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2.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(supl.1): S101-S105, set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138654

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las alteraciones del perfil hepático durante el embarazo ocurren en 3-5% de las gestantes. Una nueva etiología que se ha presentado en el contexto de pandemia actual es el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo relacionado con el nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Éste es responsable de alteraciones hepáticas en 2 a 11% de la población general infectada por este virus, y de hasta un 30% en las embarazadas que se infectan con SARS-CoV-2. Con el objetivo de mostrar una presentación poco frecuente del SARS-CoV-2 se expone un caso clínico de elevación de transaminasas en embarazada inducida por este nuevo virus. CASO CLÍNICO: Paciente de 36 años, cursando embarazo de 20+6 semanas, consulta por dolor abdominal asociado a ictericia y coluria. Se solicita estudio donde destaca elevación de transaminasas. Ecografía abdominal con vía biliar fina. Se descartan diferentes etiologías de hepatitis aguda y crónica (dada la falta de antecedentes). Finalmente se solicita PCR para COVID-19 que resulta positiva. CONCLUSIÓN: Luego de un estudio exhaustivo de diferentes etiologías de elevación de transaminasas, se atribuye esta alteración enzimática a SARS-CoV-2. Se decide seguimiento ambulatorio estricto con pruebas hepáticas cada dos semanas. La paciente evoluciona estable con exámenes normales luego de un mes desde que se indica el alta hospitalaria. Después de descartar etiologías frecuentes de elevación de transaminasas durante el embarazo, sugerimos solicitar el estudio de este virus con PCR para COVID-19, ya que podría ser una presentación poco frecuente de SARS-CoV-2.


INTRODUCTION: Approximately 3-5% of women present alterations of hepatic enzymes during pregnancy. Under the new circumstances that the world is facing with the SARS-COV2 pandemic, a new etiology for hepatic enzyme alterations has risen. The severe acute respiratory syndrome that the novel coronavirus causes is responsible for hepatic enzyme alterations in 2 to 11% of the sick population that did not have a previous underlying hepatic condition. Furthermore, hepatic enzyme alterations in pregnant women infected with SARS-COV2 presents in up to 30% of the cases. An infrequent presentation of SARS-COV2 is presented as our clinical case. CLINICAL CASE: A 36-year-old patient with a 20+6 week pregnancy presents abdominal pain, jaundice and choluria. General blood workup shows elevated transaminases. The abdominal ultrasound revealed a thin bile duct. Acute and chronic hepatitis etiologies were discarded. Finally, a PCR of COVID-19 was solicited, which turned out to be positive. CONCLUSIÓN: After an exhaustive study to determine the etiology of the elevated transaminases, the hepatic alterations were attributed to SARS-COV2 infection. A conservative management was adopted, with outpatient follow-up with liver testing every two weeks. The patient progresses with a stable steady decline in hepatic enzyme levels, and one-month post hospital discharge, her transaminases had reached normal values. Based on this clinical case, after ruling out frequent etiologies for elevated transaminases during pregnancy, it seems reasonable to request a PCR for COVID-19, since it could be a rare presentation of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/enzymology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Transferases/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Pandemics , Jaundice , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Liver Diseases/etiology
3.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1815-1825, mayo.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127043

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el embarazo supone cambios en la fisiología de la mujer. Estos cambios pueden llevar a la aparición de enfermedades que afectan el hígado como: síndrome de HELLP, colestasis gravídica intrahepática, esteatosis hepática aguda del embarazo, entre otras, que pueden repercutir en el curso de la gestación. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo de corte transversal en 52 gestantes que fueron valoradas en gastroenterología por sospecha de hepatopatías durante el embarazo en el año 2018, que constituyeron el universo de estudio, con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento de las hepatopatías durante la gestación en las embarazadas valoradas por el servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital Universitario "Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández" de Matanzas. Se estudiaron las variables: trimestre gestacional, síntomas y signos, resultados analíticos, entidad nosológica, tipo de parto y complicación neonatal. Se elaboró una planilla para la recolección de los datos. Los resultados se analizaron en frecuencias absolutas y porcientos y se expusieron en tablas. Resultados: predominaron las gestantes del tercer trimestre con 61.6 %. El síntoma más frecuente fue el prurito en 33 gestantes (63.6%). La hipertransaminasemia se manifestó en el 100% de las gestantes. La entidad más frecuente fue la hepatitis crónica por virus B en 19 gestantes (36.5%) seguida de la colestasis intrahepática del embarazo con un 25 %. La mayoría de los partos fueron realizados por cesárea (94.2 %). La principal complicación neonatal fue el bajo peso al nacer en 26 (39.4 %). Conclusiones: las hepatopatías propias de la gestación se comportaron con igual frecuencia descrita en la literatura de acuerdo al trimestre que predominó, aunque fue significativa la incidencia de gestantes valoradas con infección por virus de la hepatitis b cuyo diagnóstico se hizo durante el embarazo siendo la principal causa de las complicaciones neonatales observadas (AU).


