well as adequate moisture and carbohydrate content(AU)


Subject(s)
Food, Fortified , Moringa oleifera , Cookies , Flour , Nutritive Value , Reference Standards , Carbohydrates , Ash , Malnutrition , Whey , Lipids
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 81-100, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515424

ABSTRACT

Intermittent fasting (IF) has gained increasing scientific and general attention. Most studied forms of IF include alternate-day fasting, modified alternate-day fasting, and time-restricted eating (TRE). Several cardiometabolic effects of IF have been described in animal models and, to a lesser extent, in humans. This review analyzes the impact of IF on weight loss, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and lipid profile in humans. A literature search was conducted in the Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Controlled observational or interventional studies in humans, published between January 2000 and June 2021, were included. Studies comparing IF versus religious fasting were not included. Most studies indicate that the different types of IF have significant benefits on body composition, inducing weight loss and reducing fat mass. Changes in cardiometabolic parameters show more divergent results. In general, a decrease in fasting glucose and insulin levels is observed, together with an improved lipid profile associated with cardiovascular risk. High heterogeneity in study designs was observed, particularly in studies with TRE, small sample sizes, and short-term interventions. Current evidence shows that IF confers a range of cardiometabolic benefits in humans. Weight loss, improvement of glucose homeostasis and lipid profile, are observed in the three types of IF protocols evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Intermittent Fasting , Weight Loss , Fasting/physiology , Glucose/metabolism , Lipids
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21308, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439523

ABSTRACT

Abstract Development of ceftriaxone loaded nanostructured lipid carriers to increase permeability of ceftriaxone across uninflamed meninges after parenteral administration. Lipids were selected by theoretical and experimental techniques and optimization of NLCs done by response surface methodology using Box-Behnken design. The Δδt for glyceryl monostearate and Capryol90 were 4.39 and 2.92 respectively. The drug had maximum solubility of 0.175% (w/w) in glycerol monostearate and 2.56g of Capryol90 dissolved 10mg of drug. The binary mixture consisted of glyceryl monostearate and Capryol90 in a ratio of 70:30. The optimized NLCs particle size was 130.54nm, polydispersity index 0.28, % entrapment efficiency 44.32%, zeta potential -29.05mV, and % drug loading 8.10%. In vitro permeability of ceftriaxone loaded NLCs was 5.06x10-6 cm/s; evidently, the NLCs pervaded through uninflamed meninges, which, was further confirmed from in vivo biodistribution studies. The ratio of drug concentration between brain and plasma for ceftriaxone loaded NLCs was 0.29 and that for ceftriaxone solution was 0.02. With 44.32% entrapment of the drug in NLCs the biodistribution of ceftriaxone was enhanced 7.9 times compared with that of ceftriaxone solution. DSC and XRD studies revealed formation of imperfect crystalline NLCs. NLCs improved permeability of ceftriaxone through uninflamed meninges resulting in better management of CNS infections.


Subject(s)
Ceftriaxone/agonists , Triage/classification , Lipids/analysis , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Central Nervous System Infections/pathology
6.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 18(1): 9-11, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442600

ABSTRACT

El proceso de respiración y el intercambio gaseoso requiere la interacción de variadas fuerzas en los distintos tejidos y órganos involucrados. La tensión superficial a nivel alveolar provocaría colapso de dichas estructuras de no ser por las características del surfactante que lo recubre. Revisaremos en este articulo la fisiología involucrada en su estructura física, producción y efectos pulmonares.


The process of breathing and gas exchange requires the interaction of various forces in the different tissues and organs involved. The surface tension at the alveolus would cause collapse of these structures without of the surfactant that covers it. We will review in this article the physiology involved in its physical structure, production, and pulmonary effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , Lung/physiology , Phospholipids/analysis , Pulmonary Surfactants/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Lipids/analysis
7.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 716-721, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984709

