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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928120

ABSTRACT

In recent years, liver fibrosis has become a hotspot in the field of liver diseases. MicroRNA(miRNA)-mediated Nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3(NLRP3) inflammasome activation is pivotal in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The present study mainly discussed the role of miRNA-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Different miRNA molecules regulated liver fibrosis by mediating NLRP3 inflammasome activation, including miRNA-350-3 p(miR-350-3 p)/interleukin-6(IL-6)-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(STAT3)/c-myc signaling pathway, miR-148 a-induced autophagy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells via hedgehog signaling pathway, miR-155-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome by the negative feedback of the suppressor of cytokine signaling-1(SOCS-1), miR-181 a-mediated downstream NLRP3 inflammatory pathway activation through mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase(MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK)/nuclear transcription factor κB(NF-κB) inflammatory pathway, miR-21-promoted expression of NF-κB and NLRP3 of RAW264.7 cells in mice by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α inducible protein 3(A20), and miR-20 b-promoted expression of IL-1β and IL-18 by activating NLRP3 signaling pathway. Additionally, the anti-liver fibrosis mechanism of different active components in Chinese medicines(such as Curcumae Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Aurantii Fructus, Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix, Moutan Cortex, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Epimedii Folium, and Cinnamomi Cortex) was also explored based on the anti-liver fibrosis effect of miRNA-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hedgehog Proteins , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , MicroRNAs/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/metabolism , Signal Transduction
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927956

ABSTRACT

The present study clarified the molecular mechanism of curcumol against liver fibrosis based on its effects on the autopha-gy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells. The hepatic stellate cells were divided into a blank control group, a transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1)(10 ng·mL~(-1)) group, and low-(12.5 mg·L~(-1)), medium-(25 mg·L~(-1)), and high-dose(50 mg·L~(-1)) curcumol groups. The effect of curcumol on the viability of hepatic stellate cells induced by TGF-β1 was detected by the MTT assay kit. The apo-ptosis in each group was determined by flow cytometry. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR(RT-PCR) was employed for the detection of mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), type Ⅰ collagen(collagen Ⅰ), and type Ⅲ collagen(collagen Ⅲ). Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of p62, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), beclin1, B cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), and Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax). Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) was used to observe cell morphology and autophagosome formation in each group. The autophagic flux was observed after cell infection with adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling. The cell viability assay revealed that compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly decreased cell viability. The apoptosis assay showed that the apoptosis rates of the curcumol groups were significantly higher than that of the TGF-β1 group. RT-PCR indicated that the mRNA expression of α-SMA, collagenⅠ, and collagen Ⅲ in the curcumol groups was significantly lower than that of the TGF-β1 group. Western blot showed that the expression of p62, LC3, beclin1, Bcl-2, and Bax in the curcumol groups was significantly different from that in the TGF-β1 group. As demonstrated by TEM, compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly increased autophagosomes. The detection of autophagic flow by the adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling showed that autolysosomes in the curcumol groups were significantly increased compared with those in the TGF-β1 group. Curcumol can induce the autophagy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells, which may be one of its anti-liver fibrosis mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Actins/metabolism , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
3.
Biol. Res ; 52: 10, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-canonical Wnt pathways play important roles in liver fibrosis. Notum is a newly discovered inhibitor to Wnt proteins. This study was to investigate anti-fibrotic effects of Notum. METHODS: 53 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as well as a cell co-culture system of LX-2 and Hep AD38 cells were engaged in this study. Clinical, biological and virological data of each patient were analyzed. Cell viability was detected at different time points. mRNA and protein levels of NFATc1 (Nuclear factor of activated T-cells), Jnk, α-SMA, Col1A1 and TIMP-1 were detected both in LX-2 and liver tissue. Protein levels of NFATc1 and Jnk in liver tissue and their correlations with fibrosis score were analyzed. RESULTS: Hepatitis B virus replication up-regulated Wnt5a induced NFATc1 and Jnk activity in Hep AD38. Notum suppressed NFATc1, Jnk and fibrosis genes expression, reduced cell viability in co-cultured LX-2 cells induced by HBV. Interestingly, Patients with HBV DNA > 5log copies/ml had higher mRNA levels of NFATc1 and fibrosis genes than patients with HBV DNA < 5log copies/ml. Most importantly, protein expressions of NFATc1 and pJnk have positive correlations with liver fibrosis scores in HBV-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that Notum inhibited HBV-induced liver fibrosis through down-regulating Wnt 5a mediated non-canonical pathways. This study shed light on anti-fibrotic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Esterases/administration & dosage , Wnt-5a Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Hepatitis B/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/prevention & control , Virus Replication , Transfection , Cell Survival , Hepatitis B virus/physiology , Actins/metabolism , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/metabolism , Collagen Type I/metabolism , MAP Kinase Kinase 4/metabolism , NFATC Transcription Factors/analysis , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Wnt-5a Protein/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/virology
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(3): 274-278, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973897