SUMMARY Introduction: Pregnancy supposes changes in the woman's physiology. These changes can lead to the appearance of illnesses affecting the liver, such as Hellp syndrome, intrahepatic cholestasis gravidarum, acute hepatic steatosis of pregnancy, among others, that can rebound in the course of the gestation. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional retrospective, descriptive, observational study was carried out in 52 pregnant women that were valued in Gastroenterology due to the suspicion of liver diseases during pregnancy in 2018; they were the universe of the study and the aim was determining the behavior of liver diseases during pregnancy in pregnant women valued in the service of Gastroenterology of the university hospital "Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández" of the province of Matanzas: The studied variables were: gestational trimester, symptoms and signs, analytical results; nosological entity, type of delivery and neonatal complications. A form was draw up to collect data. The results were analyzed in absolute frequencies and percentages and showed in tables. Results: The third semester pregnant women predominated with 61.7 %. Pruritus was the most frequent symptom in 33 pregnant women (63.6 %). High levels of serum transaminases were present in 100 % of the studied women. The most frequent disease was chronic hepatitis caused by virus B in 19 pregnant women (36.5 %), followed by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy with 25 %. Most of deliveries were performed by cesarean (94.2 %). The main neonatal complication was low weight at birth in 26 (39.4 %). Conclusions: liver diseases that are proper of gestation behaved in the same frequency as they are described in literature in relation to the predominating semester, although it was significant the incidence of assessed pregnant women with infection caused by the virus of hepatitis B diagnosed during pregnancy; it was the main cause of the observed neonatal complications (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Gastroenterology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Maternal Mortality , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Morbidity , Fetal Mortality , Observational Study , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/etiology
4.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(2): 64-71, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095597

ABSTRACT

La Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y las enfermedades crónicas del hígado(ECH), definida para esta revisión como cualquier alteración funcional o estructural de este órgano, desde inflamación hasta fibrosis, son patologías que frecuentemente se asocian, y su coexistencia se relaciona con peor pronóstico y mayores complicaciones de ambas entidades. El objetivo de este artículo es describir la relación entre hiperglicemia y enfermedades del hígado, sus procesos fisiopatológicos comunes y tratamiento, distinguiendo las patologías más relevantes, entre ellas la Diabetes Hepatogénica (DH), la enfermedad hepática por Virus Hepatitis C (VHC) y la Enfermedad Hepática Grasa No Alcohólica (EHGNA). La DH es aquella diagnosticada en pacientes con cirrosis asociada a insuficiencia hepática, sin antecedentes previos de alteración de la glicemia. En la actualidad el diagnóstico se realiza en etapas tardías de la enfermedad. El VHC tiene un efecto diabetogénico conocido. Algunas terapias antivirales usadas para VHC evidencian mejoría de las alteraciones metabólicas al lograr respuestas virológicas sostenidas. En DM2, la EHGNA es frecuente, con mayor incidencia de fibrosis, hepatocarcinoma (HCC) y riesgo cardiovascular (RCV). Es necesario realizar una pesquisa e intervención precoz de EHGNA a los pacientes con DM2. En el manejo de éstos, la baja de peso ha demostrado ser efectiva en el control glicémico y en la mejoría histológica. Dentro de las terapias antidiabéticas, además del uso de metformina, debería considerarse aquellas que han demostrado a la fecha beneficios en EHGNA, como son tiazolidinedionas (pioglitazona) y/o análogos de GLP-1 (liraglutide) y optimizar el control de otros factores de RCV.


Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) and chronic liver diseases (CLD) defined in this revision as any functional or structural alteration in the organ, covering from inflammation to fibrosis, are pathologies that are frequently associated, and when found together are related to worse prognosis and higher complications in both conditions. The objective of this article is to describe the relationship between hyperglycemia and liver diseases, their common physio-pathological processes and treatments, identifying the most important pathologies, including Hepatogenic Diabetes (HD), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) liver disease and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Hepatogenic diabetes (HD) is diagnosed in patients with liver failure associated to cirrhosis with no previous record of impaired glycemia. Currently, diagnosis is made during the late stages of the disease. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a known diabetogenic effect. Some antiviral therapies used for HCV show improvement in metabolic alterations by achieving sustained virological responses. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in DM2 patients is common, presenting higher risk for fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and increased cardiovascular risk (CVR). Early screening and interventions for NAFLD in DM patients are necessary. Weight loss has been shown to be effective in glycemic control and histological improvement. Anti-diabetic therapies, in addition to the use of metformin, should consider therapies that have shown benefits for managing NAFLD, such as thiazolidinedione (pioglitazones) and/or aGLP-1 (Liraglutide), and optimally controlling other cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/etiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 964-974, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973473

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the hepatic changes associated with gastric ischemia. Methods: Thirty male rabbits were studied, distributed in 3 groups (n=10). Group 1: ligature and section of the gastric vasculature and removal of the liver after three hours; Group 2: ligature and section of the gastric vasculature and removal of the liver after 6 hours; Group 3: ligature and section of the gastric vasculature and removal of the liver after 12 hours. Blood samples were collected immediately before surgery and after the determined time of ischemia in each group to evaluate the hepatic function. After the death of the rabbits, the liver was removed for macro and microscopic study. Results: An increase in aminotransferases and bilirubin occurred in groups 2 and 3. Total protein and albumin diminished in all of the animals. All of the rabbits from groups 2 and 3 presented hepatocellular necrosis. Conclusion: The devascularization of the stomach for a period of above three hours is associated with hepatic morphological and functional disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Stomach/blood supply , Stomach/pathology , Ischemia/complications , Liver/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Reference Values , Time Factors , Bilirubin/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Alanine Transaminase , Alkaline Phosphatase , gamma-Glutamyltransferase , Ischemia/pathology , Liver/blood supply , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Necrosis
6.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(5): 504-510, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975994

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The aims of the study were to determine the frequency of hepatobiliary disease in patients with cystic fibrosis and to describe the sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory profile of these patients. Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive, and analytical study of 55 patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, aged between 3 months and 21 years, followed-up from January 2008 to June 2016 in a referral center. Medical records were consulted and sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data, including hepatobiliary alterations, imaging studies, genetic studies, liver biopsies, and upper digestive endoscopies were registered. Results: Hepatobiliary disease was diagnosed in 16.4% of the patients and occurred as an initial manifestation of cystic fibrosis in 55.6% of these cases. The diagnosis of hepatopathy occurred before or concomitantly with the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in 88.9% of the children. All patients with hepatobiliary disease were considered non-white, with a predominance of females (77.8%) and median (IQR) of 54 (27-91) months. Compared with the group without hepatobiliary disease, children with liver disease had a higher frequency of severe mutations identified in the CFTR gene (77.8% vs. 39.6%, p = 0.033) and severe pancreatic insufficiency (88.9% vs. 31.6%, p = 0.007). Conclusion: The frequency of hepatobiliary disease was high, with a very early diagnosis of the disease and its complications in the studied series. A statistical association was observed between the occurrence of hepatobiliary disease and the presence of pancreatic insufficiency and severe mutations in the CFTR gene. It is emphasized that cystic fibrosis is an important differential diagnosis of liver diseases in childhood.


Resumo Objetivos: Os objetivos do estudo foram determinar a frequência da doença hepatobiliar em pacientes com fibrose cística e descrever o perfil sociodemográfico, clínico e laboratorial destes. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo e analítico de 55 pacientes com diagnóstico de fibrose cística, entre três meses e 21 anos, acompanhados de janeiro de 2008 a junho de 2016 em um centro de referência. Foi realizada consulta aos prontuários médicos, registrando-se os dados sociodemográficos, clínicos e laboratoriais, incluindo-se alterações hepatobiliares, exames de imagem, estudos genéticos, biópsias hepáticas e endoscopias digestivas altas. Resultados: A doença hepatobiliar foi diagnosticada em 16,4% dos pacientes e ocorreu como manifestação inicial da fibrose cística em 55,6% destes casos. O diagnóstico da hepatopatia ocorreu antes ou concomitante ao diagnóstico da fibrose cística em 88,9% das crianças. Todos os pacientes com doença hepatobiliar foram considerados não brancos, havendo predominância do sexo feminino (77,8%) e mediana (I.I.Q) de idade de 54 (27-91) meses. Em comparação com o grupo sem doença hepatobiliar, as crianças com hepatopatia tiveram maior frequência de mutações graves no gene CFTR identificadas (77,8% vs 39,6%; p = 0,033) e de insuficiência pancreática grave (88,9% vs 31,6%; p = 0,007). Conclusão: A frequência de doença hepatobiliar foi elevada, observando-se um diagnóstico muito precoce da mesma e de suas complicações na casuística estudada. Houve associação estatística entre a ocorrência de doença hepatobiliar e a presença de insuficiência pancreática e de mutações graves do gene CFTR. Enfatiza-se que a fibrose cística represente um importante diagnóstico diferencial de hepatopatias na infância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency/etiology , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Liver Diseases/etiology , Mutation/genetics , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency/genetics , Socioeconomic Factors , Retrospective Studies , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Genotype , Liver Diseases/genetics
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(6): 753-761, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961456

