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1.
Cir. Urug ; 8(1): e301, 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1534168

ABSTRACT

Desde los primeros reportes en la bibliografía, la nomenclatura de las lesiones quísticas hepatobiliares se ha ido modificando, habiéndose descripto dos tipos de lesiones: las serosas y las mucinosas. En 2010 la Organización Mundial de la Salud estableció una nueva clasificación donde los términos cistoadenomas y cistoadenocarcinomas hepatobiliares son reemplazados por entidades más específicas como la neoplasia mucinosa quística y los tumores quísticos intraductales (neoplasia papilar intraductal, neoplasma tubulopapilar intraductal y neoplasma oncocitico papilar). En cuanto a la neoplasia mucinosa quística, la presencia de estroma ovárico le confiere características distintivas en lo patológico y biológico, siendo esto un requisito en la clasificación de la OMS. Esta característica lo diferencia de los hamartomas biliares, los quistes congénitos y la enfermedad de Caroli. Dichas neoplasias son infrecuentes, con una incidencia menor al 5% de las lesiones quísticas hepáticas y ocurren casi exclusivamente en mujeres, frecuentemente perimenopáusicas. Su potencial de malignización ha sido descrito, siendo éste la indicación de tratamiento quirúrgico resectivo. Presentamos el caso clínico de una paciente portadora de una neoplasia quística mucinosa hepática, catalogada como cistoadenoma hepático según la antigua clasificación.


Since the early reports in the literature, the nomenclature of hepatobiliary cystic lesions has been modified, with two types of lesions being described: serous and mucinous. In 2010, the World Health Organization established a new classification in which the terms hepatobiliary cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas were replaced by more specific entities such as mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal cystic tumors (intraductal papillary neoplasm, intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm, and intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm). Regarding mucinous cystic neoplasms, the presence of ovarian stroma confers distinctive pathological and biological characteristics, which is a requirement in the WHO classification. This characteristic differentiates it from biliary hamartomas, congenital cysts, and Caroli's disease. Such neoplasms are rare, with an incidence of less than 5% of hepatic cystic lesions, and occur almost exclusively in women, often perimenopausal. Their potential for malignancy has been described, and this is the indication for surgical resection treatment. We present a clinical case of a patient with a mucinous cystic hepatic neoplasm, classified as a hepatic cystadenoma according to the old classification.


Desde os primeiros relatos na literatura, a nomenclatura das lesões císticas hepatobiliares tem sido modificada, sendo descritos dois tipos de lesões,asserosas e as mucinosas. Em 2010, a Organização Mundial da Saúdeestabeleceuuma nova classificação, naqual os termos cistoadenomas e cistoadenocarcinomas hepatobiliares foramsubstituídos por entidades mais específicas, como a neoplasia mucinosa cística e os tumores císticos intraductais (neoplasia papilar intraductal, neoplasma tubulopapilar intraductal e neoplasma oncocítico papilar). Em relação à neoplasia mucinosa cística, a presença de estroma ovarianoconfere características distintas do ponto de vista patológico e biológico, sendoesseum requisito naclassificação da OMS. Essa característica a diferencia dos hamartomas biliares, cistoscongênitos e doença de Caroli. Essas neoplasias são raras, comumaincidência menor que 5% das lesões císticas hepáticas, e ocorremquase exclusivamente em mulheres, frequentementeperimenopáusicas. Seu potencial de malignizaçãotem sido descrito, sendoesta a indicação para tratamentocirúrgicoressectivo. Apresentamos o caso clínico de uma paciente portadora de uma neoplasia cística mucinosa hepática, classificada como cistoadenoma hepático de acordocom a antigaclassificação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Cystadenoma, Mucinous/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Pain , Cystadenoma, Mucinous/pathology , Acute Pain , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
2.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 785-801, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981055