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health problem, that affects approximately 170 million people worldwide. Chronic HCV infection is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and an increased risk of diabetes HCV-infected patients has been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in patients treated with direct acting antiviral (DAAs) medication in the sustained virological response (SVR), categorized by the presence or absence of cirrhosis. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. Data were collected at the beginning of treatment (t-base) and in the twelfth week after the completion of treatment (t-SVR12). The inclusion criteria were presence of: HCV infection (RNA-HCV positive), age ≥18 years, completion of DAAs' therapy, and presence of diabetes with use of oral hypoglycemic agents. All samples were collected during the study period. The exclusion criteria were: presence of HBV/HIV co-infection, hepatocellular carcinoma at baseline, diabetic patients taking insulin and transplanted patients (liver/kidney). Fibrosis was assessed by hepatic elastography or biopsy (METAVIR). Cirrhosis was determined by clinical results or imaging. HOMA-IR was calculated as fasting insulin (μU/mL) × fasting glucose (mmol/L)/22.5) The patients were divided into two groups: the general study population (all patients, including the diabetic patients) and the special population (patients with normal values of HOMA-IR, which is >2.5, and without diabetes). The delta HOMA-IR value was calculated as: HOMA-IR at t-base - HOMA-IR at t-SVR12. For the descriptive statistical analysis, the paired t-test and generalized linear model assuming the log binding function were performed. A P value of < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We included 150 patients, and 75 were cirrhotic. The mean age was 55.3±9.97 and body mass index was 27.4±5.18. Twenty-two (14.67%) were diabetic patients using oral hypoglycemic agents, and 17 (11%) were cirrhotic. In the general study population, the mean glucose and HOMA-IR values increased at t-SVR12, but insulin decreased. Delta HOMA-IR was negative at t-SVR12, but there was no significant difference. Excluding diabetic patients and those with normal HOMA-IR values (<2.5), mean glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR decreased at t-SVR12. Delta HOMA-IR decreased significantly at t-SVR12 (P: 0.02). CONCLUSION: In the general population, glucose and HOMA-IR values increased at t-SVR12, but insulin decreased. In the special population, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and Delta HOMA-IR decreased at t-SVR12.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC) é um grave problema de saúde pública, que afeta aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo. A infecção crônica pelo VHC está associada à resistência à insulina hepática e a um risco aumentado de diabetes. Os doentes infetados pelo VHC foram bem documentados. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o modelo de avaliação da homeostase do índice de resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR) em pacientes tratados com medicação antiviral de ação direta na resposta virológica sustentada (RVS), categorizada pela presença ou ausência de cirrose. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo. Os dados foram coletados no início do tratamento (t-base) e na décima segunda semana após o término do tratamento (t-RVS12). Os critérios de inclusão foram presença de: infecção pelo VHC (RNA-VHC positivo), idade ≥18 anos, conclusão da terapia de antivirais de ação direta e presença de diabetes com uso de hipoglicemiantes orais. Todas as amostras foram coletadas durante o período do estudo. Os critérios de exclusão foram: presença de coinfecção VHB/HIV, carcinoma hepatocelular no início do estudo, pacientes diabéticos em uso de insulina e pacientes transplantados (fígado/rim). A fibrose foi avaliada por elastografia hepática ou biópsia (METAVIR). A cirrose foi determinada por resultados clínicos ou exames de imagem. O HOMA-IR foi calculado como insulinemia de jejum (μU/mL) x glicemia de jejum (mmol/L) /22,5). Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: a população geral do estudo (todos os pacientes, incluindo os diabéticos) e a população especial (pacientes com valores normais de HOMA-IR, que é <2,5 e sem diabetes). O valor do delta HOMA-IR foi calculado como: HOMA-IR no t-base - HOMA-IR no t-RVS12. Para a análise estatística descritiva, foram utilizados o teste t pareado e o modelo linear generalizado, assumindo a função de ligação logarítmica. Um valor de P<0,05 foi considerado significativo. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 150 pacientes e 75 eram cirróticos. A idade média foi de 55,3±9,97 e o índice de massa corpórea foi de 27,4±5,18. Vinte e dois (14,67%) eram pacientes diabéticos em uso de hipoglicemiantes orais e 17 (11%) eram cirróticos. Na população geral do estudo, os valores médios de glicose e HOMA-IR aumentaram na t-SVR12, mas a insulina diminuiu. O delta HOMA-IR foi negativo em t-SVR12, mas não houve diferença significativa. Excluindo pacientes diabéticos e aqueles com valores normais de HOMA-IR (<2,5), a média de glicose, insulina e HOMA-IR diminuiu no t-RVS12. O delta HOMA-IR diminuiu significativamente em t-RVS12 (P: 0,02). CONCLUSÃO: Na população geral, os valores de glicose e HOMA-IR aumentaram no t-RVS12, mas a insulina diminuiu. Na população especial, glicose, insulina, HOMA-IR e delta HOMA-IR diminuíram no t-RVS12.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/analysis , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/metabolism , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Insulin/blood , Reference Values , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Fasting/blood , Treatment Outcome , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Middle Aged
5.
Clinics ; 72(4): 231-237, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840064

