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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pasteurella Infections/veterinary , Reproduction , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Buffaloes , Progesterone , Cattle , Lipopolysaccharides , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Pasteurella multocida
2.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 759-768, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984714

ABSTRACT

Objective: Bioinformatics analysis was used to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in macrophages of sepsis myocardial injury and to verify key genes. Methods: Experiment 1 (gene chip and bioinformatics analysis): The gene chip data GSE104342 of cardiac macrophages in septic mice was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. DEGs were obtained by R language analysis. DAVID online database was used to obtain gene ontology and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis of DEGs. STRING online database was used for protein-protein interaction network analysis of DEGs, and then key genes were screened by using Cytoscape software and molecular complex detection (MCODE) plug-ins. Experiment 2 (sepsis model construction and related protein verification): Ten male C57BL/6 mice, aged 8-14 weeks. Five mice were randomly selected as control group, and 5 mice were selected as the sepsis group by building a mice sepsis model in vivo. Echocardiography was used to detect the cardiac function. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to assess the cardiac morphology. TUNEL staining was used to evaluate cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of differentiation antigen cluster 206 (CD206),inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS),F4/80,suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3) ,interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn) and chemokine C-C motif ligand 7 (Ccl7) protein. RAW264.7 macrophages were cultured in vitro and divided into 2 groups: LPS groupstimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/L) and blank control group treated with equal-volume phosphate buffer solution. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of Socs3, Il1rn and Ccl7 in vitro. Results: Experiment 1: 24 647 genes were screened in GSE104342 dataset and 177 genes (0.72%) were differential expression, including 120 up-regulated genes and 57 down-regulated genes. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were mainly involved in inflammatory response, immune response, apoptosis regulation and antigen processing and presentation. KEGG signaling pathway analysis showed that DEGs in cardiac macrophages of septic mice were mainly enriched in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, NOD like receptor signaling pathway. Three hub genes were obtained by STRING and Cytoscape analysis, including Socs3, Il1rn and Ccl7. Experiment 2: In vivo, it was found that compared with the control group, the cardiac function of the sepsis mice decreased significantly, the myocardial cells were significantly edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, myocardial fiber rupture, some myocardial nuclei dissolved and disappeared, and the cardiomyocyte apoptosis increased, suggesting that the sepsis myocardial injury model of mice was successfully constructed. Compared with the control group, the expression of CD206 in the myocardium of septic mice was down-regulated, the expression of iNOS, F4/80, Socs3, Il1rn and Ccl7 were up-regulated. In addition, there was co-localization between Socs3, Il1rn, Ccl7 and F4/80 protein. Compared with the blank control group, the expression of Socs3, Il1rn and Ccl7 significantly upregulated after LPS intervention in vitro by RT-PCR. Conclusions: The selected key genes Socs3, Il1rn and Ccl7 were up-regulated in myocardial macrophages of septic mice. Socs3, Il1rn and Ccl7 are expected to become new targets for the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis cardiac injury.


Subject(s)
Male , Mice , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myocardium , Computational Biology , Sepsis , Macrophages , Cytokines , Gene Expression Profiling
3.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 575-583, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986113