ABSTRACT

Transarterial interventional therapy is one of the most widely used treatment methods in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. With the progress in interventional technology and the use of new drugs, transarterial interventional therapy has achieved favorable results in the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma and has become the first choice non-surgical treatment for advanced liver cancer. However, at present, there are great differences in the drugs used in transarterial interventional treatment and the combined application of other drugs among centers, and there is no uniform consensus or guideline. Based on the latest research data and clinical practice experience, as well as the characteristics of Chinese patients, the Specialist Group of Interventional Drugs, Interventionalists Branch of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association was organized to formulate the Chinese expert consensus on intra-arterial drug and combined drug administration for primary hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this consensus is to explore the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug combinations related to intra-arterial interventional therapy, the use of drugs in special populations, the management of adverse reactions, and adjuvant drugs to provide a reference for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Consensus , East Asian People , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Infusions, Intra-Arterial/methods , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods
3.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1116-1126, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the potential mechanisms that mediate the inhibitory effect of porcine recombinant NKlysin (prNK-lysin) against liver cancer cell metastasis.@*METHODS@#HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in prNK-lysin-treated hepatocellular carcinoma SMMOL/LC-7721 cells in comparison with the control and PBS-treated cells. GO functional annotation and KEGG pathway analysis of the differentially expressed proteins were performed using GO and KEGG databases. RT-qPCR was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of polypeptide-N-acetylgalactosaminotransferase 13 (GALNT13), transmembrane protein 51 (TMEM51) and FKBP prolyl isomerase 3 (FKBP3) in the cells, and the protein expression of FKBP3 was verified using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Proteomic analysis identified 1989 differentially expressed proteins in prNK-lysin-treated cells compared with the control cells, and 2753 compared with PBS-treated cells. Fifteen proteins were differentially expressed between PBS-treated and the control cells, and 1909 were differentially expressed in prNK- lysin group compared with both PBS and control groups. These differentially expressed proteins were involved mainly in the viral process, translational initiation and RNA binding and were enriched mainly in ribosome, protein process in endoplasmic reticulum, and RNA transport pathways. RT-qPCR showed that compared with the control group, prNK-lysin treatment significantly increased the mRNA expressions of GALNT13 (P < 0.05) and TMEM51 (P < 0.01) and lowered FKBP3 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Western blotting also showed a significantly decreased expression of FKBP3 protein in prNK-lysin-treated cells (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Treatment with prNK-lysin causes significant changes in protein expression profile of SMMOL/LC-7721 cells and inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by downregulating FKBP3 protein and affecting the cellular oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Proteomics , Glycolysis , RNA, Messenger
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 729-735, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986202

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, treatment, and prognosis of hepatic angiosarcoma. Methods: Clinicopathological data and prognostic conditions of 18 cases with hepatic angiosarcoma were collected retrospectively. The recurrence-free survival rate and overall survival rate were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox regression analysis was used to explore the survival-related risk factors. Results: There were 12 male and 6 female patients, with an average age of 57 (37 ~ 70) years. The tumor's average diameter was 8.40 (2.00 ~ 18.00) cm. Seven cases had multiple tumors, while two cases had large vessel tumor thrombuses. Microscopically, the tumor tissues were irregularly anastomosed, with vascular lacunar or solid bundle-like weaving, and the tissue morphology mimicked capillary hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma, or angioepithelioma, while tumor cells were spindle-shaped or epithelioid, lined with hobnails in the lumen, or formed papillary structures in the lumen. The proportion of highly, moderately, and poorly differentiated tumors was 4:8:6, with six cases having clear tumor boundaries, eight having microvascular tumor thrombi, and sixteen having blood lake formation. Different levels of expression of CD31, CD34, erythroblast transformation-specific related genes, and Fli-1 markers were demonstrated in all of the cases. Four cases had a P53 mutation, and six cases had Ki-67 > 10%. During the follow-up period of 0.23-114.20 months, the five-year recurrence-free survival rate and overall survival rate were 16.7% and 37.2%, respectively. Cox regression multivariate analysis showed that preoperative symptoms and multiple tumors were significant risk factors for recurrence-free survival, while preoperative symptoms and Ki-67 > 10% were significant risk factors for overall survival. Conclusion: Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare hepatic mesenchymal tumor with high malignancy and a poor prognosis. Pathological morphology and immunohistochemical marker combinations are needed for a definite diagnosis. However, the complexity of angiosarcomas' histological and cytological conformations and the overlap of pathological features with benign vascular tumors, sarcomas, and carcinomas pose difficulties in the differential diagnosis. Thus, the only effective ways to prolong survival are early detection and radical surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Hemangiosarcoma , Ki-67 Antigen , Retrospective Studies , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Prognosis , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
5.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 716-722, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986200