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate the bone phenotypes and mechanisms involved in bone disorders associated with hepatic osteodystrophy. Hepatocellular disease was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). In addition, the effects of disodium pamidronate on bone tissue were evaluated. METHODS: The study included 4 groups of 15 mice: a) C = mice subjected to vehicle injections; b) C+P = mice subjected to vehicle and pamidronate injections; c) CCl4+V = mice subjected to CCl4 and vehicle injections; and d) CCl4+P = mice subjected to CCl4 and pamidronate injections. CCl4 or vehicle was administered for 8 weeks, while pamidronate or vehicle was injected at the end of the fourth week. Bone histomorphometry and biomechanical analysis were performed in tibiae, while femora were used for micro-computed tomography and gene expression. RESULTS: CCl4 mice exhibited decreased bone volume/trabecular volume and trabecular numbers, as well as increased trabecular separation, as determined by bone histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography, but these changes were not detected in the group treated with pamidronate. CCl4 mice showed increased numbers of osteoclasts and resorption surface. High serum levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and the increased expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in the bones of CCl4 mice supported the enhancement of bone resorption in these mice. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that bone resorption is the main mechanism of bone loss in chronic hepatocellular disease in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/drug therapy , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Liver Diseases/complications , Phosphorus/administration & dosage , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/metabolism , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Disease Models, Animal , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/genetics , RANK Ligand/genetics , Osteoprotegerin/genetics , X-Ray Microtomography , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/chemically induced , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 161-166, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842836

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Hepatitis B virus (HBV) constitutes an important risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The link between circulating microRNAs and HBV has been previously reported, although not as a marker of liver disease progression in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The aim of this study was to characterize miRNA expression profiles between CHB with and without cirrhosis or HCC. METHODS: A total of 12 subjects were recruited in this study. We employed an Affymetrix Gene Chip miRNA 3.0 Array to provide universal miRNA coverage. We compared microRNA expression profiles between CHB with and without cirrhosis/HCC to discover possible prognostic markers associated with the progression of CHB. RESULTS: Our results indicated 8 differently expressed microRNAs, of which miRNA-935, miRNA-342, miRNA-339, miRNA-4508, miRNA-3615, and miRNA-3200 were up-regulated, whereas miRNA-182 and miRNA-4485 were down-regulated in patients with CHB who progressed to cirrhosis/HCC as compared to those without progression. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the differential expression of miRNA-935, miRNA-342, miRNA-339, miRNA-4508, miRNA-3615, miRNA-3200, miRNA-182, and miRNA-4485 between patients with HBV without cirrhosis/HCC and those who had progressed to these more severe conditions. These miRNAs may serve as novel and non-invasive prognostic markers for early detection of CHB-infected patients who are at risk of progression to cirrhosis and/or HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Hepatitis B, Chronic/metabolism , MicroRNAs/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Gene Expression Regulation , Predictive Value of Tests , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Disease Progression , Hepatitis B, Chronic/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , MicroRNAs/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Middle Aged
7.
Ann. hepatol ; 16(1): 48-56, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838085

