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1.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 31-46, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011009

ABSTRACT

Liver fibrosis is a dynamic wound-healing response characterized by the agglutination of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, is known for treating gynecological diseases and liver fibrosis. Our previous studies demonstrated that long non-coding RNA H19 (H19) was markedly upregulated in fibrotic livers while its deficiency markedly reversed fibrogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which SWT influences H19 remain unclear. Thus, we established a bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced liver fibrosis model to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of SWT on various cells in the liver. Our results showed that SWT markedly improved ECM deposition and bile duct reactions in the liver. Notably, SWT relieved liver fibrosis by regulating the transcription of genes involved in the cytoskeleton remodeling, primarily in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and influencing cytoskeleton-related angiogenesis and hepatocellular injury. This modulation collectively led to reduced ECM deposition. Through extensive bioinformatics analyses, we determined that H19 acted as a miRNA sponge and mainly inhibited miR-200, miR-211, and let7b, thereby regulating the above cellular regulatory pathways. Meanwhile, SWT reversed H19-related miRNAs and signaling pathways, diminishing ECM deposition and liver fibrosis. However, these protective effects of SWT were diminished with the overexpression of H19 in vivo. In conclusion, our study elucidates the underlying mechanisms of SWT from the perspective of H19-related signal networks and proposes a potential SWT-based therapeutic strategy for the treatment of liver fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Liver/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells/pathology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 190-199, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe liver disease with complex pathogenesis. Clinical hypoglycemia is common in patients with ACLF and often predicts a worse prognosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that glucose metabolic disturbance, especially gluconeogenesis dysfunction, plays a critical role in the disease progression of ACLF. Lon protease-1 (LONP1) is a novel mediator of energy and glucose metabolism. However, whether gluconeogenesis is a potential mechanism through which LONP1 modulates ACLF remains unknown.@*METHODS@#In this study, we collected liver tissues from ACLF patients, established an ACLF mouse model with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and D-galactose (D-gal), and constructed an in vitro hypoxia and hyperammonemia-triggered hepatocyte injury model. LONP1 overexpression and knockdown adenovirus were used to assess the protective effect of LONP1 on liver injury and gluconeogenesis regulation. Liver histopathology, biochemical index, mitochondrial morphology, cell viability and apoptosis, and the expression and activity of key gluconeogenic enzymes were detected to explore the underlying protective mechanisms of LONP1 in ACLF.@*RESULTS@#We found that LONP1 and the expressions of gluconeogenic enzymes were downregulated in clinical ACLF liver tissues. Furthermore, LONP1 overexpression remarkably attenuated liver injury, which was characterized by improved liver histopathological lesions and decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in ACLF mice. Moreover, mitochondrial morphology was improved upon overexpression of LONP1. Meanwhile, the expression and activity of the key gluconeogenic enzymes were restored by LONP1 overexpression. Similarly, the hepatoprotective effect was also observed in the hepatocyte injury model, as evidenced by improved cell viability, reduced cell apoptosis, and improved gluconeogenesis level and activity, while LONP1 knockdown worsened liver injury and gluconeogenesis disorders.@*CONCLUSION@#We demonstrated that gluconeogenesis dysfunction exists in ACLF, and LONP1 could ameliorate liver injury and improve gluconeogenic dysfunction, which would provide a promising therapeutic target for patients with ACLF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/pathology , ATP-Dependent Proteases/metabolism , Gluconeogenesis , Hepatocytes/pathology , Liver/metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Protease La/metabolism
3.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 734-748, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010566

ABSTRACT

A growing body of evidence has linked the gut microbiota to liver metabolism. The manipulation of intestinal microflora has been considered as a promising avenue to promote liver health. However, the effects of Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, a potential probiotic, on liver metabolism remain unclear. Accumulating studies have investigated the proteomic profile for mining the host biological events affected by microbes, and used the germ-free (GF) mouse model to evaluate host-microbe interaction. Here, we explored the effects of L. gasseri LA39 gavage on the protein expression profiles of the liver of GF mice. Our results showed that a total of 128 proteins were upregulated, whereas a total of 123 proteins were downregulated by treatment with L. gasseri LA39. Further bioinformatics analyses suggested that the primary bile acid (BA) biosynthesis pathway in the liver was activated by L. gasseri LA39. Three differentially expressed proteins (cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily A member 1 (CYP27A1), cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily B member 1 (CYP7B1), and cytochrome P450 family 8 subfamily B member 1 (CYP8B1)) involved in the primary BA biosynthesis pathway were further validated by western blot assay. In addition, targeted metabolomic analyses demonstrated that serum and fecal β‍-muricholic acid (a primary BA), dehydrolithocholic acid (a secondary BA), and glycolithocholic acid-3-sulfate (a secondary BA) were significantly increased by L. gasseri LA39. Thus, our data revealed that L. gasseri LA39 activates the hepatic primary BA biosynthesis and promotes the intestinal secondary BA biotransformation. Based on these findings, we suggest that L. gasseri LA39 confers an important function in the gut‒liver axis through regulating BA metabolism.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism , Lactobacillus gasseri , Proteomics , Liver/metabolism , Biotransformation
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 105-108, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970960

