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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 411-424, jul. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008180


Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is an aromatic monoterpene found in essential oils extracted from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family, such as Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, Satureja, Thymbra and Monarda genera. Growth and biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes CLIP 74902 were evaluate using three carbon sources in the presence of thymol. Specific growth rate (h-1) values at 37o with glucose, trehalose and cellobiose with the addition of thymol (µg/mL) 0 (control) and 750, were respectively: 0.22, 0.07; 0.14, 0.04; 0.11, 0.04. Lag periods obtained under the same conditions were (h): 8.19, 13.2; 22.5, 27.5; 23.1, 28.1. A marked antibiofilm activity was observed against the exposure with 750 µg/mL of thymol, showing a high percentage of inhibition: glucose (99 %), trehalose (97 %) and cellobiose (98%), compared to the control. The results suggest that thymol could be used to inhibit the growth and production of biofilms by L. monocytogenes in the food industry.

Timol (2-isopropil-5-metilfenol) es un monoterpeno aromático presente en los aceites esenciales extraídos de plantas pertenecientes a la familia Lamiaceae, como los géneros Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, Satureja, Thymbra y Monarda. El crecimiento y formación de biopelícula por Listeria monocytogenes CLIP 74902 fueron evaluados utilizando tres fuentes de carbono en presencia de timol. La velocidad específica de crecimiento (h-1) a 37o con glucosa, trehalosa y celobiosa con la adición de timol (µg/mL) 0 (control) y 750, fueron respectivamente: 0.22, 0.07; 0.14, 0.04, 0.11, 0,04. Los períodos lag obtenidos en las mismas condiciones fueron (h): 8.19, 13.2; 22.5, 27.5; 23.1, 28.1. Una marcada actividad antibiofilm fue obtenida con 750 µg/mL de timol, mostrando un alto porcentaje de inhibición con glucosa (99%), trehalosa (97%) y celobiosa (98%), respecto al control. Los resultados sugieren que timol podría ser usado para inhibir el crecimiento y producción de biopelículas por L. monocytogenes en la industria alimentaria.

Thymol/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Terpenes/pharmacology , Kinetics , Biofilms/growth & development , Environment , Fermentation , Food Microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 169-176, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889211


ABSTRACT Major health challenges as the increasing number of cases of infections by antibiotic multiresistant microorganisms and cases of Alzheimer's disease have led to searching new control drugs. The present study aims to verify a new way of obtaining bioactive extracts from filamentous fungi with potential antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, using epigenetic modulation to promote the expression of genes commonly silenced. For such finality, five filamentous fungal species (Talaromyces funiculosus, Talaromyces islandicus, Talaromyces minioluteus, Talaromyces pinophilus, Penicillium janthinellum) were grown or not with DNA methyltransferases inhibitors (procainamide or hydralazine) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid). Extracts from T. islandicus cultured or not with hydralazine inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth in 57.66 ± 5.98% and 15.38 ± 1.99%, respectively. Increment in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was observed for the extract from P. janthinellum grown with procainamide (100%), when compared to the control extract (39.62 ± 3.76%). Similarly, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity increased from 20.91 ± 3.90% (control) to 92.20 ± 3.72% when the tested extract was obtained from T. pinophilus under a combination of suberohydroxamic acid and procainamide. Concluding, increases in antimicrobial activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition were observed when fungal extracts in the presence of DNA methyltransferases and/or histone deacetylase modulators were tested.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Penicillium/chemistry , Talaromyces/chemistry , Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/metabolism , Chromatin/metabolism , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/enzymology , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Penicillium/metabolism , Talaromyces/metabolism
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 724-729, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889162


ABSTRACT The effectiveness of bacteriophage P100, nisin and sodium lactate, individually and in combination, in inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat pork ham slices was assessed. The antimicrobials were applied to the surfaces of ready-to-eat pork ham slices, which were inoculated with a mixture of L. monocytogenes. Among the individual antimicrobial treatments, bacteriophage P100 was the most effective, decreasing L. monocytogenes to undetectable levels at zero and 72 h post-infection. Sodium lactate was the least effective treatment. Treatment with nisin at zero h significantly reduced initial cell density (p < 0.05). However, this pattern was not observed at 72 h of storage. A significant difference (p < 0.05) existed between the results of separate bacteriophage and nisin treatments after refrigerated storage, but not immediately upon inoculation of the bacteria. The results showed that the use of bacteriophage P100 is the method of choice for the control of bacteria.

