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Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1466-1474, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421816


SUMMARY: Fifty male Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups; Group 1 as a sham group. Group 2 as a control group, Group 3 as 100 mg/kg CDP-choline administered group, Group as 200 mg/kg CDP-choline administered group, and Group 5 as sepsis group. The sepsis model was performed by ligating and perforating the caecum of rats. Liver and small intestine tissues were assessed either histologically or quantitatively and qualitatively. There was a significant difference between the sepsis and CDP-choline groups for liver and intestinal damage evaluated in tissue samples. (p <0.001). CDP-choline treatment partially improved dose-dependent the clinical parameters of sepsis and septic shock, reversed micro-anatomical damage caused by sepsis.

Cincuenta ratas albinas Wistar macho se dividieron en 5 grupos; Grupo 1 como grupo control simulador, el grupo 2 como grupo de control, el grupo 3 como grupo al que se administró 100 mg/kg de CDP-colina, el grupo 4 como grupo al que se administró 200 mg/kg de CDP-colina y el grupo 5 como grupo con sepsis. El modelo de sepsis se realizó ligando y perforando el intestino ciego de las ratas. Los tejidos del hígado y del intestino delgado se evaluaron histológicamente o cuantitativa y cualitativamente. Hubo una diferencia significativa entre los grupos de sepsis y CDP-colina para el daño hepático e intestinal evaluado en muestras de tejido (p<0,001). El tratamiento con CDP-colina mejoró parcialmente, según la dosis, los parámetros clínicos de sepsis y shock séptico y revirtió el daño micro anatómico causado por la sepsis.

Animals , Rats , Sepsis/drug therapy , Cytidine Diphosphate Choline/administration & dosage , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Cytidine Diphosphate Choline/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Intestine, Small/pathology , Liver/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1134-1146, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405239


SUMMARY: The postmortem diagnosis of death by drowning is one of the most difficult issues in forensic pathology. We investigated possible evidence differentiating saltwater drowning from freshwater drowning by histopathological changes in brain, heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys tissues. A cross section descriptive study was carried out on eighteen 12-week-old male Wistar rats; they were divided equally into 3 groups. Group 1: control group; Group 2: death by drowning in freshwater; Group 3: death by drowning in saltwater. Immediately after death, all tested organs were removed and fixed for histopathological examination. The brain of freshwater group depicted degenerated neurocytes with dystrophic changes in the form of shrunken cell, pyknotic nuclei and deeply eosinophilic cytoplasm. The heart showed clear evidence of myocyte injuries in saltwater drowning compared to the control and freshwater groups. The kidneys of rats drown in saltwater revealed more glomerular destruction with no differences in tubulo-interstitial changes in comparison with those drown in freshwater. In the lungs, the changes in freshwater were restricted to the alveoli, and the bronchial changes were more distinctive in saltwater. No disturbed liver architecture was seen in both test groups, however hydropic degeneration, congested vessels, and sinusoids were more distinct in saltwater group. In conclusion, diagnostic differentiation between fresh and saltwater drowning was reliable in rats' lungs and heart with minimal differentiation in liver, kidneys, and brain. Further studies of drowning with different staining techniques will help to clarify the potential role of histopathological changes in body organs as indicator of drowning.

