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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 583-588, May-June 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278349


The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of diseases in free-ranging wild canids that were roadkill on highways in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. PCR tests were performed for the detection of Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp., and Hepatozoon sp. in the spleen. Morphological evaluation and identification of parasites was performed in the liver and lung. Twenty specimens of C. thous were necropsied at the Animal Pathology Sector of the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. There was no PCR amplification of genomic DNA sequences of Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp., and Hepatozoon sp. using DNA extracted from the spleen as template. Histologically, lesions associated with parasitism by Platynosomum sp. and Angiostrongylus sp. were observed in the liver and lung, respectively. This is the first report of Platynosomum sp. and Angiostrongylus sp. parasitism in C. thous in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Therefore, this study demonstrated parasitism of crab-eating foxes by Platynosomum sp. and Angiostrongylus sp. Importantly, no evidence of infection with Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp., and Hepatozoon sp. was obtained by PCR analysis.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de doenças em canídeos silvestres de vida livre que foram atropelados em rodovias no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Testes de PCR foram realizados para a detecção de Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp. e Hepatozoon sp. no baço. A avaliação morfológica e a identificação de parasitas foram realizadaa no fígado e no pulmão. Vinte espécimes de C. thous foram necropsiados no Setor de Patologia Animal do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Amostras de tecido foram processadas para exame histopatológico e análise de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Não houve amplificação por PCR das sequências de DNA genômico de Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp. e Hepatozoon sp. usando-se DNA extraído do baço como modelo. Histologicamente, lesões associadas ao parasitismo por Platynosomum sp. e Angiostrongylus sp. foram observadas no fígado e no pulmão, respectivamente. Este é o primeiro relato de Platynosomum sp. e Angiostrongylus sp. parasitismo em C. thous no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Portanto, este estudo demonstrou parasitismo de cachorro-do-mato por Platynosomum sp. e Angiostrongylus sp. É importante detacar que não há evidências de infecção por Brucella sp., Babesia sp., Rangelia sp. e Hepatozoon sp. por análise de PCR.(AU)

Animals , Babesia/isolation & purification , Brucella/isolation & purification , Canidae/blood , Angiostrongylus/isolation & purification , Autopsy/veterinary , Spleen/virology , Accidents, Traffic , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Liver/parasitology , Lung/parasitology , Animals, Wild/blood
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878688


A patient with multiple-organ echinococcosis suffered from liver echinococcosis,lung echinococcosis,and pelvic echinococcosis successively in the past three decades.From the first operation at 19 years-old,she underwent operations several times due to the recurrence of multiple organ involvement.Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease.Although the liver usually is the primary site,the disease can also invade many other organs.Diagnosis is typically based on disease history and imaging findings.Thorough removal of the lesions during the first operation is particularly important.Comprehensive evaluations and multi-disciplinary team are helpful in the treatment of patients with multiple organ invasion.

Adult , Diagnostic Imaging , Echinococcosis/surgery , Female , Humans , Liver/parasitology , Lung/parasitology , Pelvis/physiopathology , Young Adult
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 352-354, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039217


ABSTRACT Schistosomiasis affects approximately 207 million people in 76 countries. The association between hepatocellular carcinoma and Schistosoma mansoni infection has been investigated. Studies using animal models suggest that the parasite may accelerate the oncogenic process when combined with other factors, such as hepatitis C virus infection or exposure to a carcinogen. Herein, we report a case series of six hepatocellular carcinoma patients from Northeast Brazil, with negative serology for both hepatitis B and C virus, submitted to liver transplantation, whose explant showed evidence of schistosomal liver fibrosis. Since all patients enrolled in this study were submitted to liver transplantation, we were able to access the whole explanted liver and perform histopathological analysis, which is often not possible in other situations. Although 50% of them showed signs of liver failure, no cirrhosis or any liver disease other than schistosomal fibrosis had been detected. These uncommon findings suggest that Schistosoma mansoni infection might predispose to hepatocellular carcinoma development, regardless of the absence of other risk factors.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schistosomiasis mansoni/surgery , Liver Transplantation , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Schistosomiasis mansoni/complications , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/parasitology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver/parasitology , Liver Cirrhosis/parasitology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/parasitology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(2): 226-231, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959178


