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Ethiop. Med. j ; 61(2): 121-129, 2023. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1426877


Background: Daily alcohol consumption above recommended limits is an important cause of Alcoholic Lher Disease. Hence, this study aimed to assess the knowledge of Alcoholic Liver Disease among alcohol consumers and screenfor alcohol misuse, dependence, and disorder. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey using simple random sampling technique was conducted on residents ofÅfikpo age 15 and above who consume alcohol using a structured questionnaire to obtain information on alcoholic use disorder and alcohol dependence. The sample size Itas determined Il'ith the aid of a Raosoft sample size calculator. Data obtained was entered into an excel spreadsheetfor data cleaning. The frequency, percentages and mean and Standard deviation was also obtained. Data was exported into IBM SPSS to determine the relationship behre.en knou:ledge of Alcoholic Liver Disease and demographic variables using One-way ANOL4 and Chi-Square Il'here appropriate at P-value <0.05 and 5% significance level. Results: The total number of study participants was 435 with a response rate of 97%. Out of which had a good knowledge of Alcoholic Liver Disease. Adults above the age of 60 had a mean audit score of 12.808 Il'hile male respondents had a mean audit score of 11.395. Adolescents had a mean CAGE test score of 1.89 while adults above 60 scored 2.48. Hou•ever, participants with no education had the highest mean CAGE score of2.27. The males had good knowledge ofAlcoholic Liver Disease. (P 0.006). Conclusion: The residents ofÅfikpo community have a good knowledge ofAlcoholic Lher Disease though there is alcohol use disorder, alcohol misuse and dependence amongst residents in the community. Gender is the only demographic characteristics that influenced the knowledge ofAlcoholic Liver Disease

Humans , Alcohol Amnestic Disorder , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Therapeutics , Alcoholism , Diet, Healthy
Hepatología ; 4(1): 75-89, 2023. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1415978


La interrupción de la simbiosis que existe entre el cuerpo humano y su microbioma puede resultar en una disbiosis, un desequilibrio en la interacción huésped-microbiota, que puede asociarse al desarrollo de diversas enfermedades como el síndrome de intestino irritable, hígado graso no alco-hólico, enfermedad hepática alcohólica y cirrosis, entre otras. En ciertas condiciones patológicas y por múltiples factores de riesgo, la capacidad de autorregulación del intestino se puede alterar, contribuyendo al incremento de la permeabilidad con inflamación intestinal crónica. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento, así como la relación entre la permeabilidad intestinal, la disbiosis y las patologías gastrointestinales y hepatobiliares, todavía no tienen estudios clínicos validados o con el soporte científico adecuado, por lo que se realiza una revisión de la literatura con la finalidad de aportar conceptos que puedan orientar con respecto a la importancia del estudio del microbioma humano en estas enfermedades.

Disruption of the symbiosis that exists between the human body and its microbiome can result in dys-biosis, an imbalance in the host-microbiota interaction, which may be associated with the develop-ment of various diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis, among others. In certain pathological conditions and due to multiple risk factors, the self-regulating capacity of the intestine may be lost, contributing to increased permeability with chronic intestinal inflammation. Its diagnosis and treatment as well as the relationship between intestinal permeability, dysbiosis and gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary pathologies have not been validated in clinical studies or have adequate scientific support, so a review of the literature is carried out in order to provide concepts that can guide with respect to the importance of the study of the human microbiome in these diseases

Humans , Permeability , Dysbiosis , Microbiota , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Risk Factors , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Fatty Liver , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic
Philippine Journal of Health Research and Development ; (4): 1-15, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987601