RESUMEN: El diagnóstico post mortem de muerte por ahogamiento es uno de los temas más difíciles de la patología forense. Investigamos la posible evidencia que diferencia el ahogamiento en agua salada del ahogamiento en agua dulce por cambios histopatológicos en los tejidos del cerebro, el corazón, los pulmones, el hígado y los riñones. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en dieciocho ratas Wistar macho de 12 semanas de edad; se dividieron por igual en 3 grupos. Grupo 1: grupo control; Grupo 2: muerte por ahogamiento en agua dulce; Grupo 3: muerte por ahogamiento en agua salada. Inmediatamente después de la muerte, se extirparon todos los órganos analizados y se fijaron para el examen histopatológico. El cerebro del grupo de agua dulce mostró neurocitos degenerados con cambios distróficos en forma de células encogidas, núcleos picnóticos y citoplasma profundamente eosinofílico. El corazón mostró una clara evidencia de lesiones de miocitos en los ahogamientos en agua salada en comparación con los grupos de control y de agua dulce. Los riñones de ratas ahogadas en agua salada revelaron una mayor destrucción glomerular sin diferencias en los cambios túbulo-intersticiales en comparación con las ahogadas en agua dulce. En los pulmones, los cambios en agua dulce se restringieron a los alvéolos y los cambios bronquiales fueron más distintivos en agua salada. No se observó una arquitectura hepática alterada en ambos grupos de prueba, sin embargo, la degeneración hidrópica, los vasos congestionados y los sinusoides fueron más distintos en el grupo de agua salada. En conclusión, la diferenciación diagnóstica entre ahogamiento en agua dulce y salada fue confiable en los pulmones y el corazón de las ratas con una diferenciación mínima en el hígado, los riñones y el cerebro. Estudios adicionales de ahogamiento con diferentes técnicas de tinción ayudarán a aclarar el papel potencial de los cambios histopatológicos en los órganos del cuerpo como indicador de ahogamiento.

Animals , Male , Rats , Saline Waters , Drowning/pathology , Fresh Water , Brain/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Rats, Wistar , Forensic Medicine , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927873


Objective To explore the potential targets of triclosan in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and to provide new clues for the future research on the application of triclosan. Methods The targets of triclosan and NAFLD were obtained via network pharmacology.The protein-protein interaction network was constructed with the common targets shared by triclosan and NAFLD.The affinity of triclosan to targets was verified through molecular docking.Gene ontology(GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment were carried out to analyze the key targets and the potential mechanism of action.NAFLD model was established by feeding male C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet for 12 weeks.The mice were randomly assigned into a model group and a triclosan group [400 mg/(kg·d),gavage once a day for 8 weeks].The hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used for observation of the pathological changes and oil red O staining for observation of fat deposition in mouse liver.Western blotting was employed to detect the protein level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha(PPARα) in the liver tissue. Results Triclosan and NAFLD had 34 common targets,19 of which may be the potential targets for the treatment,including albumin(ALB),PPARα,mitogen-activated protein kinase 8(MAPK8),and fatty acid synthase.Molecular docking predicted that ALB,PPARα,and MAPK8 had good binding ability to triclosan.KEGG pathway enrichment showcased that the targets were mainly enriched in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway,in which ALB and MAPK8 were not involved.Triclosan alleviated the balloon-like change and lipid droplet vacuole,decreased the lipid droplet area,and up-regulated the expression level of PPARα in mouse liver tissue. Conclusion PPARα is a key target of triclosan in the treatment of NAFLD,which may be involved in fatty acid oxidation through the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway.

Animals , Male , Mice , Liver/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , PPAR alpha/therapeutic use , Triclosan/therapeutic use
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929058


Acetaminophen, also known as N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP), is commonly used as an antipyretic and analgesic agent. APAP overdose can induce hepatic toxicity, known as acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). However, therapeutic doses of APAP can also induce AILI in patients with excessive alcohol intake or who are fasting. Hence, there is a need to understand the potential pathological mechanisms underlying AILI. In this review, we summarize three main mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AILI: hepatocyte necrosis, sterile inflammation, and hepatocyte regeneration. The relevant factors are elucidated and discussed. For instance, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) protein adducts trigger mitochondrial oxidative/nitrosative stress during hepatocyte necrosis, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are released to elicit sterile inflammation, and certain growth factors contribute to liver regeneration. Finally, we describe the current potential treatment options for AILI patients and promising novel strategies available to researchers and pharmacists. This review provides a clearer understanding of AILI-related mechanisms to guide drug screening and selection for the clinical treatment of AILI patients in the future.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/pathology , Inflammation/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Necrosis/pathology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928934


