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1.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e30, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842788

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Immunological and clinical findings suggestive of some immune dysfunction have been reported among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and adolescents. Whether these defects are persistent or transitory is still unknown. HEU pediatric population at birth, 12 months, 6-12 years were evaluated in comparison to healthy age-matched HIV-unexposed controls. Plasma levels of LPS, sCD14, cytokines, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) were assessed. HEU and controls had similar LPS levels, which remained low from birth to 6-12 years; for plasma sCD14, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1, which increased from birth to 12 months and then decreased at 6-12 years; and for TREC/106 PBMC at birth in HEU and controls. By contrast, plasma MIP-1β levels were lower in HEU than in controls (p=0.009) at 12 months, and IL-4 levels were higher in HEU than controls (p=0.04) at 6-12 years. Immune activation was higher in HEU at 12 months and at 6-12 years than controls based on frequencies of CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+T cells (p=0.05) and of CD38+HLA-DR+CD4+T cells (p=0.006). Resting memory and activated mature B cells increased from birth to 6-12 years in both groups. The development of the immune system in vertically HEU individuals is comparable to the general population in most parameters, but subtle or transient differences exist. Their role in influencing clinical incidences in HEU is unknown.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/blood , Cytokines/blood , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/blood , Reference Values , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Maternal Exposure , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Immunologic Memory
2.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 463-475, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744840

ABSTRACT

Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.


Cyberbullying, uma nova forma de violência expressa por meio da mídia eletrônica, tem preocupado pais, educadores e pesquisadores. A associação entre cyberbullying e a saúde mental dos adolescentes será revisada. Revisão sistemática em duas bases de dados: PubMed e a Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS). A prevalência do cyberbullying variou entre 6,5% a 35,4%. Bullying tradicional prévio ou atual estava associado às vítimas e agressores do cyberbullying. Uso diário de três ou mais horas de Internet, web câmera, mensagens de texto, postar informações pessoais e assediar outros online estavam associados ao cyberbullying. "Cybervítimas" e cyberbullies tinham mais problemas emocionais, psicossomáticos, dificuldades sociais, e não se sentiam seguros e cuidados na escola. O cyberbullying estava associado à sintomatologia depressiva moderada e grave, uso de substâncias, ideação e tentativas de suicídio. Profissionais de saúde devem conhecer as interações de natureza violenta que ocorrem no ambiente virtual e de seus agravos para a saúde mental dos adolescentes.


Se revisa la asociación entre el acoso cibernético y la salud mental de los adolescentes. Se realiza una revisión sistemática de dos bases de datos: PubMed y la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS). La prevalencia de ciberacoso varió de un 6,5% a un 35,4%. Los acosos cibernéticos tradicionales -pasados o actuales- se asociaron con las víctimas y los acosadores cibernéticos. El uso diario de tres o más horas de Internet, cámara web, mensajes de texto, la publicación de información personal y acosar a los demás se asociaron con el acoso cibernético. Cibervíctimas y acosadores cibernéticos tenían más problemas emocionales, psicosomáticos, dificultades sociales y no se sentían seguros y cuidados en la escuela. El ciberacoso se asoció con síntomas de moderados a graves de depresión, abuso de sustancias, ideación suicida e intentos de suicidio. Los profesionales de salud deben conocer la naturaleza violenta de las interacciones que se producen en el entorno virtual y sus peligros para la salud mental de los adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antibody Formation/immunology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/deficiency , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Germinal Center/immunology , Immunization , Immunoglobulin Class Switching/immunology , Immunoglobulins/blood , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Lymphocyte Cooperation/immunology , Mice, Mutant Strains , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
3.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Feb; 53(2): 82-92
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158381