Background@#Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major health problem referring to the collection of liver damage caused by excessive alcohol intake. The search for effective and safe alternatives for compounds from plants to protect the liver from extensive damages and delay the progress to a disease is still a big effort done in the scientific community. 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a compound found in a Chinese herbal medicinal plant, Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort and in some other plants. @*Objective@#This study was done to assess the hepatoprotective effects of TMP against ALD using histopathological analysis of zebrafish livers subjected to different exposure groups. TMP has been mainly used for the treatment of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. @*Methodology@#Adult male zebrafish were exposed to three TMP concentrations (40, 60, and 80 mg/L TMP) and to 1% v/v of ethanol. The dissected livers of the zebrafish were processed for fixing on glass slides using the H&E stains and were observed under the light compound microscopes for scoring. The safety of the TMP to the early life stages of the zebrafish was tested using the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZFET). @*Results@#Results showed that TMP was able to dose-dependently decrease mean scores for the four parameters diagnostic of ALD, i.e., steatosis, inflammation, cell death, and ballooning degeneration. These scores were comparable to those of the untreated group (no ethanol + no treatment) and positive control (ethanol + Hepasil DTXTM), with all groups' scores being statistically different from those of the negative control group (ethanol + no treatment) (p<0.05). Results for the ZFET showed that incidence of embryo mortality as well as teratogenic malformations of embryos exposed to TMP were significantly lower compared to the positive control group. @*Conclusion@#The hepatoprotective role of TMP was implied because anomalies such as cholestasis, vessel congestion, and hemorrhage were only observed in the ethanol-treated group and not in the other groups. In the analysis of the early development of the embryos using the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZFET), TMP was found to be non-toxic and non-teratogenic at concentrations used for liver treatment. These initial findings on TMP provided justification for its plausibility as a hepatoprotective compound against alcoholic liver diseases (ALD).

Liver Diseases, Alcoholic
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 134-140, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927920


The present study investigated the effect of extract of Poria cocos polysaccharides(PCP) on cytochrome P450 2 E1(CYP2 E1) and nuclear factor κB(NF-κB) inflammatory signaling pathways in alcoholic liver disease(ALD) mice and explored its protective effect and mechanism. Sixty male C57 BL/6 N mice of SPF grade were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a positive drug group(bifendate, 200 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-(200 mg·kg~(-1)) and low-dose(50 mg·kg~(-1)) PCP groups. Gao-binge mo-del was induced and the mice in each group were treated correspondingly. Liver morphological and pathological changes were observed and organ index was calculated. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) were detected. Malondialdehyde(MDA) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) in liver tissues were detected by assay kits. The levels of interleukin-6(IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) were detected by ELISA. The activation of macrophages was observed by immunofluorescence staining and protein expression of CYP2 E1, Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4), NF-κB p65, and phosphorylated NF-κB p65(p-NF-κB p65) were analyzed by Western blot. The ALD model was properly induced. Compared with the model group, the PCP groups significantly improved the pathological injury of liver tissues. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that compared with the model group, the groups with drug intervention showed decreased macrophages in liver tissues. Additionally, the PCP groups showed reduced ALT, AST, MDA, IL-6, and TNF-α(P<0.05), and potentiated activity of SOD(P<0.01). PCP extract has the protective effect against alcoholic liver injury in mice, and the underlying mechanism may be related to the regulation of the expression of CYP2 E1 and inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway to reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory injury, thereby inhibiting the development of ALD.

Animals , Male , Mice , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/pharmacology , Liver , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Wolfiporia
Medisan ; 25(2)mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1250345


Introducción: El consumo excesivo y prolongado de alcohol se asocia a una morbilidad elevada por afecciones hepáticas y de otros órganos. Objetivo: Precisar las lesiones hepáticas y su relación con otras enfermedades asociadas al alcohol y el estado nutricional en pacientes con enfermedad hepática alcohólica. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de 270 pacientes con enfermedad hepática alcohólica, atendidos en el Servicio de Medicina Interna y la consulta especializada de Hepatología del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba, quienes fueron examinados clínicamente para detectar síntomas y signos de enfermedades hepática y asociadas al alcohol en diferentes sistemas, durante el decenio 2010-2019. Resultados: Predominaron los hombres (234), de los cuales 117 estuvieron en el grupo de 25 - 44 años de edad. La forma clínica preponderante fue la cirrosis hepática en 109 pacie2ntes, de ellos una proporción importante eran bebedores con más de 20 años de exposición al hábito. La enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico junto a las formas de gastropatía y la polineuropatía en 89 y 96 afectados, respectivamente, fueron las comorbilidades más asociadas a la lesión hepática. Se observaron diferentes grados de desnutrición en 167 afectados (61,8 %), de los cuales primaron aquellos con cirrosis hepática, de estos 51 (49,0 %) presentaron desnutrición moderada y 31 (49,2 %) grave. Conclusiones: Resulta elevada la presencia de comorbilidades en pacientes con enfermedad hepática alcohólica, lo cual se asocia al deterioro nutricional y a una exposición prolongada al hábito nocivo.