Animals , Bacteriophages/physiology , Fast Foods/microbiology , Food Preservation/methods , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/virology , Meat Products/microbiology , Nisin/pharmacology , Sodium Lactate/pharmacology , Food Preservation/instrumentation , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Swine
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 587-591, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889137


Abstract The pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes can persist in food processing plants for many years, even when appropriate hygienic measures are in place, with potential for contaminating ready-to-eat products and, its ability to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces certainly contributes for the environmental persistence. In this research, L. monocytogenes was grown in biofilms up 8 days attached to stainless steel and glass surfaces, contributing for advancing the knowledge on architecture of mature biofilms, since many literature studies carried out on this topic considered only early stages of cell adhesion. In this study, biofilm populations of two strains of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 1/2a and 4b) on stainless steel coupons and glass were examined using regular fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and classic culture method. The biofilms formed were not very dense and microscopic observations revealed uneven biofilm structures, with presence of exopolymeric matrix surrounding single cells, small aggregates and microcolonies, in a honeycomb-like arrangement. Moreover, planktonic population of L. monocytogenes (present in broth media covering the abiotic surface) remained stable throughout the incubation time, which indicates an efficient dispersal mechanism, since the culture medium was replaced daily. In conclusion, even if these strains of L. monocytogenes were not able to form thick multilayer biofilms, it was noticeable their high persistence on abiotic surfaces, reinforcing the need to focus on measures to avoid biofilm formation, instead of trying to eradicate mature biofilms.

Stainless Steel/chemistry , Biofilms , Food Handling/instrumentation , Glass/chemistry , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Bacterial Adhesion , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Listeria monocytogenes/physiology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 699-705, Apr.-June 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723136


The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa) and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10%) and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2%) evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%), the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Interactions , Food Analysis , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Lippia/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Culture Media/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 11-16, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709474


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bacteriophage P100 on strains of Listeria monocytogenes in artificially inoculated soft cheeses. A mix of L. monocytogenes 1/2a and Scott A was inoculated in Minas Frescal and Coalho cheeses (approximately 10(5) cfu/g) with the bacteriophage added thereafter (8.3 x 10(7) PFU/g). Samples were analyzed immediately, and then stored at 10 ºC for seven days. At time zero, 30 min post-infection, the bacteriophage P100 reduced L. monocytogenes counts by 2.3 log units in Minas Frescal cheese and by 2.1 log units in Coalho cheese, compared to controls without bacteriophage. However, in samples stored under refrigeration for seven days, the bacteriophage P100 was only weakly antilisterial, with the lowest decimal reduction (DR) for the cheeses: 1.0 log unit for Minas Frescal and 0.8 log units for Coalho cheese. The treatment produced a statistically significant decrease in the counts of viable cells (p < 0.05) and in all assays performed, we observed an increase of approximately one log cycle in the number of viable cells of L. monocytogenes in the samples under refrigeration for seven days. Moreover, a smaller effect of phages was observed. These results, along with other published data, indicate that the effectiveness of the phage treatment depends on the initial concentration of L. monocytogenes, and that a high concentration of phages per unit area is required to ensure sustained inactivation of target pathogens on food surfaces.

Bacteriophages/growth & development , Cheese/microbiology , Cheese/virology , Food Microbiology/methods , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Listeria monocytogenes/virology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Bacterial Load , Microbial Viability , Temperature , Time Factors
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1181-1188, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705259


This study was developed in order to evaluate two alternatives for the control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw bovine meat pieces, both based on the use of Thymus vulgaris and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (EOs). The antilisterial activity of different concentrations of the EOs was tested in vitro using agar dilution and disk volatilization techniques. In addition, L. monocytogenes was inoculated in meat pieces, which were submerged in edible gelatin coatings containing 2% (v/v) EOs or submitted to the vapor of EOs (0.74 μ L. monocytogenes was quantified after one, 48 and 96 hours of storage (7 °C). In the in vitro tests, the EO of T. vulgaris presented higher activity. The two options used (edible gelatin coating and vapor activity), in spite of exercising effects with differentiated behaviors, presented antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes inoculated in raw bovine meat (p < 0.05). Greatest antibacterial activity were obtained in the experiment that used edible coatings containing EOs, at 48 hours of storage reductions in bacterial counts between 1.09 and 1.25 Log CFU.g-1 were obtained. In the vapor effect experiment, the EO of T. vulgaris caused the highest reduction in the population of bacteria inoculated in raw bovine meat (p < 0.05), 0.40 Log CFU.g-1 at 96 hours of storage. This study supplied important information regarding new and promising natural alternatives, based on the concept of active packaging, for the control of L. monocytogenes in the meat industry.

Animals , Cattle , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Meat/microbiology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Bacterial Load , Food Preservatives/isolation & purification , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Temperature
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1163-1167, Oct.-Dec. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705277


The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g-1) previously inoculated with a suspension of 10² cfu g-1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe) against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

Animals , Cattle , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Food Microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Peptides/pharmacology , Chickens , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Nisin/pharmacology , Temperature , Time Factors
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(5): 1554-1560, out. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689776


The presented study aimed to verify the effect of different pH values, enzyme solutions and heat treatments on the antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocinogenic strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Lc08 and to test their antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes in reconstituted skim milk at refrigeration temperatures. This strain was previously described as a nisin Z producer and capable of inhibiting L. monocytogenes growth in in vitro tests. The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin cell-free supernatant of Lc08 was sensitive to enzyme treatments (except papain). The pH values and heating (65ºC for 30min, 75ºC for 15s) had no apparent effect on the antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin produced by Lc08. Only treatment at autoclave conditions result in loss of their antimicrobial activity. Lc08 presented antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes in the milk system after 12h at 25ºC. No effect was found at 7ºC. The results show the application viability of the Lc08 in food systems as a biopreservative against L. monocytogenes.