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify and analyze 3D architecture of the mutational sites of susceptible genes in a pedigree with familial hypercholesterolemia-like phenotype (FHLP). Methods: This is a case series study. A pedigree with suspected familial hypercholesterolemia was surveyed. The proband admitted in Beijing Anzhen Hospital in April 2019. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to determine the mutational sites of susceptible genes in the proband. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing was used to verify the pathogenic variant on proband's relatives. The structural and functional changes of the proteins were analyzed and predicted by Discovery Studio 4.0 and PyMol 2.0. Results: The patients in the pedigree showed abnormal lipid profiles, especially elevated levels of total cholesterol(TC). The genetic screening detected the c.1330C>T SNP in the exon 8 of lipase C (LIPC) gene, this mutation leads to an amino acid substitution from arginine to cysteine at position 444 (Arg444Cys), in the proband and proband's father and brother. In this family, members with this mutation exhibited elevated TC, whereas lipid profile was normal from the proband's mother without this mutation. This finding indicated that LIPC: c.1330C>T mutation might be the mutational sites of susceptible genes. The analysis showed that Arg444Cys predominantly affected the ligand-binding property of the protein, but had a limited impact on catalytic function. Conclusion: LIPC: c.1330C>T is a new mutational site of susceptible genes in this FHLP pedigree.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/genetics , Lipase/genetics , Lipids , Mutation , Pedigree , Phenotype , Proteins
8.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 34-39, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Serum cystatin C (Cys C) and blood lipid levels are related to the occurrence and development of chronic heart failure (CHF). However, there are few reports on the correlation between blood lipid level and serum Cys C level in patients with CHF. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation between serum Cys C level and blood lipid level in patients with CHF, and to provide valuable reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of CHF.@*METHODS@#A total of 336 CHF patients who were hospitalized in the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine of Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital from October 2017 to July 2018 were included and they were divided into a Cys C normal group (n=180) and a Cys C abnormal group (n=156) according to serum Cys C level of the patients. The general data, laboratory indicators, and cardiac ultrasound results were compared between the 2 groups. Pearson correlation analysis was used to detect the correlation between serum Cys C level and blood lipid level and other factors, and the data related to Cys C were further analyzed by multivariate logistic regression.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the Cys C normal group, patients in the Cys C abnormal group had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (P<0.001), older age (P=0.030), higher incidence rate of diabetes and smoking index (P=0.002 and P=0.003, respectively). The levels of serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total bilirubin (TBIL) were higher (all P<0.001), while the levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (Apo) A, and albumin (ALB) were lower (P<0.001, P=0.001, and P=0.003, respectively) in the Cys C abnormal group. Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum Cys C level was negatively correlated with platelet count, HDL, Apo A, ALB, and LVEF. It was positively correlated with smoking index, mean platelet volume, neutrophil ratio, BUN, and TBIL (all P<0.05). The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the decreased HDL level was a risk factor for the abnormality of serum Cys C in patients with CHF (OR=0.119, P=0.003), while Apo A was not a risk factor for its abnormality (P=0.337).@*CONCLUSIONS@#HDL might be the only blood lipid index associated with abnormal serum Cys C in patients with CHF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke Volume , Cystatin C , Ventricular Function, Left , Heart Failure , Lipids , Chronic Disease
9.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 661-672, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981053

