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Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 61-68, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056398


Fruit purees can be added to diet as alternative sources of bioactive compounds for the prevention and/or improvement of the complications of metabolic syndrome. In this work we evaluated the effect of the intake of low-fat diets enriched with fruit purees (guava-strawberry, guava-blackberry, guava-soursop, guava-passion fruit) on the body weight and biochemical markers in metabolic syndrome analogy (MSA)-induced rats. The rats (n=6 for each treatment) were induced with a high fat diet and were injected with streptozotocin, one dose every week for 4 consecutive weeks after fasting overnight, then healthy rats were fed with standard diet and MS rats were fed with standard diet plus each of the fruit puree, for 4 weeks. As novel findings, the diet enriched with fruit purees was associated with a reduction in body weight (~13-21 %) and a control in the metabolism of glucose by decreasing plasma glucose (~5963 %). Also, there was a reduction in the total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, low-density lipoproteins, and low enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase, useful metabolites in the control of inflammatory processes in the liver. A notable improvement in the liver morphology was observed indicating that the treatments had a hepatoprotective effect. The diet enriched with guava-blackberry puree caused the best results on most biochemical markers of MS rats. Therefore, diets enriched with fruit purees can be an alternative for MS individuals for the control and improvement of the complications caused by this syndrome.

Los purés de frutas se pueden agregar a la dieta como fuentes alternativas de compuestos bioactivos para la prevención y / o mejora de las complicaciones del síndrome metabólico. En este trabajo evaluamos el efecto de la ingesta de dietas bajas en grasas, enriquecidas con purés de frutas (guayaba-fresa, guayaba-mora, guayaba-guanábana, guayaba-maracuyá) sobre el peso corporal y los marcadores bioquímicos en el síndrome metabólico (SM) inducido en ratas. Las ratas (n = 6 para cada tratamiento) fueron inducidas con una dieta alta en grasas y se les inyectó estreptozotocina, una dosis cada semana durante 4 semanas consecutivas después de ayunar durante la noche. Luego, las ratas sanas fueron alimentadas con una dieta estándar; y las ratas con SM fueron alimentadas con dieta estándar más cada uno de los purés de frutas, durante 4 semanas. Como hallazgos novedosos, la dieta enriquecida con purés de frutas se asoció con una reducción en el peso corporal (~ 13-21 %) y un control en el metabolismo de la glucosa al disminuir la glucosa en plasma (~ 59-63 %). Además, hubo una reducción en el colesterol total, triacilgliceroles, lipoproteínas de baja densidad, y bajas actividades enzimáticas de alanina aminotransferasa, fosfatasa alcalina y gama-glutamil transferasa, metabolitos útiles en el control de los procesos inflamatorios en el hígado. Se observó una mejora notable en la morfología del hígado, lo que indica que los tratamientos tuvieron un efecto hepatoprotector. La dieta enriquecida con puré de guayaba y mora causó los mejores resultados en la mayoría de los marcadores bioquímicos de las ratas con SM. Por lo tanto, las dietas enriquecidas con purés de frutas pueden ser una alternativa para las personas con SM, para el control y la mejora de las complicaciones causadas por este síndrome.

Animals , Rats , Diet, Fat-Restricted , Metabolic Syndrome , Fruit , Liver/drug effects , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Biomarkers , Albumins/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Transaminases/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Liver/chemistry
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190701, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132253


Abstract Herein we evaluated the histopathological alterations and expression patterns of multixenobiotic resistence (MXR) and autophagic proteins in liver samples of fish chronically exposed to anthropogenic contaminants in a highly polluted river, and then again after they had been transferred to good quality water. Two groups were established: euthanized on the day of capture (0 h), and maintained for 30 days in a tank (30 d). The fish of 0 h presented liver with vacuolated and hypertrophic hepatocytes. Also, it was observed strong immunostaining of cathepsin-D, LC3-II and P-gp. Necrosis and apoptosis were also observed throughout the liver. Conversely, the second group (30 d) showed recovery of the liver normal histology and weak immunoreaction of the studied proteins. So, our results indicated that there was a hepatic recovery in the fish kept in good quality water, as showed by the decreased expression of cathepsin-D, LC3-II, and the MXR (P-gp). Therefore, the alterations here observed could be proposed as potential biomarkers to be tested for following the impacts of remediation or mitigation measures to environmental impacts.