O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar o efeito de diferentes valores de pH, soluções enzimáticas e tratamentos térmicos na atividade antimicrobiana da cepa bacteriocinogênica Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Lc08 e testar sua atividade antagonista contra Listeria monocytogenes em leite desnatado reconstituído em diferentes temperaturas de estocagem. Essa cepa já foi descrita como produtora de nisina Z e capaz de inibir o desenvolvimento de L. monocytogenes em testes in vitro. A atividade antimicrobiana do sobrenadante de Lc08 contendo a bacteriocina produzida e livre de células foi sensível ao tratamento pelas enzimas testadas (exceto papaína). A aplicação de diferentes valores de pH e o tratamento térmico (65ºC por 30 min, 75ºC por 15s) não influenciaram na atividade antimicrobiana da bacteriocina produzida por Lc08. Apenas o tratamento em autoclave resultou em perda da sua capacidade em inibir o desenvolvimento de L. monocytogenes. A cepa Lc08 apresentou atividade antagonista contra L. monocytogenes em leite após período de estocagem de 12h a 25ºC. Não foi observado efeito a 7ºC. Os resultados mostram a viabilidade de aplicação da cultura Lc08 ou de sua bacteriocina em produtos lácteos como bioconservador contra L. monocytogenes.

Animals , Lactococcus lactis/growth & development , Milk/statistics & numerical data , Milk , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Nisin , Products with Antimicrobial Action
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 737-742, July-Sept. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699806


Although many rapid and high throughput molecular methods have been developed in the recent years for the multiplex detection of foodborne pathogens, the simultaneous recovery and enrichment of sublethally injured cells is still a problem that needs to be considered. Combined with previous established multiplex real-time PCR assay, the capability of simultaneous recovery and enrichment of sublethally injured Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes cells was evaluated in a multiplex selective enrichment broth SEL. The injured cells were obtained by heat shock. After evaluation of different procedures, 1 h of recovery period prior to 20 h of enrichment was proved to be necessary for the detection of less than 10 CFU/5 mL broth of injured L. monocytogenes. When the detection method was applied to artificially contaminated ground beef, all the three injured pathogens could be simultaneously detected without discrimination by real-time PCR combined with SEL broth, the detection limit was < 5 CFU/10 g ground beef. Comparatively, when BPW was employed as the enrichment broth in the same detection procedure, injured L. monocytogenes could not be detected if the initially spiked level was below 10² CFU/10 g ground beef. Considering the capability of co-enrichment and high detection effectiveness, the real-time PCR assay combined with SEL broth herein appears to be a promising tool for high-throughput screening of a large number of processed food samples, which require either single or multiple pathogen detection. More important, the sublethally injured foodborne pathogen cells were also detectable.

Humans , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Culture Media/chemistry , /isolation & purification , Food Microbiology/methods , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Salmonella/isolation & purification , /growth & development , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Salmonella/growth & development
Univ. sci ; 18(2): 189-202, May-Aug. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689630


Se caracterizó la estructura del sistema deregulación de dos componentes LisR/LisK de Listeriamonocytogenes. Se emplearon herramientas bioinformáticas ybases de datos para predecir la estructura e interacciones delas dos proteínas y se modelaron. Los resultados predicenque la proteína LisK está embebida en la membrana celulary su composición modular (dominios HAMP, histidinakinasa and ATPasa) está asociada a su autofosforilación(His-266). Un efecto estímulo respuesta determina lapropagación secuencial de la señal desde la membranacelular hacia componentes citoplasmáticos. A su vez, sepredice que LisR es una proteína citosólica con un dominiode receptor (homólogo a cheY) que incluye el residuofosfo-aceptor (Asp-52) y el dominio de unión a ADN,el cual puede permitir la transmisión de una respuestaespecífica a nivel transcripcional. Los componentes LisR/LisK han sido bioquímica y funcionalmente caracterizadosexperimentalmente en la patofisiología de otros bacilos. Espor ello, que la aproximación de los resultados basados enestructura-función podría facilitar el diseño de inhibidoresespecíficos...