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is one of several hepatic metabolic processes in which starved cells are supplied with glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids to produce energy and synthesize new macromolecules. Moreover, it regulates the quantity and quality of mitochondria and other organelles. As the liver is a vital metabolic organ, specific forms of autophagy are necessary for maintaining liver homeostasis. Protein, fat, and sugar are the three primary nutrients that can be altered by different metabolic liver diseases. Drugs that have an effect on autophagy can either promote or inhibit autophagy, and as a result, it can either increase or inhibit the three major nutritional metabolisms that are affected by liver disease. Thus, this opens up a novel therapeutic option for liver disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver Diseases , Autophagy , Metabolic Diseases , Mitochondria
5.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 101-104, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970959

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a metabolic-related disorder induced by multiple factors and mainly characterized by excessive fat buildup in hepatocytes. With the consumption of a Western-style diet and obesity prevalence in recent years, the incidence of NAFLD has gradually increased, becoming an increasingly serious public health problem. Bilirubin is a heme metabolite and a potent antioxidant. Studies have demonstrated that bilirubin levels have an inverse correlation with the incidence rate of NAFLD; however, which form of bilirubin plays the main protective role is still controversial. It is considered that the main protective mechanisms for NAFLD are bilirubin antioxidant properties, insulin resistance reduction, and mitochondrial function. This article summarizes the correlation, protective mechanism, and possible clinical application of NAFLD and bilirubin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Bilirubin , Antioxidants , Obesity/complications , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Liver/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 161-167, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970732

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the role of Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in liver injury induced by neodymium oxide (Nd(2)O(3)) in mice. Methods: In March 2021, forty-eight SPF grade healthy male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group (0.9% NaCl), low dose group (62.5 mg/ml Nd(2)O(3)), medium dose group (125.0 mg/ml Nd(2)O(3)), and high dose group (250.0 mg/ml Nd(2)O(3)), each group consisted of 12 animals. The infected groups were treated with Nd(2)O(3) suspension by non-exposed tracheal drip and were killed 35 days after dust exposure. The liver weight of each group was weighed and the organ coefficient was calculated. The content of Nd(3+) in liver tissue was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). HE staining and immunofluorescence was used to observe the changes of inflammation and nuclear entry. The mRNA expression levels of Keap1, Nrf2 and HO-1 in mice liver tissue were detected by qRT-PCR. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression levels of Keap1 and HO-1. The contents of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) were detected by colorimetric method. The contents of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were determined by ELISA. The data was expressed in Mean±SD. Two-independent sample t-test was used for inter-group comparison, and one-way analysis of variance was used for multi-group comparison. Results: Compared with the control group, the liver organ coefficient of mice in medium and high dose groups were increased, and the Nd(3+) accumulation in liver of mice in all dose groups were significantly increased (P<0.05). Pathology showed that the structure of liver lobules in the high dose group was slightly disordered, the liver cells showed balloon-like lesions, the arrangement of liver cell cords was disordered, and the inflammatory exudation was obvious. Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in liver tissue of mice in all dose groups were increased, and the levels of TNF-α in liver tissue of mice in high dose group were increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Keap1 in high dose group were significantly decreased, while the mRNA expression level of Nrf2, the mRNA and protein expression levels of HO-1 were significantly increased (P<0.05), and Nrf2 was successfully activated into the nucleus. Compared with the control group, the activities of CAT, GSH-Px and T-SOD in high dose group were significantly decreased (P<0.05) . Conclusion: A large amount of Nd(2)O(3) accumulates in the liver of male mice, which may lead to oxidative stress and inflammatory response through activation of Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway. It is suggested that Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway may be one of the mechanisms of Nd(2)O(3) expose-induced liver injury in mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Liver/metabolism , Metals, Rare Earth , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
7.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 339-351, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982565