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the expression levels of the F9 gene and F9 protein in hepatocellular carcinoma by combining multiple gene chip data, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT qPCR), and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, explore their correlation with the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as with various clinical indicators and prognosis. Methods: The mRNA microarray dataset from the GEO database was analyzed to identify the F9 gene with significant expression differences associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver cancer and adjacent tissues were collected from 18 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. RT-qPCR method was used to detect the F9 gene expression level. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the F9 protein level. Combined with the TCGA database information, the correlation between F9 gene expression level and prognostic and clinicopathological parameters was analyzed. The biological function of F9 co-expressed genes associated with hepatocellular carcinoma was analyzed by the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Statistical analysis was performed using Graphpad Prism software. Results: Meta-analysis results showed that the expression of the F9 gene was lower in HCC tissues than in non-cancerous tissues. Immunohistochemistry results were basically consistent with those of RT-qPCR. The data obtained from TCGA showed that the F9 gene had lower expression values in stages III-IV, T3-T4, and patients with vascular invasion. A total of 127 genes were selected for bioinformatics analysis as co-expressed genes of F9, which were highly enriched in redox processes and metabolic pathways. Conclusion: This study validates that the F9 gene and F9 protein are lower in HCC. The down-regulation of the F9 gene predicts adverse outcomes, which may provide a new therapeutic target for HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Down-Regulation , Prognosis , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 627-633, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986181

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore carnosine dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) potential value as a diagnostic and prognostic evaluator of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: A gene chip and GO analysis were used to screen the candidate marker molecule CNDP1 for HCC diagnosis. 125 cases of HCC cancer tissues, 85 cases of paracancerous tissues, 125 cases of liver cirrhosis tissues, 32 cases of relatively normal liver tissue at the extreme end of hepatic hemangioma, 66 cases from serum samples of HCC, and 82 cases of non-HCC were collected. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect the differences in mRNA and protein expression levels of CNDP1 in HCC tissue and serum. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Kaplan-Meier survival were used to analyze and evaluate the value of CNDP1 in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC patients. Results: The expression level of CNDP1 was significantly reduced in HCC cancer tissues. The levels of CNDP1 were significantly lower in the cancer tissues and serum of HCC patients than those in liver cirrhosis patients and normal controls. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve of serum CNDP1 in the diagnosis of HCC patients was 0.753 2 (95% CI 0.676-0.830 5), and the sensitivity and specificity were 78.79% and 62.5%, respectively. The combined detection of serum CNDP1 and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.820 6, 95% CI 0.753 5-0.887 8). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum CNDP1 for AFP-negative HCC patients were 73.68% and 68.75% (AUC = 0.793 1, 95% CI 0.708 8-0.877 4), respectively. In addition, the level of serum CNDP1 distinguished small liver cancer (tumor diameter < 3 cm) (AUC = 0.757 1, 95% CI 0.637 4-0.876 8). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that CNDP1 was associated with a poor prognosis in HCC patients. Conclusion: CNDP1 may be a potential biomarker for the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of HCC, and it has certain complementarity with serum AFP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Carnosine , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , ROC Curve
7.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 621-626, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986180

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical value of plasma scaffold protein SEC16A level and related models in the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis (HBV-LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC). Methods: Patients with HBV-LC and HBV-HCC and a healthy control group diagnosed by clinical, laboratory examination, imaging, and liver histopathology at the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University between June 2017 and October 2021 were selected. Plasma SEC16A level was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was detected using an electrochemiluminescence instrument. SPSS 26.0 and MedCalc 15.0 statistical software were used to analyze the relationship between plasma SEC16A levels and the occurrence and development of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. A sequential logistic regression model was used to analyze relevant factors. SEC16A was established through a joint diagnostic model. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the model for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to identify the influencing factors of novel diagnostic biomarkers. Results: A total of 60 cases of healthy controls, 60 cases of HBV-LC, and 52 cases of HBV-HCC were included. The average levels of plasma SEC16A were (7.41 ± 1.66) ng/ml, (10.26 ± 1.86) ng/ml, (12.79 ± 1.49) ng /ml, respectively, with P < 0.001. The sensitivity and specificity of SEC16A in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were 69.44% and 71.05%, and 89.36% and 88.89%, respectively. SEC16A, age, and AFP were independent risk factors for the occurrence of HBV-LC and HCC. SAA diagnostic cut-off values, sensitivity, and specificity were 26.21 and 31.46, 77.78% and 81.58%, and 87.23% and 97.22%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for HBV-HCC early diagnosis were 80.95% and 97.22%, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis showed that AFP level was positively correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) with P < 0.01, while the serum SEC16A level was only slightly positively correlated with ALT and AST in the liver cirrhosis group (r = 0.268 and 0.260, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Plasma SEC16A can be used as a diagnostic marker for hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. SEC16A, combined with age and the AFP diagnostic model with SAA, can significantly improve the rate of HBV-LC and HBV-HCC early diagnosis. Additionally, its application is helpful for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the progression of HBV-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Golgi Apparatus/metabolism , Vesicular Transport Proteins , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Hepatitis B/complications , ROC Curve , Hepatitis B virus/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor
8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 589-593, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986175