Abstract Although sheep farming has grown in the state of Acre over the past four decades, little is known about occurrences of helminthiases in the herds of this region. The objective of the study was to assess the occurrences of non-intestinal helminthiasis among sheep slaughtered in Rio Branco. A total of 110 sheep livers were inspected from two slaughter batches (july 2014 and march 2015) in a slaughterhouse in Rio Branco. Livers with macroscopic lesions were photographed and were then subjected to histopathological analysis under an optical microscope. The macroscopic lesions showed small nodes with inflammatory characteristics and areas of fibrosis, which appeared to be calcified, thus suggesting a granulomatous reaction. Of the 110 evaluated livers, we noticed 110 nodules in total; these nodules have an average size of 0.5 cm. The histopathological analysis showed alterations to the architecture of the hepatic lobe, with multiple foci of necrosis and polymorphonuclear cells. Two samples revealed the presence of helminths from Nematode class and Capillaria sp. eggs identified by the typical morphology and morphometry. This seems to be the first report of Capillaria sp. in sheep livers in Brazil, and it serves as an important alert regarding animal health surveillance and control and regarding the Capillaria sp. zoonotic role in humans.

Resumo Embora a ovinocultura tenha despertado o interesse de criadouros no estado do Acre nas últimas quatro décadas, pouco se conhece sobre a ocorrência de helmintoses no plantel de ovinos dessa região. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a possibilidade de ocorrência de helmintíases não intestinais entre ovinos abatidos no município de Rio Branco. Foram inspecionados 110 fígados de ovinos em dois abates (julho de 2014 e março de 2015) em um abatedouro no município de Rio Branco. Fígados com lesões macroscópicas foram fotografados com posterior análise histopatológica por microscopia de luz. Nas lesões macroscópicas foram encontrados pequenos nódulos apresentando características inflamatórias com áreas de fibrose, aparentemente calcificadas, sugerindo uma reação granulomatosa. Dos 110 fígados avaliados, observou-se 110 nódulos no total; estes nódulos têm um tamanho médio de 0,5 cm. A análise histopatológica mostrou alterações na arquitetura do lóbulo hepático, com múltiplos focos de necrose, além da formação de abscessos hepáticos constituídos por polimorfonucleares. Duas amostras revelaram a presença de helmintos da Classe Nematoda e ovos de Capillaria sp. identificados pela morfologia típica e morfometria. Esse resultado parece ser o primeiro registro de Capillaria sp. em fígado de ovino no Brasil, o que é um importante alerta para a vigilância no controle sanitário animal e o seu papel zoonótico para humanos.

Animals , Male , Female , Sheep/parasitology , Abattoirs , Brazil , Capillaria/isolation & purification , Liver/parasitology
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(supl.1): S40-S44, 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117671


Fascioliasis is a parasitic disease produced mainly by the fluke Fasciola hepatica. The human infection is mainly due to the accidental intake of metacercariae present in watercress and/or contaminated water. The human disease is uncommon in Chile, despite the high prevalence of animal infection, which affects almost the entire national territory and determines high economic and productive impacts. Human fascioliasis can manifest like acute or chronic phase of the disease (in Chile, the majority in chronic phase) and its identification requires a high index of suspicion, in individuals with abdominal pain, hepatomegaly and eosinophilia, where the epidemiological background of watercress ingestion is usually present. Diagnosis usually requires the integration of egg visualization in stools, serology and imaging studies. The treatment of choice with triclabendazole is usually highly effective and safe.

La fascioliasis es una enfermedad parasitaria producida principalmente por el trematodo Fasciola hepática. La infección en el hombre, quien es un huésped accidental, se debe principalmente a la ingesta de metacercarias presentes en berros y/o aguas contaminadas. La enfermedad en humanos es infrecuente en Chile, a pesar de la alta prevalencia de infección animal, que afecta a casi todo el territorio nacional y determina un alto impacto económico y productivo. La fascioliasis humana puede manifestarse en fase aguda o crónica (en Chile, la mayoría en fase crónica) y su identificación requiere un alto índice de sospecha, en individuos con dolor abdominal, hepatomegalia y eosinofilia, donde el antecedente epidemiológico de ingesta de berros suele estar presente. El diagnóstico, habitualmente requiere la integración de la visualización directa de huevos en las deposiciones, estudios de serología e imágenes. El tratamiento de elección con triclabendazol, habitualmente es altamente efectivo y seguro.