Here, we characterized the structure of the two-component regulatory system, LisR/LisK, in Listeriamonocytogenes. To predict the structure of both proteins and the relationship between them, we employedseveral bioinformatic tools and databases. Based on our results, LisK protein is embedded in the cellmembrane and its modular composition (HAMP, histidine kinase and ATPase domains) is associatedwith its autophosphorylation (His-266). A stimulus-response likely determines the sequential signalpropagation from the bacterial cell surface to its cytoplasmic components. According to our results,LisR is a cytoplasmic protein with a receptor domain (homologous to CheY) that comprises a phosphoacceptorresidue (Asp-52) and a DNA-binding domain, which may allow the transmission of a specifictranscriptional response. LisR/LisK has been experimentally characterized both biochemically andfunctionally in other Bacilli pathophysiology; our structure-function approach may facilitate the design ofsuitable inhibitors...

O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizarestruturalmente o sistema de regulação de dois componentesLisR/LisK de Listeria monocytogenes. Foram utilizadasdiversas ferramentas de bioinformática e bancos de dadospara predizer a estrutura das duas proteínas, modelálase prever suas interações. Os resultados predizemque a proteína Lisk está incorporada na composição damembrana celular e sua composição modular (domíniosHAMP, histidina quinase e ATPase) está associada com asua autofosforilação (His-266). Um efeito de estímulo eresposta determina a propagação sequencial do sinal a partirda membrana celular em componentes citoplasmáticos. Osresultados predizem que LisR é uma proteína citosólicacom um domínio recetor (homólogo a CheY) que inclui oresíduo fosfo-aceitador (Asp-52) e o domínio de ligação aoADN, o que pode permitir a transmissão de uma respostaespecífica a nível transcricional. Como LisR/Lisk foi,química e funcionalmente, caracterizada experimentalmentena fisiopatologia de outros bacilos, esta abordagem baseadana estrutura-função pode facilitar a conceção de inibidoresespecíficos...

Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Listeria monocytogenes/classification , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; jul. 2013. 95 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-837014


Nos últimos anos, vegetais têm sido responsáveis por surtos de enfermidades transmitidas por alimentos (ETA) em diversas regiões do mundo por serem veículos dos mais diferentes micro-organismos patogênicos, entre eles Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes e Escherichia coli produtora de toxina de Shiga (STEC). O uso de sanitizantes nem sempre reduz de maneira significativa a população de micro-organismos presentes nos vegetais, sendo necessária a aplicação de técnicas mais eficientes, entre elas, a radiação gama. Assim, os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar o efeito da irradiação na redução de STEC, Salmonella spp. e L. monocytogenes inoculadas em espinafre minimamente processado, bem como sobre os atributos físico-químicos e sensoriais do vegetal. Amostras de espinafre (Tetragonia expansa) foram inoculadas com um "pool" de cepas de Salmonella spp, um "pool" de cepas de L. monocytogenes e um "pool" de cepas de STEC, separadamente, e expostas às doses de 0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0 kGy. Os valores de D10 para Salmonella spp, L. monocytogenes e STEC foram, respectivamente, 0,19 a 0,20 kGy, 0,20 a 0,21 kGy e 0,17 kGy. Foram avaliados os comportamentos de Salmonella spp, L. monocytogenes e STEC em amostras de espinafre expostas à doses cinco vezes maiores do que o valor D10 obtido para cada micro-organismo: 1,0; 1,05 e 0,85 kGy, respectivamente, e em amostras não irradiadas armazenadas por 12 dias a (4±1) °C e a (10±1) °C. Os resultados mostram que as doses empregadas reduziram a população de Salmonella e de STEC em aproximadamente 6 ciclos log no dia zero tendo permanecido abaixo do limite de detecção (<10 UFC/g), mesmo após 12 dias de armazenamento em ambas as temperaturas. A dose de 1,05 kGy reduziu a população de L. monocytogenes em, aproximadamente, 5 log imediatamente após a irradiação, porém com recuperação de 2,62 log nas amostras armazenadas a (10±1) °C ao final do período de armazenamento. Amostras de espinafre expostas às doses de 1 e 1,5 kGy e a amostra-controle, mantidas sob refrigeração (4±1) ºC, foram utilizadas para a avaliação da vida de prateleira (VP), análise sensorial, análise de cor, determinação de ácido ascórbico, flavonoides, compostos fenólicos e capacidade antioxidante. A VP da amostra exposta à dose de 1 kGy foi de 15 dias, dois dias a mais que a da amostra-controle, enquanto a exposta a 1,5 kGy apresentou VP de 12 dias. Todas as amostras expostas à radiação foram aceitas pelos provadores. A irradiação não provocou alterações significativas na concentração de compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante, porém houve alteração na cor e na concentração de flavonoides. As estações do ano, por sua vez, tiveram influência sobre a coloração, concentração de compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante. Apesar da alteração na coloração ter sido observada na análise instrumental, esta não foi percebida pelos provadores durante a análise sensorial. O processo de irradiação mostrou ser uma boa alternativa para aumentar a segurança microbiológica de espinafre sem alterar as características sensoriais. No entanto, o uso das Boas Práticas de Fabricação nunca deve ser negligenciado

