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1.
Hepatología ; 4(2): 152-164, 2023. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1429016

ABSTRACT

La colangitis biliar primaria es una enfermedad hepática autoinmune que conduce a la destrucción progresiva de los conductos biliares intrahepáticos, lo que aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar cirrosis e hipertensión portal. Actualmente, el ácido ursodesoxicólico es el medicamento de primera línea para el tratamiento de esta entidad. Este medicamento desplaza los ácidos biliares hidrofóbicos y aumenta las concentraciones de ácidos biliares hidrofílicos en la bilis, lo cual favorece la integridad de los conductos biliares, adicionalmente, tiene efectos antiinflamatorios y propiedades inmunomo-duladoras y antiapoptóticas. En los últimos 40 años, numerosos ensayos clínicos han respaldado la eficacia clínica del ácido ursodesoxicólico y su seguridad cuando se utiliza en pacientes con colan-gitis biliar primaria. Se realiza una revisión del ácido ursodesoxicólico en el contexto de colangitis biliar primaria, se describe su historia, mecanismos de acción, efectos secundarios y dosificación. Finalmente, se menciona su uso en situaciones especiales como son el embarazo y la lactancia


Primary biliary cholangitis is an autoimmune liver disease that leads to progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, increasing the risk of developing cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Currently, ursodeoxycholic acid is the first-line drug for the treatment of this condition. This drug displaces hy-drophobic bile acids and increases concentrations of hydrophilic bile acids in the bile, which favors the integrity of the bile ducts, additionally, it has anti-inflammatory effects and immunoprotective and antiapoptotic properties. Over the past 40 years numerous clinical trials have supported the clinical efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid and its safety when used in patients with primary biliary cholangitis. A review of ursodeoxycholic acid in the context of primary biliary cholangitis is carried out, and its history, mechanisms of action, side effects and dosage are described. Finally, its use in special situations such as pregnancy and lactation are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Cholangitis , Safety , Bile , Bile Ducts , Bile Acids and Salts , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1508225

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La colangitis biliar primaria es una enfermedad hepática, crónica y progresiva. El tratamiento con ácido ursodesoxicólico ha ampliado la esperanza de vida de estos pacientes. Objetivo: Describir la respuesta terapéutica al ácido ursodesoxicólico en pacientes con colangitis biliar primaria. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y ambispectivo en pacientes atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología entre septiembre de 2003 y enero de 2020. Se evaluaron variables clínicas, de laboratorio, histológicas y terapéuticas. El análisis de los resultados se realizó con el paquete SPSS. Resultados: Se incluyeron 45 pacientes. Hubo un predominio del sexo femenino (95,6 %) y una mediana de edad de 54 años. Los niveles bajos de aspartato amino transferasa (p=0,009 HR=0,98) y fosfatasa alcalina (p=0,005, HR=0,99), así como la presencia del síndrome de superposición (p=0,046 HR=3,08) se relacionaron con una buena respuesta al ácido ursodesoxicólico. La mayoría de los que no respondieron al tratamiento tenían cirrosis hepática (68 %). No se observaron diferencias en la supervivencia de los pacientes de acuerdo con su respuesta al tratamiento (p =0,585). Conclusiones: La respuesta terapéutica fue efectiva en menos de la mitad de los tratados con ácido ursodesoxicólico. La cirrosis hepática, el síndrome de superposición y los niveles elevados de aspartato amino transferasa y fosfatasa alcalina se asociaron a la mala respuesta terapéutica.