Introduction: The excessive and prolonged consumption of alcohol is associated with a high morbidity due to hepatic disorders and affections of other organs. Objective: To specify the hepatic lesions and their relationship with other diseases associated with alcohol and the nutritional state in patients with alcoholic hepatic disease. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of 270 patients with alcoholic hepatic disease was carried out. They were assisted in the Internal Medicine Service and in the specialized visit of Hepatology from Saturnino Lora Teaching Clinical Surgical Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba who were clinically examined to detect symptoms and signs of hepatic disease and those associated with alcohol in different systems, during the decade 2010-2019. Results: There was a prevalence of men (234), of which 117 were in the group of 25 - 44 years of age. The preponderant clinical form was the hepatic cirrhosis in 109 patients, an important proportion of them were drinkers with more than 20 years of exhibition to the habit. The disease due to gastroesophagic reflux along with the forms of gastropathy and polyneuropathy in 89 and 96 affected patients, respectively, were the comorbidities more associated with the hepatic lesion. Different degrees of malnutrition were observed in 167 affected patients (61.8 %), of which those with hepatic cirrhosis prevailed, of these 51 (49.0 %) presented moderate malnutrition and 31 (49.2 %) a serious one. Conclusions: The presence of comorbidities in patients with alcoholic hepatic disease is high, which is associated to the nutritional deterioration and a prolong exposure to the harmful habit.

Comorbidity , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Nutritional Status
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 50(1): 52-56, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251634


RESUMEN El trastorno por consumo de alcohol es una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en el mundo. La enfermedad hepática alcohólica es una complicación común de este trastorno y la encefalopatía hepática es una seria comorbilidad de la cirrosis alcohólica. Los factores precipitantes pueden relacionarse con infección, sangrado gastrointestinal, deshidratación o efectos de psicofármacos (p. ej., benzodiacepinas e hipnóticos no benzodiacepínicos). Se expone un caso del manejo hospitalario de un paciente con un trastorno severo por consumo de alcohol, cirrosis y encefalopatía hepática, quien desarrolla síntomas de abstinencia alcohólica durante su hospitalización y la complejidad del manejo antagónico de un delirium gabaérgico propio de la encefalopatía hepática en el contexto de un delirium glutamatérgico-noradrenérgico por abstinencia alcohólica.

ABSTRACT Alcohol use disorder is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Alcoholic liver disease is a common complication of this disorder, and hepatic encephalopathy is a serious complication of alcoholic cirrhosis. Precipitating factors may be related to infection, gastrointestinal bleeding, dehydration or the effects of psychotropic drugs (e.g. benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics). We present a case of the hospital management of a patient with a severe alcohol use disorder, cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy who developed alcohol withdrawal symptoms while in hospital, and discuss the complexity of the antagonistic management of a GABAergic delirium characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy in the context of a glutamatergic-noradrenergic delirium due to alcohol withdrawal.