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) inhibitor pexidartinib (PLX3397) on the senescence of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: BMDM were isolated and cultured from femurs and tibiae of 10 male C57BL/6 mice aged 6-8 weeks (obtained from Laboratory Animal Center of Guizhou Medical University). They were divided into blank control group, LPS group (treated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 24 h) as well as low, medium and high concentration PLX3397 pretreatment groups (treated with 100, 500 and 1 000 nmol/L PLX3397 for 4 h respectively followed by 1 μg/ml LPS for 24 h). The corresponding markers of macrophages were detected by flow cytometry. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 and cellular senescence was detected by senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining. Meanwhile, protein expressions of cycle-dependent kinase inhibitor p16, p21 and CSF-1R were detected by Western blotting, and the expressions of p16 and p21 were detected by intracellular immunofluorescence. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to investigate the mRNA levels of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) genes including interleukin (IL), IL-1β, chemokine-1/10 (CXCL-1/10), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Results: The rate of SA-β-gal positive staining in medium and high concentration PLX3397 pretreatment groups [(39.33±4.93)% and (36.33±3.06)% respectively] were significantly downregulated compared with LPS group [(52.00±3.00)%] (P=0.020, P=0.005). The expression of CSF-1R protein in low, medium and high concentration PLX3397 pretreatment groups were (0.74±0.18, 0.61±0.07, 0.54±0.06), all of which were significantly lower than that in LPS group (1.16±0.08) (P=0.013, P=0.002, P<0.001). The expression levels of CSF-1R mRNA in low, medium and high concentration PLX3397 pretreatment groups (1.04±0.06, 0.90±0.05, 1.18±0.08) showed similar trend (2.90±0.25) (P<0.001). The average fluorescence intensity of p16 in all PLX3397 pretreatment groups were 49.76±3.65, 48.21±1.72, 47.99±1.26 respectively, which were significantly lower than that in LPS group (66.88±5.85) (P=0.001, P<0.001, P<0.001). The average fluorescence intensity of p21 in medium and high concentration PLX3397 pretreatment groups were (34.43±3.62, 30.13±0.86), significantly lower than that in LPS group (46.82±5.33) (P=0.043, P=0.007). The expression of p16 protein in low, medium and high concentration PLX3397 pretreatment groups (0.56±0.04, 0.55±0.04, 0.35±0.19) were significantly lower than that in LPS group (0.98±0.10) (P=0.003, P=0.002, P<0.001), as well the expression of p21 protein (0.69±0.20, 0.42±0.08, 0.26±0.14) (P=0.032, P=0.002, P<0.001). According to the results of RT-qPCR, the expressions of IL-6, IL-1β, CXCL-1, CXCL-10 and MMP-8 in PLX3397 pretreatment groups were significantly lower than those in LPS group (P<0.001), while the expression of TGF-β increased (P<0.001). Conclusions: LPS could induce the cell senescence, increase the secretion of SASP and aggravate local inflammation by activating the CSF-1R on the cell surface of bone marrow-derived macrophages. CSF-1R inhibitor PLX3397 might attenuate CSF-1R activation associated with LPS and inhibit the senescence of bone marrow-derived macrophages induced by LPS.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Male , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 8/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Macrophages , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
4.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 233-240, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971681

ABSTRACT

The stem and branch extract of Tripterygium wilfordii (Celastraceae) afforded seven new dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters [tripterysines A-G (1-7)] and eight known ones (8-15). The chemical structures of these new compounds were established based on combinational analysis of HR-ESI-MS and NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of tripterysines A-C (1-3) and E-G (5-7) were determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis and circular dichroism spectra. All the compounds were screened for their inhibitory effect on inflammation through determining their inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-induced BV2 macrophages. Compound 9 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on NO production with an IC50 value of 8.77 μmol·L-1. Moreover, compound 7 showed the strongest inhibitory effect with the secretion of IL-6 at 27.36%.


Subject(s)
Tripterygium/chemistry , Esters/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Molecular Structure
5.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 47-57, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971663

ABSTRACT

Sepsis-induced uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a critical cause of multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most serious complications associated with an extremely high mortality rate in SIRS, and it lacked simple, safe, and effective treatment strategies. Leontopodium leontopodioides (Willd.) Beauv (LLB) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acute and chronic nephritis. However, it remains unclear whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affects LPS-induced AKI. To identify the molecular mechanisms of LLB in LPS-induced HK-2 cells and mice, LLB was prepared by extraction with 70% methanol, while a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced HK-2 cell model and an AKI model were established in this study. Renal histopathology staining was performed to observe the morphology changes. The cell supernatant and kidney tissues were collected for determining the levels of inflammatory factors and protein expression by ELISA, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. The results indicated that LLB significantly reduced the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced HK-2 cells, as well as the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in the supernatant. The same results were observed in LPS-induced AKI serum. Further studies revealed that LLB remarkably improved oxidative stress and apoptosis based on the content of MDA, SOD, and CAT in serum and TUNEL staining results. Notably, LLB significantly reduced the mortality due to LPS infection. Renal histopathology staining results supported these results. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and Western blot results confirmed that LLB significantly reduced the expression of the protein related to the NF-κB signaling pathway and NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1 which were significantly increased through LPS stimulation. These findings clearly demonstrated the potential use of LLB in the treatment of AKI and the crucial role of the NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway in the process through which LLB attenuates AKI induced by LPS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Kidney , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
6.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 185-190, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971479