Introduction: Primary biliary cholangitis is a chronic and progressive liver disease. Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid has extended the life expectancy of these patients. Objective: To describe the therapeutic response to ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with primary biliary cholangitis. Methods: Descriptive, longitudinal and ambispective study in patients treated at the Institute of Gastroenterology between September 2003 and January 2020. Clinical, laboratory, histological and therapeutic variables were evaluated. The analysis of the results was performed with the SPSS package. Results: Forty-five patients were included, with a predominance of female gender (95.6%) and a average age of 54 years. Low levels of aspartate amino transferase (p=0.009 HR=0.98) and alkaline phosphatase (p=0.005, HR=0.99), as well as the presence of overlap syndrome (p=0.046 HR=3.08) were associated with a better response to ursodeoxycholic acid. Less than half of the patients responded to conventional treatment with UDCA (47.7 %), most of the non-responders suffer from liver cirrhosis (68 %). No differences were observed in patient survival according to their response to treatment (p =0.585). Conclusions: Therapeutic response was effective in less than half of those treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. Liver cirrhosis, overlap syndrome, and elevated aspartate amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels were associated with poor therapeutic response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Survivorship , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/drug therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies
3.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(7): 889-895, jul. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune cholestatic disease, which can progress to cirrhosis. It mainly affects middle-aged women. Its most frequent form of presentation is asymptomatic with biochemical cholestasis and the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA). AIM: To describe the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentation and treatment for patients with PBC at a clinical hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive, observational, retrospective study, carried out between January 2015 and December 2020. Results: 179 patients (158 women) were cared in the study period. At the time of diagnosis, the median age was 54 years (range 24-76), 55% of them were asymptomatic, 45% had fatigue and 28% had pruritus. Positive AMA were present in 65% of patients, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in 51%, and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) in 9%. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) was elevated in 30% of the patients and 50% of patients were biopsied. Splenomegaly and esophageal varices were present in 24 and 22% of patients, respectively. PBC was associated with Sjogren's syndrome in 15%, hypothyroidism in 14%, osteoporosis in 13%, and scleroderma in 8%. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological characteristics of our patients agree with those published abroad. Laboratory cholestasis associated with the presence of AMA, currently allows diagnosis without the need for histological study. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the first-line treatment for patients with PBC. The use of biochemical response criteria is essential to identify patients who require other UDCA alternatives for isolated or combined treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Cholestasis , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/complications , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/epidemiology , Autoantibodies , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
5.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 419-425, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935961

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognostic value of liver function in a large samples of patients with anti-glycoprotein 210 (gp210 antibody) positive primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 931 PBC cases in Beijing You'an Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University from 2010 to 2019. According to the detection of gp210 antibody, 318 cases were divided into gp210 antibody positive group (positive group) and 613 cases were divided into gp210 antibody negative group (negative group). The differences in demographic, medical history, clinical indicators, B-ultrasound and pathological indicators as well as the histopathological basis were compared between the two groups. SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Measurement data were analyzed by t-test or rank sum test, and enumeration data by χ2 test. Multivariate analysis was used for logistic test, and and survival analysis was used for prognosis. Results: The positive and the negative groups were compared. The ratio of male to female was significantly higher in positive than negative group (1:5.35 vs. 1:9.73, P<0.05), and the difference was statistically significant. The proportion of hormone use in history of past diagnosed and treated was higher in positive than negative group (12.9% vs. 3.47%, P<0.05), and the difference was statistically significant. The detection of biochemical indexes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were higher in positive than the negative group (51.1 U/L vs. 41.1 U/L, 62.6 U/L vs. 49.6 U/L, 24.1 μmol/L vs. 17.9 μmol/L, 228.3 U/L vs. 169.6 U/L, 203.9 U/L vs. 147.6 U/L), (P<0.05), and the differences were statistically significant. Antinuclear antibody (ANA)-positive rate, high titer ratio and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were higher in positive than negative group (95.2% vs. 81.6%, 69.7% vs. 48.8%, 17.2 g/L vs. 16.2 g/L), (P<0.05), and the differences were statistically significant. The incidence of liver failure was higher in positive than negative group (P<0.05). CK7 and inflammation score were higher in positive group than negative group in liver histopathological observations (0.83±0.53 vs. 0.28±0.47; 1.06±0.39 vs. 0.54±0.65), (P<0.05), and the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: The illness condition of patients with gp210 antibody positive PBC is more severe than patients with gp210 antibody negative PBC, and the incidence of liver failure is significantly increased. Cholangiocytes may be the histopathological basis of the clinical characteristics of gp210 antibody positive PBC patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Autoantibodies , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/diagnosis , Liver Failure , Retrospective Studies
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 264-275, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928465