Animals , Male , Female , Cathepsin D/analysis , Hepatocytes/chemistry , Fishes , Liver/pathology , Liver/chemistry , Immunohistochemistry , Rivers
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 815-820, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012358


One of the key functions of the hepatobiliary system is bile formation. Aquaporins (AQPs) are likely to play a role in water transport that is essential for appropriate hepatobiliary tract function. The increasing prevalence of fatty liver parallels the rise of obesity and its complications over the past several decades. In this paper, general morphology observation, histopathology and AQP1 immunohistochemical expression were observed in livers of the high-fat diet (HFD) rats. For the liver of HFD rats, immunolight microscopy revealed weak labeling of AQP1 on the surface of central veins and liver sinusoid compared with the normal diet (ND) rats. It was suggested that bile secreted by the liver of HFD rats was maybe abnormal, thereby causing abnormalities in the composition and secretion of bile. However, the deeper understanding of mechanisms involved to the fatty liver is still unclear, in particular AQPs in the liver of obesity, additional studies would be required to study the signalling cascades involved in these processes.

Una de las funciones clave del sistema hepatobiliar es la formación de bilis. Es probable que las acuaporinas (AQP) desempeñen un papel en el transporte de agua que es esencial para la función apropiada del tracto hepatobiliar. En las últimas décadas, la creciente prevalencia de hígado graso es paralela al aumento de la obesidad y sus complicaciones. En este trabajo, se identificaron características morfológicas generales, histopatología y expresión inmunohistoquímica de AQP1 en hígados de ratas con dieta rica en grasas (DRG). En el hígado de ratas con DRG, la expresión inmunohistoquímica determinó un marcaje débil de AQP1 en la superficie de las venas centrales y del sinusoide hepático en comparación con las ratas de dieta normal (DN). Se sugirió que la bilis secretada por el hígado de ratas con DRG era tal vez anormal, lo que causaba anomalías en la composición y secreción de la bilis. Sin embargo, se necesita un conocimiento mayor de los mecanismos involucrados en el hígado graso, en particular de las AQP y se requieren estudios adicionales para determinar las cascadas de señalización involucradas en estos procesos.

Animals , Rats , Aquaporin 1/analysis , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Aquaporin 1/metabolism , Liver/chemistry
Acta cir. bras ; 32(12): 1013-1025, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886199


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the fatty acid content of different fat sources and evaluate the effect of them on plasma and hepatic lipids and on the fatty acid profile of the brain tissue of Wistar rats. Methods: Thirty male albino Wistar rats received for 59 days, the following diets: diet added of margarine with low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); diet added of margarine with high content of PUFA; diet added of butter; diet added of hydrogenated vegetable fat; diet added of soybean oil. Fatty acid profile of the lipid sources, blood and hepatic lipids fractions and fatty acid profile of the brain tissue were determined. Results: Margarine consumption of provided different responses as to concentrations of blood and hepatic lipid fractions. Intake of butter and hydrogenated increased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, being the steepest increase promoted by hydrogenated vegetable fat, which also raised LDL-c levels expressively. All fats used in the treatments reduced the cerebral concentration of docosahexaenoic acid when compared to soybean oil (control). Conclusion: The different fat sources commonly consumed by population provided different responses in vivo. This is particularly relevant considering the role of these lipids in the incidence and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

Animals , Male , Rats , Brain/metabolism , Butter/analysis , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism , Lipids/blood , Liver/metabolism , Margarine/analysis , Triglycerides/blood , Cholesterol/blood , Rats, Wistar , Diet , Lipid Metabolism , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/chemistry , Growth , Hydrogenation , Liver/chemistry
Ann. hepatol ; 16(1): 77-85, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838089


Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. We have previously shown that hepatic reticuloendothelial system (RES) iron deposition is associated with an advanced degree of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans. In this study, we aimed to determine differentially expressed genes related to iron overload, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways, with the goal of identifying factors associated with NASH progression. Seventy five patients with NAFLD were evaluated for their biochemical parameters and their liver tissue analyzed for NASH histological characteristics. Gene expression analysis of pathways related to iron homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress was performed using real-time PCR. Gene expression was compared between subjects based on disease status and presence of hepatic iron staining. We observed increased gene expression of hepcidin (HAMP) (2.3 fold, p = 0.027), transmembrane serine proteinase 6 (TMPRSS6) (8.4 fold, p = 0.003), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (5.5 fold, p = 0.004), proinflammatory cytokines; IL-1β (2.7 fold, p = 0.046) and TNF-α (3.8 fold, p = 0.001) in patients with NASH. TMPRSS6, a negative regulator of HAMP, is overexpressed in patients with NASH and HIF1α (hypoxia inducible factor-1) is downregulated. NAFLD patients with hepatic iron deposition exhibited higher hepcidin expression (3.1 fold, p = 0.04) but lower expression of cytokines. In conclusion, we observed elevated hepatic HAMP expression in patients with NASH and in NAFLD patients who had hepatic iron deposition, while proinflammatory cytokines displayed elevated expression only in patients with NASH, suggesting a regulatory role for hepcidin in NAFL to NASH transition and in mitigating inflammatory responses.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Iron Overload/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Iron/analysis , Liver/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Iron Overload/diagnosis , Iron Overload/blood , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hepcidins/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/blood , Liver/pathology , Membrane Proteins/genetics
Bauru; s.n; 2017. 97 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-905117