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a complex syndrome caused by multiple pathogens and involves multiple organ failure, particularly spleen dysfunction. In 2017, the worldwide incidence was 48.9 million sepsis cases and 11 million sepsis-related deaths were reported (Rudd et al., 2020). Inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are the most common pathologies seen in sepsis. Liensinine (LIE) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline-type alkaloid extracted from the seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera. Lotus seed hearts have high content of LIE which mainly has antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic pharmacological effects. It can exert anti-carcinogenic activity by regulating cell, inflammation, and apoptosis signaling pathways (Manogaran et al., 2019). However, its protective effect from sepsis-induced spleen damage is unknown. In this research, we established a mouse sepsis model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and investigated the protective effects of LIE on sepsis spleen injury in terms of inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Spleen , Inflammation , Apoptosis , Sepsis , Oxidative Stress
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3345-3359, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981471

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of Xuebijing Injection in the treatment of sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) based on network pharmacology and in vitro experiment. The active components of Xuebijing Injection were screened and the targets were predicted by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). The targets of sepsis-associated ARDS were searched against GeneCards, DisGeNet, OMIM, and TTD. Weishengxin platform was used to map the targets of the main active components in Xuebijing Injection and the targets of sepsis-associated ARDS, and Venn diagram was established to identify the common targets. Cytoscape 3.9.1 was used to build the "drug-active components-common targets-disease" network. The common targets were imported into STRING for the building of the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network, which was then imported into Cytoscape 3.9.1 for visualization. DAVID 6.8 was used for Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) enrichment of the common targets, and then Weishe-ngxin platform was used for visualization of the enrichment results. The top 20 KEGG signaling pathways were selected and imported into Cytoscape 3.9.1 to establish the KEGG network. Finally, molecular docking and in vitro cell experiment were performed to verify the prediction results. A total of 115 active components and 217 targets of Xuebijing Injection and 360 targets of sepsis-associated ARDS were obtained, among which 63 common targets were shared by Xuebijing Injection and the disease. The core targets included interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), IL-6, albumin(ALB), serine/threonine-protein kinase(AKT1), and vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA). A total of 453 GO terms were annotated, including 361 terms of biological processes(BP), 33 terms of cellular components(CC), and 59 terms of molecular functions(MF). The terms mainly involved cellular response to lipopolysaccharide, negative regulation of apoptotic process, lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polyme-rase Ⅱ promoter, response to hypoxia, and inflammatory response. The KEGG enrichment revealed 85 pathways. After diseases and generalized pathways were eliminated, hypoxia-inducible factor-1(HIF-1), tumor necrosis factor(TNF), nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB), Toll-like receptor, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways were screened out. Molecular docking showed that the main active components of Xuebijing Injection had good binding activity with the core targets. The in vitro experiment confirmed that Xuebijing Injection suppressed the HIF-1, TNF, NF-κB, Toll-like receptor, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways, inhibited cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation, and down-regulated the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in cells. In conclusion, Xuebijing Injection can regulate apoptosis and response to inflammation and oxidative stress by acting on HIF-1, TNF, NF-κB, Toll-like receptor, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways to treat sepsis-associated ARDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Network Pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , NF-kappa B , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides , Molecular Docking Simulation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Sepsis/genetics , NLR Proteins
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2820-2828, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981385

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis" combination(GX) on the activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3(NLRP3) inflammasome, the release of inflammatory cytokines, and the level of autophagy in RAW264.7 macrophage damaged by lipopolysaccharide(LPS), and the mechanism of GX against inflammatory response in macrophages. To be specific, LPS was used to induce the injury of RAW264.7 cells. Cell Counting Kit-8(CCK-8) assay was employed to measure the survival rate of cells, and Western blot to detect the protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein(ASC), cysteine-aspartic acid protease(caspase)-1, interleukin(IL)-18, IL-1β, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3)-Ⅱ, and selective autophagy junction protein p62/sequestosome 1 in RAW264.7 macrophages. ELISA was used to measure the levels of IL-18 and IL-1β in RAW264.7 cells. Transmission electron microscopy was applied to observe the number of autophagosomes in RAW264.7 cells. Immunofulourescence staining was used to detect the expression of LC3-Ⅱ and p62 in RAW264.7 cells. The result showed that GX significantly reduced the protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 in RAW264.7 cells, significantly increased the protein expression of LC3Ⅱ, decreased the expression of p62, significantly inhibited the secretion of IL-18 and IL-1β, significantly increased the number of autophagosomes, significantly enhanced the immunofluorescence of LC3Ⅱ, and reduced the immunofluorescence of p62. Furthermore, 3-methyladenine(3-MA) could reverse the inhibitory effect of GX on NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 and reduce the release of IL-18 and IL-1β. In summary, GX can increase of the autophagy activity of RAW264.7 and inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby reducing the release of inflammatory cytokines and suppressing inflammatory response in macrophages.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages , Cytokines/metabolism , Caspase 1/metabolism , Autophagy , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2803-2809, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981383