ABSTRACT

Ketone bodies have beneficial metabolic activities, and the induction of plasma ketone bodies is a health promotion strategy. Dietary supplementation of sodium butyrate (SB) is an effective approach in the induction of plasma ketone bodies. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this study, SB was found to enhance the catalytic activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2), a rate-limiting enzyme in ketogenesis, to promote ketone body production in hepatocytes. SB administrated by gavage or intraperitoneal injection significantly induced blood ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in mice. BHB production was induced in the primary hepatocytes by SB. Protein succinylation was altered by SB in the liver tissues with down-regulation in 58 proteins and up-regulation in 26 proteins in the proteomics analysis. However, the alteration was mostly observed in mitochondrial proteins with 41% down- and 65% up-regulation, respectively. Succinylation status of HMGCS2 protein was altered by a reduction at two sites (K221 and K358) without a change in the protein level. The SB effect was significantly reduced by a SIRT5 inhibitor and in Sirt5-KO mice. The data suggests that SB activated HMGCS2 through SIRT5-mediated desuccinylation for ketone body production by the liver. The effect was not associated with an elevation in NAD+/NADH ratio according to our metabolomics analysis. The data provide a novel molecular mechanism for SB activity in the induction of ketone body production.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Butyric Acid/metabolism , Ketone Bodies/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Sirtuins/metabolism , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase/metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 318-324, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981871

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effect and mechanism of blueberry on regulating the mitochondrial inner membrane protein mitofilin/Mic60 in an in vitro model of metabolic dysfunction-associated liver disease (MAFLD). Methods L02 human hepatocytes were induced by free fatty acids (FFA) to establish MAFLD cell model. A normal group, a model group, an 80 μg/mL blueberry treatment group, a Mic60 short hairpin RNA (Mic60 shRNA) transfection group, and Mic60 knockdown combined with an 80 μg/mL blueberry treatment group were established. The intracellular lipid deposition was observed by oil red O staining, and the effect of different concentrations of blueberry pulp on the survival rate of L02 cells treated with FFA was measured by MTT assay. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were measured by visible spectrophotometry. The expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes was observed by fluorescence microscopy, and the mRNA and protein expression of Mic60 were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Results After 24 hours of FFA stimulation, a large number of red lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of L02 cells was observed, and the survival rate of L02 cells treated with 80 μg/mL blueberry was higher. The results of ALT, AST, TG, TC, MDA and the fluorescence intensity of ROS in blueberry treated group were lower than those in model group, while the levels of SOD, GSH, Mic60 mRNA and protein in blueberry treated group were higher than those in model group. Conclusion Blueberry promotes the expression of Mic60, increases the levels of SOD and GSH in hepatocytes, and reduces the production of ROS, thus alleviating the injury of MAFLD hepatocytes and regulating the disorder of lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blueberry Plants/chemistry , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Superoxides/metabolism , Mitochondrial Membranes/metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3922-3933, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981525

ABSTRACT

Through the non-targeted metabolomics study of endogenous substances in the liver and serum of hyperlipidemia rats, the biomarkers related to abnormal lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia rats were found, and the target of ginsenoside Rb_1 in improving hyperlipidemia was explored and its mechanism was elucidated. The content of serum biochemical indexes of rats in each group was detected by the automatic biochemical analyzer. The metabolite profiles of liver tissues and serum of rats were analyzed by HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were used to compare and analyze the metabolic data in the normal group, the hyperlipidemia group, and the ginsenoside Rb_1 group, and screen potential biomar-kers. The related metabolic pathways were further constructed by KEGG database analysis. The results showed that hyperlipemia induced dyslipidemia in rats, which was alleviated by ginsenoside Rb_1. The non-targeted metabolomics results showed that there were 297 differential metabolites in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemia rats, 294 differential metabolites in the serum samples, and 560 diffe-rential metabolites in the hyperlipidemia rats treated by ginsenoside Rb_1. Perillic acid and N-ornithyl-L-taurine were common metabolites in the liver and serum samples, which could be used as potential biomarkers for ginsenoside Rb_1 in the improvement of hyperlipidemia. As revealed by pathway enrichment in the liver and serum, ginsenoside Rb_1 could participate in the metabolic pathway of choline in both the liver and serum. In addition, ginsenoside Rb_1 also participated in the ABC transporter, alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamate metabolism, protein digestion and absorption, β-alanine metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, caffeine metabolism, valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism, and methionine and cysteine metabolism to improve dyslipidemia in rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Metabolome , Ginsenosides/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Metabolomics/methods , Liver/metabolism , Biomarkers , Taurine
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1751-1759, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981392