Fluoride (F) is a potent anti-cariogenic element, but only an appropriate dose is effective to have therapeutic action, else systemic toxicity may be observed. Additionally, two factors, amount of F and time of exposure, drive its action. Surprisingly, the susceptibility to toxic effects of F is genetically determined. The present study identified the effects of F on the liver proteome of mice susceptible (A/J) or resistant (129P3/J) to the effects of F. Weanling male A/J (n=6) and 129P3/J mice (n=6) were housed in pairs and assigned to three groups given low-F diet and drinking water containing 0, 15 or 50 ppm F for 7 weeks. Liver proteome profiles were examined using nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. Protein function was classified by GO biological process (Cluego v2.0.7 + Clupedia v1.0.8). Difference in expression among the groups was determined using the PLGS software. In the control group (0 ppm F), most proteins with fold change were increased in A/J mice. Precisely the proteins related to energy flux and oxidative stress were quite significant in this context, suggesting the high susceptibility of these mice to the effects of F, since the exposure also induces oxidative stress. Treatment with the lower F concentration provoked more pronounced alterations in fold change in liver proteins in comparison to the treatment with the higher F concentration. Strikingly, most of the proteins with fold change upon following 15 ppm F treatment, were increased in the A/J mice compared with their 129P3/J counterparts, thus suggesting attempt of the former to fight against the toxic effects of F. With respect to 50 ppm F, most proteins with fold change were decreased in the A/J mice compared with their 129P3/J counterparts, especially proteins related to oxidative stress and protein folding, which might be related to the higher susceptibility of the A/J animals to the deleterious effects of F. Our findings can provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic susceptibility to fluorosis by indicating key protein players which need to be better addressed in future experimental studies.(AU)

O Fluoreto (F) é um potente elemento anti-cariogênico, mas é somente efetivo terapeuticamente em uma dose apropriada. Por outro lado, doses acima das recomendadas levam a toxicidade sistêmica. Em adição, dois fatores decidem sua efetividade de ação: quantidade de F e tempo de exposição. A suscetibilidade aos efeitos tóxicos do F é determinada geneticamente. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos do F no proteoma do fígado de camundongos suscetíveis (A/J) ou resistentes (129P3/J) aos efeitos do F. Camundongos machos desmamados A/J (n=6) e 129P3/J (n=6) foram alojados em pares e divididos em três grupos tratados com ração com baixo teor de F e água contendo 0, 15, ou 50 ppm de F por 7 semanas. Perfis proteômicos do fígado foram examinados usando nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. A função de proteínas foi classificada pelo processamento biológico GO (Cluego v2.0.7 + Clupedia v1.0.8). A diferença de expressão entre os grupos foi determinada usando o software PLGS. No grupo controle (0 ppm F), a expressão da maioria das proteínas foi aumentada nos camundongos A/J e precisamente as proteínas relacionadas ao fluxo de energia e estresse oxidativo foram significativas neste contexto, sugerindo portanto, a alta sucetibilidade destes camundongos aos efeitos do F, já que a exposição também induz o estresse oxidativo. O tratamento com baixa concentração de F provocou alterações mais pronunciadas em proteínas do fígado comparado ao tratamento com alta concentração de F. Notadamente, a maioria das proteínas encontradas no fígado dos animais tratados com 15 ppm de F foi aumentada em camundongos A/J comparados aos camundongos 129P3/J, demonstrando portanto, uma tentativa dos A/J de neutralizar os efeitos tóxicos do F. Já nos animais tratados com 50 ppm de F, a maioria das proteínas foi diminuída nos camundongos comparados aos seus pares 129P3/J, especialmente proteínas relacionadas ao estresse oxidativo e enovelamento de proteínas, o que pode estar relacionado à alta suscetibilidade dos animais A/J aos efeitos deletérios do F. Nossos achados podem fornecer novos insights que podem contribuir para a interpretação os mecanismos moleculares relacionados à suscetibilidade genética à fluorose, indicando proteínas chaves que precisam ser melhor estudadas em estudos futuros.(AU)

