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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(8): e5281, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787384


Adjuvants are essential to boost the immune response to inoculated antigen and play a central role in vaccine development. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of several adjuvants in the production of anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies in silver catfish. Two hundred and seventy juvenile silver catfish (60–80 g) of both sexes were intraperitoneally vaccinated with BSA (200 µg/fish) alone or mixed to the following adjuvants: Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA), aluminum hydroxide (AlOH), Montanide, four types of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and three concentrations of β-glucan, and the immune enhancing property was evaluated by measuring anti-BSA antibodies in blood samples at biweekly intervals. Our results demonstrated that CpGs ODNs and β-glucan were as effective as classical adjuvants (FCA, FIA, AlOH and Montanide) in promoting anti-BSA antibodies and that the kinetics of antibody production induced by all adjuvants used in our study had a similar trend to that observed in other fish species, with a peak at 28 days post-vaccination. These results may be useful for the selection of adjuvants for vaccine formulation intended for silver catfish and for the development of vaccine and vaccination strategies to other fish species.

Animals , Male , Female , Cattle , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Catfishes/immunology , Vaccination/veterinary , Aluminum Hydroxide/immunology , beta-Glucans/immunology , Freund's Adjuvant/immunology , Lipids/immunology , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology , Serum Albumin, Bovine/immunology
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(4): 236-243, ago. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-764079


Introducción: La respuesta inmune a los antígenos de las vacunas está disminuida en los niños con cáncer. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la seroconversión frente a vacuna ADN recombinante contra hepatitis B al momento del inicio de la quimioterapia y/o remisión en niños con cáncer. Pacientes y método: Estudio prospectivo, bicéntrico, controlado, no aleatorizado de niños con diagnóstico reciente de cáncer pareados con niños sanos. Los casos fueron vacunados a tiempo 0, 1 y 6 meses, a dosis de 20 y 40 μg si eran < ó > 10 años, respectivamente, con vacuna ADN recombinante contra hepatitis B, en el momento del diagnóstico en el caso de los tumores sólidos y luego de la remisión en el caso de los tumores hematológicos. El grupo control recibió el mismo esquema, con dosis de 10 o 20 μg respectivamente. Se midieron anticuerpos séricos anti-HBs a los 2, 8 y 12 meses posvacunación. Seroconversión se definió como títulos anti-HBs > 10 mUI/ml al octavo mes. Resultados: Un total de 78 niños con cáncer y 25 controles fueron evaluados con títulos anti-HBs al octavo mes. La tasa de seroconversión fue de 26,9%, en niños con cáncer, sin diferencia por edad, género ni tipo de tumor (p = 0,13; 0,29; y 0,44, respectivamente), y de 100% en el grupo control (p < 0,0001, comparado con los niños con cáncer). En el seguimiento a los 12 meses solo el 31,9% de los niños con cáncer presentaba títulos anti-HBs > 10 mUI/ml. Conclusiones: La vacunación contra hepatitis B con vacuna ADN recombinante, con esquema reforzado de 3 dosis, en el momento del inicio de la quimioterapia y/o remisión provee una respuesta inmune insuficiente en la mayoría de los niños con cáncer. En esta población debieran evaluarse vacunas de tercera generación, con adyuvantes más inmunogénicos, esquemas reforzados a los 0, 1, 2 y 6 meses, medición de títulos de anticuerpos al octavo y duodécimo mes, eventual uso de refuerzos y reevaluación de inmunogenicidad si correspondiese.