ABSTRACT

Hepatic lipid deposition is one of the basic manifestations of obesity, and nowadays pharmacological treatment is the most important tool. Punicalagin(PU), a polyphenol derived from pomegranate peel, is a potential anti-obesity substance. In this study, 60 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a normal group and a model group. After establishing a model of simple obesity with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks, the successfully established rat models of obesity were then regrouped into a model group, an orlistat group, a PU low-dose group, a PU medium-dose group, and a PU high-dose group. The normal group was kept on routine diet and other groups continued to feed the high-fat diet. The body weight and food intake were measured and recorded weekly. After 8 weeks, the levels of the four lipids in the serum of each group of mice were determined by an automatic biochemical instrument. Oral glucose tole-rance and intraperitoneal insulin sensitivity were tested. Hemoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was applied to observe the hepatic and adipose tissues. The mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) and C/EBPα were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Q-PCR), and the mRNA and protein expression levels of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK), anterior cingulate cortex(ACC), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A(CPT1A) were determined by Western blot. Finally, the body mass, Lee's index, serum total glyceride(TG), serum total cholesterol(TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) levels were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) levels were significantly lower in the model group as compared with the normal group. The fat deposition in the liver was significantly increased. The mRNA expression levels of hepatic PPARγ and C/EBPα and the protein expression level of ACC were increased, while the mRNA and protein expression levels of CPT-1α(CPT1A) and AMPK were decreased. After PU treatment, the above indexes of obese mice were reversed. In conclusion, PU can decrease the body weight of obese mice and control their food intake. It also plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and glycometabolism metabolism, which can significantly improve hepatic fat deposition. Mechanistically, PU may regulate liver lipid deposition in obese mice by down-regulating lipid synthesis and up-regulating lipolysis through activation of the AMPK/ACC pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Mice, Obese , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Liver/metabolism , Obesity/genetics , Body Weight , Lipid Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Lipids , Cholesterol
11.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 781-784, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986212

ABSTRACT

Hepatic parenchymal cells are a type of liver cells that performs important functions such as metabolism and detoxification. The contribution of hepatic parenchymal cells, bile duct cells, and hepatic stem/progenitor cells to new hepatic parenchymal cells in the process of liver injury repair has become a controversial issue due to their strong proliferation ability. Lineage tracing technology, which has emerged in the past decade as a new method for exploring the origin of cells, can trace specific type of cells and their daughter cells by labeling cells that express the specific gene and their progeny. The article reviews the current literature on the origin and contribution of hepatic parenchymal cells by this technique. About 98% of new hepatic parenchymal cells originate from the existing hepatic parenchymal cells during liver homeostasis and after acute injury. However, under conditions of severe liver injury, such as inhibition of hepatic parenchymal cell proliferation, bile duct cells (mainly liver stem/progenitor cells) become the predominant source of hepatic parenchymal cells, contributing a steady increased hepatocyte regeneration with the extension of time.


Subject(s)
Hepatocytes/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Bile Ducts , Stem Cells , Liver Regeneration/physiology , Cell Differentiation
12.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 331-334, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935948

ABSTRACT

There exists a complex relationship between liver and thyroid hormones. Liver plays an important role in the activation, inactivation, transportation, and metabolism of thyroid hormones. At the same time, thyroid hormones also affect hepatocytes activity and liver metabolism, such as lipid and bilirubin metabolism. Importantly, thyroid hormone levels often change abnormally in patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore, studying the change of thyroid hormone levels in patients with liver cirrhosis has a certain clinical value for assessing the severity, prognosis, diagnosis and treatment. This paper reviews the research progress on the relationship between liver cirrhosis and thyroid hormone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bilirubin , Liver/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism
13.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 705-711, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936366