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the potentiating effect and mechanism of the extract of Jingfang Granules(JFG) on the activation of macrophages. The RAW264.7 cells were treated with JFG extract and then stimulated by multiple agents. Subsequently, mRNA was extracted, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA transcription of multiple cytokines in RAW264.7 cells. The levels of cytokines in the cell supernatant were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). In addition, the intracellular proteins were extracted and the activation of signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. The results showed that JFG extract alone could not promote or slightly promote the mRNA transcription of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-1α, MCP-1, CCL5, IP-10, and IFN-β, and significantly enhance the mRNA transcription of these cytokines in RAW264.7 cells induced by R848 and CpG in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, JFG extract also potentiated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and IFN-β by RAW264.7 cells stimulated with R848 and CpG. As revealed by mechanism analysis, JFG extract enhanced the phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2, IRF3, STAT1, and STAT3 in RAW264.7 cells induced by CpG. The findings of this study indicate that JFG extract can selectively potentiate the activation of macrophages induced by R848 and CpG, which may be attributed to the promotion of the activation of MAPKs, IRF3, and STAT1/3 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages , Cytokines/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2426-2434, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981319

ABSTRACT

Tripterygium glycosides liposome(TPGL) were prepared by thin film-dispersion method, which were optimized accor-ding to their morphological structures, average particle size and encapsulation rate. The measured particle size was(137.39±2.28) nm, and the encapsulation rate was 88.33%±1.82%. The mouse model of central nervous system inflammation was established by stereotaxic injection of lipopolysaccharide(LPS). TPGL and tripterygium glycosides(TPG) were administered intranasally for 21 days. The effects of intranasal administration of TPG and TPGL on behavioral cognitive impairment of mice due to LPS-induced central ner-vous system inflammation were estimated by animal behavioral tests, hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining of hippocampus, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) and immunofluorescence. Compared with TPG, TPGL caused less damage to the nasal mucosa, olfactory bulb, liver and kidney of mice administered intranasally. The behavioral performance of treated mice was significantly improved in water maze, Y maze and nesting experiment. Neuronal cell damage was reduced, and the expression levels of inflammation and apoptosis related genes [tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), BCL2-associated X(Bax), etc.] and glial activation markers [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1(IBA1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP)] were decreased. These results indicated that liposome technique combined with nasal delivery alleviated the toxic side effects of TPG, and also significantly ameliorated the cognitive impairment of mice induced by central nervous system inflammation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Tripterygium , Liposomes , Glycosides/therapeutic use , Administration, Intranasal , Lipopolysaccharides , Central Nervous System , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cardiac Glycosides
11.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1248-1253, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of the SIRT1/NF-κB pathway in mediating the effect of puerarin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI).@*METHODS@#Fifteen BALB/C mice were randomized into control group, LPS group and puerarin treatment group, and in the latter two groups, the mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg), followed by daily injection of normal saline for 3 days or injection of puerarin (25 mg/kg) given 1 h later and then on a daily basis for 3 days. On day 5 after modeling, the kidney tissues were taken for histological observation and detection of cell apoptosis. The renal function indexes including urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) were measured, and the expressions of SIRT1 and NF-κB-p65(acetyl K310) in the renal tissues were detected.@*RESULTS@#Intraperitoneal injection of LPS caused obvious glomerular capillary dilatation, hyperemia, renal interstitial edema, and renal tubular epithelial cell swelling and deformation in the mice. The mouse models of LPS-induced AKI also showed significantly increased renal tubular injury score and renal cell apoptosis (P < 0.01) with increased serum levels of BUN, Scr, KIM-1, TNF-α and IL-1β (P < 0.01), enhanced renal expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κB p65(acetyl K310) (P < 0.01) and lowered renal expression of SIRT1 (P < 0.05). Treatment with puerarin effectively alleviated LPS-induced renal interstitial edema and renal tubular epithelial cell shedding, lowered renal tubular injury score (P < 0.01) and renal cell apoptosis rate (P < 0.01), and decreased serum levels of BUN, Scr, KIM, TNF-α and IL-1β (P < 0.01). Puerarin treatment significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κB p65 (acetyl K310) expression in the renal tissue (P < 0.05) and increased SIRT1 expression by 17% (P < 0.05) in the mouse models.@*CONCLUSION@#Puerarin can effectively alleviate LPS-induced AKI in mice possibly by modulating the SIRT1/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , NF-kappa B , Lipopolysaccharides , Sirtuin 1 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Acute Kidney Injury , Disease Models, Animal , Edema
12.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 994-1001, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of exosomes secreted by lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated macrophages on hepatic stellate cell activation and migration and explore the underlying molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#Human monocyte THP-1 cells were induced to differentiate into macrophages using propylene glycol methyl ether acetic acid (PMA, 100 ng/mL, 24 h) followed by stimulation with LPS, and the culture supernatant of macrophages was collected for extraction of the exosomes by ultracentrifugation. The expression of miR-155-5p in the exosomes was detected using qRT-PCR. A Transwell co-culture system was used to observe the effects of the macrophage-derived exosomes on LX2 cell (a hepatic stellate cell line) proliferation, migration, oxidative stress and the expression of fibrosis biomarkers, which were also observed in LX2 cells transfected with miR-155-5p-mimics or miR-155-5p-inhibitors. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of SOCS1 and its downstream signal pathway proteins.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with the exosomes from LPS-stimulated macrophages significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration ability of LX2 cells and increased the levels of oxidative stress and expressions of the fibrosis markers such as type Ⅰ collagen (P < 0.05). The expression of miR-155-5p in the exosomes secreted by macrophages was significantly increased after LPS treatment (P < 0.01). LX2 cells overexpressing miR-155-5p also exhibited significantly enhanced proliferation and migration with increased oxidative stress levels and expression of type Ⅰ collagen (P < 0.05), and interference of miR-155-5p expression produced the opposite effects. Western blotting showed that miR-155-5p overexpression obviously inhibited SOCS1 expression and promoted p-Smad2/3, Smad2/3 and RhoA protein expressions in LX2 cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#LPS stimulation of the macrophages increases miR-155-5p expression in the exosomes to promote activation and migration and increase oxidative stress and collagen production in hepatic stellate cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Collagen Type I , Exosomes , Macrophages , MicroRNAs