Animals , Male , Mice , Fluorides/pharmacology , Liver/chemistry , Liver/drug effects , Proteins/analysis , Proteomics/methods , Fluorosis, Dental/genetics , Fluorosis, Dental/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 35(2): 133-143, 2016. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-796799


Antecedentes: Las dislipidemias, ya sea un aumento en los niveles de colesterol LDL y/o una disminución en las cifras de colesterol HDL, son muy relevantes para el desarrollo de la enfermedad cardiovascular ateroesclerótica, siendo el colesterol HDL bajo la dislipidemia más frecuente en la población chilena. Con respecto al colesterol HDL bajo y los tri -glicéridos elevados, los fibratos, agonistas del receptor nuclear PPAR-a que modula la transcripción de genes involucrados en el metabolismo de lípidos, representan una importante alternativa de manejo farmacológico de las dislipidemias. Sin embargo, estudios clínicos recientes no han sido concluyentes con respecto a su beneficio real sobre el control de la ateroesclerosis cuando se usan combinados con estatinas. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de la administración de fibratos sobre el metabolismo del colesterol HDL y la función antioxidante del plasma usando el ratón como modelo experimental. Metodología: Los ratones de la cepa C57BL/6 fueron tratados con ciprofibrato al 0,2% en dieta control durante 7 días. Luego del tratamiento, se analizaron los niveles de colesterol plasmático y triglicéridos, la expresión hepática de proteínas claves involucradas en el metabolismo de colesterol HDL, el contenido de colesterol hepático, la secreción de colesterol biliar y el daño oxidativo y la función antioxidante plasmática. Resultados: El tratamiento con ciprofibrato disminuyó significativamente los niveles de triglicéridos plasmáticos y la expresión hepática del receptor de HDL SR-BI, efecto que se correlacionó con un aumento en el tamaño de las partículas de HDL, pero no en los niveles de colesterol HDL. Además, el ciprofibrato disminuyó los niveles proteicos de los transportadores de colesterol ABCG1 y ABCG8, aunque no modificó ABCA1, en conjunto con una reducción del contenido hepático de colesterol y un aumento en la secreción de colesterol hacia la bilis. Finalmente, el uso de este hipolipemiante mejoró la función antioxidante del plasma, aunque se detectó un aumento en el daño nitrosativo de las proteínas plasmáticas. Conclusión: Este estudio ha permitido obtener nueva información sobre el efecto metabólico y funcional de la administración de fibratos en ratones, lo cual podría ayudar comprender los resultados de estudios clínicos recientes que han usado esta clase de hipolipemiantes en humanos.

Background: Increased serum levels of LDL cholesterol and/or decreased values of HDL cholesterol are very relevant for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Low HDL cholesterol is the most prevalent dyslipidemia in the Chilean population. Regarding reduced HDL cholesterol and high triglyceride levels, fibrates, nuclear receptor PPAR-a agonists that modulate transcription of genes involved in lipid metabolism, represent an important alternative for pharmacological management of dyslipidemia. However, recent clinical studies have been inconclusive with respect to their real benefit on atherosclerosis when used in combination with statins. Aim: To evaluate the impact of fibrate administration on HDL cholesterol metabolism and antioxidant plasma functionality using the mouse as experimental model. Methodology: Using wild-type C57BL/6 mice, ciprofibrate was administered at 0.2% in chow diet for 7 days. After treatment, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides levels, hepatic expression of key proteins involved in HDL cholesterol metabolism, liver cholesterol content, biliary cholesterol secretion, and plasma oxidative damage and antioxidant function were analyzed. Results: Ciprofibrate treatment significantly decreased plasma triglycerides levels and hepatic HDL receptor SR-BI expression. This latter finding was associated with increased HDL particle size, without changes in HDL cholesterol levels. Furthermore, ci-profibrate decreased hepatic expression of cholesterol transporters ABCG1 and ABCG8, but not ABCA1, which correlated with reduced liver cholesterol content and increased biliary cholesterol secretion. Fina-lly, fibrate therapy improved plasma antioxidant func-tion, even though increased nitrosative plasma protein damage was detected. Conclusion: This study has provided new information on metabolic and functional effects derived from fibrate use in mice and it may help to better understand recent clinical findings using this lipid-lowering drug class in humans.