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes of tetraspanin 8 (TSPAN8) expression levels and its role in lipid metabolism during the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).@*METHODS@#Thirty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into normal diet group and high-fat diet (HFD) group (n=15), and after feeding for 1, 3, and 6 months, the expression levels of TSPAN8 in the liver tissues of the mice were detected with Western blotting. In a HepG2 cell model of NAFLD induced by free fatty acids (FFA), the effect of TSPAN8 overexpression on lipid accumulation was examined using Oil Red O staining and an automated biochemical analyzer, and the mRNA expressions of the key genes involved in lipid metabolism were detected using qRT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#Western blotting showed that compared with that in mice with normal feeding, the expression of TSPAN8 was significantly decreased in the liver tissues of mice with HFD feeding for 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05). In HepG2 cells, treatment with FFA significantly decreased the expression of TSPAN8 at both the mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.01). TSPAN8 overexpression in FFA-treated cells showed significantly lowered intracellular triglyceride levels (P < 0.001) and obviously reduced mRNA expression of fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5) (P < 0.01). The expression of FATP5 was significantly increased in FFA-treated cells as compared with the control cells (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#TSPAN8 is involved in lipid metabolism in NAFLD, and overexpression of TSPAN8 may inhibit cellular lipid deposition by reducing the expression of FATP5.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Lipid Metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 453-460, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927989

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the pharmaceutical effect and underlying mechanism of Zexie Decoction(ZXD) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) in vitro and in vivo via the LKB1/AMPK/PGC-1α pathway based on palmitic acid(PA)-induced lipid accumulation model and high-fat diet(HFD)-induced NAFLD model in mice. As revealed by the MTT assay, ZXD had no effect on HepG2 activity, but dose-dependently down-regulated alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the liver cell medium induced by PA, and decreased the plasma levels of ALT and AST, and total cholesterol(TC) and triglyceride(TG) levels in the liver. Nile red staining showed PA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation, significantly increased lipid accumulation of hepatocytes induced by PA, suggesting that the lipid accumulation model in vitro was properly induced. ZXD could effectively improve the lipid accumulation of hepatocytes induced by PA. Oil red O staining also demonstrated that ZXD improved the lipid accumulation in the liver of HFD mice. JC-1 staining for mitochondrial membrane potential indicated that ZXD effectively reversed the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential caused by hepatocyte injury induced by PA, activated PGC-1α, and up-regulated the expression of its target genes, such as ACADS, CPT-1α, CPT-1β, UCP-1, ACSL-1, and NRF-1. In addition, as revealed by the Western blot and immunohistochemistry, ZXD up-regulated the protein expression levels of LKB1, p-AMPK, p-ACC, and PGC-1α in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, ZXD can improve NAFLD and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of the LKB1/AMPK/PGC-1α pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 730-736, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927956

ABSTRACT

The present study clarified the molecular mechanism of curcumol against liver fibrosis based on its effects on the autopha-gy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells. The hepatic stellate cells were divided into a blank control group, a transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1)(10 ng·mL~(-1)) group, and low-(12.5 mg·L~(-1)), medium-(25 mg·L~(-1)), and high-dose(50 mg·L~(-1)) curcumol groups. The effect of curcumol on the viability of hepatic stellate cells induced by TGF-β1 was detected by the MTT assay kit. The apo-ptosis in each group was determined by flow cytometry. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR(RT-PCR) was employed for the detection of mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), type Ⅰ collagen(collagen Ⅰ), and type Ⅲ collagen(collagen Ⅲ). Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of p62, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), beclin1, B cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), and Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax). Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) was used to observe cell morphology and autophagosome formation in each group. The autophagic flux was observed after cell infection with adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling. The cell viability assay revealed that compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly decreased cell viability. The apoptosis assay showed that the apoptosis rates of the curcumol groups were significantly higher than that of the TGF-β1 group. RT-PCR indicated that the mRNA expression of α-SMA, collagenⅠ, and collagen Ⅲ in the curcumol groups was significantly lower than that of the TGF-β1 group. Western blot showed that the expression of p62, LC3, beclin1, Bcl-2, and Bax in the curcumol groups was significantly different from that in the TGF-β1 group. As demonstrated by TEM, compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly increased autophagosomes. The detection of autophagic flow by the adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling showed that autolysosomes in the curcumol groups were significantly increased compared with those in the TGF-β1 group. Curcumol can induce the autophagy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells, which may be one of its anti-liver fibrosis mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Actins/metabolism , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
16.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 440-446, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the correlation of the expression of Lipin1 in visceral adipose tissue and Lipin2 in liver tissue with hepatic fat content in rats with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).@*METHODS@#Pregnant rats were given a low-protein (10% protein) diet during pregnancy to establish a model of IUGR in neonatal rats. The pregnant rats in the control group were given a normal-protein (21% protein) diet during pregnancy. The neonatal rats were weighed and liver tissue was collected on day 1 and at weeks 3, 8, and 12 after birth, and visceral adipose tissue was collected at weeks 3, 8, and 12 after birth. The 3.0T 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure hepatic fat content at weeks 3, 8, and 12 after birth. Real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression levels of Lipin2 in liver tissue and Lipin1 in visceral adipose tissue. Western blot was used to measure protein levels of Lipin2 in liver tissue and Lipin1 in visceral adipose tissue. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate the correlation of mRNA and protein expression of Lipin with hepatic fat content.@*RESULTS@#The IUGR group had significantly higher mRNA and protein expression levels of Lipin1 in visceral adipose tissue than the control group at weeks 3, 8, and 12 after birth (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the IUGR group had significantly lower mRNA and protein expression levels of Lipin2 in liver tissue on day 1 after birth and significantly higher mRNA and protein expression levels of Lipin2 at weeks 1, 3, 8, and 12 after birth (P<0.05). At week 3 after birth, there was no significant difference in hepatic fat content between the IUGR and control groups (P>0.05), while at weeks 8 and 12 after birth, the IUGR group had a significantly higher hepatic fat content than the control group (P<0.05). The protein and mRNA expression levels of Lipin1 were positively correlated with hepatic fat content (r=0.628 and 0.521 respectively; P<0.05), and the protein and mRNA expression levels of Lipin2 were also positively correlated with hepatic fat content (r=0.601 and 0.524 respectively; P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Upregulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of Lipin1 in visceral adipose tissue and Lipin2 in liver tissue can increase hepatic fat content in rats with IUGR and may be associated with obesity in adulthood.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Rats , Fetal Growth Retardation , Gene Expression , Liver/metabolism , Organic Chemicals , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
17.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 730-738, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939805