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the features of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) in order to improve the preoperative diagnosis rate. Methods: CEUS images of 32 pathologically-proven cases of hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma from January 2004 to August 2021 were collected. Lesions were analyzed to observe the features of enhancement mode, enhancement intensity, and distinct enhancement phases. Results: Among the 32 cases, one had a solitary lesion, 29 had multiple lesions, and two had diffuse-type lesions. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound revealed a total of 42 lesions in 32 cases. In terms of arterial phase enhancement, 18 lesions had overall enhancement, six lesions had uneven dendritic enhancement, 16 lesions had rim-like enhancement, and two lesions had just slight peripheral spot enhancement around the lesions. Among the three cases, there were multiple lesions that had overall enhancement and ring enhancement. In terms of the enhancement phase, 20 lesions showed "fast progression", 20 lesions showed "same progression", and two lesions showed "slow progression". During the late arterial or early portal venous phases with rapid washout, all lesions manifested as hypoechoic. With peaked enhanced intensity, 11 lesions had a lower enhancement intensity than the surrounding normal liver parenchyma; 11 lesions had the same enhancement degree as the surrounding normal liver parenchyma; and 20 lesions had a higher enhancement degree than the surrounding normal liver parenchyma. All 16 ring-enhancing lesions had marked hyperenhancement. In the typical enhancing lesions, four showed hyperenhancement, five showed low enhancement, and nine showed isoenhancement. In the dendrite-enhancing lesions, there were two isoenhancing and four hypoenhancing. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound delineated the boundaries of all lesions more clearly than two-dimensional ultrasound. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound has certain value in the diagnosis of hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid/pathology , Contrast Media , Retrospective Studies , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Portal Vein/pathology , Ultrasonography
9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 518-523, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986162

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the key deubiquitinating enzymes that maintain the stemness of liver cancer stem cells and provide new ideas for targeted liver cancer therapy. Methods: The high-throughput CRISPR screening technology was used to screen the deubiquitinating enzymes that maintain the stemness of liver cancer stem cells. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to analyze gene expression levels. Stemness of liver cancer cells was detected by spheroid-formation and soft agar colony formation assays. Tumor growth in nude mice was detected by subcutaneous tumor-bearing experiments. Bioinformatics and clinical samples were examined for the clinical significance of target genes. Results: MINDY1 was highly expressed in liver cancer stem cells. The expression of stem markers, the self-renewal ability of cells, and the growth of transplanted tumors were significantly reduced and inhibited after knocking out MINDY1, and its mechanism of action may be related to the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. The expression level of MINDY1 was higher in liver cancer tissues than that in adjacent tumors, which was closely related to tumor progression, and its high expression was an independent risk factor for a poor prognosis of liver cancer. Conclusion: The deubiquitinating enzyme MINDY1 promotes stemness in liver cancer cells and is one of the independent predictors of poor prognosis in liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Line, Tumor , Mice, Nude , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Deubiquitinating Enzymes/metabolism , Neoplastic Stem Cells/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
10.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 495-503, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986159

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study using isotope-labeled relative and absolute quantitative proteomics methodologies to screen for salivary biological markers as a simple, non-invasive tool for identifying hepatitis B-related HCC at an early stage. Methods: Saliva samples were collected to extract salivary proteins. Isotope-labeled relative and absolute quantitative proteomics were used to analyze the differentially expressed proteins between the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-HCC groups. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to verify differential proteins and identify markers in liver cancer tissues and saliva. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the diagnostic efficiency of salivary biomarkers. Results: 152 differentially expressed salivary proteins were screened out between the HCC and non-HCC groups. Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays validated that the expressions of α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 (ORM1) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were significantly increased in HCC (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between salivary AFP and serum AFP (P < 0.05). HCC was diagnosed when salivary α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 combined with AFP. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.8726 (95% confidence interval: 0.8104 ~ 0.9347), the sensitivity was 78.3%, and the specificity was 88%. Conclusion: Salivary AFP and α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 can serve as potential biomarkers for hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism , Biomarkers , Hepatitis B , ROC Curve , Glycoproteins , Biomarkers, Tumor
11.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 408-414, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986144