Humans , Male , Aged , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Precipitating Factors , Delirium , Psychotropic Drugs , Therapeutics , Benzodiazepines , Comorbidity , Dehydration , Alcoholism , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3900-3906, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888115


As a common disease worldwide, alcoholic liver injury is caused by long-term or excessive intake of alcohol and triggers cell death due to alcohol metabolism and reactive oxygen species(ROS)-mediated cytotoxicity. Wangshi Baochi(WSBC) Pills have been widely adopted in clinical practice for evacuating stasis, resolving turbidity, clearing heat, tranquilizing mind, invigorating sto-mach, promoting digestion, purging fire and removing toxin. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of WSBC Pills in dispelling the effect of alcohol and protecting against acute alcoholic liver/stomach injury in mice, and preliminarily investigate its possible mole-cular mechanism. The results found that the preventive treatment with WSBC Pills contributed to elevating the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH) and its expression in liver and shortening the time required for sobering up of mice with acute alcoholic liver injury. The staining of liver pathological sections as well as the detection of serum aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and liver ROS levels revealed that WSBC Pills protected the liver by reducing serum AST and ALT. It suppressed oxidative stress-induced liver injury by lowering liver ROS and elevating superoxide dismutase(SOD), and the liver-protecting effect was superior to that of silibinin. Western blot assay confirmed that WSBC Pills inhibited the oxidative stress by up-regulating SOD1 and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO-1). In addition, WSBC Pills lowered the ROS level to protect against the acute alcoholic stomach injury in mice. The findings have suggested that WSBC Pills alleviated the acute alcoholic liver/stomach injury in mice by increasing ADH and resisting oxidative stress.

Animals , Mice , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Ethanol , Liver/metabolism , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Oxidative Stress , Stomach
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 66(11): 1609-1609, Nov. 2020.
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1143644
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 66(10): 1461-1461, Oct. 2020.
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136139
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 66(8): 1030-1035, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136329


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Liver biopsies such as tru-cut (sharp needle) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) are the most commonly preferred techniques to detect the grade and stage of certain liver diseases. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficiency of USG-guided tru-cut biopsy and fine-needle aspiration cytology in an experimental alcoholic liver disease model. METHODS Thirty-six female Wistar albino rats, 4-6 months old, and weighing from 190 to 250 g, were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into six equal groups: G1 (control), G2 (tru-cut control), G3 (FNAC control), G4 (Alcoholic liver disease model), G5 (Alcoholic liver disease model + FNAC), and G6 (Alcoholic liver disease model + tru-cut biopsy). After a histopathological evaluation by light microscopy, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of FNAC and tru-cut biopsy for the diagnosis of liver lesions were calculated. RESULTS No pathology was detected in G1 except for mild congestion. On the other hand, hepatocyte damage, periportal inflammation, congestion, and fatty changes were detected in all liver tissues of the alcoholic liver disease groups. The sensitivity of hepatocyte damage, inflammation, congestion, and fatty change parameters for FNAC were 33.3%, 80%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, while the sensitivity of the same variables for tru-cut were 66.7%, 40%, 100%, and 20%, respectively. DISCUSSION Both techniques were superior in some aspects. FNAC can be an attractive alternative to tru-cutbiopsy and applied in routine practice in the diagnosis of non-tumoral liver diseases.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO Biópsias hepáticas tais como por agulha tru-cut e por citologia aspirativa por agulha fina (CAAF) são as técnicas frequentemente preferidas para detectar o grau e o estágio de certas doenças hepáticas. Neste estudo, nosso objetivo foi comparar a eficiência da biopsia com agulha tru-cut guiada por ultrassom e a citologia aspirativa por agulha fina em um modelo experimental de doença hepática alcoólica. MÉTODOS Trinta e seis ratos Wistar albinos fêmeas, de 4 a 6 meses de idade e pesando entre 190 e 250g, foram utilizados neste estudo. Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em seis grupos: G1 (controle), G2 (controle tru-cut), G3 (CAAF), G4 (modelo de doença hepática alcoólica), G5 (modelo de doença hepática alcoólica + CAAF) e G6 (modelo de doença hepática alcoólica + biópsia tru-cut). Após uma avaliação histopatológica por microscopia de luz, foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade e os valores preditivos positivos e negativos da CAAF e biópsia por tru-cut para o diagnóstico de lesões hepáticas. RESULTADOS Nenhuma patologia foi detectada no G1, apenas leve congestão. Por outro lado, detectamos danos nos hepatócitos, inflamação periportal, congestão e alterações nos ácidos graxos nos tecidos hepáticos de todos os grupos de doença hepática alcoólica. As sensibilidades encontradas para os danos nos hepatócitos, inflamação, congestão e alterações nos parâmetros de ácidos graxos para a CAAF foram 33,3%, 80%, 0% e 0%, respectivamente, enquanto que as sensibilidades das mesmas variáveis para o método tru-cut foram 66,7%, 40%, 100% e 20%, respectivamente. DISCUSSÃO Ambas as técnicas foram superiores em alguns aspectos. A CAAF pode ser uma alternativa atraente à biópsia por tru-cut e aplicada como prática de rotina no diagnóstico de doenças hepáticas não tumorais.