In recent years, fresh produce have been responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, due to their contamination by different pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The use of sanitizers does not always significantly reduce the microbial populations present in vegetables, and thus, the application of more efficient techniques such as gamma radiation, is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of the populations of STEC, Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes, inoculated on minimally processed spinach, as well as to assess its effect on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of the vegetable. Spinach (Tetragonia expansa) samples were individually inoculated, with a cocktail of three strains of Salmonella spp, three strains of L. monocytogenes and three strains of STEC and exposed to doses of 0, 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0 kGy. The D10 values determined in this study ranged from 0.19 to 0.20 kGy for Salmonella spp, 0.20 to 0.21 kGy for L. monocytogenes, and 0.17 kGy for STEC. The behavior of Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes and STEC were evaluated in spinach samples exposed to doses of 1.0, 1.05 and 0.85 kGy, respectively, and in non-irradiated samples, stored for 12 days at (4±1) °C and (10±1) °C. The results showed that the populations of Salmonella and STEC were reduced at about 6 log, on day zero, and remained below the detection limit (<10 CFU/g) even after 12 days of storage at both temperatures tested. The 1.05 kGy dose reduced the population of L. monocytogenes in approximately 5 log, but in the samples stored at (10±1) °C, the growth of the microorganism (2,62 log) was observed at the end of the storage time. Spinach samples exposed to 1 and 1.5 kGy, as well as the control sample, all kept under refrigeration (4±1) °C were used for the evaluation of the product shelf life, sensory analysis, color analysis, determination of ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity. The samples exposed to 1 kGy displayed a shelf life of 15 days, two days longer than that observed for the control sample, while those exposed to 1.5 kGy showed a shelf life of 12 days. All samples exposed to radiation were accepted by the sensorial panel. The irradiation had no significant effect either on the concentration of phenolic compounds or on the antioxidant activity. Nevertheless, there was a reduction in the concentration of flavonoids and change on the color. The color, phenolic compounds concentration and antioxidant activity were influenced by the seasons of the year. Although the change in color was observed by instrumental analysis, this was not perceived by the panelists during sensory analysis. The irradiation process is a great alternative for microbiological safety purpose together with Good Manufacturing Practices

Food Irradiation/methods , Spinacia oleracea/radiation effects , Storage of Substances, Products and Materials , Colimetry , Escherichia coli/classification , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Salmonella/chemistry , Shiga Toxin
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 357-365, 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688567


This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products.

Animals , Cattle , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Eugenia/chemistry , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Meat/microbiology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/chemistry , Food Preservatives/isolation & purification , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Refrigeration , Temperature
Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology. 2012; 6 (4): 13-20
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-117565


Food poisoning caused by Listeriamonocytogenes results in death in 30% of the cases. Considering the high probability of L. monocytogenes contamination of local fish, the present study aimed at investigating the effects of thyme [Zataria multiflora Boiss] essential oil [EO] and nisin, individually and in combination, on the growth of L. monocytogenes in minced silver carp during refrigerated storage. Minced fish samples were inoculated with 1x10[4] cfu/g of L. monocytogenes. A total of 11 samples were inoculaetd with thyme EO at a concentration [weight/volume]of 0.3%, 0.8% or 1.2%, nisin at a concentration of 500 or 1000 IU/g, or a combination of the two. The treated and control samples were packaged in plastic bags and kept at refrigerator temperature for 12 days.. Samples were cultured on CHROMagarTM Listeria every 2 days and the bacteri counted. Nisin at two different levels [500 and 1000 IU/g]could not inhibit the growth of L.monocytogenes to a level below the acceptable level in raw food [100 cells/g]. The antibacterial activity of nisin decreased during the storage period, while simultaneous use of nisin and thyme EO at a concentartion of 0.8 and 1.2% reduced L. monocytogenes viable count to a level below the acceptable limit during 12 days. A combination of 0.8% thyme [weight/volume]and 1000 IU/g nisin has the best inhibitory effect on growth of L. monocytogenes in minced silver carp during cold [4[degree sign] C] storage

Animals , Thymus Plant , Nisin/pharmacology , Food Preservation/methods , Food Preservatives , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Carps
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; dez. 2011. 273 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-837171