ABSTRACT

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are a family of pattern recognition receptors identifying pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). They play a critical role in the innate immune response during the initial interaction between the infecting microorganism and phagocytic cells. Here, we verified the presence of TLR-2 in spleen, lymph node and thymus of Swiss albino mice and their modulation after infection with Staphylococcus aureus and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. It was seen that TLR-2 gene transcribed to its respective mRNA on S. aureus infection, in thymus, spleen and lymph node of mice but their levels and mode of expression varied. When challenged with LPS no prominent changes in the expression of TLR-2 receptor was observed but its expression increased gradually with time in the thymus, spleen and lymph node of S. aureus infected mice. TLR-2 expression was also found enhanced in infected splenic macrophages. By studying the serum cytokine profile the functionality of the receptor was measured. The results indicate the presence of TLR-2 in thymus, spleen and lymph node of Swiss albino strain of mice and that they are modulated by S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Gene Expression/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymph Nodes/metabolism , Lymph Nodes/microbiology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/microbiology , Male , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spleen/immunology , Spleen/metabolism , Spleen/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/blood , Staphylococcal Infections/immunology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/immunology , Staphylococcus aureus/physiology , Thymus Gland/immunology , Thymus Gland/metabolism , Thymus Gland/microbiology , Time Factors , Toll-Like Receptor 2/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147138

ABSTRACT

Endotoxic responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are triggered by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and involve the production of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), by macrophages. The detailed mechanism of IL-6 production by macrophages in response to LPS has remained unclear, however. We now show that LPS induces IL-6 synthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages via the leukotriene B4 receptor BLT2. Our results suggest that TLR4-MyD88 signaling functions upstream of BLT2 and that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) and consequent activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB function downstream of BLT2 in this response. These results suggest that a TLR4-MyD88-BLT2-Nox1-ROS-NF-kappaB pathway contributes to the synthesis of IL-6 in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Leukotriene B4/metabolism , Ligands , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/immunology , Mice , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptors, Leukotriene B4/metabolism , Signal Transduction
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(2): 139-146, Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614570

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to determine whether lipoarabinomannan (LAM), in combination with Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA), was able to improve cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA) in cattle. Twenty-three calves were assigned to four treatment groups, which were subcutaneously immunized with either OVA plus FIA, OVA plus FIA and LAM from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, FIA plus LAM, or FIA alone. Lymphoproliferation, IFN-γ production and cell subpopulations on peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and 15 days after treatment were evaluated. Delayed hypersensitivity was evaluated on day 57. Specific humoral immune response was measured by ELISA. Inoculation with LAM induced higher levels of lymphoproliferation and IFN-γ production in response to ConA and OVA (P < 0.05). Specific antibody titers were similar in both OVA-immunized groups. Interestingly, our results showed that the use of LAM in vaccine preparations improved specific cell immune response evaluated by lymphoproliferation and IFN-γ production by at least 50 and 25 percent, respectively, in cattle without interfering with tuberculosis and paratuberculosis diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Freund's Adjuvant/immunology , Lipids/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Mycobacterium avium/immunology , Ovalbumin/immunology , Paratuberculosis/prevention & control , Antibody Formation/immunology , Cattle Diseases/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Freund's Adjuvant/administration & dosage , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/immunology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/veterinary , Immunity, Cellular , Lipids/administration & dosage , Lipopolysaccharides/administration & dosage , Mycobacterium avium/chemistry , Ovalbumin/administration & dosage , Paratuberculosis/immunology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57563

ABSTRACT

Microglial cells are the resident innate immune cells that sense pathogens and tissue injury in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglial activation is critical for neuroinflammatory responses. The synthetic compound 2-hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimethoxychalcone (DK-139) is a novel chalcone-derived compound. In this study, we investigated the effects of DK-139 on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory responses in BV2 microglial cells. DK-139 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 activity, as determined using a cell-based assay. DK-139 blocked LPS-induced phosphorylation of IkappaB and p65/RelA NF-kappaB, resulting in inhibition of the nuclear translocation and trans-acting activity of NF-kappaB in BV2 microglial cells. We also found that DK-139 reduced the expression of NF-kappaB target genes, such as those for COX-2, iNOS, and IL-1beta, in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Interestingly, DK-139 blocked LPS-induced Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of Akt abrogated LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65/RelA, while overexpression of dominant-active p110CAAX enhanced p65/RelA phosphorylation as well as iNOS and COX2 expression. These results suggest that DK-139 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on microglial cells by inhibiting the Akt/IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chalcones/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Microglia/drug effects , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Protein Binding , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4/antagonists & inhibitors , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(1): 57-67, Jan. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-535637