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferaseδ (APGAT4) on the growth and lenvatinib resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and provide novel targets for HCC treatment. Methods: Using the bioinformatics methods to screen out upregulated genes in lenvatinib resistant cell lines from GEO dataset and survival related genes from TCGA dataset. Immumohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression AGPAT4 in HCC tissues, and its correlation with patients' survival. CCK8, EdU, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis assays were used to investigate the impact of role AGPAT4 on the proliferation and lenvatinib reistance of HCC cells. AGPAT4 stable knockdown cell line and subcutaneous nude mouse model were established to test the therapeutic effects of Lenvatinib. Analysis of variance was used to compare the differences between data sets. Results: APGAT4 was the common factor that predicted poor survival and Lenvatinib resistance. The mRNA and protein levels of APGAT4 were significantly upregulated in HCC tissues compared to the para-tumor tissues (P < 0.05). Using siRNA could significantly knocked down the mRNA and protein expression of APGAT4 in HCC cell lines Hep3B and HCCLM3. Compared with the control group, the proliferation ability of HCC cell lines (Hep3B and HCCLM3) in APGAT4 knockdown group was significantly inhibited, and the cell cycle was arrested in G2/M phase (P < 0.05). In addition, compared to the control group, HCC cell lines (Hep3B and HCCLM3) in APGAT4 knockdown group showed significant decrease in the Lenvatinib half maximal inhibitory concentration, and were more sensitive to lenvatinib-induced apoptosis (P < 0.05). In HCC subcutaneous nude mouse model, compared to the control group, the growth of tumor in APGAT4 knockdown group was significantly suppressed, and more apoptosis cells were induced (P < 0.05). Conclusion: APGAT4 promotes the growth and Lenvatinib resistance of HCC, which is a potential target for HCC treatment. Targeting APGAT4 treatment is conducive to inhibit the growth and Lenvatinib resistance of HCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Mice, Nude , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , RNA, Messenger , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
12.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1068-1074, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985517

ABSTRACT

To explore whether PPARA is involved in the process of ferroptosis in hepatoma cells, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARA) was comprehensively analyzed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through public database and experimental data, including the expression, the functions and the potential roles of tumor progression. The research design is experimental research,data analysis based on bioinformatics and cell experiment. From January 2022 to August 2022, relevant cell experiments were conducted in the Basic Medical Laboratory of the General Hospital of the Southern Theatre of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. The expression and the correlation with clinicopathologic features of PPARA in HCC were analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. To study the protein expression of PPARA in HCC and normal tissues through the Human Protein Atlas (HPA). The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network between PPARA and the core factor of ferroptosis was constructed based on Search Tool for the Retrival of Interacting Genes/Protein (STRING) database, then, the correlation between PPARA and the core gene Glutamate-cysteine Ligase Catalytic Subunit (GCLC) was analyzed by Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). Assessed the expression of PPARA in HCC cell lines SK-HEP-1, SMMC-7721, MHCC-97H, BEL-7402 and normal liver cell L02 by Western Blot (WB) and the changes of PPARA expression after 48h treatment with ferroptosis inducer Erastin were observed. Single factor analysis of variance was used to compare the expression of PPARA between groups in GEPIA database. The expression of PPARA in GSE25097 and GSE112790 data was compared by rank sum test. Survival analysis was performed using time series test method. The difference of PPARA expression between clinical and pathological features was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The correlation between the expression of GCLC and PPARA was compared by the method of Spearman correlation. The expression of PPARA in cell lines was compared by paired T test. The results showed that the RNA and protein expression of PPARA in HCC was lower than that in normal tissues (P<0.05). PPARA alterations were correlated with patient clinicopathological features and prognosis (P<0.05). The PPI constructed by STRING database suggests that PPARA interact with the key factors of ferroptosis, such as NFE2 like bZIP transcription factor 2 (NFE2L2), Heme Oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), Tumor Protein P53 (TP53), GCLC, Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4), Citrate Synthase (CS), Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase (ALOX15) and Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long Chain Family Member 4 (ACSL4). Furthermore, the PPARA was significantly associated with GCLC validated via GEPIA database(R=0.6, P<0.05). The expression of PPARA increased after treatment with ferroptosis inducer Erastin for 48 h by WB. In conclusion, the expression of PPARA is lower in HCC with a poor prognosis. PPARA interacts with GCLC in regulating ferroptosis in HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Ferroptosis , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 109-112, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970961