Animals , Mice , Fibric Acids/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Cholesterol, HDL/drug effects , Triglycerides/blood , Cholesterol/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Models, Animal , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/chemistry , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 53(1): 97-102, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-784038


Some Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) can pose numerous adverse effects on biota. Marine turtles face numerous threats, in particular those related to anthropogenic activities. Therefore, development and improvement methodologies for monitoring chemical compounds are a relevant task. In this work, we developed a methodology based on the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction for detection of twelve OCPs, by gas chromatography with electron capture detector, in fat and liver samples of green sea turtles. Quantification limits were lower than 5.3 ng g-1; acceptable recovery rates for most compounds; medium matrix effect; matrix-calibration with linearity at the range from 1.0 to 200 ng g-1. This methodology provides contributions for the study of pesticide residues with adverse effects on sea turtle health, important skills for new directions in conservation issues...

Alguns Pesticidas organoclorados (OCPs) podem causar numerosos efeitos adversos na biota. As tartarugas marinhas enfrentam diversas ameaças, em especial aquelas relacionadas às atividades antropogênicas, por isso o desenvolvimento de melhorias nos métodos para monitorar compostos químicos são tarefas importantes. Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma metodologia baseada na extração QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) para a detecção de doze OCPs, por cromatografia gasosa com captura de elétrons, em amostras de gordura e fígado de tartarugas verdes. Os limites de quantificação ficaram abaixo de 5.3 ng g-1; com taxas de recuperação aceitáveis para a maioria de compostos; efeito matriz médio; calibração da matriz com linearidade variando de 1.0 a 200 ng g-1. Esta metodologia traz contribuições ao estudo de resíduos com efeito adverso na saúde das tartarugas marinhas, sendo importante instrumento para novas direções em temas de conservação...

Animals , Liver/chemistry , Insecticides, Organochlorine/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Turtles , Chromatography, Gas/veterinary , Poisoning/veterinary , Toxic Wastes/analysis
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(1): 00702, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-765005


Subjects with chronic liver disease are susceptible to hypovitaminosis A due to several factors. Therefore, identifying patients with vitamin deficiency and a requirement for vitamin supplementation is important. Most studies assessing vitamin A in the context of hepatic disorders are conducted using cirrhotic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 43 non-cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C to evaluate markers of vitamin A status represented by serum retinol, liver retinol, and serum retinol-binding protein levels. We also performed the relative dose-response test, which provides an indirect estimate of hepatic vitamin A reserves. These vitamin A indicators were assessed according to the stage of liver fibrosis using the METAVIR score and the body mass index. The sample study was predominantly composed of male subjects (63%) with mild liver fibrosis (F1). The relative dose-response test was <20% in all subjects, indicating vitamin A sufficiency. Overweight or obese patients had higher serum retinol levels than those with a normal body mass index (2.6 and 1.9 µmol/L, respectively; P<0.01). Subjects with moderate liver fibrosis (F2) showed lower levels of serum retinol (1.9 vs 2.5 µmol/L, P=0.01) and retinol-binding protein levels compared with those with mild fibrosis (F1) (46.3 vs 67.7 µg/mL, P<0.01). These results suggested an effect of being overweight on serum retinol levels. Furthermore, more advanced stages of liver fibrosis were related to a decrease in serum vitamin A levels.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Vitamin A Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin A/analysis , Biopsy , Body Mass Index , Biomarkers/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver/chemistry , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Overweight/blood , Retinol-Binding Proteins/analysis , Vitamin A Deficiency/complications
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1101-1108, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762919


We aimed to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (4 days) and metformin exposure on acute glucose intolerance after dexamethasone treatment in rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided randomly into four groups: sedentary control (SCT), sedentary dexamethasone-treated (SDX), training dexamethasone-treated (DPE), and dexamethasone and metformin treated group (DMT). Glucose tolerance tests and in situ liver perfusion were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose profiles. The DPE group displayed a significant decrease in glucose values compared with the SDX group. Average glucose levels in the DPE group did not differ from those of the DMT group, so we suggest that exercise training corrects dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and improves glucose profiles in a similar manner to that observed with metformin. These data suggest that exercise may prevent the development of glucose intolerance induced by dexamethasone in rats to a similar magnitude to that observed after metformin treatment.