13.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 915-923, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of acetylcorynoline (Ace) for promoting functional recovery of injured spinal cord in rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Rat models of spinal cord injury (SCI) were treated with intraperitoneal injection of different concentrations of Ace, with the sham-operated rats as the control group. After the treatment, the changes in motor function of the rats and the area of spinal cord injury were assessed with BBB score and HE staining, and the changes in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and microglial activation were determined using PCR, ELISA and immunofluorescence staining. In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV2 cell model, the effects of different concentrations of Ace or DMSO on microglial activation and inflammatory cytokine production were observed. Network pharmacology analysis was performed to predict the target protein and signaling mechanism that mediated the inhibitory effect of Ace on microglia activation, and AutoDock software was used for molecular docking between Ace and the target protein. A signaling pathway blocker (Osimertinib) was used to verify the signaling mechanism in rat models of SCI and LPS-treated BV2 cell model.@*RESULTS@#In rat models of SCI, Ace treatment significantly increased the BBB score, reduced the area of spinal cord injury, and lowered the number of activated microglia cells and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.05). The cell experiments showed that Ace treatment significantly lower the level of cell activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in LPS-treated BV2 cells (P < 0.05). Network pharmacology analysis suggested that EGFR was the main target of Ace, and they bound to each other via hydrogen bonds as shown by molecular docking. Western blotting confirmed that Ace inhibited the activation of the EGFR/MAPK signaling pathway in injured mouse spinal cord tissue and in LPS-treated BV2 cells, and its inhibitory effect was comparable to that of Osimertinib.@*CONCLUSION@#In rat models of SCI, treatment with Ace can inhibit microglia-mediated inflammatory response by regulating the EGFR/MAPK pathway, thus promoting tissue repair and motor function recovery.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Rats , Recovery of Function , Lipopolysaccharides , Microglia , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spinal Cord Injuries , Signal Transduction , Cytokines , ErbB Receptors
14.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 879-888, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanisms that mediate the anti-inflammatory activity of Eurycoma longifolia.@*METHODS@#Kunming mouse models of xylene-induced ear swelling and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute pneumonia were used to compare the anti- inflammatory activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Eurycoma longifolia. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was used to identify the chemical composition in the ethanol extract of Eurycoma longifolia, based on which the potential antiinflammatory targets of Eurycoma longifolia were screened using the databases including SwissADME, SwissTargetPrediction, and Genecards. The String database was used to generate the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and Cytoscape was used for network topology analysis and screening the core targets. The enrichment of the core targets was analyzed using Metascape database, the core components and targets were docked with Autodock software, and the docking results were visualized using Pymol software. In a RAW264.7 cell model of LPS-induced inflammation, the Griess reagent was used to measure NO level, and Western blotting was performed to detect the expression levels of MAPK1, JAK2, and STAT3 proteins to verify the anti- inflammatory mechanism of Eurycoma longifolia.@*RESULTS@#The ethanol extract (75%) of Eurycoma longifolia (ELE) was the active site, which contained a total of 37 chemical components. These chemical compounds and diseases had 541 targets, involving the JAK/STAT3, cAMP and other signaling pathways. Twelve indicator components were identified, which all showed good results of molecular docking with two core targets involved in the signaling pathways. In the cell validation experiment, treatment of the cells with low-, medium-, and high-dose ELE significantly reduced NO release in the cells, and ELE at the medium dose significantly decreased the cellular expressions of JAK2 and STAT3.@*CONCLUSION@#The anti-inflammatory activity of Eurycoma longifolia is attributed primarily to its active ingredients bitter lignin and alkaloids, which may regulate the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway by targeting JAK2 and STAT3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Network Pharmacology , Eurycoma , Lipopolysaccharides , Molecular Docking Simulation , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Ethanol , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
15.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 832-838, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To prepare vitamin E polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-modified insulin-loaded liposomes (T-LPs/INS) and evaluate its safety, corneal permeability, ocular surface retention and pharmacokinetics in rabbit eyes.@*METHODS@#The safety of the preparation was investigated in human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) using CCK8 assay and live/dead cell staining. In the ocular surface retention study, 6 rabbits were randomized into 2 equal groups for application of fluorescein sodium dilution or T-LPs/INS labeled with fluorescein in both eyes, which were photographed under cobalt blue light at different time points. In the cornea penetration test, another 6 rabbits divided into 2 groups for application of Nile red diluent or T-LPs/INS labeled with Nile red in both eyes, after which the corneas were harvested for microscopic observation. In the pharmacokinetic study, 2 groups of rabbits (n=24) were treated with eye drops of T-LPs/INS or insulin, and the aqueous humor and cornea were collected at different time points for measurement of insulin concentrations using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. DAS2 software was used to analyze the pharmacokinetic parameters.@*RESULTS@#The prepared T-LPs/INS showed good safety in cultured HCECs. Corneal permeability assay and fluorescence tracer ocular surface retention assay demonstrated a significantly higher corneal permeability of T-LPs/INS with a prolonged drug residence in the cornea. In the pharmacokinetic study, insulin concentrations in the cornea at 6, 15, 45, 60, and 120 min (P < 0.01) and in the aqueous humor at 15, 45, 60, and 120 min after dosing were significantly higher in T-LPs/INS group. The changes in insulin concentrations in the cornea and aqueous humor were consistent with a two-compartment model in T-LPs/INS group and with the one-compartment model in the insulin group.@*CONCLUSION@#The prepared T-LPs/INS shows an improved corneal permeability, ocular surface retention capacity and eye tissue concentration of insulin in rabbits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Insulin , Liposomes , Endothelial Cells , Lipopolysaccharides , Vitamin E , Cornea , Fluorescein
16.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 582-588, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986174