Humans , Fascioliasis/diagnosis , Fascioliasis/drug therapy , Fasciola hepatica/pathogenicity , Fascioliasis/physiopathology , Fascioliasis/epidemiology , Metacercariae , Triclabendazole/therapeutic use , Liver/parasitology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(3): 285-291, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899292


Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric measures and morphological aspects of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, and the presence of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) associated with the periphery of cysts and in the liver parenchyma. Adult specimens, 34 female (123.1 ± 43.9g) and 45 male (135.5 ± 43.4g), from Paraguay River, Corumbá, Brazil, were used. The number of nematode-cysts was determined in 79 livers and 25 of them randomly selected for histopathological analysis and morphometric measures of nematode-cysts (mean diameter, thickness of collagen layer, and cyst-wall layer). The percentage of cysts with MMCs on the periphery and density in the liver parenchyma was estimated. The average number of macroscopic cysts was of 48.7 ± 2.78. Granulomatous reaction was observed surrounding the cysts. Diameter, collagen layer and cyst-wall measurements were 293.0 ± 75.18 (µm), 17.72 ± 6.01 (µm) and 12.21 ± 9.51 (µm), respectively. The number of nematode-cysts was correlated with hepatosomatic index, (r=0.26, P<0.05). Collagen layer was correlated with cyst diameter (r=0.62, P<0.01). Pericystic and parenchymatous MMCs were moderately (r=0.48) and highly (r=0.90) correlated with nematode-cysts number. Morphological characteristics of hepatic tissue and cysts-nematodes measures suggest that G. inaequilabiatus acts as a paratenic host to nematodes in the larval stage.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as características morfológicas e morfométricas de cistos de nematodas em fígado de Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, e a presença de centros de melanomacrófagos (CMMs) pericísticos e no parênquima hepático. Espécimes adultos, 34 fêmeas (123,1 ± 43,9 g) e 45 machos (135,5 ± 43,4g), provenientes do Rio Paraguai, Corumbá, Brasil foram utilizados. Os cistos foram quantificados em 79 fígados. Em 25 fígados foi realizada a análise histopatológica e morfometria dos cistos (diâmetro, espessura da camada de colágeno e da parede). Estimou-se a porcentagem de cistos com CMMs periférico e a densidade de CMMs no parênquima. A média de cistos macroscópicos foi de 48,7 ± 2,78. Observou-se reação granulomatosa pericística. O diâmetro, a espessura da camada de colágeno e da parede do cisto foi de 293,0 ± 75,18 (µm), 17,72 ± 6,01 (µm) e 12,21 ± 9,51 (µm), respectivamente. O número de cistos foi associado ao índice hepatossomático, (r=0,26, P <0,05). A camada de colágeno correlacionou-se com o diâmetro do cisto (r=0,62, P <0,01). CMMs pericísticos e do parênquima apresentaram correlação moderada (r=0,48) e alta (r=0,90) com o número de cistos, respectivamente. As características morfológicas do tecido hepático e a morfometria dos cistos de nematodas sugerem que G. inaequilabiatus atua como hospedeiro paratênico para larvas de nematodas.

Animals , Gymnotiformes/parasitology , Liver/parasitology , Nematoda/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Wetlands
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 652-657, Sept.-Oct. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897016


Abstract INTRODUCTION Immunogenicity of Schistosoma mansoni egg surface was examined to determine whether intact eggshells have lower antigenicity than ruptured eggs. METHODS: Swiss Webster mice were inoculated with intact or ultrasonicated S. mansoni eggs isolated from infected human feces. Mice were separated into four groups of six animals each and immunizations were performed approximately every 20 days during a 60-day period. Groups 1-4 were administered with saline solution, sonicated eggs with Freund's adjuvant, sonicated eggs without Freund's adjuvant, and intact eggs, respectively. IgG humoral immune response was assessed by ELISA using Soluble Egg Antigen produced from eggs isolated from the livers of infected mice. RESULTS Sonicated eggs co-administered with adjuvant induced the highest humoral response at 58 days, which was 11.9-fold (95% CI 6.2-17.5) greater than the response induced by saline solution. Sonicated eggs without adjuvant induced a 4.3-fold stronger response (95% CI 2.4-6.2) than normal saline. Intact eggs induced humoral response that was nominally twice stronger (95% CI 0.8-3.2) than that induced by normal saline but the effect did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS Soluble antigens are not abundant on the surface of S. mansoni eggs and/or are not secreted in sufficient quantities to induce a significant immune response to intact eggs. Assuming that isolation procedures had not damaged the eggs used for inoculation, our observations suggest that intact eggs either do not induce a significant immune response or, if they do, the mechanism involves insoluble antigens from the egg surface.