Animals , Male , Glucose Intolerance/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Fasting/blood , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Glucose Intolerance/chemically induced , Glucose/analysis , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Liver/chemistry , Perfusion , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Swimming
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 389-395, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749734


To investigate the effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats, female Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 28 d to generate hyperlipidemic models. Hyperlipidemic rats were assigned to four groups, which were individually treated with three different dosages of K. marxianus M3+HCD or physiological saline+HCD via oral gavage for 28 d. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the serum and liver of the rats were measured using commercially available enzyme kits. In addition, the liver morphology was also examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical microscopy. According to our results, the serum and liver TC, TG, LDL-C levels and atherogenic index (AI) were significantly decreased in rats orally administered K. marxianus M3 (p <0.01), and the HDL-C levels and anti atherogenic index (AAI) were significantly increased (p <0.01) compared to the control group. Moreover, K. marxianus M3 treatment also reduced the build-up of lipid droplets in the liver and exhibited normal hepatocytes, suggesting a protective effect of K. marxianus M3 in hyperlipidemic rats.

Animals , Biological Therapy/methods , Cholesterol/analysis , Diet/methods , Hypercholesterolemia/therapy , Kluyveromyces/growth & development , Kluyveromyces/metabolism , Agaricales , Histocytochemistry , Kluyveromyces/isolation & purification , Liver/chemistry , Liver/pathology , Microscopy , Rats, Wistar , Serum/chemistry
Acta cir. bras ; 30(2): 100-106, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741021


PURPOSE: To evaluate which is the best route of administration for cell therapy in experimental rat model of small-for size syndrome. METHODS: A total of 40 rats underwent partial hepatectomy (70%) that induces the small-for-size syndrome and were divided into four groups of route administration: intravenous, intraperitoneal, enteral and tracheal. The small-for-size syndrome model was designed with extended partial hepatectomy (70%). The animals were divided into four groups of routes administration: intravenous (n=10) - intravenously through the dorsal vein of the penis; intraperitoneal (n=10) - intraperitoneally in the abdominal cavity; enteral (n=10) - oroenteral with the placement of a number 4 urethral probe and maintained at third duodenal portion; tracheal (n=10) - after tracheal intubation. We track the animals and monitor them for 21 days; during this follow-up we evaluated the result of cell therapy application tracking animals using ultrasound, radiography and PET-scan. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism Software(r). Differences were considered significant with the p<0.05. Data are presented as the median and variation for continuous variables. Comparisons between groups were made using analysis of the imaging test by the researchers. RESULTS: All four groups underwent partial hepatectomy of 70% liver tissue targeting the same weight of resected liver. Initially the PET-scan tests showed similarity in administered cells by different routes. However, in few days the route of intravenous administration showed to be the most appropriated to lead cells to the liver followed by enteral. The tracheal and peritoneal routes were not as much successful for this goal. CONCLUSION: The intravenous route is the best one to cell therapy in experimental rat model of small-for size-syndrome. .

Animals , Male , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Administration Routes , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Regeneration/physiology , Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Hepatectomy , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver/chemistry , Organ Size , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Syndrome , Time Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206912


This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in canine liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla, and the association of these concentrations with age, gender, and occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissues from 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn, and Mn levels were highest in the liver followed by the renal cortex and renal medulla. The highest Sr, Cd, and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex while lower levels were found in the renal medulla and liver. Female dogs had higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver and renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver and renal cortex), Cr (liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla), and Pb (liver) than male animals. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. Hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge about the storage of specific elements in canine liver and kidneys, and can be considered important reference data for diagnostic methods and further investigations.

Aging , Animals , Dog Diseases/metabolism , Dogs , Female , Kidney/chemistry , Liver/chemistry , Male , Metals/chemistry , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-5, 2015. map, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950777


BACKGROUND: In order to understand feeding ecology and habitat use of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in five coral reef fishes, Thalassoma lunare, Lutjanus lutjanus, Abudefduf bengalensis, Scarus rivulatus and Scolopsis affinis collected in the Bidong Island of Malaysian South China Sea. RESULTS: Proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) ranged 57.2% 74.2%, with the highest proportions in fatty acids, the second highest was monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) ranged from 21.4% to 39.0% and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was the lowest ranged from 2.8% to 14.1%. Each fatty acid composition differed among fishes, suggesting diverse feeding ecology, habitat use and migration during the fishes' life history in the coral reef habitats. CONCLUSIONS: Diets of the coral fish species might vary among species in spite of that each species are living sympatrically. Differences in fatty acid profiles might not just be considered with respect to the diets, but might be based on the habitat and migration.