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of ethyl acetate fraction Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss. (EDC) in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro and in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis mouse model in vivo.@*METHODS@#For in vitro study, HSCs were pre-treated with platelet-derived growth factor (10 ng/mL) for 2 h to ensure activation and treated with EDC for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. The effect of EDC on HSCs was assessed using cell counting kit-8 assay, EdU staining, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot, respectively. For in vivo experiments, mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 (2 ° L/g, adjusted to a 25% concentration in olive oil), 3 times per week for 6 weeks, to develop a hepatic fibrosis model. Forty 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups using a random number table (n=10), including control, model, positive control and EDC treatment groups. Mice in the EDC and colchicine groups were intragastrically administered EDC (0.5 g/kg) or colchicine (0.2 mg/kg) once per day for 6 weeks. Mice in the control and model groups received an equal volume of saline. Biochemical assays and histological examinations were used to assess liver damage. Protein expression levels of α -smooth muscle actin (α -SMA) and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B) were measured by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#EDC reduced pathological damage associated with liver fibrosis, downregulated the expression of α -SMA and upregulated the expression of LC3B (P<0.05), both in HSCs and the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mouse model. The intervention of bafilomycin A1 and rapamycin in HSCs strongly supported the notion that inhibition of autophagy enhanced α -SMA protein expression levels (P<0.01). The results also found that the levels of phosphoinositide (PI3K), p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, and p-p70S6K all decreased after EDC treatment (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EDC has anti-hepatic fibrosis activity by inducing autophagy and might be a potential drug to be further developed for human liver fibrosis therapy.

Animals , Male , Mice , Acetates , Autophagy , Carbon Tetrachloride , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936353


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effect of AZD2014, a dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor, against acute graft rejection in a rat model of allogeneic liver transplantation.@*METHODS@#Liver transplantation from Lewis rat to recipient BN rat (a donor-recipient combination that was prone to induce acute graft rejection) was performed using Kamada's two-cuff technique. The recipient BN rats were randomized into 2 groups for treatment with daily intraperitoneal injection of AZD2014 (5 mg/kg, n=4) or vehicle (2.5 mL/kg, n=4) for 14 consecutive days, starting from the first day after the transplantation. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) levels of the rats were measured 3 days before and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days after the transplantation, and the survival time of the rats within 14 days were recorded. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine the expressions of CD3 and Foxp3 in the liver graft, and acute graft rejection was assessed using HE staining based on the Banff schema.@*RESULTS@#Three rats in the control group died within 14 days after the surgery, while no death occurred in the AZD2014 group, demonstrating a significantly longer survival time of the rats in AZD2014 group (χ2=4.213, P=0.04). Serum ALT, AST and TBIL levels in the control group increased progressively after the surgery and were all significantly higher than those in AZD2014 group at the same time point (P < 0.05). Pathological examination revealed significantly worse liver graft rejection in the control group than in AZD2014 group based on assessment of the rejection index (P < 0.01); the rats in the control group showed more serious T lymphocyte infiltration and significantly fewer Treg cells in the liver graft than those in AZD2014 group (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#AZD2014 can effectively inhibit acute graft rejection in rats with allogeneic liver transplantation.

Animals , Rats , Benzamides , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Graft Survival , Liver/pathology , Liver Transplantation , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 , Morpholines , Pyrimidines , Rats, Inbred Lew
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 443-446, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935964


Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the use of computer programs to simulate and extend human intelligence, and has application prospects in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This review focuses on the research status of the screening and diagnosis of NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using artificial intelligence technology, electronic health record data, multi-omics prediction models, image recognition technology based on liver imaging and pathological biopsy, and new drugs research and development, with a view to provide new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment.

Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Biopsy/methods , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 413-418, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935960