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Liver fibrosis resulting from chronic liver injury are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among causes of hepatic fibrosis, viral infection is most common (hepatitis B and C). In addition, obesity rates worldwide have accelerated the risk of liver injury due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Also liver fibrosis is associated with the consumption of alcohol, or autoimmune hepatitis and chronic cholangiophaties. The response of hepatocytes to inflammation plays a decisive role in the physiopathology of hepatic fibrosis, which involves the recruitment of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cells such as monocytes and macrophages. As well as the production of other cytokines and chemokines, which increase the stimulus of hepatic stellate cells by activating proinflammatory cells. The aim of this review is to identify the therapeutic options available for the treatment of the liver fibrosis, enabling the prevention of progression when is detected in time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Cell Communication/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Disease Progression , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Hepatocytes/pathology , Hepatic Stellate Cells/drug effects , Hepatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(11): e6246, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888947

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the expression and regulation of IL-6R in hepatitis B-associated moderate hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Liver tissues, peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) and serum were collected from 26 hepatitis B patients with liver fibrosis and 35 hepatitis B patients with liver cirrhosis. The levels of Il-6r mRNA expression in these samples were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and IL-6R protein levels were analyzed by western blot and ELISA. MiRNAs that regulate IL-6R expression were predicted by bioinformatics analysis, and validated by dual luciferase reporter assay. Compared with the hepatic fibrosis group, IL-6R was significantly upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in liver tissues, PBMs and serum samples from the hepatic cirrhosis group (P<0.05). The 3′UTR of Il-6r mRNA was predicted to contain a miR-30b binding site and IL-6R was identified as a possible target of miR-30b. MiR-30b expression was significantly downregulated in samples from hepatic cirrhosis patients compared with hepatic fibrosis patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, IL-6R was upregulated while miR-30b was decreased in patients with liver cirrhosis. The miR-30 can directly regulate the expression of IL-6R.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Hepatitis B/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Hepatitis B/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , MicroRNAs/analysis , MicroRNAs/chemistry , Receptors, Interleukin-6/analysis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Up-Regulation
9.
Clinics ; 71(11): 639-643, Nov. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate immunohistochemical markers of angiogenesis and their association with pathological prognostic features in hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhotic liver. METHODS Vascular endothelial growth factor, CD105, and cyclooxygenase-2 were immunohistochemically detected in 52 hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples and 48 cirrhotic liver tissue samples. Semiquantitative measurements of vascular endothelial growth factor and cyclooxygenase-2 were evaluated considering the degree and intensity of immunostaining based on a 7-point final scoring scale. CD105 microvascular density (MVD-CD105) was measured using automated analysis. Morphological aspects evaluated in the hepatocellular carcinoma samples included size (≤2 and >2 cm), differentiation grade, and microvascular invasion. RESULTS The mean vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity score was slightly higher in the hepatocellular carcinoma samples (4.83±1.35) than the cirrhotic liver (4.38±1.28) samples. There was a significant and direct correlation between these mean scores (rs=0.645, p=0.0001). Cyclooxygenase-2 was expressed in all the cirrhotic liver samples but was only found in 78% of the hepatocellular carcinoma samples. The mean cyclooxygenase-2 score was higher in the cirrhotic liver samples (4.85±1.38) than the hepatocellular carcinoma samples (2.58±1.68), but there was no correlation between the scores (rs=0.177, p=0.23). The mean CD105 percentage in the hepatocellular carcinoma samples (11.2%) was lower than that in the cirrhotic samples (16.9%). There was an inverse relationship in MVD-CD105 expression between the hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhotic samples (rs=-0.78, p=0.67). There were no significant associations between vascular endothelial growth factor expression and morphological characteristics. Cyclooxygenase-2 and CD105 were associated with hepatocellular carcinoma differentiation grade (p=0.003 and p=0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION Vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclooxygenase-2, and MVD-CD105 were highly expressed in cirrhotic liver compared to hepatocellular carcinoma and might be involved in liver carcinogenesis. Additionally, cyclooxygenase-2 and CD105 might be involved in hepatocellular carcinoma differentiation grade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Endoglin/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/blood supply , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Liver Neoplasms/blood supply , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasm Grading , Statistics, Nonparametric
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(4): 208-212, Aug. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841578