Humans , Female , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Rats, Wistar , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Disease Models, Animal
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(2): e435, abr.-jun. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138997


Introducción: Las aspergilosis comprenden un amplio y heterogéneo grupo de enfermedades oportunistas causadas por hongos del género Aspergillus, considerados como una causa inusual de infección. Es la causa más frecuente de muerte por neumonía infecciosa e infección diseminada o respiratoria oportunista, en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Objetivos: Describir las características clínicas de un caso inusual de aspergilosis pulmonar. Caso clínico: Paciente de 56 años de edad con antecedentes personales de hepatopatía alcohólica, ingresado por episodios de expectoración con sangre y tos seca. Se realizaron estudios de laboratorio, imagenológicos y anatomopatológicos que condujeron al diagnóstico de micetoma por Aspergillus fumigatus, lo cual posibilitó indicar el tratamiento adecuado y realizar el seguimiento clínico. Conclusiones: La infección por Aspergillus fumigatus debe ser considerada por el médico de cabecera, debido a que su reporte constituye una herramienta para que pueda establecer una terapéutica temprana y adecuada, dada sus implicaciones pronósticas, su morbilidad y mortalidad en pacientes inmunodeprimidos(AU)

Introduction: Aspergillosis comprises a wide and heterogeneous group of opportunistic diseases caused by fungi of the Aspergillus genus, considered as an unusual cause of infection. It is the most frequent cause of death from infectious pneumonia and disseminated or opportunistic respiratory infection in immunocompromised patients. Objectives: Describe the clinical characteristics of an unusual case of pulmonary aspergillosis. Case report: 56-year-old patient with a personal history of alcoholic liver disease, admitted due to episodes of expectoration with blood and dry cough. Laboratory, imaging, and pathological studies were conducted that led to the diagnosis of mytoma by Aspergillus fumigatus, which made it possible to indicate the appropriate treatment and perform clinical follow-up. Conclusions: Aspergillus fumigatus infection should be considered by the attending physician, because his report constitutes a tool for him to establish an early and adequate therapy, given its prognostic implications and for its morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia , Aspergillus , Immunocompromised Host , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Mycetoma
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 714-724, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879933


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of Flos Puerariae and Semen Hoveniae in treatment of alcoholic liver injury (ALI) based on network pharmacology and molecular docking.@*METHODS@#The information of chemical constituents and targets of Flos Puerariae and Semen Hoveniae was collected from TCMSP and Swiss databases, and the threshold values of oral bioavailability (OB) ≥ 30%, drug likeness (DL) ≥0.18 were used to screen the potential active compounds. The GeneCard and DrugBank databases were used to obtain the targets corresponding to ALI. The common targets were queried using Venn Diagram, and the network of PPI and Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed through DAVID and Reactome database. Autodock Vina software was used for molecular docking of potential ingredients and key targets.@*RESULTS@#A total of 21 potential active compounds and 431 therapeutic targets were gathered in Flos Puerariae and Semen Hoveniae, which involved 273 biological functions, 90 KEGG pathways and 362 Reactome pathways. The GO functions involved protein binding, ATP binding, etc.; the KEGG pathways mainly included PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and TNF signaling pathway; the Reactome pathways contained signal transduction and immune system, etc. The results of molecular docking showed that 21 potential active ingredients had good affinity with the core targets Akt1, TP53 and IL-6.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis demonstrate the synergetic effect of Flos Puerariae and Semen Hoveniae with multi-compounds, multi-targets and multi-pathways in the treatment of ALI; and also predict the possible medicinal substance, key targets and pathways, which provides clues for the new drug development and mechanism research.