A ocorrência de surtos de doencas associadas aos vegetais minimamente processados (VMP) tem chamado a atenção para a sua segurança microbiológica. A avaliação quantitativa de riscos permite que o impacto das materias-primas e processamento seja avaliado e os resultados obtidos sejam usados para gestão e comunicação do risco. Desta forma, o presente estudo objetivou quantificar o risco de infecções por Salmonella spp. e Listeria monocytogenes a partir do consumo de VMP no Brasil. Um total de quinhentas e doze amostras de VMP foram analisadas e foi possivel enumerar e detectar Salmonella em 0,4% e 0,4% das amostras, respectivamente. L. monocytogenes foi enumerada e detectada em 0,97% e 3,1% das amostras analisadas, respectivamente. Os isolados de Salmonella spp. (n=4) e L. monocytogenes (n=69) foram confirmados por PCR e caracterizados por sorotipagem tradicional. Os isolados de L. monocytogenes foram caracterizados quanto ao ribotipo, resistencia ao cloro, taxa de multiplicação (µ), capacidade de formação de biofilmes e presença de genes de virulência. O sorovar predominante entre Salmonella spp. foi S. Typhimurium. Em relação a L. monocytogenes, observou-se prevalência do sorotipo 4b e do ribogrupo DUP-1038 e presenca de genes de virulência em 100% (inlA) e 97% (inlC e inlJ) dos isolados. A maioria dos isolados de L. monocytogenes foi resistente a exposição a 125 ppm de cloro livre, e todos foram capazes de aderir ao aco inox, atingindo concentracoes acima de 4 log UFC/cm2. Testes-desafio foram conduzidos para determinar o potencial de multiplicação (δ) de cepas de Salmonella e L. monocytogenes em nove diferentes tipos of VMPs armazenados a 7°C e 15°C por 6 dias. O armazenamento a 15°C por 6 dias resultou nos maiores aumentos nas populações de L. monocytogenes em couve picada (δ= 3,34) e rúcula ((δ= 3,22), enquanto para Salmonella, as maiores populações foram observadas em rúcula (δ= 4,05) e escarola (δ= 2,80). Testes-desafios posteriores indicaram que a multiplicação dos dois patógenos em VMP foi mais pronunciada quando os mesmos foram embalados sob atmosfera modificada em comparação a embalagem em filmes perfurados. Modelos preditivos primários e secundários descrevendo a taxa de multiplicação e tempo de lag de Salmonella spp. e L. monocytogenes em VMP em função da temperatura de armazenamento (7, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30°C) foram gerados. Verificou-se que os modelos gerados apresentaram a precisão necessária e foram adequados para modelagem da multiplicação dos dois patógenos em VMP. Os modelos de avaliação quantitativa de risco (AQR) foram construidos para determinar a probabilidade de infecção por Salmonella spp. e L. monocytogenes devido ao consumo de VMPs. Os modelos construidos com base nos dados levantados da literatura indicaram risco de infecção por Salmonella spp. e L. monocytogenes de 8.66 x 10-3 e 1.87 x 10-8, respectivamente, sendo necessário que medidas de mitigação do risco sejam adotadas

The occurrence of foodborne disease outbreaks linked to minimally processed vegetables (MPV) is concerning industries, consumers and governments worldwide. Quantitative risk assessments can estimate the impact of raw materials and processing practices and these estimates are used for risk management and risk communication. This study aimed at quantifying the risks of infection by Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes due to consumption of MPV in Brazil. A total of five hundred and twelve samples of MPV were analyzed and Salmonella was detected and enumerated in 0.4% and 0.4% of the samples, respectively. L. monocytogenes was enumerated and detected in 0.97% and 3.1% of the samples analyzed, respectively. Isolates of Salmonella spp. (n=4) and L. monocytogenes (n=69) were confirmed through PCR and characterized by traditional serotyping. The isolates of L. monocytogenes were characterized for their ribotype, resistance to chlorine, growth rate, (µ) and ability to form biofilms and presence of virulence factors. Among Salmonella spp., S. Thyphimurium was the most prevalent serovar. Among L. monocytogenes, prevalence of serotype 4b and ribotype DUP-1038 was observed. Virulence gene inlA was present in 100% of the isolates, and genes inlC and inlJ in 97%. The majority of L. monocytogenes isolates were resistant to up to 125 ppm of free chlorine and all isolates were able to attach to stainless steel coupons, reaching populations of up to 4 log10 CFU/cm2. Challenge tests were carried out to determine the growth potential (δ) of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes in nine types of MPV stored at 7°C and 15°C for 6 days. The storage of MPV at 15°C for 6 days resulted in the greatest increases in L. monocytogenes populations in shredded collard green (δ= 3.34) and arugula (δ= 3.22), whereas for Salmonella, the highest populations were found in arugula (δ= 4.05) and escarole (δ= 2.80). Further challenge tests indicated that multiplication of both pathogens in MPV was more pronounced when these products were packaged under modified atmosphere in comparison to packaging in perforated films. Primary and secondary predictive models describing the growth rate and lag time of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes in MPV as a function of storage temperature (7-30°C) were generated. The generated models were accurate and suitable for modeling the growth of pathogens in MPVs. Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) models were built to determine the probability of infection by Salmonella and L. monocytogenes due to consumption of MPVs. The models built using data available in the literature indicated that the risks of infection by these pathogens were 8.66 x 10-3 and 1.87 x 10-8, respectively, evidencing the need for adoption of risk mitigation measures