ABSTRACT

La insuficiencia suprarrenal relativa (ISR) es frecuente en pacientes cirróticos con sepsis grave, asociándose a un pobre pronóstico. Se desconoce su importancia en condiciones de enfermedad estable. El objetivo del trabajo ha sido evaluar la prevalencia de la ISR en una serie de pacientes cirróticos estables y su relación con el deterioro de la función hepática. Se determinó el impacto de la ISR en la supervivencia y se correlacionaron los niveles entre el cortisol basal en plasma y saliva en sujetos controles y cirróticos. Fueron incluidos 47 pacientes ambulatorios y 16 controles. La funcionalidad del eje hipotalámico-pituitario-suprarrenal se valoró mediante la prueba de estimulación con 250 μg de ACTH sintética EV, definiendo la ISR como delta cortisol < 9 μg/dl. Respecto al grado de deterioro de la función hepática, 22 tenían un Child-Pugh ≤ 8 y 25 pacientes = 9. La prevalencia de ISR fue de un 22%, siendo significativamente más elevada en aquellos con mayor deterioro de la función hepática (8/32 vs. 3/13, p < 0.05). Se observó correlación entre el cortisol salival y el plasmático basal (r = 0.6, p < 0.0004). Por último, la supervivencia fue más elevada en los pacientes sin ISR al año (97%) y a los tres años (91%) que aquellos que desarrollaron esta complicación (79 % y 51%, p < 0.05, respectivamente). En resumen, la prevalencia de ISR es elevada en los pacientes con cirrosis estable y se relaciona con un deterioro de la función hepática y una mayor mortalidad.


Relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) is a common finding in cirrhotic patients with severe sepsis, and increased mortality. Its significance is unknown in stable conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of RAI in stable cirrhotic patients at different stages of the disease. Also, the impact of RAI on the survival was evaluated and basal cortisol levels between plasma and saliva was correlated in control subjects and cirrhotic patients. Forty seven ambulatory patients and 16 control subjects were studied. RAI was defined as a serum cortisol increase of less than 9 μg/dl from baseline after the stimulation with 250 mg of synthetic ACTH. Twenty two had Child-Pugh ≤ 8 and 25 = 9. The prevalence of RAI in patients with stable cirrhosis was 22%. A higher incidence of RAI was observed in patients with a Child-Pugh = 9 (8/32) than in those with ≤ 8 (3/13, p < 0.05). A correlation between salivary cortisol and basal plasma cortisol (r = 0.6, p < 0.0004) was observed. Finally, survival at 1 year (97%) and 3 years (91%) was significantly higher without RAI than those who developed this complication (79% and 51%, p < 0.05, respectively). In summary, the prevalence of RAI is frequent in patients with stable cirrhosis and that it is related to the severity of liver diseaseand increased mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adrenal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Prognosis , Saliva/chemistry , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Hydrocortisone/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Adrenal Insufficiency/mortality , Sepsis , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality
11.
Clinics ; 70(8): 563-568, 08/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about metabolic factors in cirrhotic patients in China. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the prevalence of both metabolic factors and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related liver cirrhosis in China. METHODS: The medical records of 1,582 patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis from June 2003 to July 2013 at Daping Hospital (Chongqing, China) were retrospectively reviewed through a computer-generated search. RESULTS: Serum hepatitis B virus surface antigen was present in 1,083 (68.5%) patients, and hepatitis B was found to be the only etiological factor in 938 (59.3%) of all patients. Obesity, diabetes mellitus, and arterial hypertension were observed in 229 (14.5%), 159 (10.1%), and 129 (8.2%) patients, respectively. From 2012-2013, the proportion of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related liver cirrhosis increased to 3.2%, whereas the average proportion of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related liver cirrhosis in the previous ten years was 1.9%. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was much higher in males than in females (6.3% vs. 3.7%, respectively, p=0.036). Obesity and diabetes mellitus did not significantly increase the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the whole cirrhotic group. The presence of hepatitis B virus was the only risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although hepatitis B virus remains the main etiology of liver cirrhosis in China, steatohepatitis-related liver cirrhosis is increasing in frequency. Hepatitis B virus was the sole significant risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in the whole cirrhotic group in the present study, in contrast to obesity and diabetes mellitus, for which only a trend of increased hepatocellular carcinoma was found. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Epidemiologic Methods , Hepatitis B virus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis B/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Sex Factors , Time Factors
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52646