ABSTRACT

Background: Ruptured subscapular liver hematoma in context of HELLP syndrome is a rare complication with high mortality. Clinical presentation is nonspecific: epigastric pain, right upper quadrant pain and shoulder pain, should however provide high index of suspicion. Termination of pregnancy is the only definitive treatment with a beneficial effect on the mother and the fetus. According to the hemodynamic status of the patient, treatment can be conservative through hepatic artery embolization, or surgical management, via contained packing of the bleeding area. Aim: To report seven cases of ruptured subscapular liver hematomas treated in a period of 13 years. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of patients discharged with the diagnosis from 2002 to 2015. Results: We identified seven women aged 30 to 44 years, for a total of 86,858 live births. At presentation, mean gestational age was 36 weeks. Five patients reported epigastric pain and three shoulder pain. All patients met the criteria for HELPP syndrome. All patients were operated on, and packing of the bleeding zone was carried out in six. One patient died. Two newborns died. Conclusions: The features of these patients may help in the management of this uncommon but severe condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , HELLP Syndrome/diagnosis , Hematoma/surgery , Hematoma/etiology , Liver Diseases/surgery , Liver Diseases/etiology , Pre-Eclampsia , Rupture, Spontaneous/surgery , Rupture, Spontaneous/etiology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Pregnancy Outcome , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Gestational Age , Treatment Outcome , Length of Stay
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(2): 190-193, Mar.-Apr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897833

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Diaphragmatic rupture is an uncommon condition, with 90% of ruptures occurring on the left side. However, its incidence on the right side is increasing along with the increase in traffic accidents. Liver herniation may become progressive causing severe atelectasis of the right lung, resulting in impaired respiratory status and hemodynamic changes. Case report: We report the case of a 40 years old female, ASA III, scheduled for hepatothorax repair that evolved from right diaphragmatic hernia after a car accident when she was 8 years old. Clinically, she had severe restrictive respiratory syndrome caused by the hepatothorax. The anesthetic evaluation was normal, except for the chest X-ray showing elevation of the dome of the right hemidiaphragm without tracheal deviation. Diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan. After liver replacement in the abdominal cavity, a transient increase in central venous pressure, stroke volume index and flow time corrected (35%), and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance were observed. After complete hemodynamic and hepatosplenic stabilization, as well as ventilation, the patient was transferred intubated, under controlled ventilation and monitored, to the liver transplant unit. Conclusions: Hepatothorax is a rare condition and its repair may represent an anesthetic challenge. After liver replacement in the abdominal cavity during corrective surgery under general anesthesia complications may occur, particularly associated with pulmonary re-expansion. Effective teamwork and careful planning of surgery, between the surgical and anesthetic teams, are the key to success.