ABSTRACT

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are one of the global public health issues concerning health of human beings. Dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular events, while elevation of plasma cholesterol levels is associated with the onset of over 50% coronary heart disease. The incidence risks of cardiovascular diseases are higher in HIV/AIDS patients than those in normal populations. In addition to conventional risk factors, viral duplication and suboptimal treatments increase risks of atherosclerotic coronary vascular disease (ASCVD) in HIV/AIDS patients. Thus, a deep knowledge of lipid metabolism and dysregulation profiles, an efficient control of conventional ASCVD risk factors, as well as strengthened measures to lipid management, are of significance to improve long-term prognosis and life quality for HIV/AIDS patients. However, up to date, there is no particular consensus on lipid management for HIV/ADIS populations under long-term antiretroviral therapies (ART). Hereby, based on current status quo of ART in China and frontier achievements of fundamental researches and clinical trials, we invited domestic experts in fields of infectious diseases and cardiovascular diseases to compose this expert consensus on the integrated management of lipid in HIV/AIDS patients in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Consensus , HIV Infections , Lipids/blood , China
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 974-985, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Progressive lipid loss of adipose tissue is a major feature of cancer-associated cachexia. In addition to systemic immune/inflammatory effects in response to tumor progression, tumor-secreted cachectic ligands also play essential roles in tumor-induced lipid loss. However, the mechanisms of tumor-adipose tissue interaction in lipid homeostasis are not fully understood.@*METHODS@#The yki -gut tumors were induced in fruit flies. Lipid metabolic assays were performed to investigate the lipolysis level of different types of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) treated cells. Immunoblotting was used to display phenotypes of tumor cells and adipocytes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was carried out to examine the gene expression levels such as Acc1 , Acly , and Fasn et al .@*RESULTS@#In this study, it was revealed that tumor-derived IGFBP-3 was an important ligand directly causing lipid loss in matured adipocytes. IGFBP-3, which is highly expressed in cachectic tumor cells, antagonized insulin/IGF-like signaling (IIS) and impaired the balance between lipolysis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conditioned medium from cachectic tumor cells, such as Capan-1 and C26 cells, contained excessive IGFBP-3 that potently induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Notably, neutralization of IGFBP-3 by neutralizing antibody in the conditioned medium of cachectic tumor cells significantly alleviated the lipolytic effect and restored lipid storage in adipocytes. Furthermore, cachectic tumor cells were resistant to IGFBP-3 inhibition of IIS, ensuring their escape from IGFBP-3-associated growth suppression. Finally, cachectic tumor-derived ImpL2, the IGFBP-3 homolog, also impaired lipid homeostasis of host cells in an established cancer-cachexia model in Drosophila . Most importantly, IGFBP-3 was highly expressed in cancer tissues in pancreatic and colorectal cancer patients, especially higher in the sera of cachectic cancer patients than non-cachexia cancer patients.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study demonstrates that tumor-derived IGFBP-3 plays a critical role in cachexia-associated lipid loss and could be a biomarker for diagnosis of cachexia in cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3/metabolism , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Cachexia/pathology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Somatomedins/metabolism , Insulins/metabolism , Lipids
11.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 679-683, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980778

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on liver protein kinase B (Akt)/forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FoxO1) signaling pathway in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, and to explore the possible mechanism of EA on improving liver insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes mellitus.@*METHODS@#Twelve male 2-month-old ZDF rats were fed with high-fat diet for 4 weeks to establish diabetes model. After modeling, the rats were randomly divided into a model group and an EA group, with 6 rats in each group. In addition, six male Zucker lean (ZL) rats were used as the blank group. The rats in the EA group were treated with EA at bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6), "Weiwanxiashu" (EX-B 3), and "Pishu" (BL 20). The ipsilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Weiwanxiashu" (EX-B 3) were connected to EA device, continuous wave, frequency of 15 Hz, 20 min each time, once a day, six times a week, for a total of 4 weeks. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) in each group was compared before modeling, before intervention and after intervention; the serum levels of insulin (INS) and C-peptide were measured by radioimmunoassay method, and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated; HE staining method was used to observe the liver tissue morphology; Western blot method was used to detect the protein expression of Akt, FoxO1 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver.@*RESULTS@#Before intervention, compared with the blank group, FBG was increased in the model group and the EA group (P<0.01); after intervention, compared with the model group, FBG in the EA group was decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, the serum levels of INS and C-peptide, HOMA-IR, and the protein expression of hepatic FoxO1 and PEPCK were increased (P<0.01), while the protein expression of hepatic Akt was decreased (P<0.01) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the serum levels of INS and C-peptide, HOMA-IR, and the protein expression of hepatic FoxO1 and PEPCK were decreased (P<0.01), while the protein expression of hepatic Akt was increased (P<0.01) in the EA group. In the model group, the hepatocytes were structurally disordered and randomly arranged, with a large number of lipid vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In the EA group, the morphology of hepatocytes tended to be normal and lipid vacuoles were decreased.@*CONCLUSION@#EA could reduce FBG and HOMA-IR in ZDF rats, improve liver insulin resistance, which may be related to regulating Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Zucker , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Insulin Resistance , C-Peptide , Electroacupuncture , Liver , Signal Transduction , Insulin , Lipids
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248910, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339342

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study determines the associations among serum lipid profiles, risk of cardiovascular disease, and persistent organic pollutants. Using Gas chromatography technique, the intensity of toxic pollutant residues in serum samples of Hypertensive patients were measured. Based on statistical analysis, the effects of different covariates namely pesticides, age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and lipid profile duration was checked using the logistic regression model. Statistical computation was performed on SPSS 22.0. The P-values of F-Statistic for each lipid profile class are greater than 0.01 (1%), therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis for all cases. The estimated coefficients, their standard errors, Wald Statistic, and odds ratio of the binary logistic regression model for different lipid profile parameters indicate if pesticides increase then the logit value of different lipid profile parameters changes from -0.46 to -0.246 except LDL which increases by 0.135. The study reports a significantly increased threat of cardiovascular disease with increased concentrations of toxic pollutants.