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Long-term treatment of olanzapine, the most widely-prescribed second-generation antipsychotic, remarkably increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), whereas the mechanism for olanzapine-induced NAFLD remains unknown. Excessive hepatic fat accumulation is the basis for the pathogenesis of NAFLD, which results from the disturbance of TG metabolism in the liver. Apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) is a key regulator for TG metabolism in vivo that promotes TG accumulation in hepatocytes, thereby resulting in the development of NAFLD. However, there are no data indicating the role of apoA5 in olanzapine-induced NAFLD. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of apoA5 in olanzapine-induced NAFLD.@*METHODS@#This study was carried out via animal studies, cell experiment, and ApoA5 gene knockdown experiment. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomized into a control group, a low-dose group, and a high-dose group, which were treated by 10% DMSO, 3 mg/(kg·d) olanzapine, and 6 mg/(kg·d) olanzapine, respectively for 8 weeks. The lipid levels in plasma, liver function indexes, and expression levels of ApoA5 were detected. HepG2 cells were treated with 0.1% DMSO (control group), 25 μmol/L olanzapine (low-dose group), 50 μmol/L olanzapine (medium-dose group), and 100 μmol/L olanzapine (high-dose group) for 24 h. HepG2 cells pretreated with 100 μmol/L olanzapine were transfected with siRNA and scrambled siRNA (negative control), respectively. We observed the changes in lipid droplets within liver tissues and cells using oil red O staining and fat deposition in liver tissues using HE staining. The mRNA and protein levels of ApoA5 were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively.@*RESULTS@#After intervention with 3 and 6 mg/(kg·d) olanzapine for 8 weeks, there was no significant difference in body weight among the 3 groups (P>0.05). Olanzapine dose-dependently increased the plasma TG, ALT and AST levels, and reduced plasma ApoA5 levels (all P<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in plasma cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C, and TC) levels among the 3 groups (all P>0.05). Olanzapine dose-dependently up-regulated ApoA5 protein levels in liver tissues (all P<0.05), but there was no significant change in ApoA5 mRNA expression among groups (P>0.05). In the control group, the structure of liver tissues was intact, the morphology of liver cells was regular, and only a few scattered lipid droplets were found in the cells. In the olanzapine-treated group, there was a large amount of lipid deposition in hepatocytes, and cells were balloon-like and filled with lipid droplet vacuoles. The nucleus located at the edge of cell, and the number of lipid droplets was increased significantly, especially in the high-dose group. Likewise, when HepG2 cells were treated with olanzapine for 24 h, the number and size of lipid droplets were significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, olanzapine dose-dependently up-regulated ApoA5 protein levels in HepG2 cells (all P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in ApoA5 mRNA expression among groups (P>0.05). Compared with the HepG2 cells transfected with scrambled siRNA, the number and size of lipid droplets in HepG2 cells transfected with ApoA5 siRNA were significantly reduced.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The short-term intervention of olanzapine does not significantly increase body weight of mice, but it can directly induce hypertriglyceridemia and NAFLD in mice. Olanzapine inhibits hepatic apoA5 secretion but does not affect hepatic apoA5 synthesis, resulting in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Inhibition of apoA5 secretion plays a key role in the development of olanzapine-related NAFLD, which may serve as an intervention target for this disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Apolipoprotein A-V/genetics , Body Weight , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/chemically induced , Olanzapine/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Triglycerides
18.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 18-25, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929001