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response that can lead to tissue damage and death. In order to increase our understanding of sepsis, experimental models are needed that produce relevant immune and inflammatory responses during a septic event. We describe a lipopolysaccharide tolerance mouse model to characterize the cellular and molecular alterations of immune cells during sepsis. The model presents a typical lipopolysaccharide tolerance pattern in which tolerance is related to decreased production and secretion of cytokines after a subsequent exposure to a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide. The initial lipopolysaccharide exposure also altered the expression patterns of cytokines and was followed by an 8- and a 1.5-fold increase in the T helper 1 and 2 cell subpopulations. Behavioral data indicate a decrease in spontaneous activity and an increase in body temperature following exposure to lipopolysaccharide. In contrast, tolerant animals maintained production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide when terminally challenged by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Survival study after CLP showed protection in tolerant compared to naive animals. Spleen mass increased in tolerant animals followed by increases of B lymphocytes and subpopulation Th1 cells. An increase in the number of stem cells was found in spleen and bone marrow. We also showed that administration of spleen or bone marrow cells from tolerant to naive animals transfers the acquired resistance status. In conclusion, lipopolysaccharide tolerance is a natural reprogramming of the immune system that increases the number of immune cells, particularly T helper 1 cells, and does not reduce oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Cell Proliferation , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 17(5): 527-532, Sept.-Oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-531408

ABSTRACT

After aggression to the dental pulp, some cells produce cytokines in order to start and control the inflammatory process. Among these cytokines, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) emerge as important ones. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the location, distribution and concentration of these cytokines in healthy and inflamed dental pulps. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty pulps, obtained from healthy third molars (n=10) and from pulpectomies (n=10) were used for the study, with half of each group used for immunohistochemistry and half for protein extraction and ELISA assays. Fibroblasts obtained from healthy dental pulps, stimulated or not by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in order to simulate aggression on the cell cultures, were also used and analyzed by ELISA for IL-1β and IL-8 as complementary information. Data obtained from immunohistochemistry were qualitatively analyzed. Data obtained from ELISA assays (tissue and cells) were statistically treated by the t-test (p<0.05). RESULTS: Immunohistochemically, it was observed that inflamed pulps were strongly stained for both cytokines in inflammatory cells, while healthy pulps were not immunolabeled. ELISA from tissues quantitatively confirmed the higher presence of both cytokines. Additionally, cultured pulp fibroblasts stimulated by LPS also produce more cytokines than the control cells. CONCLUSIONS: It may be concluded that inflamed pulps present higher amounts of IL-1β and IL-8 than healthy pulps and that pulp fibroblasts stimulated by bacterial LPS produce higher levels of IL-1β and IL-8 than the control group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , /analysis , Pulpitis/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Coloring Agents , Cytoplasm/immunology , Cytoplasm/pathology , Dental Pulp/cytology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Escherichia coli , Fibroblasts/immunology , Fibroblasts/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Odontoblasts/immunology , Odontoblasts/pathology , Pulpitis/pathology
9.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 51(3): 131-134, May-June 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-517095

ABSTRACT

Objective: to discuss the current PAHO recommendation that does not support the substitution of traditional cellular DTP vaccine by acellular DTP, and the role of mutations, in humans, as the main cause of rare adverse events, such as epileptic-like convulsions, triggered by pertussis vaccine. Data review: the main components related to toxic effects of cellular pertussis vaccines are the lipopolysaccharide of bacterial cell wall and pertussis toxin. The removal of part of lipopolysaccharide layer has allowed the creation of a safer cellular pertussis vaccine, with costs comparable to the traditional cellular vaccine, and which may be a substitute for the acellular vaccine. Conclusion: The new methodology introduced by Instituto Butantan allows for the development of a new safer pertussis vaccine with low LPS content (Plow), and the use of the lipopolysaccharide obtained in the process in the production of monophosphoryl lipid A. This component has shown potent adjuvant effect when administered together with influenza inactivated vaccine, making possible to reduce the antigen dose, enhancing the production capacity and lowering costs.