Resumo Justificativa: A ruptura diafragmática é uma condição incomum e ocorre em 90% no lado esquerdo. No entanto, a incidência de ruptura à direita tem vindo a aumentar junto com o aumento dos acidentes automobilísticos. A herniação do fígado pode tornar-se progressiva, causar atelectasia grave do pulmão direito, resultar num débil estado respiratório e alterações hemodinâmicas. Relato de caso: Mulher de 40 anos, estado físico ASA 3, marcada para reparação de hepatotórax que evoluiu de hérnia diafragmática direita, adquirida aos 8 anos, após um acidente automobilístico. Clinicamente apresentava síndrome respiratória restritiva grave, causada pelo hepatotórax. A avaliação anestésica era normal, com exceção da radiografia do tórax, que evidenciava elevação da hemicúpula diafragmática direita, sem desvio traqueal. Diagnóstico foi confirmado por tomografia computadorizada. Depois da recolocação do fígado na cavidade abdominal foram observados um aumento transitório da pressão venosa central, do Stroke Volume Index e Flow Time Corrected (35%) e uma diminuição da resistência vascular sistêmica. Uma vez alcançada a estabilização hemodinâmica geral e hepatoesplênica, bem como da ventilação, a paciente foi transferida entubada, sob ventilação controlada e monitorada para a Unidade de Transplantação Hepática. Conclusões: O hepatotórax é uma condição rara e a sua correção pode representar um desafio anestésico. Após a recolocação abdominal do fígado, durante uma cirurgia corretiva, sob anestesia geral, podem ocorrer complicações, principalmente as associadas à reexpansão pulmonar. Um trabalho em equipe eficaz e o planejamento cuidadoso da cirurgia, entre as equipes cirúrgica e anestésica, são a chave para o sucesso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Herniorrhaphy , Hernia, Diaphragmatic, Traumatic/surgery , Anesthesia , Liver Diseases/surgery , Chronic Disease , Hernia/etiology , Hernia, Diaphragmatic, Traumatic/complications , Liver Diseases/etiology
9.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 45(1): 79-84, ene.-mar. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844975

ABSTRACT

Se realiza una presentación de un caso interesante, no comúnmente visto en la práctica médica, de unos de los tipos de mucopolisacaridosis, específicamente de un síndrome de Hunter. Se hace esta presentación con el objetivo de dar a conocer a estudiantes y profesionales de la salud, mediante fotos, las características físicas del paciente con dicho sídrome, quien llegó desnutrido al hospital; se le operó de la hernia umbilical y se mejoró su estado nutricional al compensarse su hepatopatía. Se le da el alta médica en mejores condiciones(AU)


We present here an interesting case of mucopolysaccharidoses, which is not commonly seen in medical practice, specifically a Hunter syndrome. This presentation is done in order to make known to students and health professionals, through photos, the physical characteristics of the patient with such syndrome. This patient arrived malnourished at the hospital, he was operated on the umbilical hernia and improved his nutritional status by compensating for his liver disease. This patient had medical discharge in better conditions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Mucopolysaccharidoses/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Hernia, Umbilical/surgery , Liver Diseases/etiology
10.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 8(1): 78-82, jun 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-884718

ABSTRACT

El hematoma subcapsular es una complicación grave elevado riesgo de mortalidad materna y neonatal, se observa como complicación de patologías hipertensivas más frecuentemente, además de otras patologías graves como hígado graso agudo del embarazo, traumatismos, patologías infecciosas. Se instala durante el embarazo o post parto, con manifestaciones clínicas inespecíficas, con grave y rápido deterioro materno que de no diagnosticar y tratar en tiempo y forma. Produce muerte materna en un 75% y fetal 60%. Se presenta un caso de hematoma hepático como complicación de una eclampsia y síndrome de Hellp, que evolucionó en forma favorable. Tratada con electrocoagulación el cual usamos para tratamiento de la hemorragia.


The subcapsular hematoma is a serious complication, with high risk of maternal and neonatal mortality, it is seen as a complication of hypertensive diseases more frequently, busides another serious diseases such as acute fatty liver of pregnancy, trauma, infectious diseases. It is onset occurs during pregnancy or postpartum, with nonspecific clinical manifestations, with severe and rapid material deterioration which of not diagnosed and treated from the beginning could produce maternal death in 75% and fetal 60%. We present a case of liver hematoma as a complication of eclampsia and Hellp syndrome, whose evolution was favorable, treated with electrocoagulation which we use for the treatment of hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , HELLP Syndrome , Eclampsia , Hematoma/surgery , Liver Diseases/surgery , Hematoma/etiology , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/etiology
12.
Medical Forum Monthly. 2015; 26 (6): 36-39
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166539