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can cause lipid metabolism disorders in animal body and affect the lipolysis and synthesis of fatty acids. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) plays an extremely important role in this process. This study aims to explore the effects of PFOA on liver lipid metabolism disorders in Sprague Dewley (SD) rats and the expression of PPAR.@*METHODS@#A total of 40 male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 in each group): a control group (ddH2O), a low-dose PFOA group [PFOA 1.25 mg/(kg·d)], a middle-dose PFOA group [PFOA 5.00 mg/(kg·d)], and a high-dose PFOA group [PFOA 20.00 mg/(kg·d)]. The rats were fed with normal diet, and PFOA exposure were performed by oral gavage for 14 days, and the rats were observed, weighted and recorded every day during the exposure. After the exposure, the blood was collected, and the livers were quickly stripped after the rats were killed. Part of the liver tissues were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for periodic acid-schiff (PAS) staining; the contents of HDLC, LDLC, TG, TC in serum and liver tissues, as well as the activities of their related enzymes were assayed; The expression levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element binding protein (Cbp), general control of amino acid synthesis 5-like 2 (Gcn5L2), peroxidation peroxisome proliferation factor activated receptor γ (PPAR), silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) and human retinoid X receptor alpha 2 (Rxrα2) ) were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#After 14 days of PFOA exposure, the PAS staining positive particles in the cytoplasm and nucleus of SD rats in the medium and high dose groups were significantly reduced compared with the control group. The serum levels of LDLC and TC in the low-dose and middle-dose groups were significantly reduced compared with the control group (all P<0.05), while the high-dose group showed an increasing tendency, without siginificant difference (P>0.05), there was no significant difference in HDLC and TG (both P>0.05). The activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were increased significantly (both P<0.05) compared with control group; the ratio of ALT/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the high-dose group was increased significantly (P<0.05), there was no significant difference in LDH and TG (both P>0.05); the HDLC content in the liver tissues in the high-dose group was significantly reduced, compared with the control group (P<0.05); the TC contents in the liver tissues in the low, medium and high-dose groups were significantly increased (all P<0.05), there was no significant difference in LDLC and TG (both P>0.05); the AKP activity in the livers in the medium and high-dose groups was significantly increased (both P<0.05), there was no siginificant difference in LDH, ALT, and the ratio of ALT/AST (all P>0.05); the protein expression levels of Ppar γ, Cbp and Rxrα2 in the liver in the high dose groups were significantly down-regulated compared with the control group (all P<0.05), while the protein expression levels of Sirt1 were significantly up-regulated (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#PFOA exposure can cause lipid metabolism disorder and glycogen reduction in SD rat livers, which may be related to the activation of Sirt1 and inhibition of Ppar γ expression, leading to affecting the normal metabolism of fatty acids and promoting glycolysis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Caprylates , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Fluorocarbons , Lipid Metabolism , Lipid Metabolism Disorders/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , PPAR gamma , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sirtuin 1/metabolism
19.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 271-279, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Liver disease is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of ulcerative colitis (UC), but the underlying pathogenesis is still not clarified. It is well accepted that the occurrence of UC-related liver disease has close correlation with immune activation, intestinal bacterial liver translocation, inflammatory cytokine storm, and the disturbance of bile acid circulation. The occurrence of UC-related liver disease makes the therapy difficult, therefor study on the pathogenesis of UC-related liver injury is of great significance for its prevention and treatment. Glutathione (GSH) shows multiple physiological activities, such as free radical scavenging, detoxification metabolism and immune defense. The synthesis and the oxidation-reduction all contribute to GSH antioxidant function. It is reported that the deficiency in hepatic GSH antioxidant function participates in multiple liver diseases, but whether it participates in the pathogenesis of UC-related liver injury is still not clear. This study aims to investigate the feature and underlying mechanism of GSH synthesis and oxidation-reduction function during the development of UC, which will provide useful information for the pathogenesis study on UC-related liver injury.@*METHODS@#UC model was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-ethanol solution (5 mg/0.8 mL per rat, 50% ethanol) via intra-colonic administration in rats, and the samples of serum, liver, and colon tissue of rats were collected at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days post TNBS. The severity degree of colitis was evaluated by measuring the disease activity index, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, and histopathological score, and the degree of liver injury was evaluated by histopathological score and the serum content of alanine aminotransferase. Spearman correlation analysis was also conducted between the degree of colonic lesions and index of hepatic histopathological score as well as serum aspartate aminotransferase level to clarify the correlation between liver injury and colitis. To evaluate the hepatic antioxidant function of GSH in UC rats, hepatic GSH content, enzyme activity of GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px), and GSH reductase (GR) were determined in rats at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days post TNBS, and the protein expressions of glutamine cysteine ligase (GCL), GSH synthase, GSH-Px, and GR in the liver of UC rats were also examined by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control, the disease activity index, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, and histopathological score were all significantly increased at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days post TNBS (all P<0.01), the serum aspartate aminotransferase level and hepatic histopathologic score were also obviously elevated at the 7th day post TNBS (all P<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the degree of liver injury and the severity of colonic lesions (P=0.000 1). Moreover, compared with the control, hepatic GSH content and the activity of GSH-Px and GR were all significantly decreased at the 3rd and 5th days post TNBS (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the protein expressions of GCL, GSH-Px, and GR were all obviously down-regulated at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days post TNBS (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a significant positive correlation between the degree of liver injury and the severity of colonic lesions, and the occurrence of reduced hepatic GSH synthesis and decreased GSH reduction function is obviously earlier than that of the liver injury in UC rats. The reduced hepatic expression of enzymes that responsible for GSH synthesis and reduction may contribute to the deficiency of GSH synthesis and oxidation-reduction function, indicating that the deficiency in GSH antioxidant function may participate in the pathogenesis of UC related liver injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Antioxidants , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Colon/pathology , Glutathione/biosynthesis , Liver/metabolism , Peroxidase/metabolism , Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
20.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 293-299, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929638