Objetivo: Discutir as recomendações da WHO-OPAS que não consideram indicada a substituição da vacina DTP celular clássica pela DTP acelular e o papel de mutações, em humanos, como principal causa dos raros eventos de convulsões epileptiformes desencadeadas pela vacina pertussis. Revisão dos dados: Os principais componentes relacionados aos efeitos tóxicos da vacina pertussis celular são o lipopolissacarídio da parede celular da bactéria e a toxina pertussis. A remoção de parte da camada lipopolissacarídica permitiu a criação de uma vacina pertussis celular, mais segura e de custo comparável ao da vacina celular tradicional, podendo substituir a vacina pertussis acelular. Conclusão: A nova vacina pertussis, com baixo teor de LPS (Plow) desenvolvida pelo Instituto Butantan, além de oferecer uma vacina mais segura, permite o aproveitamento do lipopolissacarídeo para a produção de monofosforil lipídeo A. Esse componente mostrou-se potente como adjuvante e altamente eficiente quando administrado com a vacina de influenza, levando à possibilidade de se reduzir a dose de antígeno, aumentando a capacidade de produção e redução dos custos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/adverse effects , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/adverse effects , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Mutation , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/genetics , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/immunology , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/genetics , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , World Health Organization
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135807

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Ileal perforation is a serious complication of typhoid fever. The exact reasons for the development of perforation in only a few of those infected with Salmonella Typhi is unknown, and it is likely that immunological factors are involved. Therefore we undertook this study to compare the antibody profile in patients with uncomplicated typhoid fever with those having ileal perforation by immunoblotting. Methods: Two groups of patients were included in the study. Group II comprised patients with uncomplicated typhoid fever (n=47), and group I with typhoid ileal perforation (n=33). The flagellar (H), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane protein (OMP) antigens of Salmonella Typhi were extracted and used to test patient sera for antibodies by immunoblotting Results: Immunoblotting using S. Typhi antigens enabled the detection of S. Typhi antibodies in the two groups of patients. A significant difference was seen in the response of these two groups of patients with respect to antibodies to flagella, lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane proteins. Antibodies to flagella were more pronounced among patients with uncomplicated typhoid fever, while anti-OMP antibodies were significantly associated with typhoid ileal perforation. Interpretation & conclusions: A comparison of antibodies in patients with uncomplicated typhoid fever and with ileal perforation revealed the differences in the antibody profiles of the two groups. Our study suggests that the difference in antibody response may in some way play a role in the pathogenesis of typhoid ileal perforation which can also potentially be exploited to develop suitable diagnostic tests.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/immunology , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Humans , Immunoblotting/methods , Intestinal Perforation/blood , Intestinal Perforation/etiology , Intestinal Perforation/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Salmonella typhi/immunology , Typhoid Fever/blood , Typhoid Fever/complications , Typhoid Fever/immunology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10783

ABSTRACT

Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) have been known to be involved in various pathophysiological processes such as inflammation. This study was performed to determine the regulatory function of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on the LPS-induced expression of iNOS, and COX-2 in RAW 264.7 cells. When a cell-permeable SOD, Tat-SOD, was added to the culture medium of RAW 264.7 cells, it rapidly entered the cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with Tat-SOD led to decrease in LPS-induced ROS generation. Pretreatment with Tat-SOD significantly inhibited LPS-induced expression of iNOS and NO production but had no effect on the expression of COX-2 and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells. Tat-SOD inhibited LPS-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity, IkappaBalpha degradation and activation of MAP kinases. These data suggest that SOD differentially regulate expression of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
12.
Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2006; 52 (111): 128-141
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-135553

ABSTRACT

A total 120 chickens of L.B.S.L. of one day old were divided into 6 groups "20 chickens for each". The first three groups were vaccinated with oil emulsified inactivated NewCastle "ND", egg drop syndrome "EDS" vaccine and Pasteurella multosida [P .multosida] Lipopolysaccaride extract "LPS" in single doses which are 0.5 ml, 1/M respectively. The fourth group was vaccinated with bivalent oil adjuvant of ND and EDS. The fifth group was vaccinated with bivalent oil adjuvant vaccine of ND, EDS and LPS. The third and fifth groups received 2 doses of LPS to study its mitogenic effect on the vaccinated chickens. Blood sera were collected till 7 weeks post-vaccination for estimation of cell mediated immunity by lymphocyte transformation, phagocytic activity, phagocytic index and heterophils lymphocytes ratio. Humeral immunity was determined by IHA, HI, ELISA and challenge test. The obtaining data revealed that LPS protein complex of P. multocida had a mitogenic effect on chicken B lymphocytes vaccinated with combined NDV and EDS, enhancing the humeral antibodies and the protection against challenge of P. multocida and NDV were 80% and 90% respectively


Subject(s)
Animals , Pasteurella multocida/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Viral Vaccines , Newcastle disease virus , Atadenovirus
13.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 2005 Dec; 23(4): 305-10
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-610