ABSTRACT

We conducted this study to elaborate the etiology and epidemiology of liver diseases presenting during pregnancy. It was a prospective, observational study. This study was conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology, Fatima Memorial Hospital in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology from June 2011 -May 2013. 73 patients were evaluated. Data was evaluated for quantitative and qualitative variables. Outcome of mother, pregnancy and neonates was also recorded were available. During the study period 73 pregnant patients were evaluated for the presence of liver disease giving an incidence of 3.6%. The mean age of the patients was 26.3 +/- 3.8 [median: 26, range: 16 - 45] years. The patients presented at a mean gestational age of 5.8 +/- 2.4 [median: 6, range: 1- 9] months. The mean STB and ALT levelswere 11.5 +/- 8.5 [median: 9.3, range: 1.4 - 48] mg/dL and 943.5 +/- 887.4 [median: 765, range: 13 - 4810] IU/Lrespectively. The mean duration of jaundice and mean hospital stay were 6.82 +/- 5.32 [median: 5, range: 2 - 30] days and 5.6 +/- 2.7 [median: 5, range: 1-18] days. Fulminant hepatic failure was seen in 6.8% of the patients. Acute Hepatitis E was the most frequent diagnosis in our population. Maternal deaths were seen in 8.2%, foetal deaths were seen in 12.3% and neonatal deaths in 6.5%. Liver diseases during pregnancy can have multiple causes and may predict poor outcomes for the patients and neonates


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Liver Diseases/etiology , Pregnancy , Hepatitis , Prospective Studies
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119043

ABSTRACT

There are seven approved drugs for treatment of hepatitis B. Professional guidelines provide a framework for managing patients but these guidelines should be interpreted in the context of the individual patient's clinical and social circumstances. Personalized management of hepatitis B can be applied based on prediction of the individual patient's risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma to guide the frequency and intensity of monitoring and urgency of treatment. It can also be applied to decisions regarding when to start treatment, which drug to use, and when to stop based on the individual patient's disease characteristics, preference, comorbidities and other mitigating circumstances.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Genotype , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Humans , Liver Diseases/etiology , Precision Medicine , Risk Factors
14.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2014; 44 (1): 97-112
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154432

ABSTRACT

There are few data on prevalence of hepatopulmonary syndrome [HPS] in children with chronic liver disease [CLD]. This prospective study evaluated the prevalence and diagnostic procedures of HPS in Egyptian children with CLD. One hundred twenty [120] children with CLD were subjected to room-air pulse oximetry in supine and upright position, contrast enhanced echocardiography [CEE] and technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin [99m]Tc-MAA] perfusion lung scan. Arterial blood gas [ABG] analysis in upright position was performed for all children with identified intrapulmonary vascular dilatation [IPVD]. Clinical, laboratory, imaging and endoscopic data were recorded and analyzed. Hypoxemia was found in 14 cases [11.7%] of the total cohort all of them had IPVD, whereas 6 cases [5%] of the patients had EPVD without hypoxemia. Therefore, HPS and subclinical HPS were diagnosed in 11.7% and 5% of CLD patients, respectively. Only 10 HPS patients had a pathological arterial oxygen saturation [SaOi] in the supine position [<97%] but all showed a pathological SaO[2] decrease [>4%] after changing from supine to upright position.[99m]Tc-MAA perfusion lung scan revealed IPVD in 16.7% whereas CEE detected IPVD in 10% only of enrolled patients. There were strong correlations between shunt index estimated by lung scintiscan and oxygenation parameters in HPS patients. The characteristics of HPS patients were similar to that of non-HPS patients except for clubbing, dyspnea, cyanosis, orthodoexia and bleeding varices that were more associated with HPS patients as well as well as the Child-Pugh grades, which tended toward higher scores in HPS patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chronic Disease/etiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Child , Technetium , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106791

ABSTRACT

Treating patients undergoing chemotherapy who display findings of liver toxicity, requires a solid understanding of these medications. It is important for any clinician to have an index of suspicion for liver toxicity and be able to recognize it, even on imaging. Cancer chemotherapy has evolved, and newer medications that target cell biology have a different pattern of liver toxicity and may differ from the more traditional cytotoxic agents. There are several hepatic conditions that can result and keen clinical as well as radiographic recognition are paramount. Conditions such as sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, steatosis, and pseudocirrhosis are more commonly associated with chemotherapy. These conditions can display clinical signs of acute hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and even liver failure. It is important to anticipate and recognize these adverse reactions and thus appropriate clinical action can be taken. Often times, patients with these liver manifestations can be managed with supportive therapies, and liver toxicity may resolve after discontinuation of chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Fatty Liver/etiology , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155073

ABSTRACT

A 71-year-old male patient was readmitted to our hospital 1 month after discharge because of relapse of abdominal pain. He had been diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 1 year prior and had undergone repeated transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and radiotherapy. During the last hospitalization, he was diagnosed with a liver abscess complicated by previous treatments for HCC and was treated with intravenous antibiotics and abscess aspiration. Follow-up abdominal computed tomography revealed a liver abscess with a duodenal fistula, which was successfully treated with endoscopic Histoacryl injection into the fistula. Liver abscesses with duodenal fistulas rarely occur, but they are intractable and possibly fatal in patients with HCC. In the literature, they have frequently been managed only with abscess treatment without fistula management. We herein report the first case of a patient with a liver abscess complicated by a fistula between the duodenum and the abscess, which was treated with endoscopic Histoacryl injection.