Animals , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/immunology , Eggs/parasitology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Parasite Egg Count , Schistosoma mansoni/parasitology , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunogenetic Phenomena , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Liver/parasitology , Mice
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(3): 342-347, July-Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795072


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis and parasite load in the liver and spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniosis (VL), using immunohistochemistry. Liver and spleen samples from 71 dogs with VL were used. The parasite load in the spleen and liver showed significant difference between organs in infected group (P=0.0219). The density of the parasite load in the spleen (median=2.4) was higher than liver (median=0.8). Immunodetection of apoptotic cells was predominant in lymphocytes and differ between the infected and control group in spleen (P=0.0307) and liver (P=0.0346). There was a significant correlation between apoptosis and parasite load (P = 0.0084; r=0.3104) only in the spleen of the infected group, where it was observed that, when increasing the number of apoptotic cells increases the parasitic load. It was concluded that the liver and spleen of infected dogs presented greater numbers of cells undergoing apoptosis (lymphocytes) than the control group, thus suggesting that this process may be contributing towards the survival of Leishmania in these organs, because lymphocyte in apoptosis did not have the ability to present and recognize the antigen, allowing the survival of the parasite.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a apoptose e a carga parasitária no fígado e baço de cães com leishmaniose visceral (LV), pela técnica de imuno-histoquímica. Foram utilizadas amostras de fígado e baço de 71 cães com LV. A carga parasitária no baço e fígado mostrou diferença significativa entre os órgãos no grupo infectado (P=0,0219). A densidade da carga de parasita no baço (média=2,4) foi maior do que no fígado (média=0,8). A imunodetecção de células em apoptose foi predominante nos linfócitos, com diferenças entre o grupo infectado e controle no baço (P=0,0307) e fígado (P=0,0346). Houve uma correlação positiva fraca entre apoptose e carga parasitária (P=0,0084; r=0,3104) apenas no baço do grupo infectado, onde observou-se que quando aumentava o número de células em apoptose aumentava a carga parasitária. Concluiu-se que o fígado e o baço de cães infectados apresentam um maior número de células que sofrem apoptose (linfócitos) do que o grupo controle, sugerindo que este processo possa contribuir para a sobrevivência de Leishmania nestes órgãos, pois os linfócitos em apoptose não tiveram a capacidade de apresentar e reconhecer o antígeno, permitindo a sobrevivência do parasita.

Animals , Dogs , Spleen/parasitology , Apoptosis/physiology , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Parasite Load , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Liver/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(4): 1245-1254, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744867


The Live Birth Information System (SINASC) was implemented in 1990 for the purpose of providing information about the live-birth characteristics for the establishment of specific health indicators. This work evaluates the information quality of SINASC in relation to its data completeness and coverage for five municipalities from the State of Acre from 2005 to 2010. Lack of information (not filled out or stated as "unknown") was estimated for each variable. Coverage was estimated comparing the Civil Register office statistics in accordance with the mother's municipality of residence. An increase in incompleteness of the majority of variables was observed, and also a decrease in coverage between 2005 and 2010 in these municipalities. These findings do not tally with results from the majority of studies that use SINASC as a data source. The results of this work highlight the relevance of continuous capacity building and the incentive for accurate and complete data inclusion, as well as awareness of the importance of SINASC for public health policies.

O Sistema de Informação de Nascidos Vivos (SINASC) foi implantado no ano de 1990 com o objetivo de fornecer dados sobre as características de nascidos vivos para o estabelecimento de indicadores de saúde específicos. Objetivo: O presente trabalho avalia a qualidade da informação do SINASC quanto à incompletude dos seus dados e da cobertura para cinco municípios do estado do Acre nos anos de 2005 e 2010. Métodos: Foi calculada a incompletude (definida como dados em branco/ignorado) de cada variável, assim como a cobertura desse sistema através da comparação com as estatísticas do Registro Civil, segundo município de residência da mãe. Resultados: Observou-se um aumento da incompletude da maioria das variáveis e uma diminuição da cobertura de 2005 para 2010 no conjunto dos municípios avaliados, destoando dos resultados obtidos na maioria dos estudos que utilizam o SINASC como fonte de dados. Conclusões: Os resultados deste trabalho apontam para a importância da contínua capacitação e também para o incentivo ao preenchimento dos dados de forma correta e completa, bem como a conscientização da importância do SINASC para as políticas públicas de saúde.