Evaluation Studies as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Plants/classification , Risk Assessment/methods , Salmonella/growth & development , Listeria monocytogenes , Disaster Prevention and Mitigation
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2009; 8 (29): 114-122
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-91808


There are many reports about the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from different kinds of cheese. Natural preservatives such as Zataria multiflora Boiss. Essential oil can inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. Essential oil on Listeria monocytogenes in Iranian white brined cheese. The essential oil of this plant were obtained by hydrodistilation and analysed by GC/MS. Effect of different concentrations of this essential oil [0,50, 150 and 300 ppm] on Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated in Iranian white brined cheese. Results showed the significant [p < 0.05] effect of the essential oil at concentrations of 150 and 300 ppmThe results showed, the potential inhibitory effects of the Zataria multiflora Boiss. Essential oil on Listeria monocytogenes in Iranian white brined cheese

Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Cheese/analysis , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Food Microbiology , Food Preservation/methods , Food Contamination/analysis , Oils, Volatile
Braz. j. microbiol ; 39(3): 514-516, July-Sept. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-494542


This study evaluated the growth of naturally occurring L. monocytogenes in sliced, vacuum-packed mortadella samples during storage at 5ºC until the expiration date. Tukey's test indicated that counts of L. monocytogenes on 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days of storage were significantly different (p<0.05), indicating growth during shelf life. In three trials, the mean increase was 1.72 log cycles. Vacuum packing and storage under refrigeration were not effective in controlling the growth of L. monocytogenes in sliced mortadella, indicating that good manufacturing practices and implemented HACCP programs are essential to assure safety of this product.

O presente trabalho avaliou a multiplicação de L. monocytogenes naturalmente presente em mortadelas fatiadas, embaladas a vácuo e estocadas a 5ºC durante sua vida de prateleira. O teste Tukey indicou que as populações de L. monocytogenes nos tempos 10, 20, 30 e 40 dias diferiram significativamente (p<0,05) indicando multiplicação durante o armazenamento. Em três repetições, o aumento médio foi de 1,80 ciclos log. A embalagem a vácuo e estocagem sob refrigeração não foram suficientes para o controle da multiplicação de L. monocytogenes em mortadelas fatiadas, indicando que as boas práticas de fabricação e um sistema HACCP implantado são fundamentais para assegurar a segurança desse produto.

Food Packaging , Food Storage , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Meat Products/analysis , Food Samples , Methods , Methods
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2007. 102 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-837343


Os queijos macios são veículos conhecidos de surtos de listeriose. Os chamados 'queso blanco' ou 'Latin-style fresh cheese' representam um grupo heterogêneo de queijos macios brancos e não maturados produzidos e consumidos em diferentes países da América Latina. O queijo Minas Frescal é o representante brasileiro deste grupo e pode ser produzido utilizando-se diferentes tecnologias. Vários estudos têm mostrado que a ocorrência de Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) em queijo Minas Frescal é muito variável, enquanto altas populações de coliformes fecais (>104UFC/g) são muito comuns. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência dos coliformes no comportamento de Lm em queijo Minas Frescal produzido por acidificação direta do leite com ácido lático e por adição de cultura lática. Leite pasteurizado foi contaminado com Lm (106UFC/g e 1UFC/g) e coliformes (107UFC/g) e os queijos foram preparados seguindo-se os procedimentos de fabricação comerciais. Queijos preparados com leite contaminado somente com Lm (106CFU/g e 1CFU/g) ou coliformes (107UFC/g) foram utilizados como controle. As produções foram repetidas 3 vezes. Os queijos embalados em sacos de polietileno foram divididos em três grupos, sendo cada um estocado em uma das seguintes condições: 20 dias a 5oC; 20 dias a 12oC (temperatura de abuso); 8 dias a 5oC/16h seguido por 25oC/8h (para simular condições em feiras-livres). A cada 5 dias para os queijos armazenados a 5oC e 12oC, e a cada 2 dias para o outro grupo, duplicata de amostras foram retiradas e as populações de Lm, coliformes e bactérias láticas foram determinadas utilizando-se procedimentos padrões. pH e atividade de água também foram mensurados. A inibição de Lm foi observada nos queijos em que os coliformes estavam presentes (pelo menos 1 log de diferença em cada temperatura, com exceção dos queijos preparados com ácido lático e estocados com alternância de temperaturas). Os valores de pH e aw não foram suficientemente baixos para causarem essa inibição, entretanto, a acidez titulável foi maior em queijo contendo coliformes. Testes em ágar tripticase de soja (TSA) contendo diferentes concentrações de ácido lático e contaminados com Lm (106UFC/g e 1UFC/g) mostraram que, quando altas concentrações de ácido lático foram utilizadas (0,3% ou mais), a população de Lm não aumentou, indicando que o ácido lático produzido pelos coliformes pode ser um fator importante no controle de Lm em queijo Minas Frescal. É importante ressaltar que não é nossa intenção utilizar coliformes para inibir Lm nesse tipo de queijo