ABSTRACT

In 2015, the Chinese Society of Hepatology and Chinese Society of Gastroenterology issued a consensus on the diagnosis and management of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). In the past years, more clinical studies have been reported in the field of PBC. To provide guidance to the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with PBC, the Chinese Society of Hepatology invited a panel of experts to assess the new clinical evidence and formulated the current guidelines which comprises 26 clinical recommendations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholangitis/therapy , Consensus , Gastroenterology , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/therapy
7.
Hepatología ; 3(2): 155-175, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396088

ABSTRACT

La colangitis biliar primaria (CBP) es una enfermedad autoinmune caracterizada por daño de los conductos biliares intrahepáticos, que hasta ahora tiene mecanismos poco claros de respuesta celular inflamatoria, con la mitocondria como orgánulo blanco. Durante varias décadas han sido el control de los ácidos biliares y el tratamiento de la colestasis lo que ha permitido el manejo médico de los pacientes, logrando un impacto parcial en el curso y la progresión de la enfermedad, mejorando además la sobrevida de los individuos. Con el hallazgo de nuevos mecanismos fisiopatológicos se han iniciado estudios con terapias inmunomoduladoras, que podrían ser prometedoras en el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de los pacientes que padecen la enfermedad. Aún los resultados son inciertos, y se hacen necesarios más estudios para aclarar el papel de los nuevos tratamientos en el arsenal terapéutico disponible para la CBP.


Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease characterized by damage of intrahepatic bile ducts, so far with unclear mechanisms of inflammatory cellular response with the mitochondria as the target organelle. For several decades it has been the control of bile acids and the treatment of cholestasis what has allowed the management of patients, achieving a partial impact on the course and progression of the disease, also improving the survival of individuals. With the discovery of new pathophysiological mechanisms, studies have been initiated with new immunomodulatory therapies that could be promising in improving the quality of life of patients suffering from the disease. The results are still uncertain and further studies are needed to clarify the role of the new treatments in the therapeutic arsenal available for PBC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Autoimmune Diseases , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Cholestasis , Immunomodulation
8.
Hepatología ; 3(2): 176-190, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396099

ABSTRACT

Los niveles de bilirrubina sérica normal en el adulto varían entre 0,3 mg/dL y 1,2 mg/dL, y su valor está determinado por la tasa de captación hepática, conjugación y excreción. La ictericia se hace evidente cuando los niveles de bilirrubina sérica se elevan por encima de 2,5 mg/dL a 3 mg/dL, siendo un indicador de enfermedad subyacente. La bilis es producida por los hepatocitos y fluye desde los canalículos, canales de Hering, conductos biliares intrahepáticos, conductos hepáticos derechos e izquierdos hasta llegar al duodeno. A nivel histopatológico, cualquier entidad que lleve a la acumulación intrahepática de bilis por disfunción hepatocelular u obstrucción biliar genera colestasis, que se observa en la biopsia hepática como la acumulación de tapones de color marrón verdoso de pigmento biliar en los hepatocitos, y secundariamente se observan los canalículos dilatados. Las causas de colestasis intrahepática son diversas e incluyen enfermedades como colangitis biliar primaria, colangitis esclerosante primaria, hepatitis autoinmune, hepatitis virales y toxicidad medicamentosa. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo analizar algunos tipos de hiperbilirrubinemia, resaltando sus características histopatológicas.


Normal serum bilirubin levels in adults range from 0.3 mg/dL to 1.2 mg/dL, and its value is determined by the rate of hepatic uptake, conjugation, and excretion. Jaundice becomes apparent when serum bilirubin levels rise above 2.5 mg/dL to 3.5 mg/dL and is an indicator of underlying disease. Bile is produced by hepatocytes and flows from the canaliculi, Hering's canals, intrahepatic bile ducts, and right and left hepatic ducts to the duodenum. Pathologically, any condition that leadsto intrahepatic accumulation of bile due to hepatocellular dysfunction or biliary obstruction, generates cholestasis, which is observed in liver biopsy as the accumulation of greenish-brown deposits of bile pigment in hepatocytes, with dilated canaliculi. The causes of intrahepatic cholestasis are diverse and include diseases such as primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, viral hepatitis, and drug toxicity. This review aims to analyze some types of hyperbilirubinemia, highlighting their histopathological characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pathologists , Hyperbilirubinemia , Jaundice , Bile , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Bile Pigments , Bilirubin , Biopsy , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Cholestasis , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Hepatitis , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary
9.
Hepatología ; 3(2): 203-217, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396104