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of targeted carboxylesterase 1f (Ces1f) gene knockdown on the polarization activity of Kupffer cells (KC) induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN) in mice with acute liver failure. Methods: The complex siRNA-EndoPorter formed by combining the small RNA (siRNA) carrying the Ces1f-targeting interference sequence and the polypeptide transport carrier (Endoporter) was wrapped in β-1, 3-D glucan shell to form complex particles (GeRPs). Thirty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into a normal control group, a model group (LPS/D-GalN), a pretreatment group (GeRPs), a pretreatment model group (GeRPs+LPS/D-GalN), and an empty vector group (EndoPorter). Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and western blot were used to detect Ces1f mRNA and protein expression levels in the liver tissues of each mouse group. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression levels of KC M1 polarization phenotypic differentiation cluster 86(CD86) mRNA and KC M2 polarization phenotypic differentiation cluster 163 (CD163) mRNA in each group. Immunofluorescence double staining technique was used to detect the expression of Ces1f protein and M1/M2 polarization phenotype CD86/CD163 protein in KC. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the pathological damage to liver tissue. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the means among multiple groups, or an independent sample nonparametric rank sum test was used when the variances were uneven. Results: The relative expression levels of Ces1f mRNA/protein in liver tissue of the normal control group, model group, pretreatment group, and pretreatment model group were 1.00 ± 0.00, 0.80 ± 0.03/0.80 ± 0.14, 0.56 ± 0.08/0.52 ± 0.13, and 0.26 ± 0.05/0.29 ± 0.13, respectively, and the differences among the groups were statistically significant (F = 9.171/3.957, 20.740/9.315, 34.530/13.830, P < 0.01). The percentages of Ces1f-positive Kupffer cells in the normal control group, model group, pretreatment group, and pretreatment model group were 91.42%, ± 3.79%, 73.85% ± 7.03%, 48.70% ± 5.30%, and 25.68% ± 4.55%, respectively, and the differences between the groups were statistically significant (F = 6.333, 15.400, 23.700, P < 0.01). The relative expression levels of CD86 mRNA in the normal control group, model group, and pretreatment model group were 1.00 ± 0.00, 2.01 ± 0.04, and 4.17 ± 0.14, respectively, and the differences between the groups were statistically significant (F = 33.800, 106.500, P < 0.01). The relative expression levels of CD163 mRNA in the normal control group, the model group, and the pretreatment model group were 1.00 ± 0.00, 0.85 ± 0.01, and 0.65 ± 0.01, respectively, and the differences between the groups were statistically significant (F = 23.360, 55.350, P < 0.01). The percentages of (F4/80(+)CD86(+)) and (F4/80(+)CD163(+)) in the normal control group and model group and pretreatment model group were 10.67% ± 0.91% and 12.60% ± 1.67%, 20.02% ± 1.29% and 8.04% ± 0.76%, and 43.67% ± 2.71% and 5.43% ± 0.47%, respectively, and the differences among the groups were statistically significant (F = 11.130/8.379, 39.250/13.190, P < 0.01). The liver injury scores of the normal control group, the model group, and the pretreatment model group were 0.22 ± 0.08, 1.32 ± 0.36, and 2.17 ± 0.26, respectively, and the differences among the groups were statistically significant (F = 12.520 and 22.190, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Ces1f may be a hepatic inflammatory inhibitory molecule, and its inhibitory effect production may come from the molecule's maintenance of KC polarization phenotypic homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Carboxylesterase/genetics , Galactosamine , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Kupffer Cells , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Liver Failure, Acute/chemically induced , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA, Messenger
17.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 175-184, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981109