ABSTRACT

The inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in hepatic cells in pathological conditions. Its induction is involved in the development of liver fibrosis, and thus iNOS could be a therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. This review summarizes the role of iNOS in liver fibrosis, focusing on 1) iNOS biology, 2) iNOS-expressing liver cells, 3) iNOS-related therapeutic strategies, and 4) future directions.


Subject(s)
Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , Humans , Kupffer Cells/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/antagonists & inhibitors , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Untranslated/metabolism
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(10): 850-857, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722172

ABSTRACT

We previously described a selective bile duct ligation model to elucidate the process of hepatic fibrogenesis in children with biliary atresia or intrahepatic biliary stenosis. Using this model, we identified changes in the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) both in the obstructed parenchyma and in the hepatic parenchyma adjacent to the obstruction. However, the expression profiles of desmin and TGF-β1, molecules known to be involved in hepatic fibrogenesis, were unchanged when analyzed by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thus, the molecular mechanisms involved in the modulation of liver fibrosis in this experimental model are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular changes in an experimental model of selective bile duct ligation and to compare the gene expression changes observed in RT-PCR and in real-time quantitative PCR (qRT‐PCR). Twenty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes and weaning age (21-23 days old) were used. The rats were separated into groups that were assessed 7 or 60 days after selective biliary duct ligation. The expression of desmin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 was examined in tissue from hepatic parenchyma with biliary obstruction (BO) and in hepatic parenchyma without biliary obstruction (WBO), using RT-PCR and qRT‐PCR. The results obtained in this study using these two methods were significantly different. The BO parenchyma had a more severe fibrogenic reaction, with increased α-SMA and TGF-β1 expression after 7 days. The WBO parenchyma presented a later, fibrotic response, with increased desmin expression 7 days after surgery and increased α-SMA 60 days after surgery. The qRT‐PCR technique was more sensitive to expression changes than the semiquantitative method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Actins/metabolism , Cholestasis/complications , Desmin/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Actins/genetics , Biliary Atresia , Bile Ducts/surgery , Collagen Type I/biosynthesis , Disease Models, Animal , Desmin/genetics , Gene Expression , Ligation , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver/surgery , Rats, Wistar , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics
14.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 51(1): 16-20, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-707005

ABSTRACT

Context There is a relative lack of studies about exhaled nitrite (NO2-) concentrations in cirrhotic and transplanted patients. Objective Verify possible differences and correlations between the levels of NO2-, measured in plasma and exhaled breath condensate collected from patients with cirrhosis and liver transplant. Method Sixty adult male patients, aged between 27 and 67 years, were subdivided into three groups: a control group comprised of 15 healthy volunteers, a cirrhosis group composed of 15 volunteers, and a transplant group comprised of 30 volunteers. The NO2- concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence. Results 1) The analysis of plasma NO2- held among the three groups showed no statistical significance. 2) The comparison between cirrhotic and control groups, control and transplanted and cirrhotic and transplanted was not statistically significant. 3) The measurements performed on of NO2- exhaled breath condensate among the three groups showed no statistical difference. 4) When comparing the control group samples and cirrhotic, control and transplanted and cirrhotic and transplanted, there was no significant changes in the concentrations of NO2-. Conclusion No correlations were found between plasma and exhaled NO2-, suggesting that the exhaled NO2- is more reflective of local respiratory NO release than the systemic circulation. .