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La colangitis biliar primaria (CBP) es una enfermedad hepática crónica de origen autoinmune, caracterizada por inflamación y destrucción progresiva de las células epiteliales de los conductos biliares intralobulillares, que causa de manera secundaria colestasis, fibrosis, cirrosis e insuficiencia hepática. La historia natural de la enfermedad ha cambiado en los últimos años debido a la mejoría en los métodos diagnósticos y terapéuticos. Metodología. Estudio observacional descriptivo de cohorte retrospectivo, en el cual se efectuó la revisión y análisis de las historias clínicas de los pacientes mayores de 16 años con diagnóstico de CBP, atendidos en la Unidad de Hepatología y Trasplante Hepático del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, entre los años 2013 a 2021, con el fin de obtener información sobre las características de esta patología a nivel local. Resultados. Se evaluó un total de 239 pacientes, con un promedio de edad de 61,6±12,31 años, el 97,07% fue del sexo femenino, con criterios serológicos como anticuerpos antimitocondriales (AMA) positivos en un 76,89%, el 66,95% de los pacientes presentaban alguna enfermedad autoinmune concomitante y el 31,60% tuvieron sobreposición con hepatitis autoinmune. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue el prurito en un 61,92% de los pacientes, seguido por la astenia en un 51,88%. La presencia de hipertensión portal al diagnóstico fue del 29,29%. La colangitis no supurativa y la ductopenia en la biopsia de hígado se documentó en un 43,79% de los casos. El ácido ursodesoxicólico (UDCA) fue la terapia de primera línea en el 100% de los pacientes, se identificó refractariedad del 16,36% según criterios de París II y del 31,79% con los criterios de Toronto. La no respuesta al UDCA, se asoció de manera significativa con mayor mortalidad (p=0,039) y presencia de hepatocarcinoma (p=0,042). Conclusión. Se caracterizó la CBP en nuestra población. El diagnóstico serológico por AMA fue bajo, con altos requerimientos de biopsia hepática en el contexto de síndromes de sobreposición. Los signos de hipertensión portal al momento del diagnóstico fueron prevalentes. La refractariedad bioquímica a la terapiafue descrita en relación con mayor progresión de fibrosis, aumento de mortalidad y presencia de hepatocarcinoma.


ntroduction. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease of autoimmune origin, characterized by inflammation and progressive destruction of the epithelial cells of the intralobular bile ducts, causing secondary cholestasis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. The natural history of the disease has changed in recent years due to the improvement in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Methodology. Cross-sectional descriptive observational study, where the medical records of patients older than 16 years with a diagnosis of PBC, treated at the Hepatology and Liver Transplant Unit of the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital, between the years 2013 to 2021, were reviewed and analyzed in order to obtain information on the characteristics of this pathology at a local level. Results. A total of 239 patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 61.6±12.31 years, 97.07% were females, with serological criteria such as positive antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in 76.89%. Of all included patients, 66.95% had some concomitant autoimmune disease and 31.60% had an overlap with autoimmune hepatitis. The most frequent clinical manifestation was pruritus in 61.92% of the patients, followed by asthenia in 51.88%. The presence of portal hypertension at diagnosis was 29.29%. Non-suppurative cholangitis and ductopenia on liver biopsy were documented in 43.79% of the cases. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was the first line therapy in 100% of patients, 16.36% were refractory to treatment according to the Paris II criteria and 31.79% according to the Toronto criteria. Non-response to UDCA was significantly associated with higher mortality (p=0.039) and presence of hepatocarcinoma (p=0.042). Conclusion. PBC was characterized in our population. Serological diagnosis by AMA was low, with high requirements for liver biopsy in the context of overlap syndromes. Signs of portal hypertension at diagnosis were prevalent. Biochemical refractoriness to therapy was described in relation to greater progression of fibrosis, increased mortality, and the presence of hepatocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Liver Transplantation , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Autoimmune Diseases , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Cholangitis , Cholestasis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune
10.
Hepatología ; 2(2): 355-371, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396510