Animals , Computer Simulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Lepidoptera/chemistry , Liver/drug effects , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rhamnaceae/chemistry , Signal Transduction/drug effects
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 102-109, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785430


PURPOSE: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a fatal complication in patients with end-stage liver disease awaiting liver transplantation (LT). HRS often develops in patients with high model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. This study investigated the outcomes of peritransplant management of HRS in a high-volume LT center in Korea for 2 years.METHODS: A total of 157 recipients that deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) from January 2017 to December 2018 were included. In-hospital mortality (IHM) was analyzed in relation to pre- and posttransplant application of renal replacement therapy (RRT).RESULTS: Primary diagnoses for DDLT were alcoholic liver disease (n = 61), HBV-associated liver cirrhosis (n = 48), retransplantation for chronic graft failure (n = 24), and others (n = 24). Mean MELD score was 34.6 ± 6.2 with 72 patients at Korean Network for Organ Sharing MELD status 2 (45.9%), 43 at status 3 (27.4%), 36 at status 4 (22.9%), and 6 at status 5 (3.8%). Pretransplant RRT was performed in 16 patients (10.2%) that did not show IHM. Posttransplant RRT was performed in 69 patients (44.0%), for whom IHM incidence was 15.9%. In 53 patients that had undergone de novo posttransplant RRT, IHM incidence increased to 20.8%. IHM in the 88 patients not requiring RRT was 2.3%.CONCLUSION: The majority of adult DDLT recipients in Korean MELD score-based allocation system have very high MELD scores, which is often associated with HRS. Pretransplant RRT appears to improve posttransplant survival outcomes. We thereby recommend that, if indicated, pretransplant RRT be performed while awaiting DDLT.

Adult , Humans , Diagnosis , Hepatorenal Syndrome , Hospital Mortality , Incidence , Korea , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Renal Dialysis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Tissue Donors , Transplants
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(6): e7628, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001534


This study aimed to explore the influence of gut microbiota alterations induced by Linderae radix ethanol extract (LREE) on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in rats and to study the anti-inflammatory effect of LREE on ALD through the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. ALD rat models were established by intragastric liquor [50% (v/v) ethanol] administration at 10 mL/kg body weight for 20 days. Rats were divided into six groups: normal group (no treatment), model group (ALD rats), Essentiale group (ALD rats fed with Essentiale, 137 mg/kg), and LREE high/moderate/low dose groups (ALD rats fed with 4, 2, or 1 g LREE/kg). NF-κB and LPS levels were evaluated. Liver pathological changes and intestinal ultrastructure were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. The gut microbiota composition was evaluated by 16S rDNA sequencing. Expression levels of TLR4 and CD68 in liver tissue, and occludin and claudin-1 in intestinal tissue were measured. LREE treatment significantly reduced NF-κB and LPS levels, improved liver pathological changes, and ameliorated intestinal ultrastructure injury. Meanwhile, LREE-fed groups showed a higher abundance of Firmicutes and a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes than the rats in the model group. Administration of LREE suppressed TLR4 overexpression and promoted the expression of occludin and claudin-1 in intestine tissue. Thus, LREE could partly ameliorate microflora dysbiosis, suppress the inflammatory response, and attenuate liver injury in ALD rats. The protective effect of LREE might be related to the LPS-TLR4-NF-κB pathway.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lindera/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Liver/ultrastructure , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/prevention & control , Lipopolysaccharides/blood , Cytokines/blood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/blood , Plant Roots/chemistry , Disease Models, Animal , Toll-Like Receptor 4/blood , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/diagnostic imaging
Gut and Liver ; : 77-82, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719364