Objective: To explore the new mechanism of liver fibrosis through D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS)-induced necroptosis as an entry point to inhibit lethal injury. Methods: The carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse model of liver fibrosis was established. At 6 weeks of fibrosis, the mice were challenged with a lethal dose of D-GalN/LPS, and the normal mice treated with the same treatment were used as the control. The experiment was divided into four groups: control group (Control), acute injury group (D-GalN/LPS), liver fibrosis group (Fib), and liver fibrosis + acute challenge group (Fib + D-GalN/LPS). Quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence were used to analyze the expression of necroptosis key signal molecules RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL and/or P-MLKL in each group. Normal mice were treated with inhibitors targeting key signaling molecules of necroptosis, and then given an acute challenge. The inhibitory effect of D-GalN/LPS-induced-necroptosis on acute liver injury was evaluated according to the changes in transaminase levels and liver histology. Liver fibrosis spontaneous ablation model was established, and then acute challenge was given. Necroptosis key signal molecules expression was analyzed in liver tissue of mice in each group and compared by immunohistochemistry. The differences between groups were compared with t-test or analysis of variance. Results: Quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence assays result showed that D-GalN/LPS-induced significant upregulation of RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL and/or P-MLKL. Necroptosis key signal molecules inhibition had significantly reduced D-GalN/LPS-induced liver injury, as manifested by markedly reduced serum ALT and AST levels with improvement in liver histology. Necroptosis signaling molecules expression was significantly inhibited in fibrotic livers even under acute challenge conditions. Additionally, liver fibrosis with gradual attenuation of fibrotic ablation had inhibited D-GalN/LPS-induced necroptosis. Conclusion: Liver fibrosis may protect mice from acute lethal challenge injury by inhibiting D-GalN/LPS-induced necroptosis.

Animals , Mice , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Galactosamine/adverse effects , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Failure, Acute/chemically induced , Necroptosis
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 352-356, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935953


As a secondary endocrine organ, the liver is closely related to the endocrine system. Liver involvement is not uncommon in endocrine diseases, such as hyper/hypothyroidism, diabetes, dysfunction of adrenal and gonadal. It can be manifested in a variety of forms, including hepatocyte injury (elevated transaminase), bile duct injury (cholestasis), hepatocyte steatosis, vascular injury and liver tumor. Direct and indirect liver injury caused by abnormal hormone levels and side effects of drugs for the treatment of endocrine diseases are common pathogenesis. In addition, endocrine diseases can be concomitant with liver diseases, such as autoimmune thyroiditis and autoimmune hepatitis. Systemic diseases can also involve the endocrine system and liver at the same time, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and IgG4 related diseases. For patients with unexplained liver injury, endocrine system diseases should be considered as the differential diagnosis.

Humans , Cholestasis/pathology , Endocrine System Diseases/pathology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/pathology , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 285-289, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935939


Objective: To study the diagnostic value of immediate color Doppler ultrasonography on traumatic hepatic hemorrhage after tissue sampling with ultrasound-guided liver biopsy and the clinical effect of its-directed local compression hemostasis at puncture-site. Methods: 132 hospitalized patients with various liver diseases underwent ultrasound-guided hepatic puncture-biopsies, including 61 cases with diffuse parenchymal and 71 cases with focal liver lesions. Immediate postoperative color Doppler ultrasonography was performed following liver biopsy. Abnormal blood flow signal was observed at hepatic puncture biopsy site, and if there were hemorrhagic signals, ultrasound-directed local compression hemostasis was performed until the bleeding signal disappeared. F-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Immediate color Doppler ultrasonography showed traumatic hemorrhage in 36.1% (22/61) and 40.8% (29/71) cases of diffuse liver disease and focal liver disease group, respectively. All hemorrhagic signals were eventually disappeared after ultrasound-directed local compression hemostasis. The median hemostasis time was 2 min in both groups, and there was no statistically significant difference in bleeding rate and hemostasis time between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no serious complications and deaths. Conclusion: Traumatic hepatic hemorrhage along the needle puncture tract is a common accompanying condition during liver biopsy. Immediate postoperative color Doppler ultrasonography can trace bleeding signals in timely manner and direct effective compression hemostasis, so it should be used routinely to help avoid occurrence of severe hemorrhagic complications.