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las enfermedades autoinmunes del hígado son un grupo de patologías caracterizadas por una respuesta autoinmune contra los hepatocitos y/o el epitelio biliar. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son variadas, con alteraciones en las pruebas de función hepática y presencia de autoanticuerpos. Metodología. Estudio observacional descriptivo con 101 pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario de La Samaritana de Bogotá D.C., entre enero a diciembre de 2019, con los diagnósticos de hepatitis autoinmune, colangitis biliar primaria, colangitis esclerosante primaria y síndrome de sobreposición. Se evaluaron los parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio, con el fin de caracterizar su frecuencia en estas patologías, debido a la importancia de un diagnóstico precoz. Resultados. Se encontraron 54 casos de hepatitis autoinmune, 19 casos de colangitis biliar primaria, 4 casos de colangitis esclerosante primaria y 24 casos de síndrome de sobreposición. El 81% fueron mujeres y la edad promedio fue de 55 años. El 39% de los pacientes tenían cirrosis. En general, los resultados se ajustaron a lo descrito internacionalmente, como es el predominio en mujeres y la comorbilidad autoinmune. Conclusión. Los hallazgos indican que cualquier alteración del perfil bioquímico hepático debe ser considerado, y se debe descartar la presencia de hepatopatías autoinmunes para diagnosticarlas de manera precoz, evitando que lleguen a cirrosis y sus complicaciones, con la necesidad de un trasplante hepático como única alternativa terapéutica.


Introduction. Autoimmune liver diseases are a group of pathologies characterized by an autoimmune response against hepatocytes and/or the biliary epithelium. Their clinical manifestations are varied, with alterations in liver function tests and the presence of autoantibodies. Methodology. Descriptive study with 101 patients who attended at the Hospital Universitario de La Samaritana in Bogota D.C., between January and December 2019, with the diagnoses of autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and overlap syndrome. Clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated in order to characterize their frequency in these pathologies, due to the importance of an early diagnosis. Results. There were 54 cases of autoimmune hepatitis, 19 cases of primary biliary cholangitis, 4 cases of primary sclerosing cholangitis, and 24 cases of overlap syndrome. Of all patients, 81% were women, the average age was 55 years, and 39% had cirrhosis. In general, the findings were consistent with what has been described worldwide, such as a higher prevalence in women and autoimmune comorbidity. Conclusion. The findings indicate that any alteration in the liver biochemical profile should be considered to rule out an autoimmune liver disease for an early diagnosis, avoiding the possibility of cirrhosis and its complications, with the need for a liver transplant as the only therapeutic alternative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoimmunity , Liver Diseases/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Syndrome , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/diagnosis , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Octogenarians , Transaminases/blood , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/immunology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis
11.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(4): e1168, oct.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149922

ABSTRACT

Basada en la mejor evidencia científica disponible, se presenta la guía de práctica clínica en atresia de vías biliares, la cual se define como una obstrucción progresiva de las vías biliares intra- o extrahepáticas en recién nacidos y lactantes pequeños y causa ictericia colestásica grave y cirrosis hepática. Es una enfermedad poco frecuente, de etiología desconocida, con mayor incidencia en países asiáticos. Clínicamente se expresa por ictericia obstructiva, acolia, coluria y hepatoesplenomegalia. Los complementarios expresan una hiperbilirrubinemia directa con aumento de las enzimas hepáticas, y el diagnóstico se confirma en nuestro hospital con la colangiografía, generalmente en el curso de una laparoscopía. El tratamiento es quirúrgico y consiste en la portoenterostomía de Kasai, con mejores resultados en cuanto al drenaje biliar si se realiza antes de los 60 días de vida, así como el trasplante hepático. La enfermedad tiene un curso progresivo hacia la cirrosis hepática en etapas tempranas de la vida, sobre todo si no se realiza el diagnóstico y tratamiento quirúrgico precozmente, con implicaciones en la supervivencia y calidad de vida de estos pacientes. Por tanto, referir precozmente al paciente con sospecha de atresia de vías biliares a un centro especializado es la piedra angular de la actitud médica. La presente guía de práctica clínica pretende ofrecer las herramientas técnicas estandarizadas para mejorar los resultados a los pacientes con esta enfermedad, así como contribuir con la docencia y las investigaciones(AU)


