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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21308, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439523


Abstract Development of ceftriaxone loaded nanostructured lipid carriers to increase permeability of ceftriaxone across uninflamed meninges after parenteral administration. Lipids were selected by theoretical and experimental techniques and optimization of NLCs done by response surface methodology using Box-Behnken design. The Δδt for glyceryl monostearate and Capryol90 were 4.39 and 2.92 respectively. The drug had maximum solubility of 0.175% (w/w) in glycerol monostearate and 2.56g of Capryol90 dissolved 10mg of drug. The binary mixture consisted of glyceryl monostearate and Capryol90 in a ratio of 70:30. The optimized NLCs particle size was 130.54nm, polydispersity index 0.28, % entrapment efficiency 44.32%, zeta potential -29.05mV, and % drug loading 8.10%. In vitro permeability of ceftriaxone loaded NLCs was 5.06x10-6 cm/s; evidently, the NLCs pervaded through uninflamed meninges, which, was further confirmed from in vivo biodistribution studies. The ratio of drug concentration between brain and plasma for ceftriaxone loaded NLCs was 0.29 and that for ceftriaxone solution was 0.02. With 44.32% entrapment of the drug in NLCs the biodistribution of ceftriaxone was enhanced 7.9 times compared with that of ceftriaxone solution. DSC and XRD studies revealed formation of imperfect crystalline NLCs. NLCs improved permeability of ceftriaxone through uninflamed meninges resulting in better management of CNS infections.

Ceftriaxone/agonists , Triage/classification , Lipids/analysis , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Central Nervous System Infections/pathology
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 18(1): 9-11, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442600


El proceso de respiración y el intercambio gaseoso requiere la interacción de variadas fuerzas en los distintos tejidos y órganos involucrados. La tensión superficial a nivel alveolar provocaría colapso de dichas estructuras de no ser por las características del surfactante que lo recubre. Revisaremos en este articulo la fisiología involucrada en su estructura física, producción y efectos pulmonares.

The process of breathing and gas exchange requires the interaction of various forces in the different tissues and organs involved. The surface tension at the alveolus would cause collapse of these structures without of the surfactant that covers it. We will review in this article the physiology involved in its physical structure, production, and pulmonary effects.

Humans , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , Lung/physiology , Phospholipids/analysis , Pulmonary Surfactants/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Lipids/analysis
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-13, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284386


Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) son la causa de muerte más frecuente en las mujeres en todo el mundo. La deficiencia de estrógenos debido a la menopausia se asocia con un mayor riesgo a padecer esta patología.Objetivo: Analizar los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en mujeres perimenopausicas con al menos un factor de riesgo cardiovascular modificable mayor (diabetes, hipertensión, dislipemia) con edades comprendidas entre los 45 y 60 años de dos servicios de atención primaria urbanos.Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal en dos centros de salud de la ciudad de Ourense (Centro de Salud Novoa Santos y Centro de Salud A Ponte). Las variables analizadas fueron: Actividad estrogénica, tratamiento farmacológico, hábito tabáquico, calidad de vida, índice de masa corporal (IMC), colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidad (cHDL), lipoproteína de baja densidad (cLDL) y triglicéridos, tensión arterial sistólica (TAS), tensión arterial diastólica (TAD), frecuencia cardíaca (FC). El estudio contó con la aprobación del Comité Ético de Galicia. El análisis de los datos se efectuó a través del software libre R.Resultados: Participaron 316 mujeres, de las cuales el 64,9% eran menopáusicas. La edad media de la muestra fue de 53,35 ± 4,35 años. El valor medio del IMC fue de 28,125 ± 5,54 Kg/m2. Un 27,8% afirmó presentar hábito tabáquico. El 77,2% de las mujeres de la muestra presentaban niveles de colesterol total ≥200 mg/dl. En relación al cLDL, en el 72,6% de la población estudiada era ≥130 mg/dl. Se observó una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre el IMC y los niveles de triglicéridos, cHDL, TAS, TAD y FC.Conclusiones: Las mujeres perimenopáusicas presentaban una elevada prevalencia hábito tabáquico, obesidad y sobrepeso, a pesar de sufrir al menos un factor de riesgo cardiovascular. Por otra parte mostraron una baja calidad de vida tanto en la dimensión física como mental

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in women worldwide. Estrogen deficiency due to menopause is associated with an increased risk of this pathology.Objective: To analyze cardiovascular risk factors in perimenopausal women with at least one major modifiable cardiovascular risk factor (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia) between the ages of 45 and 60 of two urban primary care services.Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive study in two health centers in the city of Ourense (Novoa Santos Health Center and A Ponte Health Center). The variables analyzed were: estrogenic activity, pharmacological treatment, smoking habit, quality of life, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (cHDL), low-density lipoprotein (cLDL) and triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (TAS), diastolic blood pressure (TAD), heart rate (FC). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Galicia. Data analysis was performed through the free R software.Results: 316 women participated, of whom 64.9% were menopausal. The average age of the sample was 53.35 ± 4.35 years. The average BMI value was 28,125 ± 5.54 Kg/m2. 27.8% said they had a smoking habit. 77.2% of the women in the sample had total cholesterol levels ≥200 mg/dL. In relation to the cLDL, in 72.6% of the population studied it was ≥130 mg/dL. A statistically significant correlation was observed between BMI and triglyceride, cHDL, TAS, TAD and FC levels.Conclusion: Perimenopausal women had a high prevalence of smoking habit, obesity and overweight, despite suffering at least one cardiovascular risk factor. On the other hand they showed a low quality of life in both the physical and mental dimensión.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Menopause , Body Mass Index , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Quality of Life , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Lipids/analysis
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(6): 371-378, 20200000. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1367088