Resumo Este estudo determina as associações entre o perfil lipídico sérico, o risco de doença cardiovascular e os poluentes orgânicos persistentes. Por meio da técnica de cromatografia gasosa, mediu-se a intensidade dos resíduos de poluentes tóxicos em amostras de soro de pacientes hipertensos. Com base na análise estatística, os efeitos de diferentes covariáveis ​​- ou seja, pesticidas, idade, pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica e duração do perfil lipídico - foram verificados usando o modelo de regressão logística. O cálculo estatístico foi realizado no SPSS 22.0. Os valores P da estatística F para cada classe de perfil lipídico são maiores que 0,01 (1%), portanto não podemos rejeitar a hipótese nula para todos os casos. Os coeficientes estimados, seus erros padrão, estatística de Wald e odds ratio do modelo de regressão logística binária para diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico indicam se os pesticidas aumentam, então o valor logit de diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico muda de -0,46 para -0,246, exceto LDL, que aumenta em 0,135. O estudo relata um aumento significativo da ameaça de doença cardiovascular com aumento das concentrações de poluentes tóxicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pesticides , Environmental Pollutants , Persistent Organic Pollutants , Lipids , Lipoproteins
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252305, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339378

ABSTRACT

Abstract Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.


Resumo O objetivo da aquicultura de Galaxias maculatus é produzir milhões de ovos. As fêmeas selvagens são pequenas (2 g) e têm maturidade sexual rápida e fecundidade média baixa (500 ovos/fêmea), necessitando de peixes maiores e com fecundidade superior. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar experimentalmente o efeito dos níveis de proteínas, lipídios e energia da dieta sobre o aumento de peso em adultos. Cinco experimentos independentes foram realizados em diferentes períodos sequenciais de tempo no incubatório UCT, Chile. Os espécimes foram obtidos a partir de: a) capturas de espécimes de retorno do mar cristalino no estuário de Tolten (4-6 cm, 0,3-0,4 g); b) peixes de cultura em incubatório. Os peixes foram alimentados à mão ad libitum. Nos experimentos de 1 a 4, dietas peletizadas foram preparadas com três a cinco níveis de proteína (tratamentos 27 a 57%), tamanho do crumble, três repetições de tanques de fibra de 100 L. No experimento 5, o efeito de dois níveis de lipídios (8 e 21%) foi avaliado com dieta comercial isoproteica crumble 1 de Salmon Nutra Starter extrusada a 63%, replicada em quatro tanques. Os resultados mostram: uma tendência ao aumento de peso em todos os tamanhos, com um aumento do nível de proteína na dieta peletizada; um crescimento adulto máximo com uma dieta contendo um mínimo de 37% de proteína bruta, com 40% do valor ideal; uma porcentagem maior de proteína na dieta ou crescimento em peso com menor taxa de conversão alimentar. A taxa de conversão alimentar na dieta extrusada chega a 0,5, e na peletizada varia de 0,7 a 1,5. Peixes de 0,6 g alimentados com 63% de proteína e dieta comercial extrusada com dois níveis lipídicos diferentes (8 e 21%; 20,40 e 23,84 MJ kg-1; PE / TE 0,62 e 0,71) aumentaram de peso no primeiro mês em 67 e 105% cada, respectivamente. Foi estabelecido que dietas de alta energia com níveis ótimos de proteínas e lipídios são uma boa solução de curto prazo para obter G. maculatus de peso mais alto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Osmeriformes , Chile , Diet/veterinary , Lipids
14.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 742-749, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986204