Based on the best scientific evidence available, it is presented the clinical practice guidelines on biliary atresia. This disease is defined as a progressive obstruction of the intra and/or extrahepatic bile ducts in newborns and young infants, causing severe cholestatic jaundice and cirrhosis of the liver. It is a rare disease of unknown etiology, with a higher incidence in Asian countries. It is clinically expressed by obstructive jaundice, acholia, choluria and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory tests show a direct hyperbilirubin and elevated liver enzymes, and in our hospital, the diagnosis is confirmed by a cholangiography, usually during a laparoscopy procedure. It has surgical treatment and it involves a Kasai portoenterostomy, with better results regarding biliary drainage if it is performed before 60 days of life, as well as liver transplant. This condition has a progressive course towards liver cirrhosis in early stages of life, mainly if the diagnosis and surgical treatment are not made timely, with implications for the survival and quality of life of these patients. Therefore, early referral of the patient with suspected biliary atresia to a specialized center is the cornerstone of the medical attitude. This clinical practice guidelines aims to offer standardized technical tools to improve the outcome for patients with this disease, as well as to contribute to teaching and research(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Biliary Atresia/surgery , Biliary Atresia/epidemiology , Jaundice, Obstructive/complications , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/complications
14.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 886-891, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical features and prognosis in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and autoimmune liver diseases (ALD).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis of clinical manifestation and prognosis was performed in patients with ALD or without ALD during the three years (February 2014 to December 2017).@*RESULTS@#Totally, 203 patients with pSS were included in this study, 68 patients had ALD (31 patients with autoimmune hepatitis, 37 patients with primary biliary cholangitis), while 135 patients did not have ALD. There were no differences between the two groups regarding age, gender, clinical manifestations, such as dry mouth, dry eyes, pain, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, glandular swelling, cutaneous involvement, lung involvement, and renal involvement, and the incidence rate of other autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune thyroid disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis. There were also no differences in the titer of antinuclear antibody (ANA), the positive rates of anti-Sjögren's syndrome A antibody (SSA), SSA52, and anti-Sjögren's syndrome B antibody (SSB), and at the levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein between the two groups. Most importantly, the pSS patients with ALD had a shorter disease course, a higher positive rate of anti-mitochondrial M2 antibody (AMA-M2) and anti-centromere antibody, a higher level of IgG and IgM, a lower level of complement 3, and a decreased number of blood cells. They also had a higher level of liver related serum index, such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, a higher incidence rate of liver cirrhosis, an increased death incident (the mortality was 13.24% in the pSS patients with ALD, while 2.96% in the controls, P=0.013), and a worse prognosis. Binary Logistic regression analysis revealed that liver cirrhosis, the EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI) scores and the level of total bilirubin were the prognostic factors of mortality in the pSS patients with ALD. The survival curve was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. It demonstrated that the pSS patients with ALD had a lower survival rate when compared with the controls.@*CONCLUSION@#The patients with both pSS and ALD will suffer from a more severe disease and a higher death incident. We should pay more attention to these patients and provide a better symptomatic treatment for them during clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sjogren's Syndrome/epidemiology
15.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 34(4): 385-398, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092966