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are crucial to establish early intervention. Previous studies have suggested that plasma levels of cleaved keratin-18 (K18; M30) fragments can predict the severity of liver disease. The aim of this study was to correlate plasma M30 levels with stages of liver fibrosis in ALD. METHODS: Patients with ALD (n=139, 79.1% males) and liver histology were included, and plasma samples were collected to quantify plasma M30 levels. Patients were stratified into five groups by fibrosis stage (F0=14; F1=15; F2=35; F3=17; and F4=58) according to the Kleiner score. Differences between groups were evaluated using the chi-square test or analysis of variance. Trends by fibrosis stage were calculated by logistic regression analysis, and sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were determined. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in M30 levels among fibrosis stages. The correlation between plasma M30 levels and fibrosis was poor (Pearson’s correlation coefficient=0.13, Spearman rho=0.20 [p=0.02]), and M30 levels did not correlate with alcohol-specific histological features. However, significant correlations of M30 levels with aspartate aminotransferase (Spearman rho=0.653, p 200 U/L reveal a sensitivity for predicting cirrhosis of 84.5% with a negative predictive value of 73.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma M30 levels are often elevated in ALD and correlate with serum transaminases but do not reflect fibrosis. The usefulness as a prognostic marker awaits evaluation in prospective studies.

Humans , Alanine Transaminase , Alcoholics , Apoptosis , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Caspases , Early Intervention, Educational , Fibrosis , Keratin-18 , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver , Logistic Models , Plasma , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transaminases
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 72-78, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764307


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is caused by infection of hepatitis B/C virus and liver dysfunctions, such as alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cirrhosis. Amino acids are organic substances containing amine and carboxylic acid functional groups. There are over 700 kinds of amino acids in nature, but only about 20 of them are used to synthesize proteins in cells. Liver is an important organ for protein synthesis, degradation and detoxification as well as amino acid metabolism. In the liver, there are abundant non-essential amino acids, such as alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, and serine and essential amino acids, such as histidine and threonine. These amino acids are involved in various cellular metabolisms, the synthesis of lipids and nucleotides as well as detoxification reactions. Understanding the role of amino acids in the pathogenesis of liver and the effects of amino acid intake on liver disease can be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of liver disease. In this review, we describe the biochemical properties and functions of amino acids and to review how they have been applied to treatment of liver diseases.

Alanine , Amino Acids , Amino Acids, Essential , Aspartic Acid , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Fibrosis , Glutamic Acid , Glycine , Hepatitis , Histidine , Liver Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver , Metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Nucleotides , Serine , Therapeutic Uses , Threonine
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 205-211, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761557


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The serum aminotransferase level is usually elevated in rhabdomyolysis, and these enzymes originate from the skeletal muscle. On the other hand, there is limited data showing whether the degree of elevation of these enzymes differs according to the concurrent liver disease. METHODS: Patients with rhabdomyolysis were selected when their serum creatinine kinase level was >1,000 U/L. They were categorized as the group with and without concurrent liver disease. The AST and ALT levels in both groups were compared. In addition, the aminotransferase level was compared between those with rhabdomyolysis and those with alcoholic liver disease. RESULTS: Among the 165 patients with rhabdomyolysis, 19 had concurrent liver disease. The median peak AST was higher in the group with concurrent liver disease (332 U/L [interquartile range (IQR), 127–1,604] vs. 219 U/L [IQR, 115–504]). In addition, the median peak ALT was higher in the group with concurrent liver disease (107 U/L [IQR, 74–418] vs. 101 U/L [IQR, 56–218]). On the other hand, there was no significant difference in both enzymes between the two groups. The median peak AST level was significantly higher in those with rhabdomyolysis than in those with alcoholic liver disease (221 U/L [IQR, 118–553] vs. 103 U/L [IQR, 59–206]), but the median peak ALT was not significantly different (102 U/L [IQR, 58–222] vs. 51 U/L [IQR, 26–117]). CONCLUSIONS: Rhabdomyolysis showed an elevated AST-dominant aminotransferase level, which is not different according to concurrent liver disease. Therefore, it is recommended that rhabdomyolysis be considered first in cases of elevated aminotransferase levels in patients with a suspicious skeletal muscle injury.