ABSTRACT

In Thailand, no reports are available on Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7, a causative agent of severe bloody diarrhoea, sometimes associated with haemolytic-uraemic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. The reason for the non-identification of infection due to E. coli O157 in this country and in other developing countries has not been rigorously discussed. The aim of this study was to determine the humoral response against the infectious organism. The IgM and IgG antibody responses against E. coli O157 lipopolysaccharide were studied using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Three hundred and thirty-two serum samples obtained from healthy blood donors and patients with diseases unrelated to diarrhoea were investigated. With a cut-off value of mean +2 SDs for each age-group, the frequency of the IgM and IgG responses to O157 lipopolysaccharide was 11.74% (39 of 332 samples) and 22.59% (75 of 332 samples) respectively. Furthermore, agglutination test of 173 subjects revealed titres ranging from 10 to 40 in all the samples. The results suggest possible exposure of the Thai population to cross-reacting antigens from other intestinal organisms in addition to infection due to E. coli O157:H7.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Agglutination Tests/methods , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Developing Countries , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Escherichia coli O157/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Infant , Japan , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Middle Aged , Reference Values , Thailand
14.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2005 Jun-Sep; 23(2-3): 127-32
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36888

ABSTRACT

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe and potentially fatal infectious disease in humans known to be endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The infection is also increasingly recognized in various animal species with a potential to spread to humans. With the potential as a biological warfare agent, specific serodiagnosis of melioidosis for surveillance in large populations at risk, humans or animals, would be highly valuable. In this study, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a lipopolysaccharide-specific monoclonal antibody was developed. The assay provides high specificity, based on a previously described monoclonal antibody to a specific epitope on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of B. pseudomallei. The assay sensitivity of 96.0% and specificity of 100% were achieved at a cutoff value of 50% inhibition in human culture-proven melioidosis cases. An optimal cutoff value of 65% inhibition for sera from a melioidosis endemic area was obtained by ROC analysis and resulted in an assay specificity of 86.2%, while maintaining assay sensitivity of 92.0%. A potential application of the assay in the serodiagnosis of melioidosis in animal species was also evaluated usina dolphin sera with satisfactory results.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/diagnosis , Antigen-Antibody Reactions/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Burkholderia pseudomallei/immunology , Endemic Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Melioidosis/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests , Thailand/epidemiology
15.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 77(2): 293-324, June 2005. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-399103

ABSTRACT

Vacinas glicoconjugadas, cujo carboidrato da superfície de um microrganismo está covalentemente ligado a uma proteína carreadora, vêm sendo consideradas como efetivas para gerar respostas imunes que previnem um grande número de doenças. A tecnologia é genérica e aplicável a vários patógenos, se os anticorpos contra os carboidratos de superfície forem capazes de proteger contra a infecção. Três vacinas contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b, Neissseria meningitidis Grupo C e sete sorotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae já foram licenciadas e muitas outras estão em desenvolvimento. Este artigo discute o racional para o desenvolvimento e uso de vacinas glicoconjugadas; os mecanismos pelos quais elas induzem respostas imune dependentes de célula T e suas implicações para o seu desenvolvimento; o papel dos métodos físico-químicos na caracterização e no controle de qualidade dessas vacinas; e os produtos novos que estão em desenvolvimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/immunology , Vaccines, Conjugate/immunology , Bacterial Vaccines/economics , Bacterial Vaccines/standards , Drug Design , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/economics , Quality Control , Vaccines, Conjugate/economics , Vaccines, Conjugate/standards
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 100(supl.1): 19-23, Mar. 2005. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-402171

ABSTRACT

Asthma results from allergen-driven intrapulmonary Th2 response, and is characterized by intermittent airway obstruction, airway hyperreactivity (AHR), and airway inflammation. Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract are commonly associated with elevated production of nitric oxide (NO). It has been shown that exhaled NO may be derived from constitutive NO synthase (NOS) such as endothelial (NOS 3) and neural (NOS 1) in normal airways, while increased levels of NO in asthma appear to be derived from inducible NOS2 expressed in the inflamed airways. Nevertheless, the functional role of NO and NOS isoforms in the regulation of AHR and airway inflammation in human or experimental models of asthma is still highly controversial. In the present commentary we will discuss the role of lipopolysaccharides contamination of allergens as key element in the controversy related to the regulation of NOS2 activity in experimental asthma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Allergens/immunology , Asthma/enzymology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Asthma/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Activation
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 38(2): 171-183, fev. 2005. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-393653