Context and Aim: Hematological abnormalities are amongst the most common complications of infection with HIV.There have been quite a few studies on the alterations in lipid profile, too, though the results have largely been inconclusive. The present study was carried-out to assess CD4 cell counts and lipid profile in the HIV infected and AIDS patients in the Indian population and correlates them with the sero-negative controls. Materials and Methods: The present study was designed as a cross-sectional, hospital-based study to assess CD4 cell counts and lipid profile in the HIV infected and AIDS patients in the Indian population and correlates them with the sero-negative controls. Evaluation of lipid profile was done using Erba EM 360, an automated analyzer powered by a diffraction grating photometer while CD4 cell counts were evaluated using Partec Cyflow Counter. Statistical analysis used: The data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Comparison of the said parameters was done using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and posthoc Games-Howell test. p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) were significantly decreased while triglycerides and very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) were significantly increased in the HIV infected and AIDS patients when compared with the sero-negative controls. Conclusion: Total cholesterol, LDLs, triglycerides and VLDLs were significantly altered in the HIV infected and AIDS patients when compared with the sero-negative controls.

Humans , CD4 Antigens/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies/statistics & numerical data , Analysis of Variance , HIV Seronegativity/immunology , Dyslipidemias/pathology , Lipids/analysis
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 351-358, jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126131


The aim of the present study was to analyze the consumption of foods according to their degree of processing in patients with established atherosclerosis disease. A cross-sectional study was performed with 74 patients of the BALANCE Program trial, a randomized, multicenter and national clinical trial occurring in Brazil. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose were collected. Food intake was assessed with 24-h dietary recall. Consumption of nutrients was analyzed in quartiles of consumption of ultra-processed foods and their differences were obtained by one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test. Half of consumed calories came from natural or minimally processed foods (50.9%), followed by ultra-processed food products (35.1%). The largest contribution in calories came from meats, cereals/roots/tubers, breads, and sweets. No significant difference was found in quartiles of consumption of ultra-processed foods. In this sample, consumption of processed/ultra-processed food was almost the same as natural/minimally processed foods. Preferential consumption of unprocessed/minimally processed foods should be more widely advocated by health professionals.

El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar el consumo de alimentos, de acuerdo con su grado de procesamiento, en pacientes con enfermedad arterioesclerótica establecida. Estudio transversal, en 74 pacientes del BALANCE Program trial que es un ensayo clínico randomizado, multicéntrico y nacional que se realiza en Brasil. Se midió el peso corporal, la talla, la circunferencia de la cintura, la presión arterial, el perfil lipídico y la glucosa en ayunas. La ingesta de alimentos se evaluó con un recordatorio de 24 horas. El consumo de nutrientes se analizó en cuartiles de consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados y sus diferencias se pusieron a prueba mediante ANOVA de una vía. La mitad de las calorías consumidas provino de alimentos naturales o mínimamente procesados (50.9%), seguidos por productos alimenticios ultraprocesados (35.1%). La mayor contribución en calorías provino de carnes, cereales/raíces/tubérculos, panes y dulces. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los cuartiles de consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados. En esta muestra, el consumo de alimentos procesados/ultraprocesados fue casi el mismo que de los alimentos naturales/mínimamente procesados. El consumo preferencial de alimentos no procesados/mínimamente procesados debería ser defendido más ampliamente por profesionales de la salud.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Eating , Atherosclerosis , Blood Pressure , Body Height , Body Weight , Brazil , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Diet , Waist Circumference , Glucose/analysis , Lipids/analysis
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(3): 179-185, 20200000. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1369029


Background: Older women have a high chance of suffering from coronary heart diseases and heart failure. Possessing high-sensitive tests will permit early detection of cardiac troponin and lipid proteins (HDL, LDL, VLDL, & Triglyceride) I in levels that are below the diagnostic endpoint for the acute coronary syndrome. Aim of the study: The intent in this study is to analyze the association among the 3 ranks taking into consideration any future cardiac happening within the community setting and involving elderly women who are aged seventy years and above. Patients and Methods: 212 women were grouped for this study, and this lot was lacking any CHD within the set baseline or the troponin and lipid proteins (HDL, LDL, VLDL, & Triglyceride) established above the analytical limits for the disease to be studied (acute coronary syndrome). These elderly women had a 15-year continuation of hospitalization and mortality measures. Results: The analysis showed 22 percent of the study group to be suffering from CHD, there was 15 percent of myocardial infarction or death brought about by CHD, and 10 percent of the heart failure. The 99 percent of assessed serum illustrations, troponin, and lipid proteins (HDL, LDL, VLDL, & Triglyceride) levels were above recognition. Taking into consideration of the Framingham risk features, the correction done for each SD normal linear changed troponin and lipid proteins (HDL, LDL, VLDL, & Triglyceride) upsurge was connected to an upsurge uncertainty for the coronary heart disease. Conclusions: conclusively, the troponin and lipid profile (HDL, LDL, VLDL, & Triglyceride) I am autonomously linked with the foreseeable cardiac happenings in older women across Iraq without seeming clinical indicators. Adding cardiac troponin and lipid proteins (HDL, LDL, VLDL, & Triglyceride) 1 to the conventional risk factor can greatly enhance the risk prediction in this background.

Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Troponin/analysis , Longitudinal Studies , Early Medical Intervention , Heart Failure/complications , Lipids/analysis
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 181-189, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115487


The objective of this study was to assess the influence of weight gain on the lipid profile of 135 adolescents between 10 - 14 years at baseline and 15 - 19 years at follow-up, enrolled in public schools in Recife, Brazil. The results showed that a BMI z-score correlated with triglycerides (TG) and with high density trigliceride lipopoteine ratio (TG/HDL-c) in males. In females, high z-score correlated with total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-c). In males, for each unit increase in z-score, TG increased by 14.7 mg/dL and the TG/HDL-c ratio increased by 0.4. Among females, TC increased by 9.4 mg/dL, LDL-c increased by 11.6 mg/dL, non-HDL cholesterol increased by 11.8 mg/dL, and HDL-c decreased by 2.3 mg/dL. In males, excessive weight gain was associated with an increase in TG and TG/HDL-c; in females, it was associated with a higher increase in TG/HDL-c and non-HDL cholesterol. However, z-score variation can be a good predictor of lipid profile changes, even in those that are within the normal range.

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia del aumento de peso en el perfil lipídico de 135 adolescentes de edades entre 10 y 14 años de edad al inicio del estudio y de 15 a 19 años en el seguimiento. Los adolescentes pertenecían a escuelas públicas de Recife, Brasil. Los resultados mostraron que el alto puntaje z de indice de masa corporase (IMC) correlacionaba con triglicéridos (TG) y con relación de triglicéridos con lipoproteínas de alta densidad (TG/HDL-c) en los hombres. En las mujeres, puntaje z de IMC se correlacionó con CT y lipoproteína de baja densidad (LDL-c). En los hombres, por cada unidad de aumento en el puntaje z, los TG aumentaron en 14,7 mg/dL y la relación TG / HDL-c aumentó en 0,4; en las mujeres, el CT aumentó en 9,4 mg/dL, el LDL-c aumentó en 11,6 mg/dL, el colesterol no HDL aumentó en 11,8 mg / dL y el HDL-c disminuyó en 2,3 mg/dL. En los hombres, el aumento de peso excesivo se asoció con un aumento de TG y TG/HDL-c; en las mujeres, con un aumento mayor en TG/HDL-c y colesterol no HDL. Sin embargo, la variación z-score puede ser un buen predictor de cambios en el perfil lipídico, incluso en aquellos que se encuentran dentro del rango normal.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Weight Gain , Lipids/analysis , Triglycerides/analysis , Brazil , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Dyslipidemias/complications , Lipoproteins, HDL/analysis , Lipoproteins, LDL/analysis
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 281-285, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115499


Synthetic preservatives are widely present in processed foods, but most of them have carcinogenic potential, requiring the development of new natural alternatives such as fruit extracts, for microbial control. The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemical characterization, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the sugar apple pulp (Annona squamosa L.). Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated, an extract was prepared, and its antioxidant activity by DPPH method and antimicrobial by disk diffusion. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration against strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. The physicochemical analysis revealed that sugar apple pulp had 75.0% moisture, 3.0% ash, 4.0% protein, 0.2% lipids, 3.3% fibers, and 14.5% carbohydrates. The antioxidant activity of the extract by the DPPH method was 20.6%. The pulp extract from the sugar apple had inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus, satisfactory inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium, but did not present a bactericidal effect. Sugar apple pulp presents adequate levels of nutrients and potential for food application due to its microbiological activity and antioxidant properties.

Los conservantes sintéticos están ampliamente presentes en los alimentos procesados, pero la mayoría tienen potencial carcinogénico, lo que requiere el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas naturales para el control microbiano, como los extractos de frutas. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la caracterización química, la actividad antioxidante y antimicrobiana de la pulpa de manzana de azúcar (Annona squamosa L.). Se evaluaron las características fisicoquímicas, y se evaluó su actividad antioxidante mediante el método DPPH y antimicrobiano por difusión en disco, concentración inhibitoria mínima y concentración bactericida mínima contra cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Staphylococcus aureus. El análisis fisicoquímico reveló que la pulpa de manzana de azúcar tiene 75.0% de humedad, 3.0% de cenizas, 4.0% de proteínas, 0.2% de lípidos, 3.3% de fibras y 14.5% de carbohidratos. La actividad antioxidante del extracto por el método DPPH fue del 20.6%. El extracto de pulpa de la manzana de azúcar tenía zona de inhibición para Staphylococcus aureus, efecto inhibidor satisfactorio contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella Typhimurium, pero no presenta efecto bactericida. La pulpa de manzana de azúcar presenta niveles adecuados de nutrientes y potencial para la aplicación de alimentos debido a su actividad microbiológica y propiedades antioxidantes.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Annona/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Carbohydrates/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Lipids/analysis , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 61-68, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056398