ABSTRACT

Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD) is one of the main complications after the Fontan procedure, manifesting mostly as liver fibrosis and even cirrhosis, with a high incidence rate and a lack of typical clinical symptoms that seriously affect patient prognosis. The specific cause is unknown, although it is considered to be associated with long-term elevated central venous pressure, impaired hepatic artery blood flow, and other relevant factors. The absence of association between laboratory tests, imaging data, and the severity of liver fibrosis makes clinical diagnosis and monitoring difficult. A liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing and staging liver fibrosis. The most important risk factor for FALD is time following the Fontan procedure; therefore, it is recommended to do a liver biopsy 10 years after the Fontan procedure and to be cautious for the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Combined heart-liver transplantation is a recommended choice with favorable outcomes for patients with Fontan circulatory failure and severe hepatic fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver/pathology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Fontan Procedure/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
14.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 241-252, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970313

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Programmed cell death 6 (PDCD6), a Ca 2+-binding protein, has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in all kinds of tumors. The aim of this study was to explore the role and mechanism of PDCD6 in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs).@*METHODS@#The expression levels of PDCD6 in liver cancer patients and HCC cell lines were analyzed using bioinformatics and Western blotting. Cell viability and metastasis were determined by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) and transwell assays, respectively. And Western blotting was used to test related biomarkers and molecular pathway factors in HCC cell lines. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor inhibiting AKT, was used to suppress the AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway to help evaluate the role of this pathway in the HCC carcinogenesis associated with PDCD6.@*RESULTS@#The analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas Database suggested that high PDCD6 expression levels were relevant to liver cancer progression. This was consistent with our finding of higher levels of PDCD6 expression in HCC cell lines than in normal hepatocyte cell lines. The results of MTT, transwell migration, and Western blotting assays revealed that overexpression of PDCD6 positively regulated HCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Conversely, the upregulation of PDCD6 expression in the presence of an AKT inhibitor inhibited HCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. In addition, PDCD6 promoted HCC cell migration and invasion by epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The mechanistic investigation proved that PDCD6 acted as a tumor promoter in HCC through the AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway, increasing the expression of transcription factors and cellular proliferation and metastasis.@*CONCLUSION@#PDCD6 has a tumor stimulative role in HCC mediated by AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling and might be a potential target for HCC progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , beta Catenin/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cell Line, Tumor , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 41-47, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970171

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish and validate a nomogram model for predicting the risk of microvascular invasion(MVI) in hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: The clinical data of 210 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent hepatectomy at Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery,the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from January 2013 to October 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 169 males and 41 females, aged(M(IQR)) 57(12)years(range:30 to 80 years). The patients were divided into model group(the first 170 cases) and validation group(the last 40 cases) according to visit time. Based on the clinical data of the model group,rank-sum test and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were used to screen out the independent related factors of MVI. R software was used to establish a nomogram model to predict the preoperative MVI risk of hepatocellular carcinoma,and the validation group data were used for external validation. Results: Based on the modeling group data,the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine that cut-off value of DeRitis ratio,γ-glutamyltransferase(GGT) concentration,the inverse number of activated peripheral blood T cell ratio (-aPBTLR) and the maximum tumor diameter for predicting MVI, which was 0.95((area under curve, AUC)=0.634, 95%CI: 0.549 to 0.719), 38.2 U/L(AUC=0.604, 95%CI: 0.518 to 0.689),-6.05%(AUC=0.660, 95%CI: 0.578 to 0.742),4 cm(AUC=0.618, 95%CI: 0.533 to 0.703), respectively. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that DeRitis≥0.95,GGT concentration ≥38.2 U/L,-aPBTLR>-6.05% and the maximum tumor diameter ≥4 cm were independent related factors for MVI in hepatocellular carcinoma patients(all P<0.05). The nomogram prediction model based on the above four factors established by R software has good prediction efficiency. The C-index was 0.758 and 0.751 in the model group and the validation group,respectively. Decision curve analysis and clinical impact curve showed that the nomogram model had good clinical benefits. Conclusions: DeRitis ratio,serum GGT concentration,-aPBTLR and the maximum tumor diameter are valuable factors for preoperative prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma with MVI. A relatively reliable nomogram prediction model could be established on them.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 7-12, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970165

ABSTRACT

With the development of modern liver surgical techniques and the progress of perioperative management,the survival rate after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma has been greatly improved,but the high recurrence and metastasis rate still limits the long-term survival after surgery. Preoperative neoadjuvant therapy has been confirmed to significantly reduce the postoperative recurrence rate and prolong survival in other types of cancer,but there has been a lack of effective systemic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma for a long time,so the efficacy and regimen of neoadjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma are still controversial. PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibody combined with anti-angiogenic targeted drugs has become a first-line regimen in systemic therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. This regimen has definite efficacy and high safety,bringing hope for neoadjuvant therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently,three clinical trials of neoadjuvant immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma have been published internationally,which preliminarily suggest the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and lay a solid foundation for carrying out larger sample clinical studies in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Immunotherapy
17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 117-128, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969814