ABSTRACT

Because low tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production has been reported in malnourished children, in contrast with high production of TNF-alpha in experimental protein-energy malnutrition, we reevaluated the production of TNF-alpha in whole blood cultures from children with primary malnutrition free from infection, and in healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Mononuclear cells in blood diluted 1:5 in endotoxin-free medium released TNF-alpha for 24 h. Spontaneously released TNF-alpha levels (mean ± SEM), as measured by enzyme immunoassay in the supernatants of unstimulated 24-h cultures, were 10,941 ± 2,591 pg/ml in children with malnutrition (N = 11) and 533 ± 267 pg/ml in controls (N = 18) (P < 0.0001). TNF-alpha production was increased by stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with maximal production of 67,341 ± 16,580 pg/ml TNF-alpha in malnourished children and 25,198 ± 2,493 pg/ml in controls (P = 0.002). In control subjects, LPS dose-dependently induced TNF-alpha production, with maximal responses obtained at 2000 ng/ml. In contrast, malnourished patients produced significantly more TNF-alpha with 0.02-200 ng/ml LPS, responded maximally at a 10-fold lower LPS concentration (200 ng/ml), and presented high-dose inhibition at 2000 ng/ml. TNF-alpha production a) was significantly influenced by LPS concentration in control subjects, but not in malnourished children, who responded strongly to very low LPS concentrations, and b) presented a significant, negative correlation (r = -0.703, P = 0.023) between spontaneous release and the LPS concentration that elicited maximal responses in malnourished patients. These findings indicate that malnourished children are not deficient in TNF-alpha production, and suggest that their cells are primed for increased TNF-alpha production.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Blood Cells/immunology , Child Nutrition Disorders/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2005. [101] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-433554

ABSTRACT

A fisiopatologia da sepse grave foi estudada no modelo experimental de tolerância induzida com 1 mg/kg de LPS em camundongos Balb/c. Os animais tolerantes a LPS apresentaram síndrome de animal doente, menor produção de MIP-2, TNF-, IL-1, IL-10 séricas e um aumento de células tronco pluripotentes, linfócitos T auxiliares e linfócitos B. Além disso, foi aumentada a quantidade de todos os linfócitos T com citocinas pró-inflamatórias e de linfócitos T auxiliares com citocinas antiinflamatórias. O estado de tolerância protegeu os animais, mas alterou citologia e o padrão de expressão de citocinas esplênicas / Sepsisis the development of the systemic inflammatory responses syndrome in the presence of infection. The severe sepsis is associated with mortality rate from 45-60 por cento. Endotoxin is external wall of gram-negative bacteria and plays a key role in sepsis pathogenesis...


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cytokines , Endotoxins , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , T-Lymphocytes
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-33244

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli O157:H7, an emerging cause of food-borne disease with the occurrence of an estimated 20,000 illnesses and 250 deaths each year in the United States, has now been reported from several countries worldwide. Infections with this bacteria, which follows the ingestion of contaminated food by humans, causes bloody diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and renal disease, that can have serious health implications. The source of food contamination is usually associated with animals, mainly cattle. Many cattle become infected early in life when they are exposed to an environment that is contaminated by other animals shedding the organisms in their feces. Detection of E. coli O157:H7 in feces or contaminated food samples requires tests with high sensitivity, which is increased by the use of monoclonal antibodies. However, the production of concentrated monoclonal antibodies in ascites raises animal welfare concerns, and can be expensive. In this study, single chain of variable fragment (scFv) molecules were developed from hybridoma clones that produce immunoglobulins specific for the LPS and flagella antigen of E. coli O157:H7 using phage display technology. The reactivity of the soluble scFv for their respective antigens was preserved in ELISA and by partial inhibition of bacterial agglutination with polyclonal antiserum. Furthermore, the scFv were able to capture E. coli O157:H7 bacteria demonstrating their potential use in diagnostic assays.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial/genetics , Base Sequence , DNA, Complementary/biosynthesis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Escherichia coli O157/immunology , Flagella/immunology , Hybridomas/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Mice , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis
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