Fruit purees can be added to diet as alternative sources of bioactive compounds for the prevention and/or improvement of the complications of metabolic syndrome. In this work we evaluated the effect of the intake of low-fat diets enriched with fruit purees (guava-strawberry, guava-blackberry, guava-soursop, guava-passion fruit) on the body weight and biochemical markers in metabolic syndrome analogy (MSA)-induced rats. The rats (n=6 for each treatment) were induced with a high fat diet and were injected with streptozotocin, one dose every week for 4 consecutive weeks after fasting overnight, then healthy rats were fed with standard diet and MS rats were fed with standard diet plus each of the fruit puree, for 4 weeks. As novel findings, the diet enriched with fruit purees was associated with a reduction in body weight (~13-21 %) and a control in the metabolism of glucose by decreasing plasma glucose (~5963 %). Also, there was a reduction in the total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, low-density lipoproteins, and low enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase, useful metabolites in the control of inflammatory processes in the liver. A notable improvement in the liver morphology was observed indicating that the treatments had a hepatoprotective effect. The diet enriched with guava-blackberry puree caused the best results on most biochemical markers of MS rats. Therefore, diets enriched with fruit purees can be an alternative for MS individuals for the control and improvement of the complications caused by this syndrome.

Los purés de frutas se pueden agregar a la dieta como fuentes alternativas de compuestos bioactivos para la prevención y / o mejora de las complicaciones del síndrome metabólico. En este trabajo evaluamos el efecto de la ingesta de dietas bajas en grasas, enriquecidas con purés de frutas (guayaba-fresa, guayaba-mora, guayaba-guanábana, guayaba-maracuyá) sobre el peso corporal y los marcadores bioquímicos en el síndrome metabólico (SM) inducido en ratas. Las ratas (n = 6 para cada tratamiento) fueron inducidas con una dieta alta en grasas y se les inyectó estreptozotocina, una dosis cada semana durante 4 semanas consecutivas después de ayunar durante la noche. Luego, las ratas sanas fueron alimentadas con una dieta estándar; y las ratas con SM fueron alimentadas con dieta estándar más cada uno de los purés de frutas, durante 4 semanas. Como hallazgos novedosos, la dieta enriquecida con purés de frutas se asoció con una reducción en el peso corporal (~ 13-21 %) y un control en el metabolismo de la glucosa al disminuir la glucosa en plasma (~ 59-63 %). Además, hubo una reducción en el colesterol total, triacilgliceroles, lipoproteínas de baja densidad, y bajas actividades enzimáticas de alanina aminotransferasa, fosfatasa alcalina y gama-glutamil transferasa, metabolitos útiles en el control de los procesos inflamatorios en el hígado. Se observó una mejora notable en la morfología del hígado, lo que indica que los tratamientos tuvieron un efecto hepatoprotector. La dieta enriquecida con puré de guayaba y mora causó los mejores resultados en la mayoría de los marcadores bioquímicos de las ratas con SM. Por lo tanto, las dietas enriquecidas con purés de frutas pueden ser una alternativa para las personas con SM, para el control y la mejora de las complicaciones causadas por este síndrome.

Animals , Rats , Diet, Fat-Restricted , Metabolic Syndrome , Fruit , Liver/drug effects , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Biomarkers , Albumins/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Transaminases/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Liver/chemistry
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 73-79, feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092746


The study aimed to associate the consumption of trans and saturated fats with dyslipidemia in overweight and obese adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) from February 2013 to November 2014. Anthropometry, food consumption data, and the lipidogram of 9,538 overweight Brazilian adolescents from macro-regions and Teresina were used in the study. We found an association between saturated fats and HDL-c in Teresina and in the Northeastern macro-region (p-value= 0.002 and p-value= 0.033, respectively), showing that adolescents in Teresina who consumed less than 10% of saturated fats were 2.04-fold more likely to have desirable HDL-c (OR= 2.04), while northeastern adolescents were 0.625 less likely to have desirable HDL-c (OR= 0.625). In Teresina, there was an association between saturated fat consumption and total cholesterol (p-value= 0.045), showing that adolescents consuming less than 10% of saturated fats had a 0.543- fold lower odds of having desirable total cholesterol levels (OR= 0.543). Lipid profile was not associated with consumption of trans fats, but with the consumption of saturated fats. It is important to monitor the lipid profile of adolescents, especially in the presence of overweight.

El objective fue asociar el consumo de grasas trans y saturadas y dislipidemia en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad que participaron en el Estudio de Riesgos Cardiovasculares en Adolescentes (ERICA), en el período de febrero de 2013 a noviembre de 2014. Se utilizaron datos antropométricos, consumo alimentario y lipidograma de 9.538 adolescentes, residentes en Brasil, macrorregiones y Teresina. En Teresina y Macroregión Nordeste, hubo asociación entre el consumo de grasa saturada y HDL-c (p-valor= 0,002 y p-valor= 0,033), respectivamente, mostrando que, adolescentes teresinenses con consumo menor que 10% la grasa saturada tiene 2,04 veces más probabilidades de tener HDL-c deseables (OR= 2,04); mientras que los nordestinos que consumen menos del 10% de grasa saturada tienen 0,625 veces la probabilidad de tener HDL-c deseables (OR= 0,625). En Teresina, hubo asociación entre el consumo de grasa saturada y colesterol total (p-valor= 0,045), mostrando que adolescentes con consumo menor que 10% de grasa saturada tienen 0,543 veces la probabilidad de tener colesterol total deseable (OR= 0,543). El perfil lipídico no se asoció al consumo de grasa trans, sino al consumo de grasa saturada. Es importante realizar monitorización del perfil lipídico de adolescentes, especialmente en presencia del sobrepeso.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Dietary Fats , Eating , Dyslipidemias , Overweight , Fatty Acids , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Brazil , Anthropometry , Cholesterol/analysis , Trans Fatty Acids , Lipids/analysis , Obesity
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e9201, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089347