Subject(s)
Abscess/complications , Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/radiotherapy , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/adverse effects , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Duodenal Diseases/etiology , Enbucrilate/administration & dosage , Humans , Intestinal Fistula/etiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Male , Radiotherapy/adverse effects
17.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 33(3): 246-250, jul.-set. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-692444

ABSTRACT

La fibrosis quística (FQ) es la enfermedad genética recesiva más frecuente en la población caucásica y está producida por la alteración del transporte de electrolitos y agua en la membrana de las células epiteliales. La enfermedad hepática es una complicación frecuente hacia el final de la primera década de la vida, siendo raro su inicio posterior, excepto en pacientes con antecedente de íleo meconial. La lesión hepática característica en la FQ es la cirrosis biliar focal, aunque también se puede encontrar infiltración grasa. El diagnóstico se realiza considerando los hallazgos clínicos, laboratoriales y de imagen, teniendo en cuenta que las pruebas de función hepática normales no descartan la enfermedad. La ecografía es la técnica más ampliamente utilizada y permite evidenciar la presencia de esteatosis, litiasis, fibrosis, cirrosis, hipertensión portal o las alteraciones del árbol biliar. También están disponibles técnicas como la tomografía computarizada o la resonancia magnética, que permiten efectuar un estudio morfológico. Aspectos importantes en el tratamiento son el manejo nutricional, administración de vitaminas liposolubles y el uso de acido ursodesoxicólico (UDCA). En casos de cirrosis avanzada, el trasplante, aislado o combinado con el pulmonar, es una opción que cabe considerar, con tasas de supervivencia aceptables. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 11 años de edad con diagnóstico de Hepatopatía crónica asociada a fibrosis quística.


Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent recessive genetic disorder in the caucasian population and is produced by the alteration of electrolyte and water transport in the epithelial cell membrane. Liver disease is a frequent complication towards the end of the first decade of life, being weird its onset, except in patients with a history of meconium ileus. The characteristic liver injury in CF is focal biliary cirrhosis, but fatty infiltration can also be found. The diagnosis is made considering the clinical, laboratory and imaging results having in consideration that the normal liver function tests do not rule out the disease. Ultrasound is the most widely used and can detect the presence of steatosis, stones, fibrosis, cirrhosis, portal hypertension or abnormalities of the biliary tree. There is an also available technique such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, which allows a morphological study. Important aspects in the treatment are nutritional management, administration of soluble vitamins and the use of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). In cases of advanced cirrhosis, transplantation, isolated or combined with the lung, is an option to consider, with acceptable survival rates. We report the case of an 11 year old patient with a diagnosis of chronic liver disease associated with cystic fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Liver Diseases/etiology , Chronic Disease , Hospitals , Peru
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(7): 502-508, July 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679082

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate whether Diabetes mellitus chemically induced by alloxan is capable of changing, in the long term, the oxidative balance in the liver tissue of rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 250-280g, were randomly distributed into two experimental groups: NG - 30 non-diabetic control rats; DG - 30 alloxan- induced diabetic rats without any treatment for the disease. Each group was further divided into three subgroups containing ten rats each, which were sacrificed after one, three and six months of follow-up, respectively. Blood glucose, urinary glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin were determined in the plasma of all animals at the beginning of the experiment and prior to all sacrifice periods. The concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides (HP) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also measured in the liver tissue of all animals. RESULTS: Rats from the DG group showed high levels of blood glucose, urinary glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin, with significantly lower plasma insulin levels than those observed in NG rats (p<0.001). Diabetic animals also showed increased concentration of HP free radicals in the liver tissue as compared to those shown by NG animals after one, three and six months of follow-up. In contrast, the antioxidant activity of the enzymes SOD, CAT and GSH-Px was significantly reduced in all follow-up periods (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes determines oxidative stress in the liver, which is characterized by increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissue and significant reduction in their antioxidant defenses. Such oxidative unbalance in the liver cells may play a relevant role in the genesis of the diabetic chronic liver disease, including the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its occasional progression to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Alloxan , Biomarkers/analysis , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
19.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 40(2): 137-141, mar.-abr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-676368