ABSTRACT

Objective: To detect the therapeutic efficacy of FGF21 analogues on the zebrafish model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: A zebrafish model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was established by providing the normal diet fed to wild-type zebrafish three times daily. PF-05231023 was administered exogenously at a final concentration of 0.5 μmol/L. Body length, body weight, triglycerides, and other indexes were measured after 20 days. Pathological changes were evaluated in liver tissue sections by HE staining. Quantitative PCR was used to identify expressional changes in genes related to lipid metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammation. Results: QPCR and immunofluorescence staining results showed that FGF21 was highly expressed in the zebrafish model group. The addition of the FGF21 analogue PF-05231023 significantly reduced the body length and body weight (P < 0.01), and the triglyceride content (P < 0.05) in the zebrafish model group. The liver HE staining results showed that PF-05231023 had alleviated the large and tiny bullae fat, lesions, and others in the zebrafish model group. The quantitative PCR results demonstrated that PF-05231023 reduced the expression of lipogenic factors (P < 0.01), inflammatory-related factors (P < 0.001), and genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress (P < 0.05), but raised lipid-oxidation-related factors (P < 0.05) in the zebrafish model group. The addition of PF-05231023 reduced oleic acid-induced lipid and triglyceride levels in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: FGF21 analogue addition can improve indexes in the zebrafish disease model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Diet, High-Fat , Lipids , Liver/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Triglycerides/metabolism , Zebrafish/metabolism , Zebrafish Proteins
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1431-1437, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970614

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis(AS) is the key pathological basis of coronary heart disease(CHD), and lipid infiltration is a classical theory to explain the pathological mechanism of AS. The theory highlights that the occurrence and development of AS are closely related to abnormal lipid metabolism, with the essence of the pathological reaction caused by the invasion of lipids into arterial intima from plasma. Phlegm and blood stasis are physiologically homologous and subject to pathological co-existence. Phlegm-blood stasis correlation is the basic theory to explain the pathogenesis characteristics of CHD and has important guiding significance for revealing the mecha-nism of lipid infiltration of CHD. Phlegm is the pathological product of abnormal metabolism of Qi, blood, and body fluid, and a gene-ral summary of a series of abnormally expressed lipid substances. Among them, turbid phlegm invades the heart vessels, gradually accumulates, and condenses to achieve the qualitative change from "invisible pathogen" to "tangible pathogen", which corresponds to the mechanism of lipid migration and deposition in the intima of blood vessels, and is the starting factor of the disease. Blood stasis is the continuous development of phlegm, and it is a result of pathological states such as decreased blood fluidity, increased blood coagulation, and abnormal rheology. The fact that blood stasis caused by phlegm accords with the pathological process of "lipid abnormality-circulatory disturbance" and is the central link of the disease. Phlegm and blood stasis aggravate each other and lead to indissoluble cementation. The phlegm-blood stasis combination serves as common pathogen to trigger the disease, which is the inevitable outcome of the disease. Based on the phlegm-blood stasis correlation theory, the simultaneous treatment of phlegm and blood stasis is established. It is found that this therapy can simultaneously regulate blood lipid, reduce blood viscosity, and improve blood circulation, which can fundamentally cut off the biological material basis of the reciprocal transformation between phlegm and blood stasis, thus exerting a significant curative effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Coronary Disease , Mucus , Atherosclerosis , Lipids
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1352-1369, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970606

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis(AS) is caused by impaired lipid metabolism, which deposits lipids in the intima, causes vascular fibrosis and calcification, and then leads to stiffening of the vascular wall. Hyperlipidemia(HLP) is one of the key risk factors for AS. Based on the theory of "nutrients return to the heart and fat accumulates in the channels", it is believed that the excess fat returning to the heart in the vessels is the key pathogenic factor of AS. The accumulation of fat in the vessels over time and the blood stasis are the pathological mechanisms leading to the development of HLP and AS, and "turbid phlegm and fat" and "blood stasis" are the pathological products of the progression of HLP into AS. Didang Decoction(DDD) is a potent prescription effective in activating blood circulation, removing blood stasis, resolving turbidity, lowering lipids, and dredging blood vessels, with the functions of dispelling stasis to promote regeneration, which has certain effects in the treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. This study employed high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) to screen the main blood components of DDD, explored the targets and mechanisms of DDD against AS and HLP with network pharmacology, and verified the network pharmacological results by in vitro experiments. A total of 231 blood components of DDD were obtained, including 157 compounds with a composite score >60. There were 903 predicted targets obtained from SwissTargetPrediction and 279 disease targets from GeneCards, OMIM, and DisGeNET, and 79 potential target genes of DDD against AS and HLP were obtained by intersection. Gene Ontology(GO) analysis suggested that DDD presumably exerted regulation through biological processes such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammatory response, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) analysis suggested that signaling pathways included lipid and atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, chemo-carcinogenesis-receptor activation, and AGE-RAGE signaling pathways in diabetic complications. In vitro experiments showed that DDD could reduce free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation and cholesterol ester content in L02 cells and improve cellular activity, which might be related to the up-regulation of the expression of PPARα, LPL, PPARG, VEGFA, CETP, CYP1A1, and CYP3A4, and the down-regulation of the expression of TNF-α and IL-6. DDD may play a role in preventing and treating AS and HLP by improving lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, and inhibiting apoptosis with multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Network Pharmacology , Nutrients , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Lipids , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1176-1185, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970588