Methylophiopogonanone A (MO-A), a homoisoflavonoid extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been shown to attenuate myocardial apoptosis and improve cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the hypolipidemic effects remain unknown. This study was performed to investigate a potential hypolipidemic effect of MO-A in hyperlipidemia rats, as well as its underlying mechanism of action. A rat model of hyperlipidemia was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals were randomly divided into three groups (n=8/group): normal control group (NC), HFD group, and HFD+MO-A (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) treatment group. The effects of MO-A on serum lipids, body weight, activity of lipoprotein metabolism enzyme, and gene expression of lipid metabolism were evaluated in HFD-induced rats. In HFD-induced rats, pretreatment with MO-A decreased the body weight gain and reduced serum and hepatic lipid levels. In addition, pretreatment with MO-A improved the activities of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase in serum and liver, down-regulated mRNA expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and up-regulated mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in the liver. Our results indicated that MO-A showed strong ability to ameliorate the hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced rats. MO-A might be a potential candidate for prevention of overweight and dyslipidemia induced by HFD.

Animals , Male , Rats , Ophiopogon/chemistry , Benzodioxoles/pharmacology , Lipid Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Hyperlipidemias/prevention & control , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Benzodioxoles/isolation & purification , Feces/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hyperlipidemias/metabolism , Isoflavones/isolation & purification , Lipids/analysis
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(4): 469-476, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124024


El propósito de este estudio fue analizar los cambios post prandiales en el perfil lipídico en respuesta a una comida típica argentina. Se extrajo sangre a 33 mujeres voluntarias después de 12 h de ayuno (T0), 1 h después de un desayuno estandarizado (T1) y 1 h después de un almuerzo estandarizado (T2). Se midieron los niveles de: colesterol total, colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (C-HDL), colesterol de lipoproteínas de baja densidad (C-LDL) y triglicéridos. Los datos se analizaron utilizando la prueba t de Student pareada. Para cada analito se calculó la diferencia porcentual media (DM%) en T1 y T2 respecto de T0 y se comparó con el valor de referencia del cambio (VRC). Las DM% mayores al VRC se consideraron clínicamente significativas. En T1 y T2, los valores de C-HDL fueron más bajos que en T0, mientras que los valores de C-LDL en T1 fueron más bajos que en T0. Los niveles de triglicéridos fueron significativamente más altos en T1 que en T0. En todos los casos, la variabilidad fue estadísticamente significativa, aunque no clínicamente. En este estudio puede observarse que el perfil de lípidos en T1 y T2 no mostró diferencias clínicamente significativas con respecto a los valores basales.

The purpose of the present study was to analyze postprandial lipid profile changes in response to a typical Argentine meal. Blood was collected from 33 female volunteers after a 12 h fasting period (T0), 1 h after a standardized breakfast (T1) and 1 h after a standardized lunch (T2). The levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were measured. Data were analyzed using paired Student's t-test. Mean difference % (MD %) was calculated for each analyte at T1 and T2 and was further compared with reference change value (RCV). MDs % higher than RCV were considered clinically significant. At T1 and T2, HDL-C values were lower than at T0, whereas LDL-C values at T1 were lower than at T0. Triglycerides levels were significantly higher at T1 than baseline values. In all cases, variability was statistically, though not clinically, significant. This study demonstrates that at T1 and T2 lipid profile showed no clinically significant differences with respect to basal values.

O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as alterações do perfil lipídico pós-prandial em resposta a uma refeição típica argentina. O sangue foi coletado de 33 mulheres voluntárias após um período de jejum de 12 horas (T0),1 h após um café da manhã padronizado (T1) e 1 h após um almoço padronizado (T2). Foram medidos os níveis de: colesterol total (CT), colesterol HDL (C-HDL), colesterol LDL (C-LDL) e triglicérides. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o teste t de Student pareado. A diferença média% (DM%) foi calculada para cada analito em T1 e T2 e foi comparada com o valor de mudança de referência (VRC). Os MDs% maiores que o VRC foram considerados clinicamente significativos. Em T1 e T2, os valores de C-HDL foram menores que em T0, enquanto os valores de C-LDL em T1 foram menores que em T0. Os níveis de triglicérides foram significativamente maiores em T1 do que os valores basais. Em todos os casos, a variabilidade foi estatisticamente, embora não clinicamente, significativa. Este estudo demonstra que no perfil lipídico em T1 e T2 não houve diferenças clinicamente significativas em relação aos valores basais.