Humans , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Creatinine , Hand , Liver Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver , Muscle, Skeletal , Phosphotransferases , Rhabdomyolysis
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 205-211, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787205


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The serum aminotransferase level is usually elevated in rhabdomyolysis, and these enzymes originate from the skeletal muscle. On the other hand, there is limited data showing whether the degree of elevation of these enzymes differs according to the concurrent liver disease.METHODS: Patients with rhabdomyolysis were selected when their serum creatinine kinase level was >1,000 U/L. They were categorized as the group with and without concurrent liver disease. The AST and ALT levels in both groups were compared. In addition, the aminotransferase level was compared between those with rhabdomyolysis and those with alcoholic liver disease.RESULTS: Among the 165 patients with rhabdomyolysis, 19 had concurrent liver disease. The median peak AST was higher in the group with concurrent liver disease (332 U/L [interquartile range (IQR), 127–1,604] vs. 219 U/L [IQR, 115–504]). In addition, the median peak ALT was higher in the group with concurrent liver disease (107 U/L [IQR, 74–418] vs. 101 U/L [IQR, 56–218]). On the other hand, there was no significant difference in both enzymes between the two groups. The median peak AST level was significantly higher in those with rhabdomyolysis than in those with alcoholic liver disease (221 U/L [IQR, 118–553] vs. 103 U/L [IQR, 59–206]), but the median peak ALT was not significantly different (102 U/L [IQR, 58–222] vs. 51 U/L [IQR, 26–117]).CONCLUSIONS: Rhabdomyolysis showed an elevated AST-dominant aminotransferase level, which is not different according to concurrent liver disease. Therefore, it is recommended that rhabdomyolysis be considered first in cases of elevated aminotransferase levels in patients with a suspicious skeletal muscle injury.

Humans , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Creatinine , Hand , Liver Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver , Muscle, Skeletal , Phosphotransferases , Rhabdomyolysis
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 33-42, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776906


Antrodia camphorata, a well-known and highly valued edible medicinal mushroom with intriguing activities like liver protection, has been traditionally used for the treatment of alcoholic liver disease. A. camphorata shows highly medicinal and commercial values with the demand far exceeds the available supply. Thus, the petri-dish cultured A. camphorata (PDCA) is expected to develope as a substitute. In this paper, nineteen triterpenes were isolated from PDCA, and thirteen of them were the unique anthroic acids in A. camphorata, including the main content antcin K, which suggested that PDCA produced a large array of the same anthroic acids as the wild one. Furthermore, no obvious acute toxicity was found suggesting the edible safety of PDCA. In mice alcohol-induced liver injury model, triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) had been reduced by the PDCA powder as well as the main content antcin K, which indicated that the PDCA could protect alcoholic liver injury in mice model and antcin K could be the effective component responsible for the hepatoprotective activities of PDCA against alcoholic liver diseases.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase , Blood , Antrodia , Chemistry , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Biological Products , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Cholestenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Cholesterol, VLDL , Blood , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Toxicity , Fruiting Bodies, Fungal , Chemistry , Liver , Metabolism , Pathology , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Malondialdehyde , Blood , Molecular Structure , Triglycerides , Blood , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 93-99, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715320


Alcohol consumption has increased over the past 40 years in Korea concomitantly with the country's rapid socioeconomic development. As a result, alcohol-related deaths and mortality continue to increase in Korea. This review will summarize the recent epidemiology of alcoholic liver disease in Korea.

Humans , Alcohol Drinking , Alcoholics , Epidemiology , Health Policy , Korea , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Mortality