ABSTRACT

Salvianolic acid B(Sal B) is the main water-soluble component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Studies have found that Sal B has a good protective effect on blood vessels. Sal B can protect endothelial cells by anti-oxidative stress, inducing autophagy, inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS), inhibiting endothelial inflammation and adhesion molecule expression, inhibiting endothelial cell permeability, anti-thrombosis, and other ways. In addition, Sal B can alleviate endothelial cell damage caused by high glucose(HG). For vascular smooth muscle cell(VSMC), Sal B can reduce the synthesis and secretion of inflammatory factors by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. It can also play a vasodilatory role by inhibiting Ca~(2+) influx. In addition, Sal B can inhibit VSMC proliferation and migration, thereby alleviating vascular stenosis. Sal B also inhibits lipid deposition in the subendothelium, inhibits macrophage conversion to foam cells, and reduces macrophage apoptosis, thereby reducing the volume of subendothelial lipid plaques. For some atherosclerosis(AS) complications, such as peripheral artery disease(PAD), Sal B can promote angiogenesis, thereby improving ischemia. It should be pointed out that the conclusions obtained from different experiments are not completely consistent, which needs further research. In addition, previous pharmacokinetics showed that Sal B was poorly absorbed by oral administration, and it was unstable in the stomach, with a large first-pass effect in the liver. Sal B had fast distribution and metabolism in vivo and short drug action time. These affect the bioavailability and biological effects of Sal B, and the development of clinically valuable Sal B non-injectable delivery systems remains a great challenge.


Subject(s)
Endothelial Cells , Oxidative Stress , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Lipids
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 148-159, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970510

ABSTRACT

A hyperuricemic rat model induced by adenine and ethambutol was established to investigate the anti-hyperuricemia activity and its mechanism of the flavonoid extract from saffron floral bio-residues. Sixty-seven SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, positive control group, and flavonoid extract groups(with 3 doses), respectively, and each group contained 11 or 12 rats. The hyperuricemic model was established by continuous oral administration of adenine(100 mg·kg~(-1)) and ethambutol(250 mg·kg~(-1)) for 7 days. At the same time, the positive control group was given allopurinol(20 mg·kg~(-1) per day) and the flavonoid extract groups were given the flavonoid extract at doses of 340, 170 and 85 mg·kg~(-1) per day, respectively. On day 8, rat serum, liver, kidney, and intestinal tissues were collected, and the levels of uric acid in serum and tissue, the xanthine oxidase activities and antioxi-dant activities in serum and liver were evaluated, and the kidney histopathology was explored. In addition, an untargeted serum metabolomics study was performed. According to the results, the flavonoid extract effectively reduced the uric acid levels in serum, kidney and ileum and inhibited the xanthine oxidase activities and elevated the antioxidant activities of serum and liver in hyperuricemic rat. At the same time, it reduced the levels of inflammation factors in kidney and protected renal function. Moreover, 68 differential metabolites of hyperuricemic rats were screened and most of which were lipids and amino acids. The flavonoid extract significantly retrieved the levels of differential metabolites in hyperuricemic rats, such as SM(d18:1/20:0), PC[18:0/18:2(92,12Z)], palmitic acid and citrulline, possibly through the following three pathways, i.e., arginine biosynthesis, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and histidine metabolism. To sum up, the flavonoid extract of saffron floral bio-residues lowered the uric acid level, increased the antioxidant activity, and alleviated inflammatory symptoms of hyperuricemic rats, which may be related to its inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity and regulation of serum lipids and amino acids metabolism.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Uric Acid , Crocus , Xanthine Oxidase , Ethambutol/adverse effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , Kidney , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Amino Acids , Adenine/adverse effects , Lipids
19.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 70-75, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970239