Humans , Biopsy , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemostasis/physiology , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/adverse effects
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 81-86, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935912


Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of transient elastography, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis index based on 4 factors (FIB-4) for liver fibrosis in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 100 cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Hunan Children's Hospital between August 2015 to October 2020 to collect liver tissue pathological and clinical data. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to analyze the diagnostic value of liver stiffness measurement (LSM), APRI and FIB-4 in the diagnosis of different stages of liver fibrosis caused by NAFLD in children. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of LSM, APRI and FIB-4 for diagnosing liver fibrosis (S≥1) were 0.701 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.579 ~ 0.822, P = 0.011], 0.606 (95%CI: 0.436 ~ 0.775, P = 0.182), and 0.568 (95%CI: 0.397 ~ 0.740, P = 0.387), respectively. The best cut-off values were 6.65 kPa, 21.20, and 0.18, respectively. The AUCs value of LSM, APRI, and FIB-4 for diagnosing significant liver fibrosis (S≥ 2) were 0.660 (95% CI: 0.552 ~ 0.768, P = 0.006), 0.578 (95% CI: 0.464 ~ 0.691, P = 0.182) and 0.541 (95% CI: 0.427 ~ 0.655, P = 0.482), respectively. The best cut-off values were 7.35kpa, 24.78 and 0.22, respectively. The AUCs value of LSM, APRI and FIB-4 for the diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis (S≥ 3) were 0.639 (95% CI: 0.446 ~ 0.832, P = 0.134), 0.613 (95% CI: 0.447 ~ 0.779, P = 0.223) and 0.587 (95% CI: 0.411 ~ 0.764, P = 0.346), respectively. The best cut-off values were 8.55kpa, 26.66 and 0.27, respectively. Conclusion: The transient elastography technique has a better diagnostic value than APRI and FIB-4 for liver fibrosis in children with NAFLD.

Child , Humans , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biomarkers , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Function Tests , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 326-331, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935534


Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of hepatic fibrinogen storage disease (FSD) in children. Methods: The clinical, histopathologic, immunophenotypic, ultrastructural and gene sequencing data of 4 FSD cases were collected from September 2019 to January 2021 in the Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Retrospective analysis and literature review were conducted. Results: There were 4 cases of FSD, 3 males and 1 female, aged 3 years and 3 months to 6 years (median age, 3 years and 4 months). The clinical manifestations were abnormal liver function and abnormal blood coagulation function, for which 2 cases had family genetic history. Liver biopsies revealed that, besides liver steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation, there were single or multiple eosinophilic inclusion bodies of various sizes and surrounding transparent pale halo in hepatocytes. Immunohistochemistry showed that the inclusion bodies were positive for anti-fibrinogen. Under the electron microscope, they corresponded to the dilated cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which were occupied by compactly packed tubular structures and arranged into a fingerprint-like pattern with curved bundles. Gene sequencing revealed that the 2 cases of FGG mutation were located in exon 8 c.1106A>G (p.His369Arg) and c.905T>C (p.Leu302Pro), and 1 case was located in exon 9 c.1201C>T (p.Arg401Trp). No pathogenic variant was detected in the other case. Conclusions: FSD is a rare genetic metabolic disease and clinically manifests as abnormal liver function with hypofibrinogenemia. In the background of liver steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation, there are eosinophilic inclusions with pale halo in the hepatocytic cytoplasm, which can be identified by anti-fibrinogen immunohistochemical staining. The fingerprint-like structures under electron microscope are helpful for the diagnosis, while FGG sequencing detects the pathogenic mutation of exon 8 or 9 that can clearly explain the phenotype. However, the diagnosis of FSD cannot be completely ruled out if the relevant mutations are not detected.

Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , China , Fibrinogen/chemistry , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Metabolic Diseases/pathology , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 282-290, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935212