ABSTRACT

Resumen La prevalencia de las enfermedades hepáticas en el embarazo no es despreciable, ya que estas se presentan en 3%-5% de todas las gestaciones. Entre las múltiples causas se encuentran cambios fisiológicos del embarazo; enfermedad hepática preexistente, siendo las más comunes las enfermedades colestásicas (colangitis biliar primaria y colangitis esclerosante primaria), hepatitis autoinmune, enfermedad de Wilson, hepatitis virales crónicas, cirrosis establecida de cualquier etiología y paciente con historia de trasplante hepático; enfermedad hepática adquirida durante el embarazo, siendo las principales las hepatitis virales, la toxicidad inducida por medicamentos y la hepatolitiasis; hepatopatía relacionada con el embarazo, en la cual se encuentran 5 entidades principales: hiperémesis gravídica, colestasis intrahepática del embarazo, preeclampsia, síndrome HELLP e hígado graso del embarazo. La severidad de estas entidades tiene una amplia gama de presentaciones, desde la paciente que es completamente asintomática, hasta la falla hepática aguda e incluso la muerte. La gravedad del cuadro se asocia con una morbilidad y mortalidad significativas tanto para la madre como para el feto, lo cual hace que una evaluación rápida, diagnóstico certero y manejo apropiado por un equipo multidisciplinario (incluida obstetricia de alto riesgo, hepatología, gastroenterología y radiología intervencionista), en un servicio que tenga la posibilidad de ofrecer trasplante hepático, sean fundamentales para obtener buenos desenlaces.


Abstract Liver diseases develop in 3% to 5% of all gestations. Among the causes are: 1. Physiological changes of pregnancy. 2. Pre-existing liver diseases and conditions. The most common are cholestatic diseases such as primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Others include autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson's disease, chronic viral hepatitis, cirrhosis of any etiology and histories of liver transplantation. 3. Liver disease acquired during pregnancy, especially viral hepatitis, drug-induced toxicity and hepatolithiasis. 4. Pregnancy-related liver diseases including hyperemesis gravidarum, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome and fatty liver of pregnancy. Severity ranges from absence of symptoms to acute liver failure and even death. Severe cases have significant morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus. These cases require rapid evaluation, accurate diagnosis and appropriate management by a multidisciplinary team including high-risk obstetrics, hepatology, gastroenterology and interventional radiology. Availability of liver transplantation is also important for obtaining good outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy , Liver Transplantation , Hepatitis , Hyperemesis Gravidarum , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 710-712, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054894

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although the association of multiple autoimmune diseases has already been widely described, no reports of the association between vitiligo, primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome were retrieved in the SciELO and PubMed databases. The authors describe the case of a female patient who was diagnosed with primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome at age 54. At age 58, she developed vitiligo restricted to the face, associated with significant impairment of self-esteem and quality of life. Antinuclear antibody was negative at the onset of the condition, but became positive after phototherapy initiation. In general, the occurrence of multiple autoimmune diseases in the same patient is known as a mosaic of autoimmunity. However, specific mechanisms appear to interconnect primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome, such as PDC-E2-mediated generalized epithelitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Vitiligo/complications , Sjogren's Syndrome/complications , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/complications , Vitiligo/pathology , Sjogren's Syndrome/pathology , Autoimmunity , Chronic Disease , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/pathology
17.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(3): 300-303, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038721