Animals , Female , Humans , Antibodies, Helminth/analysis , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnosis , Echinococcus granulosus/immunology , Hepatectomy/methods , Liver/parasitology , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/parasitology , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Echinococcus granulosus/isolation & purification , Liver/pathology , Liver/surgery
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225145


Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution. The present study investigated the prevalence of T. gondii in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China, using both serological and molecular detection. A total of 364 serum samples and 432 liver tissue samples were collected from the slaughter house between December 2012 and January 2013 and were examined for T. gondii IgG antibody by ELISA and T. gondii DNA by semi-nested PCR based on B1 gene, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG antibody was 51.9%, and T. gondii DNA was detected in 37 of 432 (8.6%) liver tissue samples. These positive DNA samples were analyzed by PCR-RFLP at 3'- and 5'-SAG2. Only 8 samples gave the PCR-RFLP data, and they were all classified as type I, which may suggest that the T. gondii isolates from dogs in Zhanjiang city may represent type I or type I variant. This study revealed the high prevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China. Integrated measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis in dogs in this area for public health concern.

Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , China/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Female , Genotype , Liver/parasitology , Male , Toxoplasma/classification , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/blood
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(5): 455-457, Sep-Oct/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722334


The nematode Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a zoonotic helminth found mainly infecting rats. It was studied the prevalence of C. hepaticum infection in Rattus norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), with low urban planning and sanitation. The presence of C. hepaticum was identified through visible yellowish-white lesions in liver tissue and histological analyses. The total prevalence of infection was 45%, with no significant differences between sex and age. The presence of infected rodents near the peridomestic area poses substantial risk to human health.

O nematóide Calodium hepaticum (sin. Capillaria hepatica) é um helminto zoonótico encontrado infectando principalmente ratos. A prevalência da infecção de C. hepaticum em Rattus norvegicus foi investigada em área urbana do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil) com baixo planejamento e saneamento. A presença de C. hepaticum foi identificada através da presença de lesões macroscópicas caracterizadas por manchas extensas de coloração branco-amarelada difusa por toda superfície do tecido do fígado e através de análise histológica. A prevalência total da infecção foi de 45% sem diferença significativa entre o sexo e idade. A presença de roedores infectados próximos do peridomicílio representa um risco substancial para a saúde humana.

Animals , Female , Male , Capillaria/isolation & purification , Enoplida Infections/veterinary , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Rats/parasitology , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs , Enoplida Infections/epidemiology , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Liver/parasitology , Liver/pathology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162045


Introduction: Protoscolex and hook morphology had been used to identify different strains of Echinococcus granulosus. Method: In the present study, hydatid sand was isolated from infected organs such as liver, lung and spleen from slaughtered animals in several abattoirs in the selected study areas in Libya. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to describe the outer surface of the Protoscoleces and the hooks. Result: SEM pictures showed different morphological characters of the outer surface of the different parts of the same protoscolex. Also, the buds on the outer surface of brood capsule, and showed some differences between the large and small hooks. These findings appeared the that there was a correlation with significant statistical difference between the measurements of large as well as small hooks from the same organs of each host as well as between different hosts. Conclusion: Finally, it was difficult to determine whether these cases are not real distortions in the morphology of E. granulosus. They possibly could be caused by mutation or related to a special strain of E.granulosus. Thus, the findings of the present study would suggest that there is a need to consider relationships between the different characters of hooks with different strains of E.granulosus.

Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/cytology , Echinococcus granulosus/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Liver/parasitology , Lung/parasitology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(3): 801-808, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718073


The occurrence of Aviadenovirus (FAdV) was investigated in chickens from the poultry industry of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The investigation was conducted due to the scarcity of recent data in the country and its description in neighboring countries. For this purpose, livers were collected from layer chicks (n=25), older layers (n=25), broilers (n=300), and livers (n=25) and stool (n=25) samples from broiler breeders, representing the major poultry regions of the state. FAdV DNA was demonstrated using a previously described PCR protocol for amplifying part of the hexon gene encoding sequence. FAdV was found in layer chicks (36 percent), widespread (100 percent) in older layers, and with regional differences in broilers (24-86 percent). Although all broiler breeder stools were negative, FAdV DNA was detected in livers (16 percent, 4/25) of stool-negative birds. In order to obtain additional information on the circulation of the infection, livers of subsistence chickens collected from one poultry intensive region, were evaluated (n = 12), with FAdV being detected in all samples. FAdV was found in young and old layers, broilers, broiler breeders and free-range chickens, and results suggest the circulation of FAdV among different types of chickens. The detection in older layer chickens may indicate an extended risk of horizontal transmission in regions of Minas Gerais with mixed activity of egg and meat type chickens and poor biosecurity strategies. The infection in breeders may indicate vertical transmission and the continuous production of infected progenies. The hexon-gene-targeted PCR amplicon sequences aligned with FAdV of species D of Aviadenovirus. Results indicate the necessity for biosecurity, especially for breeders, separating flocks according to origin, age and health status, which will be an advantage regarding any pathogen...

Descreve-se a ocorrência de Aviadenovirus (FAdV) na avicultura mineira. Foram amostrados fígados de poedeiras jovens (n=25) e velhas (n=25) e de frangos de corte (n=300). Em matrizes pesadas foram amostrados fígados (n=25) e fezes (n=25). O estudo envolveu as principais regiões avícolas do Estado de Minas Gerais. O DNA de FAdV foi pesquisado por PCR universal, descrito para a amplificação do gene que codifica o hexon de Aviadenovirus, usando FAdV Phelps como referência. Foi demonstrada a presença do DNA de FAdV em 100 por cento (25/25) das poedeiras velhas (78 semanas de idade) e em 36 por cento (9/25) das jovens (18 dias). Em frangos de corte, a detecção variou entre 24 e 86 por cento. Embora as fezes das matrizes tenham sido negativas, foi obtido o amplicon específico em 4/25 dos fígados dessas mesmas aves, indicando menor sensibilidade para detecção nas fezes. Em amostras da avicultura familiar (fígado), colhidas de uma das regiões de avicultura intensificada, foi detectado o genoma de FAdV em 100 por cento das galinhas (n=12). A constatação de alta disseminação de FAdV em aves da avicultura industrial e familiar de Minas Gerais contribui para o entendimento da epidemiologia de Aviadenovirus. As sequências nucleotídicas dos produtos de PCR alinharam com FAdV da espécie D de Aviadenovirus. A demonstração de FAdV em reprodutores indica risco de transmissão vertical e reforça a necessidade de biosseguridade estrita nesses plantéis. A presença de FAdV em diversos setores avícolas, incluindo poedeiras comerciais, frangos de corte, reprodutores e galinhas da avicultura familiar, recomenda a biosseguridade estrita entre as criações de mesmo tipo e de tipos diferentes de aves. A detecção em matrizes pode indicar a continuada geração de progênies infectadas...

Animals , Aviadenovirus/isolation & purification , Poultry Diseases/diagnosis , Liver/parasitology , Epidemiology , Poultry
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(2): 147-153, abr. 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705816


Clinical and laboratory risk factors for death from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are relatively known, but quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) might assess the role of parasite load in determining clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors, including parasite load in peripheral blood, for VL poor outcome among children. This prospective cohort study evaluated children aged ≤ 12 years old with VL diagnosis at three times: pre-treatment (T0), during treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2). Forty-eight patients were included and 16 (33.3%) met the criteria for poor outcome. Age ≤ 12 months [relative risk (RR) 3.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.89-6.52], tachydyspnoea (RR 3.46; 95% CI 2.19-5.47), bacterial infection (RR 3.08; 95% CI 1.27-7.48), liver enlargement (RR 3.00; 95% CI 1.44-6.23) and low serum albumin (RR 7.00; 95% CI 1.80-27.24) were identified as risk factors. qPCR was positive in all patients at T0 and the parasite DNA was undetectable in 76.1% of them at T1 and in 90.7% at T2. There was no statistical association between parasite load at T0 and poor outcome.

Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , Parasite Load/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , DNA, Protozoan/isolation & purification , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Hepatomegaly , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Liver/parasitology , Prospective Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Risk Factors , RNA, Ribosomal/blood , Serum Albumin , Statistics, Nonparametric , Spleen/parasitology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(2): 210-219, abr. 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705819


Undernourished mice infected (UI) submitted to low and long-lasting infections by Schistosoma mansoni are unable to develop the hepatic periportal fibrosis that is equivalent to Symmers’ fibrosis in humans. In this report, the effects of the host’s nutritional status on parasite (worm load, egg viability and maturation) and host (growth curves, biology, collagen synthesis and characteristics of the immunological response) were studied and these are considered as interdependent factors influencing the amount and distribution of fibrous tissue in hepatic periovular granulomas and portal spaces. The nutritional status of the host influenced the low body weight and low parasite burden detected in UI mice as well as the number, viability and maturation of released eggs. The reduced oviposition and increased number of degenerated or dead eggs were associated with low protein synthesis detected in deficient hosts, which likely induced the observed decrease in transformation growth factor (TGF)-β1 and liver collagen. Despite the reduced number of mature eggs in UI mice, the activation of TGF-β1 and hepatic stellate cells occurred regardless of the unviability of most miracidia, due to stimulation by fibrogenic proteins and eggshell glycoproteins. However, changes in the repair mechanisms influenced by the nutritional status in deficient animals may account for the decreased liver collagen detected in the present study.

Animals , Mice , Collagen/biosynthesis , Liver Cirrhosis/parasitology , Liver/pathology , Malnutrition/parasitology , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Acute-Phase Reaction/etiology , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Eggs/analysis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Granuloma, Foreign-Body/parasitology , Intestines/parasitology , Liver/parasitology , Malnutrition/complications , Nutritional Status , Oviposition/immunology , Primary Cell Culture , Parasitemia/parasitology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/complications , Schistosomiasis mansoni/pathology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20005


The technique of stem cells or hepatocytes transplantation has recently improved in order to bridge the time before whole-organ liver transplantation. In the present study, unfractionated bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were harvested from the tibial and femoral marrow compartments of male mice, which were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with and without hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and then transplanted into Schistosoma mansoni-infected female mice on their 8th week post-infection. Mice were sacrificed monthly until the third month of bone marrow transplantation, serum was collected, and albumin concentration, ALT, AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were assayed. On the other hand, immunohistopathological and immunohistochemical changes of granuloma size and number, collagen content, and cells expressing OV-6 were detected for identification of liver fibrosis. BMSCs were shown to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells. Serum ALT, AST, and ALP were markedly reduced in the group of mice treated with BMSCs than in the untreated control group. Also, granuloma showed a marked decrease in size and number as compared to the BMSCs untreated group. Collagen content showed marked decrease after the third month of treatment with BMSCs. On the other hand, the expression of OV-6 increased detecting the presence of newly formed hepatocytes after BMSCs treatment. BMSCs with or without HGF infusion significantly enhanced hepatic regeneration in S. mansoni-induced fibrotic liver model and have pathologic and immunohistopathologic therapeutic effects. Also, this new therapeutic trend could generate new hepatocytes to improve the overall liver functions.

Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Animals , Antigens, Differentiation/biosynthesis , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Cell Differentiation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Cells, Cultured , Collagen/metabolism , Female , Granuloma/parasitology , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/pharmacology , Hepatocytes/cytology , Liver/parasitology , Liver Cirrhosis/parasitology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Schistosoma mansoni/pathogenicity , Schistosomiasis mansoni/mortality , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells/cytology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(4): 519-524, Oct-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698025


The South American water rat Nectomys squamipes is a wild mammal reservoir of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil. In the present study, wild rodents were collected in the field and categorized into two groups: infected and uninfected by S. mansoni. Blood was collected to analyze changes in the serum glucose level (mg/dL) and liver fragments were used to determine the hepatic glycogen content (mg of glucose/g tissue). The histological examination showed inflammatory granulomatous lesions in different phases of development in the liver of rodents naturally infected with S. mansoni, in some cases with total or partial occlusion of the vascular lumen. Early lesions were characterized by the presence of inflammatory infiltrate around morphologically intact recently deposited eggs. Despite the significance of these histological lesions, the biochemical changes differed in extent. N. squamipes naturally infected by S. mansoni showed no variation in hepatic glycogen reserves. These findings were accompanied by a significant increase in plasma glucose contents, probably as a consequence of amino acids deamination, which are degraded, resulting in the formation of intermediates used as precursors for the glucose formation, without compromising the reserves of liver glycogen. In the wild, naturally infected N. squamipes can maintain S. mansoni infections without undergoing alterations in its carbohydrate metabolism, which minimizes the deleterious effects of S. mansoni.