Objective: To explore the safety and effectiveness of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for oligometastases from colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: This is a prospective, single-arm phase Ⅱ trial. Patients who had histologically proven CRC, 1 to 5 detectable liver or lung metastatic lesions with maximum diameter of any metastases ≤5 cm were eligible. SBRT was delivered to all lesions. The primary endpoint was 3-year local control (LC). The secondary endpoints were treatment-related acute toxicities of grade 3 and above, 1-year and 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank test. Results: Petients from 2016 to 2019 who were treated in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College. Forty-eight patients with 60 lesions were enrolled, including 37 liver lesions and 23 lung lesions. Forty-six patients had 1 or 2 lesions, with median diameter of 1.3 cm, the median biologically effective dose (BED(10)) was 100.0 Gy. The median follow-up was 19.5 months for all lesions. Twenty-five lesions developed local failure, the median local progression free survival was 15 months. The 1-year LC, OS and PFS was 70.2% (95% CI, 63.7%~76.7%), 89.0% (95% CI, 84.3%~93.7%) and 40.4% (95%CI, 33.0%~47.8%). The univariate analysis revealed that planning target volume (PTV) and total dose were independent prognostic factors of LC (P<0.05). For liver and lung lesions, the 1-year LC, OS and PFS was 58.7% and 89.4% (P=0.015), 89.3% and 86.5% (P=0.732), 30.5% and 65.6% (P=0.024), respectively. No patients developed acute toxicity of grade 3 and above. Conclusion: SBRT is safe and effective treatment method for oligometastases from CRC under precise respiratory motion management and robust quality assurance.

Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Prospective Studies , Radiosurgery/methods
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 532-546, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927530


For the detection of steatosis, quantitative ultrasound imaging techniques have achieved great progress in past years. Magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction is currently the most accurate test to detect hepatic steatosis. Some blood biomarkers correlate with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, but the accuracy is modest. Regarding liver fibrosis, liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography (TE) has high accuracy and is widely used across the world. Magnetic resonance elastography is marginally better than TE but is limited by its cost and availability. Several blood biomarkers of fibrosis have been used in clinical trials and hold promise for selecting patients for treatment and monitoring treatment response. This article reviews new developments in the non-invasive assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Accumulating evidence suggests that various non-invasive tests can be used to diagnose NAFLD, assess its severity, and predict the prognosis. Further studies are needed to determine the role of the tests as monitoring tools. We cannot overemphasize the importance of context in selecting appropriate tests.

Humans , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 730-738, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349983


ABSTRACT Objective: Identifying significant fibrosis is crucial to evaluate the prognosis and therapeutic interventions in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We assessed the performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, APRI, FIB-4, Forns, NFS and BARD scores in determining liver fibrosis in severe obesity. Subjects and methods: A prospective study included 108 patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Liver biopsy specimens were obtained intraoperatively and classified according to the NAFLD Activity Score. Patients were assessed with serological markers and shear wave velocity of the liver was measured with the Siemens S2000 ultrasound system preoperatively. Optimal cut-off values were determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Results: In the entire cohort prevalence of NAFLD was 80.6%, steatohepatitis 25.9% and significant fibrosis 19.4%. The best tests for predicting significant fibrosis were FIB-4 and Forns scores (both AUROC 0.78), followed by APRI (AUROC 0.74), NFS (AUROC 0.68), BARD (AUROC 0.64) and ARFI (AUROC 0.62). ARFI elastography was successful in 73% of the patients. Higher body mass index (BMI) correlated with invalid ARFI measurements. In patients with BMI < 42 kg/m2, ARFI showed 92.3% sensitivity and 82,6% specificity for the presence of significant fibrosis, with AUROC 0.86 and cut-off 1.32 m/s. Conclusions: FIB-4 and Forns scores were the most accurate for the prediction of significant fibrosis in bariatric patients. Applicability and accuracy of ARFI was limited in individuals with severe obesity. In patients with BMI < 42 kg/m2, ARFI elastography was capable for predicting significant fibrosis with relevant accuracy.

Humans , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Acoustics , Biopsy , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Liver/pathology , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 339-350, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349507


This study was aimed to explore the comparative efficacy of cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced oxidative stress. Cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol were utilized or in-vivo analysis. From the results of in-vitro screening tests, cinnamon ethanolic extract was selected for in-vivo study in mouse model. For this, Balb/c albino mice were treated with cinnamon ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg), cinnamaldehyde (10 mg/kg) and kaempferol (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 days followed by single intraperitoneal administration of APAP during 8 hours. Blood and organ samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. The results showed that cinnamon bark ethanolic extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol ameliorated APAP-induced oxidative stress and organ toxicity in mice. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol possess comparable antioxidant potential even at 20-times less dose as compared to cinnamon bark ethanolic extract suggesting therapeutic potential in oxidative stress-related disorders.