Animals , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Coral Reefs , Fishes/physiology , Liver/chemistry , Ecosystem , Palmitic Acid/analysis , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Gastrointestinal Contents/chemistry , Malaysia
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Oct; 52(10): 972-982
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153791


Arjunolic acid (AA) obtained from plants of the Combretaceae family has shown anti-diabetic effects. Here, we analyzed whether the diabetogenic effects of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on glucose homeostasis may be prevented or attenuated by the concomitant administration of AA. Adult Wistar rats were assigned to the following groups: vehicle-treated (Ctl), DEX-treated (1 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally for 5 days) (Dex), AA-treated (30 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage twice per day) (Aa), AA treatment previous to and concomitant to DEX treatment (AaDex), and AA treatment after initiation of DEX treatment (DexAa). AA administration significantly ameliorated (AaDex) (P>0.05), but did not attenuate (DexAa), the glucose intolerance induced by DEX treatment. AA did not prevent or attenuate the elevation in hepatic glycogen and triacylglycerol content caused by DEX treatment. All DEX-treated rats exhibited hepatic steatosis that seemed to be more pronounced when associated with AA treatment given for a prolonged period (AaDex). Markers of liver function and oxidative stress were not significantly altered among the groups. Therefore, AA administered for a prolonged period partially prevents the glucose intolerance induced by DEX treatment, but it fails to produce this beneficial effect when given after initiation of GC treatment. Since AA may promote further hepatic steatosis when co-administered with GCs, care is required when considering this phytochemical as a hypoglycemiant and/or insulin-sensitizing agent.

Animals , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Weight/drug effects , Glucocorticoids/blood , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Lipids/blood , Liver/chemistry , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Male , Organ Size/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Triterpenes/pharmacology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(1): 24-28, ene.-feb. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-708550


The response of adult spontaneously obese rats from the IIMb/Beta strain fed a high calcium skimmed milk diet (MHCa), high calcium from carbonate (HCa) and a normal AIN 93 diet during 45 days was evaluated. Body weight, food intake and fecal fat excretion were measured. At the end of the experiment rats were euthanized, abdominal fat pads and livers were excised and weighed. Blood and liver triacylglycerols, total cholesterol and fractions were quantified. Body weight increase and abdominal fat pads in the MHCa group were significantly lower than in the other two. Plasma triacylglycerols, total and LDL-cholesterol were diminished in the MHCa group. Fecal lipid excretion was increased in the adult MHCa group. Total liver lipids and triacylglycerols showed a significant diminution in the MHCa group. These results suggest that calcium and other bioactive compounds from milk, most probably present in whey fraction, and not calcium carbonate exerted an "anti-obesity" effect on these rats.

Se evaluaron los efectos de dietas con distintos niveles y fuente de calcio sobre parámetros relacionados con el síndrome metabólico en ratas adultas espontáneamente obesas de la línea IIMb/Beta. Se suministraron durante 45 días tres dietas: alto nivel de calcio proveniente de leche descremada (MHCa); alto calcio proveniente de carbonato (HCa) y como referencia AIN 93, normocálcica. Se midieron peso corporal, ingesta de alimento y excreción fecal de grasa. Los animales se sacrificaron y se extrajeron y pesaron los panículos adiposos abdominales y el hígado. Se determinaron triacilgliceroles, colesterol total y fracciones en plasma y en hígado. El aumento de peso corporal, los panículos adiposos abdominales y los valores plasmáticos de triacilgliceroles y de colesterol y fracciones fueron significativamente menores en el grupo MHCa. La excreción fecal de grasa resultó aumentada en el grupo MHCa. Los lípidos totales y los triacilgliceroles hepáticos mostraron una disminución significativa en el grupo MHCa. Los resultados evidencian efectos beneficiosos del calcio de la leche y no del suplemento mineral, sugiriendo que una acción sinérgica con otros compuestos bioactivos, probablemente presentes en el suero de la leche, produciría los efectos "antiobesidad" en estas ratas.

Animals , Male , Rats , Calcium Carbonate/administration & dosage , Calcium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/diet therapy , Milk/chemistry , Obesity/blood , Body Weight/physiology , Calcium Carbonate/chemistry , Calcium, Dietary/blood , Cholesterol/blood , Feces/chemistry , Lipids/blood , Liver/chemistry , Random Allocation , Weight Gain
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194864


Cows with different Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations showed comparable expression levels of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR). Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), could be responsible for additional inhibition of the GHR signal cascade. The aims were to monitor cows with high or low antepartal IGF-I concentrations (IGF-I(high) or IGF-I(low)), evaluate the interrelationships of endocrine endpoints, and measure hepatic SOCS2 expression. Dairy cows (n = 20) were selected (240 to 254 days after artificial insemination (AI)). Blood samples were drawn daily (day -17 until calving) and IGF-I, GH, insulin, thyroid hormones, estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were measured. Liver biopsies were taken (day 264 +/- 1 after AI and postpartum) to measure mRNA expression (IGF-I, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, acid labile subunit (ALS), SOCS2, deiodinase1, GHR1A). IGF-I concentrations in the two groups were different (p 0.05). Thyroxine levels and ALS expression were higher in the IGF-I(high) cows compared to IGF-I(low) cows. Estradiol concentration tended to be greater in the IGF-I(low) group (p = 0.06). It was hypothesized that low IGF-I levels are associated with enhanced SOCS2 expression although this could not be decisively confirmed by the present study.