Introduction: Immune response against vaccine antigens may be impaired in children with cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroconversion response against hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) at the time of chemotherapy onset and/or remission in children with cancer. Patients and method: Prospective, two-centre, controlled, non-randomised study conducted on children recently diagnosed with cancer, paired with healthy subjects. Cases received HBV at time 0, 1 and 6 months with DNA recombinant HBV at a dose of 20 and 40 μg if < or > than 10 years of age, respectively, at the time of diagnosis for solids tumours and after the remission in case of haematological tumours. Controls received the same schedule, but at of 10 and 20 μg doses, respectively. HBs antibodies were measured in serum samples obtained at 2, 8 and 12 months post-vaccination. Protective titres were defined as > 10 mIU/ml at 8th month of follow up. Results: A total of 78 children with cancer and 25 healthy controls were analysed at month 8th of follow up. Seroconversion rates in the cancer group reached 26.9%, with no differences by age, gender or type of tumour (P = .13, .29, and .44, respectively). Control group seroconversion was 100% at the 8th month, with P < .0001 compared with the cancer group. At month 12 of follow up, just 31.9% of children with cancer achieved anti-HBs antibodies > 10 mIU/ml. Conclusions: Vaccination against hepatitis B with three doses of DNA recombinant vaccine at an increased concentration, administrated at the time of onset of chemotherapy and/or remission provided an insufficient immune response in a majority of children with cancer. More immunogenic vaccines should be evaluated in this special population, such as a third generation, with more immunogenic adjuvants, enhanced schedules at 0, 1, 2, 6 month, evaluation of antibody titres at month 8 and 12 h to evaluate the need for further booster doses.

Humans , HIV , Anti-HIV Agents/immunology , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , /immunology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Liposomes/immunology , Liposomes/pharmacology , HIV , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Drug Carriers/chemistry , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Protease Inhibitors/immunology , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Jurkat Cells , Lipids/chemistry , Lipids/immunology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nevirapine/immunology , Nevirapine/pharmacology , Saquinavir/immunology , Saquinavir/pharmacology
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 23(2): 234-241, Feb-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-747177


OBJECTIVE: to analyze the efficacy of the Nursing Process in an Intensive Care Unit using indicators generated by software. METHOD: cross-sectional study using data collected for four months. RNs and students daily registered patients, took history (at admission), performed physical assessments, and established nursing diagnoses, nursing plans/prescriptions, and assessed care delivered to 17 patients using software. Indicators concerning the incidence and prevalence of nursing diagnoses, rate of effectiveness, risk diagnoses, and rate of effective prevention of complications were computed. RESULTS: the Risk for imbalanced body temperature was the most frequent diagnosis (23.53%), while the least frequent was Risk for constipation (0%). The Risk for Impaired skin integrity was prevalent in 100% of the patients, while Risk for acute confusion was the least prevalent (11.76%). Risk for constipation and Risk for impaired skin integrity obtained a rate of risk diagnostic effectiveness of 100%. The rate of effective prevention of acute confusion and falls was 100%. CONCLUSION: the efficacy of the Nursing Process using indicators was analyzed because these indicators reveal how nurses have identified patients' risks and conditions, and planned care in a systematized manner. .

OBJETIVO: analisar a eficácia do Processo de Enfermagem em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, utilizando indicadores gerados por um software. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, cujos dados foram coletados durante quatro meses. Enfermeiros e acadêmicos realizaram, diariamente, cadastro e anamnese (na admissão), exame físico, diagnósticos de enfermagem, planejamento/prescrição de enfermagem e avaliação da assistência de 17 pacientes, utilizando um software. Calculou-se os indicadores incidência e prevalência de diagnósticos de enfermagem, taxa de efetividade diagnóstica de risco e taxa de efetividade na prevenção de complicações. RESULTADOS: o Risco de desequilíbrio na temperatura corporal foi o diagnóstico mais incidente (23,53%) e o menos incidente foi o Risco de constipação (0%). O Risco de integridade da pele prejudicada foi prevalente em 100% dos pacientes, enquanto o Risco de confusão aguda foi o menos prevalente (11,76%). Risco de constipação e Risco de integridade da pele prejudicada obtiveram taxa de efetividade diagnóstica de risco de 100%. A taxa de efetividade na prevenção de confusão aguda e de queda foi de 100%. CONCLUSÃO: analisou-se a eficácia do Processo de Enfermagem utilizando indicadores, pois retratam como o enfermeiro tem identificado os problemas e riscos do paciente, e planejado a assistência de forma sistematizada. .