Contexto Observa-se relativa falta de estudos sobre nitrito (NO2-) exalado como biomarcador de lesão, após transplante de fígado. Objetivo Verificar possíveis diferenças e correlações entre os níveis de nitrito (NO2-), medido no plasma e condensado do exalado pulmonar de pacientes com cirrose e transplante de fígado. Método Sessenta pacientes adultos, masculinos, idades entre 27 e 67 anos, foram divididos em três grupos: grupo controle composto por 15 voluntários saudáveis, grupo cirrose, composto por 15 voluntários e, grupo de transplante, composto por 30 voluntários. As dosagens plasmáticas e do condensado do exalado pulmonar foram realizadas por quimioluminescência. Resultados A análise os valores de NO2- plasmático não mostrou diferença entre os grupos. As comparações entre grupos cirrose e controle, controle e transplantados e cirrose e transplante não foram significativas. As medidas em amostras de condensado do exalado pulmonar entre os três grupos não evidenciaram diferenças estatísticas. Ao comparar as amostras dos grupos controle e cirrótico, controle e transplantado e cirróticos e transplantados, não houve alterações significativas nas concentrações de NO2-. Conclusão Não foram encontradas correlações entre plasma e condensado do exalado pulmonar, sugerindo que o NO exalado reflete mais as condições respiratórias locais de liberação de NO do que a circulação sistêmica. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Breath Tests/methods , Liver Transplantation , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitrites/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Exhalation , Nitrites/blood
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(9): 739-745, 19/set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686570

ABSTRACT

Liver cirrhosis is one of the most common diseases of Chinese patients. Herein, we report the high expression of a newly identified histone 3 lysine 4 demethylase, retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2), and its role in liver cirrhosis in humans. The siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) reduced levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin and decreased the proliferation of HSCs; and overexpression of RBP2 increased α-SMA and vimentin levels. Treatment with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) upregulated the expression of RBP2, α-SMA, and vimentin, and the siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression attenuated TGF-β-mediated upregulation of α-SMA and vimentin expression and HSC proliferation. Furthermore, RBP2 was highly expressed in cirrhotic rat livers. Therefore, RBP2 may participate in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis by regulating the expression of α-SMA and vimentin. RBP2 may be a useful marker for the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Actins/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , /metabolism , Vimentin/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Cell Proliferation , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Rats, Wistar , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
16.
J. bras. med ; 101(4): 33-36, jul.-ago. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-699662

ABSTRACT

A cirrose hepática é importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo. Entre as principais etiologias destacam-se as hepatites crônicas pelos vírus da hepatite C (HCV) e B (HBV) e o consumo e abuso do álcool. Destacamos, também, as hepatites crônicas e cirroses de natureza autoimune, medicamentosas, dentre outras.


Liver cirrhosis is the most important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world. Among the mainly etiologies, chronic hepatites highlight due hepatite C (HCV) and B (HBV) and alcohol abuse. We also emphasize chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis from autoimmune and medical origins, among others.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic/metabolism , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy/methods , Laboratory Test , Liver Transplantation , Prognosis , Chelating Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Acta gastroenterol. latinoam ; 43(3): 212-7, 2013 Sep.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1157384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is a worldwide chronic liver disease. Different factors have been found to be associated with an increased progression to severe liver fibrosis, such as alcohol intake higher than 30 g/day, older age at infection and co-infection. Nevertheless, different research centers have found conflicting data concerning the liver iron overload fibrogenic role. AIM: To assess the association between hepatic iron overload and fibrosis stage grades in hepatitis C Virus carriers, hepatic steatosis and demographic variables. METHODS: In this descriptive study we recruited 290 positive anti-HCV and qualitative HCV-RNA, treatment naive chronic hepatitis C outpatients registered fom 2007 to 2009 at the Federal University of Bahia’s Hospital. The variables studied in the liver biopsy results were: 1) fibrosis stage according to META VIR score (F0-F4), 2) iron overload presence or absence according to Perls staining, and 3) presence or absence of steatosis. Fibrosis stages were categorized as mild/moderate (F0-F2) and severe (F3-F4). Exclusion criteria were hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, and primary or secondary hemochromatosis. The statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square and Student’s t tests, with the ssoftware: SPSS 17. A P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: Severe fibrosis was statistically associated with older age, iron overload presence (P = 0.003) and steatosis (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this study hepatic iron overload and hepatic steatosis were associated with severe hepatic fibrosis (METAVIR F3-F4).