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the expression of programmed death protein-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSLC) and its effect on the characteristics of tumor stem cells and tumor biological function, to explore the upstream signaling pathway regulating PD-L1 expression in LCSLC and the downstream molecular mechanism of PD-L1 regulating stem cell characteristics, also tumor biological functions. Methods: HepG2 was cultured by sphere-formating method to obtain LCSLC. The expressions of CD133 and other stemness markers were detected by flow cytometry, western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were used to detect the expressions of stemness markers and PD-L1. The biological functions of the LCSLC were tested by cell function assays, to confirm that the LCSLC has the characteristics of tumor stem cells. LCSLC was treated with cell signaling pathway inhibitors to identify relevant upstream signaling pathways mediating PD-L1 expression changes. The expression of PD-L1 in LCSLC was down regulated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), the expression of stem cell markers, tumor biological functions of LCSLC, and the changes of cell signaling pathways were detected. Results: Compared with HepG2 cells, the expression rate of CD133 in LCSLC was upregulated [(92.78±6.91)% and (1.40±1.77)%, P<0.001], the expressions of CD133, Nanog, Oct4A and Snail in LCSLC were also higher than those in HepG2 cells (P<0.05), the number of sphere-formating cells increased on day 7 [(395.30±54.05) and (124.70±19.30), P=0.001], cell migration rate increased [(35.41±6.78)% and (10.89±4.34)%, P=0.006], the number of transmembrane cells increased [(75.77±10.85) and (20.00±7.94), P=0.002], the number of cloned cells increased [(120.00±29.51) and (62.67±16.77), P=0.043]. Cell cycle experiments showed that LCSLC had significantly more cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase than those in HepG2 [(54.89±3.27) and (32.36±1.50), P<0.001]. The tumor formation experiment of mice showed that the weight of transplanted tumor in LCSLC group was (1.32±0.17)g, the volume is (1 779.0±200.2) mm(3), were higher than those of HepG2 cell [(0.31±0.06)g and (645.6±154.9)mm(3), P<0.001]. The expression level of PD-L1 protein in LCSLC was 1.88±0.52 and mRNA expression level was 2.53±0.62, both of which were higher than those of HepG2 cells (P<0.05). The expression levels of phosphorylation signal transduction and transcription activation factor 3 (p-STAT3) and p-Akt in LCSLC were higher than those in HepG2 cells (P<0.05). After the expression of p-STAT3 and p-Akt was down-regulated by inhibitor treatment, the expression of PD-L1 was also down-regulated (P<0.05). In contrast, the expression level of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in LCSLC was lower than that in HepG2 cells (P<0.01), there was no significant change in PD-L1 expression after down-regulated by inhibitor treatment (P>0.05). After the expression of PD-L1 was knockdown by siRNA, the expressions of CD133, Nanog, Oct4A and Snail in LCSLC were decreased compared with those of siRNA-negative control (NC) group (P<0.05). The number of sphere-formating cells decreased [(45.33±12.01) and (282.00±29.21), P<0.001], the cell migration rate was lower than that in siRNA-NC group [(20.86±2.74)% and (46.73±15.43)%, P=0.046], the number of transmembrane cells decreased [(39.67±1.53) and (102.70±11.59), P=0.001], the number of cloned cells decreased [(57.67±14.57) and (120.70±15.04), P=0.007], the number of cells in G(0)/G(1) phase decreased [(37.68±2.51) and (57.27±0.92), P<0.001], the number of cells in S phase was more than that in siRNA-NC group [(30.78±0.52) and (15.52±0.83), P<0.001]. Tumor formation in mice showed that the tumor weight of shRNA-PD-L1 group was (0.47±0.12)g, the volume is (761.3±221.4)mm(3), were lower than those of shRNA-NC group [(1.57±0.45)g and (1 829.0±218.3)mm(3), P<0.001]. Meanwhile, the expression levels of p-STAT3 and p-Akt in siRNA-PD-L1 group were decreased (P<0.05), while the expression levels of p-ERK1/2 and β-catenin did not change significantly (P>0.05). Conclusion: Elevated PD-L1 expression in CD133(+) LCSLC is crucial to maintain stemness and promotes the tumor biological function of LCSLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Ligands , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Neoplastic Stem Cells/physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation
18.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 346-358, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982706