OBJETIVO: analizar la eficacia del Proceso de Enfermería en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva, utilizando indicadores generados por un software. MÉTODO: estudio transversal, cuyos datos fueron recolectados durante cuatro meses. Enfermeros y académicos realizaron, diariamente, registro y anamnesis (en la admisión), examen físico, diagnósticos de enfermería, planificación/prescripción de enfermería y evaluación de la asistencia en 17 pacientes, utilizando un software. Se calculó los indicadores incidencia y prevalencia de diagnósticos de enfermería, la tasa de efectividad diagnóstica de riesgo y la tasa de efectividad en la prevención de complicaciones. RESULTADOS: el Riesgo de desequilibrio en la temperatura corporal fue el diagnóstico más prevalente (23,53%) y el menos prevalente fue el Riesgo de constipación (0%). El Riesgo de integridad de la piel perjudicada fue prevalente en 100% de los pacientes, en cuanto el Riesgo de confusión aguda fue el menos prevalente (11,76%). El Riesgo de constipación y el Riesgo de integridad de la piel perjudicada obtuvieron una tasa de efectividad diagnóstica de riesgo de 100%. La tasa de efectividad en la prevención de confusión aguda y de caída fue de 100%. CONCLUSIÓN: se analizó la eficacia del Proceso de Enfermería utilizando indicadores, ya que retratan cómo el enfermero ha identificado los problemas y riesgos del paciente, y planificado la asistencia de forma sistematizada. .

Animals , Male , Mice , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Freund's Adjuvant/immunology , Freund's Adjuvant/pharmacology , Graft Rejection/immunology , Immunotherapy , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , /metabolism , Islets of Langerhans/cytology , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Lipids/immunology , Lipids/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Spleen/drug effects , Spleen/radiation effects , Transplantation, Homologous , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(supl.1): 156-166, Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659754


Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects the skin and nerves, presenting a singular clinical picture. Across the leprosy spectrum, lepromatous leprosy (LL) exhibits a classical hallmark: the presence of a collection of M. leprae-infected foamy macrophages/Schwann cells characterised by their high lipid content. The significance of this foamy aspect in mycobacterial infections has garnered renewed attention in leprosy due to the recent observation that the foamy aspect represents cells enriched in lipid droplets (LD) (also known as lipid bodies). Here, we discuss the contemporary view of LD as highly regulated organelles with key functions in M. leprae persistence in the LL end of the spectrum. The modern methods of studying this ancient disease have contributed to recent findings that describe M. leprae-triggered LD biogenesis and recruitment as effective mycobacterial intracellular strategies for acquiring lipids, sheltering and/or dampening the immune response and favouring bacterial survival, likely representing a fundamental aspect of M. leprae pathogenesis. The multifaceted functions attributed to the LD in leprosy may contribute to the development of new strategies for adjunctive anti-leprosy therapies.

Humans , Leprosy, Lepromatous/pathology , Mycobacterium leprae/immunology , Schwann Cells/microbiology , Inclusion Bodies/immunology , Inclusion Bodies/metabolism , Inclusion Bodies/pathology , Leprosy, Lepromatous/immunology , Lipids/immunology , Organelles/immunology , Schwann Cells/immunology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(2): 139-146, Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614570


The aim of the present study was to determine whether lipoarabinomannan (LAM), in combination with Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA), was able to improve cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA) in cattle. Twenty-three calves were assigned to four treatment groups, which were subcutaneously immunized with either OVA plus FIA, OVA plus FIA and LAM from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, FIA plus LAM, or FIA alone. Lymphoproliferation, IFN-γ production and cell subpopulations on peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and 15 days after treatment were evaluated. Delayed hypersensitivity was evaluated on day 57. Specific humoral immune response was measured by ELISA. Inoculation with LAM induced higher levels of lymphoproliferation and IFN-γ production in response to ConA and OVA (P < 0.05). Specific antibody titers were similar in both OVA-immunized groups. Interestingly, our results showed that the use of LAM in vaccine preparations improved specific cell immune response evaluated by lymphoproliferation and IFN-γ production by at least 50 and 25 percent, respectively, in cattle without interfering with tuberculosis and paratuberculosis diagnosis.