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to investigate how naringenin (Nar) affected the anti-inflammatory, vascula-rization, and osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to preliminarily explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Cell-counting kit-8 (CCK8), cell scratch test, and Transwell assay were used to investigate the proliferation and migratory capabilities of hPDLSCs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, alizarin red staining, lumen-formation assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative timed polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot were used to measure the expression of osteopontin (OPN), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), vascular endothlial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), von Willebrand factor (vWF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6.@*RESULTS@#We observed that 10 μmol/L Nar could attenuate the inflammatory response of hPDLSCs stimulated by 10 μg/mL LPS and promoted their proliferation, migration, and vascularization differentiation. Furthermore, 0.1 μmol/L Nar could effectively restore the osteogenic differentiation of inflammatory hPDLSCs. The effects of Nar's anti-inflammatory and promotion of osteogenic differentiation significantly decreased and inflammatory vascularization differentiation increased after adding AMD3100 (a specific CXCR4 inhibitor).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Nar demonstrated the ability to promote the anti-inflammatory, vascularization, and osteogenic effects of hPDLSCs stimulated by LPS, and the ability was associated with the stromal cell-derived factor/C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 signaling axis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Chemokine CXCL12 , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Osteogenesis , Periodontal Ligament/metabolism , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism , Stem Cells , Interleukin-8/metabolism
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 153-159, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980992