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the genotypes and clinical characteristics of homozygous family hypobetalipoproteinemia (Ho-FHBL) caused by apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene variations. Methods: The clinical, laboratory, genetic, and liver histology data of a boy with Ho-FHBL managed in the hepatology ward of the Children's Hospital of Fudan University in May 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The literature was searched from China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, China VIP database, China Biology Medicine disc and PubMed database (up to May 2022) with "familial hypobetalipoproteinemia" or "hypobetalipoproteinemias" or "hypo beta lipoproteinemia" or "hypolipoproteinemias" as the search terms. All relevant literatures were reviewed to summarize the clinical and genetic features of Ho-FHBL caused by APOB gene variations. Results: The male patient was admitted to the hospital due to abnormal liver function tests for 8 months at the age of 4 years and 6 months. Blood biochemistry showed transaminitis and abnormally low serum levels of lipids. Liver biopsy revealed fatty liver with inflammation and early cirrhosis (Brunt score was F3G2S4). Whole exome sequencing revealed two novel variants of APOB gene (c.3745C>T, p.Q1249 * from the father and c.4589_4592delinsAGGTAGGAGGTTTAACTCCTCCTACCT, p.T1530Kfs * 12 from the mother). He was diagnosed as Ho-FHBL caused by APOB gene compound heterozygous variations. Literature search retrieved 36 English literatures and 0 Chinese literature. A total of 55 (23 males and 32 females) Ho-FHBL cases, including this one, were caused by 54 APOB gene pathogenic variants (23 frameshift, 15 nonsense, 7 missense, 8 splice and 1 gross deletions). The age of the last follow-up was between 1 month and 75 years. Among them, 28 cases had lipid malabsorption, 19 cases had early dysplasia, 12 cases had no symptoms. Twenty-one patients had symptoms related to fat soluble vitamin deficiency, including 14 cases of acanthocytosis, 10 cases of neurological symptoms, and 6 cases of ocular lesions. Thirty-four patients had liver involvement, including 25 cases of elevated transaminase, 21 cases of fatty liver, 15 cases of hepatomegaly, 9 cases of liver fibrosis, 3 cases of liver cirrhosis, 1 case of hepatic hemangioma and 1 case of liver neoplastic nodule. Conclusions: The variants of APOB gene in Ho-FHBL are mainly frameshift and nonsense variations. Patients may have lipid malabsorption and (or) early dysplasia, or symptom-free. Liver involvement is common.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Infant , Abetalipoproteinemia/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Hypobetalipoproteinemias/diagnosis , Fatty Liver/genetics , Apolipoproteins B/genetics , Lipids
20.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 278-287, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969775

ABSTRACT

Objective: Hyperlipidemia is closely related to premature acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present study was performed to explore the correlation between various blood lipid components and the risk of premature AMI. Methods: This is a cross-sectional retrospective study. Consecutive patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who completed coronary angiography from October 1, 2020 to September 30, 2022 in our hospital, were enrolled and divided into premature AMI group (male<55 years old, female<65 years old) and late-onset AMI group. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1), non-HDL-C/HDL-C and ApoB/ApoA-1 were analyzed. The correlation between the above blood lipid indexes and premature AMI was analyzed and compared by logistic regression, restricted cubic spline and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Results: A total of 1 626 patients with STEMI were enrolled in this study, including 409 patients with premature AMI and 1 217 patients with late-onset AMI. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of premature AMI increased significantly with the increase of TG, non-HDL-C/HDL-C, non-HDL-C, ApoB/ApoA-1, TC and ApoB quintiles; while LDL-C, ApoA-1 and Lp (a) had no significant correlation with premature AMI. The restricted cubic spline graph showed that except Lp (a), LDL-C, ApoA-1 and ApoB/ApoA-1, other blood lipid indicators were significantly correlated with premature AMI. The ROC curve showed that TG and non-HDL-C/HDL-C had better predictive value for premature AMI. Inconsistency analysis found that the incidence and risk of premature AMI were the highest in patients with high TG and high non-HDL-C/HDL-C. Conclusion: TG, non-HDL-C/HDL-C and other blood lipid indexes are significantly increased in patients with premature AMI, among which TG is the parameter, most closely related to premature AMI, and future studies are needed to explore the impact of controlling TG on incidence of premature AMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cholesterol, LDL , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Apolipoprotein A-I , Myocardial Infarction , Cholesterol , Apolipoproteins B , Triglycerides , Cholesterol, HDL , Lipids , Lipoproteins
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