Nectomys squamipes é um mamífero silvestre reservatório de Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil. No presente estudo, os roedores silvestres, colhidos no campo, foram classificados em dois grupos: infectado e não infectado por S. mansoni. O sangue foi colhido para análise da alteração no nível de glicose sérico (mg/dL) e fragmentos de fígado foram usados para determinar o conteúdo de glicogênio hepático (mg de glicose/g tecido). A análise histológica demonstrou lesões granulomatosas em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento no tecido hepático dos roedores naturalmente infectados com S. mansoni, localizados principalmente na região periportal, com total ou parcial oclusão do lúmen vascular. As lesões foram caracterizadas por presença de infiltrado inflamatório ao redor de ovos morfologicamente intactos recentemente depositados. Apesar da grande significância das lesões histológicas, as alterações bioquímicas não diferiram no mesmo grau. N. squamipes naturalmente por S. mansoni não apresentaram variação na reserva de glicogênio hepático. Esses achados foram acompanhados pelo aumento significativo nos conteúdos de glicose plasmática, provavelmente como consequência ao processo desaminativo de aminoácidos, que passam a ser degradados notadamente para a formação de glucose, sem contudo comprometer a reserva de glicogênio hepático. Em condições naturais a infecção de S. mansoni pode ser mantida usando N. squamipes como hospedeiro definitivo, sem alterações significativas nos conteúdos de glicogênio hepático, minimizando os efeitos deletérios causados por S. mansoni nos roedores N. squamipes naturalmente infectados.

Animals , Female , Male , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Rodentia/parasitology , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Schistosomiasis mansoni/veterinary , Liver/parasitology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/metabolism , Schistosomiasis mansoni/pathology
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 45(3): 169-73, set. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1171788


We report the first finding of Echinococcus vogeli in a paca, Cuniculus paca, in the tropical forest of Misiones, in the north of Argentina. The presence of the bush dog, Speothos venaticus, E. vogelís only natural definitive host, was also reported. The polycystic hydatids, 2 to 3 cm in diameter, were only found in the liver of an adult paca. The size range of the hooks and the relative proportion blade/handle did not show significant differences with respect to the ones reported for E. vogeli. The size of E. granulosus hooks, measured for comparison purposes, was significantly smaller (p E. vogeli in Argentina. The probability of finding neotropical echinococcosis in humans reinforces the need to expand the search for E. vogeli in Argentina. Echinococcosis due to E. vogeli is very aggressive and may cause death in about a third of the human population affected.

Echinococcus/isolation & purification , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Liver/parasitology , Rodentia/parasitology , Animals , Argentina
salvador; s.n; 2013. 69 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000902


Na esquistossomose mansônica o fígado é o órgão alvo das agressões patogênicas, onde as lesões hepáticas caracterizam-se principalmente pela presença de granulomas periovulares e formação de fibrose periportal, além de alterações vasculares responsáveis pela hipertensão dentro do sistema venoso portal. A angiogênese precede a maioria dos casos de fibrose, onde se verifica participação direta das células estreladas hepáticas (CEH) e das células endoteliais sinusoidais (CES) que são estimuladas, principalmente por macrófagos do tipo II (M2) – ativados alternativamente. O tratamento para esquistossomose é feito pelo uso do praziquantel (PZQ)...

The liver is a target for pathogenic attacks during schistosomiasis, showing periovular granulomas and the formation of periportal fibrosis, besides vascular changes responsible for hypertension within portal venous system. Angiogenesis precedes most cases of fibrosis, which can be verified the presence of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) stimulated mostly by macrophages type II (M2) – alternatively activated. Schistosomiasis treatment is based on praziquantel (PZQ)...

Animals , Mice , Schistosomiasis/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis/parasitology , Schistosomiasis/pathology , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Liver/injuries , Liver/parasitology , Liver/pathology , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Praziquantel/administration & dosage , Praziquantel/analysis