Humans , Triglycerides , Blood , Cholesterol , Fasting , Fasting/blood , Diagnosis , Meals , Breakfast , Pre-Analytical Phase/statistics & numerical data , Lipids , Lipids/analysis , Lipoproteins , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Powders , Referral and Consultation , Coffee , Lunch , Lipoproteins, LDL
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(4): 459-468, dic. 2019. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124023


Los profesionales que ejercen la bioquimica clinica son conscientes de la falta de resultados comparables entre laboratorios, independientemente de donde y cuando se realicen. Durante muchos anos el centro de la gestion de la calidad estuvo en la estandarizacion de los procedimientos de medida, la armonizacion va mas alla del metodo y los resultados analiticos e incluye todos los aspectos que hay que tener en cuenta durante el proceso total de la prueba. Los laboratorios de bioquimica clinica han logrado en las ultimas decadas importantes mejoras en la calidad de los procesos analiticos, pero es necesario un esfuerzo mayor dedicado a la vulnerabilidad de los procedimientos extra analiticos para asegurar la comparacion y la concordancia de los resultados obtenidos por diferentes laboratorios clinicos. Las iniciativas destinadas a mejorar la armonizacion de los resultados de laboratorio tienen una dimension etica y de gran importancia en el diagnostico de las dislipemias asociadas al desarrollo de aterosclerosis y la evaluacion del riesgo cardiovascular. Los estudios poblacionales aun muestran dificultades en la identificacion del mejor biomarcador que pueda evidenciar adecuadamente el riesgo cardiovascular en un individuo. La correlacion, discordancia y concordancia muestran que es necesario el diseno de un perfil de pruebas de laboratorio personalizado, con marcadores estandarizados y armonizados, que permita la prediccion del riesgo.

The health professionals who practice clinical biochemistry are aware of the lack of comparable results between laboratories, regardless of where and when they are performed. For many years, the objective of the quality management was the standardization of measurement procedures. The harmonization is beyond the methods and the analytical results, and it includes all the aspects to be taken into account during the whole process of the test. The clinical biochemistry laboratories have achieved important improvements in the quality of the analytical processes in the last decades, but greater effort is necessary for the vulnerability of the extra analytical procedures to ensure the comparison and the agreement of the results obtained by different clinical laboratories. The initiatives aimed to improve the harmonization of laboratory results have an ethical dimension and importance in the diagnosis of dyslipidemia associated with the development of atherosclerosis and the assessment of cardiovascular risk. The population studies still show difficulties in the identification of the best biomarker that can adequately show the cardiovascular risk in an individual. The correlation, discordance and concordance between biomarkers show that it is necessary to design a personalized laboratory test profile, and with standardized and harmonized markers that allow the prediction of risk.

Os profissionais que exercem a bioquímica clínica Clinical estão cientes da falta de resultados comparáveis entre laboratórios, independentemente de onde e quando forem realizados. Por muitos anos, o centro de gestão da qualidade esteve na padronização dos procedimentos de medição, a harmonização vai além do método analítico e dos resultados analíticos e inclui todos os aspectos a considerar durante o processo do teste. Laboratórios bioquímica clínica têm alcançado, nas últimas décadas grandes melhorias na qualidade dos processos analíticos, mas precisa de um esforço maior dedicado à vulnerabilidade dos procedimentos extra-analíticos, para garantir a comparação e concordancia dos resultados obtidos pelos diferentes laboratórios clínicos. Iniciativas para melhorar a harmonização dos resultados laboratoriais têm uma dimensão ética e de grande importȃncia no diagnóstico de dislipidemias associadas ao desenvolvimento de aterosclerose e à avaliação do risco cardiovascular. As pesquisas populacionais mostram ainda dificuldades em identificar o melhor biomarcador que possa demonstrar em forma adecuada o risco cardiovascular em um individuo, a correlação, discordância e concordância mostram que é necessário o desenho de um perfil de testes personalizado, com marcadores padronizados e harmonizada, que permite a previsão de risco.

Humans , Reference Standards , Biomarkers , Total Quality Management , Diagnosis , Laboratories , Lipids , Lipids/analysis , Methods , Biochemistry , Health , Risk , Atherosclerosis , Dyslipidemias , Ethics , Laboratory Test , Forecasting
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(3): 157-164, sept. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1053250


El ayuno intermitente es una estrategia nutricional de creciente interés para el control del peso y mejora de la salud metabólica. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de un protocolo de ayuno intermitente sobre la composición corporal, perfil lipídico y los biomarcadores de riesgo cardiovascular en estudiantes universitarios. En este estudio experimental participaron 30 sujetos varones y fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos, 15 sujetos constituían el grupo experimental (GE) (edad: 20,83±0,98 años) y 15 el grupo control (GC) (edad: 23,71±5,55 años). El GE realizó un protocolo de ayuno 16/8, dieciséis horas de ayuno y ocho horas de ingesta calórica sin limitaciones, dos días consecutivos a la semana durante cinco semanas. Se evaluó la composición corporal, la ingesta calórica, el perfil lipídico y los biomarcadores del riesgo cardiovascular al inicio, mitad y final del protocolo. Se observaron descensos significativos en el GE en pliegues cutáneos, perímetro cintura, porcentaje de grasa, perfil lipídico y biomarcadores del riesgo cardiovascular en comparación con GC (p<0,05). Se encontraron incrementos significativos en la ingesta de colesterol y ácidos grasos poliinsaturados en el GE al final del estudio (p<0,05). Se observaron descensos en el colesterol total, triglicéridos, lipoproteínas de baja densidad y biomarcadores del riesgo cardiovascular a lo largo del protocolo en el GE (p<0,05). Un protocolo de ayuno intermitente 16/8, dos días consecutivos por semana, durante cinco semanas, parece efectivo para mejorar parámetros de composición corporal y perfil lipídico, así como para mejorar los biomarcadores relacionados con el riesgo cardiovascular(AU)