Subject(s)
Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Fatty Liver/virology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Iron Overload/complications , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Disease Progression , RNA, Viral/genetics , Iron Overload/metabolism , gamma-Glutamyltransferase , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15278

ABSTRACT

Because of the anatomical position and its unique vascular system, the liver is susceptible to the exposure to the microbial products from the gut. Although large amount of microbes colonize in the gut, translocation of the microbes or microbial products into the liver and systemic circulation is prevented by gut epithelial barrier function and cleansing and detoxifying functions of the liver in healthy subjects. However, when the intestinal barrier function is disrupted, large amount of bacterial products can enter into the liver and systemic circulation and induce inflammation through their receptors. Nowadays, there have been various reports suggesting the role of gut flora and bacterial translocation in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease and portal hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge about bacterial translocation and its contribution to the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases and portal hypertension.


Subject(s)
Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , Bacterial Translocation , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Humans , Hypertension, Portal/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To investigate the levels of COX-2 and VEGF expression in chronic hepatitis (CH), cirrhosis, and HCC. METHODS: The immunohistochemical expressions of COX-2 and VEGF were evaluated in tissues from patients with CH (n=95), cirrhosis (n=38), low-grade HCC (LG-HCC; n=6), and high-grade HCC (HG-HCC; n=29). RESULTS: The COX-2 expression scores in CH, cirrhosis, LG-HCC, and HG-HCC were 3.3+/-1.9 (mean+/-SD), 4.2+/-1.7, 5.5+/-1.0, and 3.4+/-2.4, respectively (CH vs. cirrhosis, P=0.016; CH vs. LG-HCC, P=0.008; LG-HCC vs. HG-HCC, P=0.004), and the corresponding VEGF expression scores were 0.9+/-0.8, 1.5+/-0.7, 1.8+/-0.9, and 1.6+/-1.1 (CH vs. cirrhosis, P<0.001; CH vs. LG-HCC, P=0.011; LG-HCC vs. HG-HCC, P=0.075). Both factors were correlated with the fibrosis stage in CH and cirrhosis (COX-2: r=0.427, P<0.001; VEGF: r=0.491, P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between COX-2 and VEGF in all of the tissue samples (r=0.648, P<0.001), and between high COX-2 and VEGF expression scores and survival (COX-2: P=0.001; VEGF: P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The expressions of both COX-2 and VEGF are significantly higher in cirrhosis and LG-HCC than in CH. High COX-2 and high VEGF expressions are associated with a high survival rate.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Female , Hepatitis, Chronic/metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
20.
Archives of Iranian Medicine. 2011; 14 (4): 254-258
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-129712

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus initiates a complicated cascade process leading to chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In inflammatory situations, myeloperoxidase is released in plasma and binds to apolipoprotein A-1 in high-density lipoproteins. This study aims to evaluate the level of plasma myeloperoxidase as well as the pattern of plasma proteins in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Included in this study were 30 male subjects: 19 chronic hepatitis B patients, 6 HBV-related cirrhotic patients, and 5 healthy controls. Plasma myeloperoxidase was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Proteomic analysis of plasma proteins was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis [2-DE] and mass spectrometry. One way ANOVAwas used for data analysis. Mean plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in patients with liver cirrhosis [65.5 +/- 12.5; P=0.007] and chronic hepatitis B [53.7 +/- 10.6; P=0.18] when compared with healthy subjects [45 +/- 7.6]. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and hepatic fibrosis stage [r=0.53, P=0.002; r=0.63, P=0.000]. Proteomic analysis showed an altered plasma protein pattern in progressive hepatitis B and down-regulation of the major apolipoprotein A-1 along with the appearance of a variety of spots noted to be apolipoprotein A-1isoforms with different molecular masses. In this study, progressive liver injury due to HBV infection correlated with higher plasma myeloperoxidase and an altered plasma apolipoprotein A-1 pattern


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Apolipoprotein A-I/blood , Hepatitis B, Chronic/enzymology , Liver Cirrhosis/enzymology , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Down-Regulation , Proteome/metabolism
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