ABSTRACT

Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. is a famous medicinal plant commonly used in East Asia. Triterpene saponins isolated from P. grandiflorum are the main biologically active compounds, among which polygalacin D (PGD) has been reported to be an anti-tumor agent. However, its anti-tumor mechanism against hepatocellular carcinoma is unknown. This study aimed to explore the inhibitory effect of PGD in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and related mechanisms of action. We found that PGD exerted significant inhibitory effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells through apoptosis and autophagy. Analysis of the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and autophagy-related proteins revealed that this phenomenon was attributed to the mitochondrial apoptosis and mitophagy pathways. Subsequently, using specific inhibitors, we found that apoptosis and autophagy had mutually reinforcing effects. In addition, further analysis of autophagy showed that PGD induced mitophagy by increasing BCL2 interacting protein 3 like (BNIP3L) levels.In vivo experiments demonstrated that PGD significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased the levels of apoptosis and autophagy in tumors. Overall, our findings showed that PGD induced cell death of hepatocellular carcinoma cells primarily through mitochondrial apoptosis and mitophagy pathways. Therefore, PGD can be used as an apoptosis and autophagy agonist in the research and development of antitumor agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mitophagy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line , Autophagy , Apoptosis , Membrane Proteins , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/pharmacology
19.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 476-492, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982578

ABSTRACT

tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) are novel non-coding RNAs that are involved in the occurrence and progression of diverse diseases. However, their exact presence and function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Here, differentially expressed tsRNAs in HCC were profiled. A novel tsRNA, tRNAGln-TTG derived 5'-tiRNA-Gln, is significantly downregulated, and its expression level is correlated with progression in patients. In HCC cells, 5'-tiRNA-Gln overexpression impaired the proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo, while 5'-tiRNA-Gln knockdown yielded opposite results. 5'-tiRNA-Gln exerted its function by binding eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-I (EIF4A1), which unwinds complex RNA secondary structures during translation initiation, causing the partial inhibition of translation. The suppressed downregulated proteins include ARAF, MEK1/2 and STAT3, causing the impaired signaling pathway related to HCC progression. Furthermore, based on the construction of a mutant 5'-tiRNA-Gln, the sequence of forming intramolecular G-quadruplex structure is crucial for 5'-tiRNA-Gln to strongly bind EIF4A1 and repress translation. Clinically, 5'-tiRNA-Gln expression level is negatively correlated with ARAF, MEK1/2, and STAT3 in HCC tissues. Collectively, these findings reveal that 5'-tiRJNA-Gln interacts with EIF4A1 to reduce related mRNA binding through the intramolecular G-quadruplex structure, and this process partially inhibits translation and HCC progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A/genetics , Cell Line , RNA, Transfer/metabolism , RNA , Cell Proliferation
20.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 490-498, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984748

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of lenvatinib on regorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Methods: CCK-8 and clone formation assay were used to observe the inhibitory effect of lenvatinib on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis of regorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells treated with lenvatinib. The expression levels of related proteins were detected by western blot and immunohistochemical staining. The inhibitory effect of lenvatinib on the tumor formation ability of regorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vivo was observed by subcutaneous tumor formation experiment in mice. Results: CCK-8 and clone formation assay showed that lenvatinib could inhibit the proliferation of regorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The number of clones of HepG2, SMMC7721 and regorafenib-resistant HepG2, SMMC7721 cells in lenvatinib group (120.67±11.06, 53.00±11.14, 55.00±9.54, 78.67±14.64) were all lower than those in control group (478.00±24.52, 566.00±27.87, 333.67±7.02, 210.00±12.77, all P<0.05). Flow cytometry showed that lenvatinib could promote apoptosis of regorafenib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells, the apoptosis rates of HepG2, SMMC7721 and regorafenib-resistant HepG2, SMMC7721 cells in lenvatinib group [(12.30±0.70)%, (9.83±0.38)%, (15.90±1.32)%, (10.60±0.00)%] were all higher than those in control group [(7.50±0.87)%, (5.00±1.21)%, (8.10±1.61)%, (7.05±0.78)%, all P<0.05]. The apoptosis-related protein levels suggested that apoptosis was increased in the treatment of lenvatinib. The animal study showed that lenvatinib can inhibit the growth of regorafenib-resistant cells in vivo. Immunohistochemistry and western blot results showed that lenvatinib could down-regulate the abnormally activated IGF1R/Mek/Erk signaling pathway in regorafenib-resistant cells. Conclusion: Lenvatinib can reverse regorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma, possibly by down-regulating IGF1R/Mek/Erk signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Signal Transduction
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