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar as repercussões hepáticas da carcinogênese colônica induzida por diferentes doses e tempos de exposição ao azoximetano em ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e quatro ratos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos. Os animais tinham oito semanas no início do experimento. No grupo 1, receberam 1.0mL de solução salina intraperitonealmente uma vez por semana por duas semanas. No grupo 2, receberam 15 mg/kg de azoximetano intraperitonealmente uma vez por semana por duas semanas. Esses animais foram mortos na 15ª semana do experimento. Os animais do grupo 3 receberam solução salina intraperitonealmente uma vez por semana por duas semanas. Os animais do grupo 4 receberam 20mg/kg de azoximetano intraperitonealmente uma vez por semana por duas semanas. Esses animais foram mortos na 26ª semana do experimento. Os fragmentos de tecido hepático foram corados pela hematoxilina e eosina e avaliadas microscopicamente. RESULTADOS: Grupo 1 e grupo 2 diferiram significantemente em relação a esteatose, mas não houve diferença entre o grupo 3 e o grupo 4. No entanto, no grupo 4 foram observadas lesões pré-neoplásicas (focos de células alteradas, claras, vacuoladas, basofílicas, anfofílicas, tigróides, oncocíticas, pequenas ou acidófilas, espongioses e pelioses) e lesões neoplásicas (colangiomas e adenomas) contendo hepatócitos atípicos de permeio, não identificados no grupo 3. CONCLUSÃO: No modelo de carcinogênese colorretal, lesões hepáticas pré-neoplásicas e neoplásicas aparecem e evoluem na proporção do tempo e dose de exposição ao azoximetano.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hepatic effects of colonic carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane at different doses and times of exposure in rats. METHODS: Forty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The animals were eight weeks at the beginning of the experiment. group 1 received 1.0ml of saline intraperitoneally once a week for two weeks. Group 2 received 15 mg/kg of azoxymethane intraperitoneally once a week for two weeks. These animals were killed at the 15th week of the experiment. The animals of group 3 received saline intraperitoneally once a week for two weeks. Group 4 animals received 20mg/kg of azoxymethane intraperitoneally once a week for two weeks. These animals were killed at the 26th week of the experiment. The fragments of liver tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and evaluated microscopically. RESULTS: Groups 1 and 2 differed significantly in relation to steatosis, no difference having been found between group 3 and group 4. However, in group 4 we observed pre-neoplastic lesions (foci of altered, clear, vacuolated, basophilic, amphophilic tigroid, oncocytic, small or acidophilus cells, spongiosis and peliosis) and neoplastic lesions (adenomas and colangiomas) containing atypical hepatocytes in between, not identified in group 3. CONCLUSION: In the model of colorectal carcinogenesis, preneoplastic and neoplastic hepatic lesions appear and evolve in proportion to the time of exposure and dose of azoxymethane.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Azoxymethane/administration & dosage , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Carcinogens/administration & dosage , Colorectal Neoplasms/chemically induced , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Liver Diseases/etiology , Precancerous Conditions/etiology , Azoxymethane/pharmacology , Carcinogens/pharmacology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Rats, Wistar
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Feb; 51(2): 165-173
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147580

ABSTRACT

In view of the contribution of iron deposition in the oxidative pathologic process of liver disease, the potential of 70% methanolic extract of C. cajan leaf (CLME) towards antioxidative protection against iron-overload-induced liver damage in mice has been investigated. DPPH radical scavenging and protection of Fenton reaction induced DNA damage was conducted in vitro. Post oral administration of CLME to iron overloaded mice, the levels of antioxidant and serum enzymes, hepatic iron, serum ferritin, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline contents were measured, in comparison to deferasirox treated mice. Oral treatment of the plant extract effectively lowered the elevated levels of liver iron, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline. There was notable increment in the dropped levels of hepatic antioxidants. The dosage of the plant extract not only made the levels of serum enzymes approach normal value, but also counteracted the overwhelmed serum ferritin level. The in vitro studies indicated potential antioxidant activity of CLME. The histopathological observations also substantiated the ameliorative function of the plant extract. Accordingly, it is suggested that Cajanus cajan leaf can be a useful herbal remedy to suppress oxidative damage caused by iron overload.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biphenyl Compounds/metabolism , Cajanus/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , DNA Damage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Iron Overload/complications , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Mice , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Picrates/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Reference Standards
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