Soft cheeses are a well known cause of listeriosis outbreaks. The so called 'queso blanco' or 'Latin-style fresh cheese' represents a heterogeneous group of white, unripened soft cheese produced and consumed in different Latin America countries. Minas Frescal cheese is the Brazilian representative of this group and it can be produced by different technologies. Several studies have shown that Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) occurrence in Minas cheese is highly variable, while high population of fecal coliforms (>104CFU/g) is very common. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of coliforms in the behavior of Lm in Minas Frescal cheeses produced by direct acidification of the milk with lactic acid and by the addition of a lactic culture. Pasteurized milk was spiked with Lm (106CFU/g and 1CFU/g) and coliforms (107CFU/g) and the cheeses were lab prepared following regular commercial procedures. Cheeses prepared with milk spiked only with Lm (106CFU/g and 1CFU/g) or coliforms (107CFU/g) were used as controls. The production had been repeated 3 times. The cheeses packed in polyethylene bags were divided in 3 groups and each group was stored in one of the following conditions: up to 20 days at 5oC; up to 20 days at 12oC (abuse temperature); up to 8 days at 5oC/16h followed by 25oC/8h (to simulate open market conditions). Every 5 days for cheeses stored at 5oC and 12oC, and every 2 days for the other group, duplicate samples were taken and Lm, coliforms and lactic acid bacteria population were determined using standard procedures. pH and water activity were also measured. An inhibition of Lm was observed in the cheeses when in the presence of coliforms (at least 1 log difference at any temperature, except cheeses prepared with lactic acid and stored with temperature alternation). The values of pH and aW had not been sufficiently low to cause this inhibition, however, the titratable acidity was higher in cheeses containing coliforms. Tests in tryptone soy agar containing different concentrations of lactic acid and spiked with Lm (106CFU/g and 1CFU/g) showed that when higher concentrations of lactic acid were used (0.3 % or more), the population of Lm did not increase, indicating that the lactic acid produced by coliforms may be an important factor in controlling Lm in Minas Frescal cheese. It is important to ressaltar that it is not our intention to use coliforms to inhibit Lm in this type of cheese

Cheese/analysis , Coliforms/analysis , Food Microbiology/methods , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Cheese/microbiology , Cheese/statistics & numerical data
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 52(4): 375-380, dic. 2002.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-356600


The effect of probiotic cultures over Listeria monocytogenes during the production and storage of yogurt was evaluated. A yogurt mixture (10.6 per cent non-fat solid liquids, 3 per cent fat and 0.3 per cent gelatin) was prepared, homogenized and pasteurized. Yogurt was inoculated with 0, 10(2), 10(4) and 10(6) CFU/mL of L. monocytogenes and 0.02 per cent of traditional lactic culture YC 180 (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) and probiotic culture ABY-1 (Bifidobacterium longum, B. bifidum, B, infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus y Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus). It was incubated for 3 h at 43 degrees C until pH reached an approximate value of 4.8, followed by refrigeration at 5 degrees C for 21 days. During fermentation, samples were taken every hour, and during storage every 3 days, analyzing pH and lactic, bifidobacteria and pathogen count for each time. It was demonstrated that there was no significant simple effect for the type of culture used (ABY-1 and YC 180) (p = 0.684) over the amount of L. monocytogenes present in yogurt during the fermentation and storage periods. The presence of bifidobacteria in the ABY-1 culture did not present a significant effect over L. monocytogenes. Neither the effect of time presented a significant effect over L. monocytogenes (p = 0.448). In this case, the ABY-1 and YC 180 cultures present a bacteriostatic effect over the pathogen. The probiotic cultures had a bacteriostatic but not bactericidal effect over L. monocytogenes. This is not related to the protective effect of these cultures in bowel, since in-vivo conditions favor the production of antimicrobial substances, such as bacteriocins that act over pathogens.

Food Handling , Yogurt/microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Probiotics/metabolism , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Bifidobacterium/growth & development , Bifidobacterium/metabolism , Colony Count, Microbial , Food Microbiology , Lactobacillus/growth & development , Lactobacillus/metabolism , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolism , Streptococcus/growth & development , Streptococcus/metabolism
Rev. microbiol ; 28(4): 284-7, out.-dez. 1997. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-240697


Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from "lingüiça" (a typical Brazilian meat product) stored under refrigeration, produced antagonistic substances active against selected foodborne pathogens. The proteinaceous nature of the inhibitors was demonstrated and so they were classified as bacteriocins. The inhibition due to acid production and phages was ruled out. The bacteriocin produced by Leuconostoc sp was active against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake was active against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Gram negative were bacteria not inhibited by the bacteriocins produced.

Animals , Bacillus cereus/growth & development , Bacteriocins , Lactobacillus , Leuconostoc , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Meat/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Swine