Animals , Cattle , Estradiol/blood , Female , Growth Hormone/blood , Insulin/blood , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2/analysis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3/analysis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4/analysis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Liver/chemistry , Pregnancy/metabolism , Pregnancy, Animal/metabolism , Progesterone/blood , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/analysis , Thyroid Hormones/blood
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157550


The significance of abnormal liver function tests in the absence of diagnostic serology is unclear. The aim of this prospective study is to report liver biopsy findings in a large group of patients with unexplained abnormal liver biochemistry and correlate them with the clinical features to assess the severity of these diseases. Percutaneous liver biopsy is a relatively safe and accurate method of diagnosing liver disease and should be considered in such cases. A total of 65 liver biopsies were studied, of which, 26.15% (n=17) hepatic tumors, 23.08% (n=15) cirrhosis, 20.00% (n=13) fatty liver and 06.15% (n=4) viral hepatitis were seen. Further, 01.54% case (n=1) each of alcoholic hepatitis, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, extrahepatic biliary atresia, granulomatous hepatitis, neonatal hepatitis, Niemann-Pick disease and secondary biliary cirrhosis were also observed. Liver biopsy was non specific in 9.23% (n=6) and inadequate in 4.62% (n=3) cases .The role of histopathological examination of liver biopsy is highlighted in this paper.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biopsy , Female , Humans , Liver/chemistry , Liver/diagnosis , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(3): 233-239, set. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-686545


FUNDAMENTO: Estudos de intervenção mostraram aumento da mortalidade em pacientes que receberam betacaroteno. Contudo, não são conhecidos os mecanismos envolvidos nesse fenômeno. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do betacaroteno sobre o estresse oxidativo e a expressão de conexina 43 em coração de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar, pesando aproximadamente 100 g, foram alocados em dois grupos: Grupo Controle (n = 30), que recebeu a dieta usada de rotina em nosso laboratório, e Grupo Betacaroteno (n = 28), que recebeu betacaroteno (na forma de cristal, adicionado e misturado à dieta) na dose de 500 mg de betacaroteno/kg de dieta. Os animais receberam tratamento até que atingissem entre 200 e 250 g, quando eram sacrificados. Foram coletados sangue, fígado e coração para realização de Western blotting e imunoistoquímica para conexina 43; foram realizados estudos morfométricos, dosagens de betacaroteno por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência bem como de glutationa reduzida, glutationa oxidada e hidroperóxidos de lipídeos por análises bioquímicas. RESULTADOS: O betacaroteno foi detectado apenas no fígado dos animais do Grupo Betacaroteno (288 ± 94,7 µg/kg). Os níveis de glutationa reduzida/glutationa oxidada foram maiores no fígado e no coração dos animais do Grupo Betacaroteno (fígado - Grupo Controle: 42,60 ± 1,62; fígado - Grupo Betacaroteno: 57,40 ± 5,90; p = 0,04; coração: - Grupo Controle: 117,40 ± 1,01; coração - Grupo Betacaroteno: 121,81 ± 1,32 nmol/mg proteína; p = 0,03). O conteúdo de conexina 43 total foi maior no Grupo Betacaroteno. CONCLUSÃO: O betacaroteno apresentou efeito benéfico, caracterizado pelo aumento da comunicação intercelular e melhora do sistema de defesa antioxidante. Nesse modelo, os mecanismos não explicam a maior mortalidade observada com a suplementação de betacaroteno em estudos clínicos. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2013; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).

BACKGROUND: Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. METHODS: Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n=30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta-carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta-carotene by high-performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. RESULTS: Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 µg/kg). Levels of reduced/oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. CONCLUSION: Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2013; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).

Animals , Male , Rats , /drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Vitamins/pharmacology , beta Carotene/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , /metabolism , Glutathione Disulfide/analysis , Heart Ventricles/chemistry , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxides/analysis , Liver/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Remodeling , Vitamins/adverse effects , Vitamins/analysis , beta Carotene/adverse effects , beta Carotene/analysis