Intermittent fasting is a nutritional strategy of high interest in weight control and improvement of metabolic health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intermittent fasting protocol on body composition, lipid profile and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in university students. In this experimental study thirty male subjects participated and were randomly divided into two groups; fifteen subjects constituted the experimental group (GE) (age: 20.83 ± 0.98 years) and fifteen the control group (GC) (age: 23.71 ± 5.55 years). The GE performed a fasting protocol 16/8, sixteen hours of fasting and eight hours of caloric intake without limitations, two consecutive days per week for five weeks. Body composition, calorie intake, lipid profile and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk were evaluated at the beginning, middle and at the end of the protocol. Significant decreases were found in GE in skinfolds, waist perimeter, % fat, lipid profile and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk as compared to GC (p <0.05). There were significant increases in the intake of cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the GE at the end of the study (p <0.05). There were decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins, and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk throughout the study in GE (p<0.05). An intermittent fasting protocol 16/8, two consecutive days per week, for five weeks, seems effective to improve parameters of body composition and lipid profile, as well as to improving biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Fasting/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior , Lipids/analysis , Body Composition , Nutritional Status , Food Composition
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 26-31, ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038825


Resumen Los pacientes con lepra lepromatosa que han recibido tratamiento durante años, usualmente requieren seguimiento con biopsias de piel para detectar lesiones persistentes o si la baciloscopia es positiva, incluso si los valores son menores que los iniciales. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 48 años de edad con lepra lepromatosa de 15 años de evolución, índice bacilar de 4 en el extendido directo y en la biopsia, que recibió tratamiento con múltiples medicamentos durante 32 meses, aunque lo recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) es una duración de 12 meses. Se tomó una biopsia de piel para determinar si la enfermedad estaba activa. Se observó inflamación dérmica difusa con numerosas células gigantes de tipo cuerpo extraño y macrófagos vacuolados (células de Virchow). Estas células, CD68 positivas, contenían material granular ácido-alcohol resistente positivo con inmunohistoquímica para BCG. Se encontraron bacilos fragmentados y el índice bacilar fue de 2. Se interpretó como una forma residual de lepra lepromatosa y se concluyó que la paciente no requería prolongar el tratamiento con múltiples medicamentos. Este perfil histológico se ha observado en casos similares, pero sin datos clínicos estas biopsias representan un reto diagnóstico. La acumulación de lípidos en estas células gigantes se debe a la destrucción bacilar y a la fusión de macrófagos vacuolados. Se revisó el papel de los lípidos del bacilo y del huésped en la patogenia de la lepra lepromatosa. En estos casos, no es necesario extender los 12 meses de tratamiento con múltiples medicamentos recomendados por la OMS. En el seguimiento de los pacientes, se recomienda contar con los hallazgos clínicos, la baciloscopia, la biopsia anual de piel y los títulos IgM antiglucolípido fenólico.

Abstract Patients with lepromatous leprosy that have received treatment for many years usually get follow up biopsies for persistent skin lesions or positive bacilloscopy even if the values are lower than in the initial bacilloscopy. We report the case of a 48-year old woman with long-standing lepromatous leprosy of 15 years of evolution, with a bacterial index of 4 in the direct smear and the initial skin biopsy. The patient was treated with multidrug therapy for 32 months although the treatment recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is only for 12 months. A skin biopsy was taken to determine if there was an active disease. We observed a diffuse dermal inflammation with numerous foreign body giant cells and vacuolated macrophages (Virchow´s cells). These cells contained granular acid-fast material that was also positive with immunohistochemistry for BCG. There were fragmented bacilli and the BI was 2. These cells were also strongly positive for CD68. The biopsy was interpreted as a residual form of lepromatous leprosy that did not require further multidrug therapy. We have observed similar histological profiles in several cases. The lack of clinical data makes it a histological challenge. The accumulation of lipids in these giant cells is due to bacillary destruction and fusion of vacuolated macrophages. We discuss here the role of bacillary and host lipids in the pathogenesis of lepromatous leprosy. We concluded that there was no need to extend the 12-month multidrug therapy recommended by WHO. Clinical findings, bacilloscopy, annual skin biopsy, and anti-phenolic glycolipid-I IgM titers are recommended procedures for the follow-up of these patients.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Skin/pathology , Leprosy, Lepromatous/pathology , Giant Cells, Foreign-Body/pathology , Foam Cells/pathology , Skin/microbiology , Vacuoles , Biopsy , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/analysis , Leprosy, Lepromatous/drug therapy , Antigens, CD/analysis , Giant Cells, Foreign-Body/microbiology , Giant Cells, Foreign-Body/chemistry , Cell Wall/chemistry , Drug Therapy, Combination , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Foam Cells/microbiology , Foam Cells/chemistry , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Lipids/analysis , Mycobacterium leprae/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium leprae/chemistry
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 925-929, abr.-maio 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482071


Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar o perfil de ácidos graxos de ovos comercializados como enriquecidos com ω3. Para o estudo foram adquiridas cartelas de uma dúzia de ovos de diferentes marcas comerciais. A determinação do perfil lipídico foi realizada a partir do ovo inteiro, sendo realizada a extração dos lipídeos, seguido de esterificação e análise cromatográfica para a identificação dos de ácidos graxos. Ocorreu uma maior variação entre os produtos para os ácidos graxos monoinsaturados e poli-insaturados. Para os teores de ácidos graxos ω3 ocorreu variação de 0,77 a 34,51%, principalmente para EPA que variou de 0,01 a 6,50% e, DHA que variou de 0,51 a 27,19%. Para ω6 os valores variaram de 5,35 a 21,91%. A quantidade de ácidos graxos ω3 em ovos enriquecidos é variável nos produtos, o que denota uma necessidade de padronização.

Food, Fortified/analysis , Eggs/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Lipids/analysis
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 974-978, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482081


O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil lipídico de alguns peixes e derivados de pescado por meio de amostras de produtos comprados em estabelecimentos comerciais. Foram realizadas a extração dos lipídeos, esterificação e análise cromatográfica para a determinação do perfil de ácidos graxos. Houve diferença em relação à composição dos ácidos graxos (C14:0; C16:1; C18:3ω3; C22:0; C20:5ω3 (EPA) e C22:6ω3 (DHA)) e na relação ω6/ω3. Os produtos derivados de pescado possuem relação ω6/ω3 maiores que os peixes, devendo-se ao processo de beneficiamento a que foram submetidos. O ácido graxo eicosapentaenóico (EPA) apresentou maiores concentrações na sardinha, diferentemente do ácido docosahexaenóico (DHA) que está mais presente no atum, evidenciando que ambos os pescados são boas fontes para obtenção destes ácidos graxos ω3.

Animals , Lipids/analysis , Lipids/isolation & purification , Fishes , Fish Products , Fatty Acids/analysis
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1040-1044, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482095


O efeito da adição de cinco níveis de azeite de oliva na fração lipídica de kaftas de carne caprina foi avaliado. A adição de azeite na formulação dos produtos cárneo ocasionou a elevação dos teores de lipídios totais, com variações de 3,54±0,22 a 12,07±0,12 g/100g. Os principais ácidos graxos identificados foram: ácido oleico (46,42±0,30 a 51,13±0,19 g/100g), palmítico (17,15±0,08 a 20,35±0,05 g/100g) e esteárico (11,48±1,01 a 14,76±2,51 g/100g). Os resultados demonstraram a influência da adição do azeite na fração lipídica, embora a adição do azeite tenha acarretado o aumento dos teores de lipídios totais, o incremento observado foi no conteúdo de ácido oleico, principal ácido graxo constituinte do azeite de oliva. Desta forma, observou-se a melhora na qualidade nutricional das kaftas, devido às propriedades funcionais deste ácido graxo.

Animals , Olive Oil/administration & dosage , Olive Oil/adverse effects , Lipids/analysis , Meat Products/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Ruminants
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1050-1054, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482097


Foram utilizadas amostras de peito de frangos de corte acometidos pela miopatia “White Striping” (estrias brancas em seus diferentes graus de severidade) para análise de coloração (L*, a* e b*), lipídeos totais e concentração de colágeno. Amostras de filés acometidos pela miopatia foram avaliadas logo após o abate e outras foram armazenadas congeladas (-20°C) durante três meses. Com a severidade da miopatia ocorre o aumento da concentração de gordura e, consequentemente, alteração da coloração da superfície do peito, além da redução do percentual de colágeno. O congelamento da carne de peito por três meses provoca alterações de cor da superfície dos filés. A produção de exsudato, oriunda do descongelamento, resulta no aumento da concentração de componentes como colágeno solúvel e lipídeos.

Animals , Meat/analysis , Collagen/analysis , Freezing/adverse effects , Color , Muscular Diseases/veterinary , Lipids/analysis , Food Storage , Chickens
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1115-1118, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482110


Foram utilizadas amostras de peito de frangos de corte de três linhagens genéticas contendo diferentes graus de estrias brancas aparentes na superfície do músculo. Foram avaliados concentração de colesterol, percentual de gordura e força de cisalhamento (maciez). Com o aumento do grau de severidade da miopatia ocorreu o aumento de gordura e, consequentemente, da maciez da carne de peito de frangos Cobb 500 e Hubbard. Há variação da concentração de colesterol dependendo do acometimento por estrias brancas, a qual precisa ser melhor estudada. As estrias brancas aparentes na superfície do peito estão associadas à maior deposição de gordura na carcaça do frango, o que, consequentemente, pode influenciar a maciez da carne.

Animals , Meat/analysis , Cholesterol/analysis , Poultry Diseases , Striae Distensae/veterinary , Chickens , Lipids/analysis , Atherosclerosis/veterinary , Muscular Diseases/veterinary