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to investigate the effect of hypoxia on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CXC-chemokine ligand-10 (CXCL10) expression and the underlying mechanism. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control, hypoxia, LPS, and hypoxia combined with LPS groups. The LPS group was intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 mg/kg LPS, and the hypoxia group was placed in a hypobaric hypoxia chamber (simulated altitude of 6 000 m). The serum and hippocampal tissue samples were collected after 6 h of the treatment. The levels of CXCL10 in the serum and hippocampal tissue of mice were detected by ELISA. The microglia cell line BV2 and primary microglia were stimulated with hypoxia (1% O2) and/or LPS (100 ng/mL) for 6 h. The mRNA expression level of CXCL10 and its content in culture supernatant were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. The phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway-related proteins, p65 and IκBα, were detected by Western blot. Moreover, after NF-κB signaling pathway being blocked with a small molecular compound, PDTC, CXCL10 mRNA expression level was detected in the BV2 cells. The results showed that in the LPS-induced mouse inflammatory model, hypoxia treatment could promote LPS-induced up-regulation of CXCL10 in both serum and hippocampus. Compared with the cells treated with LPS alone, the expression of CXCL10 mRNA and the content of CXCL10 in the culture supernatant of BV2 cells treated with hypoxia combined with LPS were significantly increased. The CXCL10 mRNA level of primary microglial cells treated with hypoxia combined with LPS was significantly up-regulated. Compared with the cells treated with hypoxia or LPS alone, the phosphorylation levels of p65 and IκBα in the BV2 cells treated with hypoxia combined with LPS were significantly increased. PDTC blocked the induction of CXCL10 gene expression by LPS in the BV2 cells. These results suggest that hypoxia promotes LPS-induced expression of CXCL10 in both animal and cell models, and NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in this process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chemokines, CXC/pharmacology , Hypoxia , Ligands , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microglia/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
19.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 44-51, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate and reveal the underlying mechanism of the effect of total saponins from Dioscoreae nipponica Makino (TSDN) on the arachidonic acid pathway in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced M1-polarized macrophages.@*METHODS@#M1 polarization of RAW264.7 cells were induced by 1 µ g/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide method was then used to screen the concentration of TSDN. MSU (500 µ g/mL) was used to induce the gouty arthritis model. Afterwards, 10 µ g/L TSDN and 8 µ mol/L celecoxib, which was used as a positive control, were added to the above LPS and MSU-induced cells for 24 h. The mRNA and protein expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase derived eicosanoids (mPGES)-1, leukotriene B (LTB)4, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test the contents of M1 markers, including inducible nitric oxid synthase (NOS) 2, CD80, and CD86.@*RESULTS@#TSDN inhibited the proliferation of M1 macrophages and decreased both the mRNA and protein expressions of COX2, 5-LOX, CYP4A, LTB4, and PGE2 (P<0.01) while increased the mRNA and protein expression of mPGES-1 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). TSDN could also significantly decrease the contents of NOS2, CD80, and CD86 (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#TSDN has an anti-inflammation effect on gouty arthritis in an in vitro model by regulating arachidonic acid signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Uric Acid/metabolism , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Dioscorea , Arthritis, Gouty , Lipopolysaccharides , Saponins/pharmacology , Macrophages , Signal Transduction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
20.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 22-29, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the efficiency and effect of establishing rat peri-implantitis model by traditional cotton thread ligation and local injection of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) around the implant, as well as the combination of the two methods.@*METHODS@#Left side maxillary first molars of 39 male SD rats were extracted, and titanium implants were implanted after four weeks of healing. After 4 weeks of implant osseointegration, 39 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Cotton thread ligation (n=12), local injection of LPS around the implant (n=12), and the two methods combined (n=12) were used to induce peri-implantitis, the rest 3 rats were untreated as control group. All procedures were conducted under 5% isoflurane inhalation anesthesia. The rats were sacrificed 2 weeks and 4 weeks after induction through carbon dioxide asphyxiation method. The maxilla of the rats in the test groups were collected and marginal bone loss was observed by micro-CT. The gingival tissues around the implants were collected for further real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis, specifically the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as well as interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and gingival index (GI) of each rat in the experimental group were recorded before induction of inflammation and before death.@*RESULTS@#After 4 weeks of implantation, the osseointegration of implants were confirmed. All the three test groups showed red and swollen gums, obvious marginal bone loss around implants. After 2 weeks and 4 weeks of inflammation induction, PD, GI and BOP of the three test groups increased compared with those before induction, but only BOP was statistically significant among the three test groups (P < 0.05). At the end of 2 weeks of inflammation induction, marginal bone loss was observed at each site in the cotton thread ligation group and the combined group. At each site, the bone resorption in the combined group was greater than that in the cotton thread ligation group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), bone resorption was observed at some sites of some implants in LPS local injection group. At the end of 4 weeks of inflammation induction, marginal bone loss was observed at all sites in each group. The marginal bone loss in the cotton thread ligation group and the combined group was greater than that in the LPS local injection group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). At the end of 2 weeks and 4 weeks of induction, the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in the test groups were higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with local injection of LPS around the implant, cotton thread ligature and the two methods combined can induce peri-implantitis in rats better and faster.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Dental Implants/adverse effects , Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharides , Peri-Implantitis/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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