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the influencing factors of iron metabolism assessment in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Methods: MRI and/or DECT were used to detect liver and cardiac iron content in 181 patients with MDS, among whom, 41 received regular iron chelation therapy during two examinations. The adjusted ferritin (ASF) , erythropoietin (EPO) , cardiac function, liver transaminase, hepatitis antibody, and peripheral blood T cell polarization were detected and the results of myelofibrosis, splenomegaly, and cyclosporine were collected and comparative analyzed in patients. Results: We observed a positive correlation between liver iron concentration and ASF both in the MRI group and DECT groups (r=0.512 and 0.606, respectively, P<0.001) , only a weak correlation between the heart iron concentration and ASF in the MRI group (r=0.303, P<0.001) , and no significant correlation between cardiac iron concentration and ASF in the DECT group (r=0.231, P=0.053) . Moreover, transfusion dependence in liver and cardiac [MRI group was significantly associated with the concentration of iron in: LIC: (28.370±10.706) mg/g vs (7.593±3.508) mg/g, t=24.30, P<0.001; MIC: 1.81 vs 0.95, z=2.625, P<0.05; DECT group: liver VIC: (4.269±1.258) g/L vs (1.078±0.383) g/L, t=23.14, P<0.001: cardiac VIC: 1.69 vs 0.68, z=3.142, P<0.05]. The concentration of EPO in the severe iron overload group was significantly higher than that in the mild to moderate iron overload group and normal group (P<0.001) . Compared to the low-risk MDS group, the liver iron concentration in patients with MDS with cyclic sideroblasts (MDS-RS) was significantly elevated [DECT group: 3.80 (1.97, 5.51) g/L vs 1.66 (0.67, 2.94) g/L, P=0.004; MRI group: 13.7 (8.1,29.1) mg/g vs 11.6 (7.1,21.1) mg/g, P=0.032]. Factors including age, bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, T cell polarization, use of cyclosporine A, liver aminotransferase, and hepatitis antibody positive had no obvious effect on iron metabolism. Conclusion: There was a positive correlation between liver iron concentration and ASF in patients with MDS, whereas there was no significant correlation between cardiac iron concentration and ASF. Iron metabolism was affected by transfusion dependence, EPO concentration, and RS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ferritins , Iron , Iron Overload , Liver/metabolism , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/therapy , Primary Myelofibrosis , Retrospective Studies , Splenomegaly
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