Animals , Cattle , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Freund's Adjuvant/immunology , Lipids/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Mycobacterium avium/immunology , Ovalbumin/immunology , Paratuberculosis/prevention & control , Antibody Formation/immunology , Cattle Diseases/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Freund's Adjuvant/administration & dosage , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/immunology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/veterinary , Immunity, Cellular , Lipids/administration & dosage , Lipopolysaccharides/administration & dosage , Mycobacterium avium/chemistry , Ovalbumin/administration & dosage , Paratuberculosis/immunology
São Paulo; s.n; 2011. 109 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-612289


Introdução: Baixo nível de atividade física (AF) associado ao alto consumo energético contribuíram para transição nutricional no Brasil. Estilo de vida saudável reverte em benefícios cardiometabólicos. Considerando que estado inflamatório subclínico media os danos ao sistema cardiovascular, é possível que hábitos de vida saudáveis melhorem os fatores de risco, via atenuação da inflamação. Instrumentos padronizados para medir qualidade da dieta e AF estão disponíveis, mas não estudos locais avaliando a relação destes fatores entre si com base nestes instrumentos, ou examinando suas associações com estado inflamatório e perfil lipídico. Objetivos: Este estudo avaliou a associação entre a versão brasileira do Healthy Eating Index (B-HEI) e nível de AF e destes com marcadores inflamatórios, índice de resistência à insulina e variáveis lipídicas em indivíduos com alto risco cardiometabólico. Métodos: Nesta análise transversal foram incluídos 204 participantes (64,7 por cento mulheres; média de idade de 54,1 anos) de Estudo de Prevenção de Diabetes do CSEscola da FSP-USP, com pré-diabetes ou de síndrome metabólica sem diabetes. Foram realizados questionários e coletas de sangue. Foram utilizados três recordatórios alimentares de 24h para obtenção do B-HEI. O nível de AF foi medido pela versão longa do IPAQ, sendo determinada a AF no lazer, na locomoção, AF total e tempo de TV. Coeficiente de Spearman foi empregado para testar correlações. Para avaliar a relação entre o B-HEI e AF e dos tercis destas variáveis com marcadores inflamatórios e HOMA-IR foi usada ANOVA. Para avaliar associações independentes do B-HEI, tendo como variáveis dependentes parâmetros lipídicos, inflamatórios ou HOMA-IR, usou-se regressão linear múltipla e, para associações independentes da AF como as mesmas variáveis, usou-se regressão logística, sendo obtidos odds ratios (OR) e p de tendência. Resultados: Nos tercis do B-HEI, o nível de AF não diferiu; à medida que melhorava a qualidade da dieta houve tendência à redução do tempo de TV (21,4±11,6; 20,5±11,5; 16,8±10,4 h/sem; p=0,09). Na regressão linear, a circunferência abdominal associou-se inversamente aos escores de B-HEI, mantendo-se marginalmente significante após ajuste para idade e sexo. No mesmo modelo, proteína C reativa associou-se negativamente ao índice (p=0.02). Concentrações de adiponectina apresentaram significância marginal na análise sem ajustes (p=0.06).

Humans , Diet , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Inflammation/diagnosis , Motor Activity , Biomarkers/blood , Brazil , Lipids/immunology , Risk Factors , Insulin Resistance/immunology
IJI-Iranian Journal of Immunology. 2010; 7 (1): 57-63
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-105825


Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipid antigens take part in pathogenicity of the bacterium but the response of monocytes/macrophages to these antigens in tuberculosis is not well known. The aim of current investigation was to study the M. tuberculosis lipid antigens in tuberculosis pathogenesis. In the present study M. tuberculosis lipid antigens were extracted. Monocytes and macrophages from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis [MDR-TB], TB patients, asymptomatic healthy individuals with positive tuberculin skin test positive and healthy individuals with negative tuberculin skin test were collected using magnetic cell sorting. The cells were stimulated by M. tuberculosis total lipid antigens and IL-12 and IL-10 in their supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The IL-12 production by monocytes in response to M. tuberculosis total sonicate antigens in the MDR-TB patients did not show a considerable difference with the PPD positive healthy subjects, whereas in the active TB patients, IL-12 levels significantly decreased [p<0.05]. IL-10 production by monocytes in TB patients in response to total lipid antigens showed a significant increase in comparison to MDR-TB patients and healthy individuals. In the MDR-TB patients, IL-10 and IL-12 production by monocytes in response to M. tuberculosis lipid antigens are similar to the healthy subjects

Humans , Male , Female , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12 , Lipids/immunology , Macrophages , Monocytes