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bile duct injury is a life-threatening complication that requires proper management to prevent the onset of negative outcomes. Patients may experience repeated episodes of cholangitis, secondary biliary cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and death. OBJECTIVE: To report a single center experience in iatrogenic secondary liver transplantation after cholecystectomy and review the literature. METHODS: This was a retrospective single center study. Of the 1662 liver transplantation realized, 10 (0.60 %) were secondary to iatrogenic bile ducts injuries due cholecystectomies. Medical records of these patients were reviewed in this study. RESULTS: Nine of 10 patients were women; the median time in waiting list and between cholecystectomy and inclusion in waiting list was of 222 days and of 139.9 months, respectively. Cholecystectomy was performed by open approach in eight (80%) cases and by laparoscopic approach in two (20%) cases. The patients underwent an average of 3.5 surgeries and procedures before liver transplantation. Biliary reconstruction was realized with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in nine (90%) cases. Mean operative time was 447.2 minutes and the median red blood cell transfusion was 3.4 units per patient. Mortality in the first month was of 30%. CONCLUSION: Although the liver transplantation is an extreme treatment for an initially benign disease, it has its well-defined indications in treatment of bile duct injuries after cholecystectomy, either in acute or chronic scenario.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A lesão da via biliar é uma complicação que pode ameaçar a vida e que requer manejo adequado para prevenir o aparecimento de desfechos negativos. Os pacientes podem apresentar episódios repetidos de colangite, cirrose biliar secundária, doença hepática terminal e até mesmo morte. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a experiência de um único centro em transplante hepático secundário a lesão iatrogênica de via biliar pós-colecistectomia e fazer uma revisão de literatura. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo de um único centro. Dos 1662 transplantes de fígado, 10 (0,60%) foram secundários a lesões iatrogênicas das vias biliares devido à colecistectomias. Os prontuários médicos desses pacientes foram revisados neste estudo. RESULTADOS: Nove dos dez pacientes eram mulheres; o tempo médio em lista de espera de transplante e entre colecistectomia e inclusão na lista de espera foi de 222 dias e de 139,9 meses, respectivamente. A colecistectomia foi realizada por abordagem aberta em oito (80%) casos e por abordagem laparoscópica em dois (20%) casos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a uma média de 3,5 cirurgias e procedimentos antes do transplante de fígado e a reconstrução biliar foi realizada com hepaticojejunostomia em Y-de-Roux em nove (90%) casos. O tempo operatório médio foi de 447,2 minutos e a média de transfusão de concentrados de hemácias foi de 3,4 unidades por paciente. Mortalidade no primeiro mês foi de 30%. CONCLUSÃO: Embora o transplante de fígado seja um tratamento extremo para uma doença inicialmente benigna, ele tem suas indicações bem definidas no tratamento de lesões biliares após colecistectomia, seja em um cenário agudo ou crônico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bile Ducts/injuries , Liver Transplantation , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/adverse effects , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/surgery , Bile Ducts/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Iatrogenic Disease , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/etiology , Middle Aged
19.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 457-463, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776010

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the risks of cardiocerebral vascular events in patients with primary biliary cholangitis(PBC). Methods We carried out a Meta analysis by RevMan 5.3 software to investigate literatureon the risk of cardiocerebral vascular events in patients with PBC and controls. Results Compared with non-PBC controls,PBC patients had significantly higher risk of coronary events(=1.56,=0.0002);however,the risk of cerebrovascular events showed no significant difference between these two groups(=1.01,=0.94).Subgroup analysis demonstrated a significantly lower risk of transient ischemic attack or carotid stenosis in PBC patients(=0.63,=0.03);however,there was no significant difference in the risk of stroke(=1.11,=0.40). Conclusion Patients with PBC have an increased risk of coronary events but may have a lower risk of transient ischemic attack or carotid stenosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carotid Stenosis , Cholangitis , Coronary Disease , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Risk Factors , Stroke
20.
Rev. méd. Panamá ; 39(1): 25-27, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102342

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Reynolds, se define como cirrosis biliar primaria en pacientes con esclerodermia; este síndrome debe ser sospechado en aquellos pacientes que desarrollen un patrón colestásico. Se reporta una paciente con antecedente de esclerodermia que se presenta con ictericia, a quien se le confirma con estudios inmunológicos y biopsia hepática, el diagnóstico de cirrosis biliar prima­ ria (ahora se denomina colangitis biliar primaria). Se ordena ácido ursodesoxicólico 15mg/día.


Reynolds syndrome is defined as primary biliary cirrhosis in patients with scleroderma; this syndro­me should be suspected in those patients who develop a cholesteric pattern. We report a patient with scleroderma who presented with jaundice. After immunological and liver biopsy, a diagnosis of Primary Biliary Cholangiopathy (new name) was confirmed. Ursodeoxycholic acid 15mg / day was prescribed


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Scleroderma, Systemic , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/pathology , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Liver/pathology
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