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar la eficacia comparativa del extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol contra el estrés oxidativo inducido por acetaminofén (APAP). Se utilizaron extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol para el análisis in vivo. De los resultados de las pruebas de detección in vitro, se seleccionó el extracto etanólico de canela para estudio in vivo en modelo de ratón. Para ello, los ratones albinos Balb/c fueron tratados con extracto etanólico de canela (200 mg/kg), cinamaldehído (10 mg/kg) y kaempferol (10 mg/kg) por vía oral durante 14 días, seguido de la administración intraperitoneal única de APAP durante 8 horas. Se recogieron muestras de sangre y órganos para análisis bioquímicos e histopatológicos. Los resultados mostraron que el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol mejoraron el estrés oxidativo inducido por APAP y la toxicidad orgánica en ratones. En conclusión, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol poseen un potencial antioxidante comparable, incluso a una dosis 20 veces menor en comparación con el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, lo que sugiere un potencial terapéutico en los trastornos relacionados con el estrés oxidativo.

Animals , Mice , Acrolein/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Kaempferols/chemistry , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Acrolein/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Phytochemicals , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(supl.1): s43-s43, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1361663
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 139-144, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285330


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, and its prevalence is increasing alongside obesity. In United States, NAFLD is already the second leading cause of liver transplantation. The spectrum of the disease ranges from simple steatosis, which has a benign course, to steatohepatitis, which may progress to cirrhosis and its complications. The rising of noninvasive methods for diagnosing and staging non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis decreases the need of liver biopsy, as well as the costs and the occurrence of complications related to it. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of the triglyceride-glucose index to evaluate steatosis, NASH and liver fibrosis in obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Every medical record of patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery at a leading hospital in Southern Brazil were analyzed. The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG Index), a method composed only of two simple laboratory tests (serum triglycerides and fasting glucose levels), was performed prior to surgery. The TyG Index performance regarding the anatomopathological findings was evaluated, and the AUROC curve was calculated to evaluate the best cut-off point for diagnosing steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis grade. Also, the NAFLD fibrosis Score (NFS) was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 423 patients were evaluated. The TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.76 excluded significant simple steatosis (grade 2-3) in obese patients, with 67.6% sensitivity, 65.1% specificity, 46.3% positive predictive value (PPV), 81.8% negative predictive value (NPV), 65.8% accuracy and 0.66 AUROC (P=0.005). In the evaluation of NASH, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.82 excluded significant NASH (grade 2-3) with 57.3% sensitivity, 58.6% specificity, 33.7% PPV, 78.8% NPV, 58.2% accuracy and 0.58 AUROC (P=0.022). When evaluating liver fibrosis, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.91 showed a sensitivity of 61.8%, a specificity of 62.5%, a PPV of 13.8 and a NPV of 94.4% for exclusion of advanced fibrosis (F3-4), with a 62.4% accuracy and 0.69 AUROC (P<0.001). When analyzing the performance of NFS in the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis, the cut-off point <-1.455 excluded advanced fibrosis with sensitivity of 59.4%, specificity of 51%, PPV of 11%, NPV of 92.4% and accuracy of 51.7%. However, the cut-off point of 0.676 to diagnose advanced fibrosis presented sensitivity of 21.9%, specificity of 83%, PPV of 11.7%, NPV of 91.2% and 77.3% accuracy. The AUROC was 0.54 (P=0.480). CONCLUSION: TyG Index did not perform well in the diagnosis of significant steatosis and NASH. However, it was able to exclude advanced fibrosis in obese patients who are candidates for bariatric surgery.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica (DHGNA) é a doença hepática mais prevalente no mundo. Nos Estados Unidos, a DHGNA já é a segunda causa de transplante hepático. O espectro da doença abrange desde a esteatose simples, que apresenta curso benigno, até esteato-hepatite não-alcoólica (EHNA), que pode progredir para cirrose e suas complicações. O desenvolvimento de métodos não invasivos para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da EHNA e da fibrose hepática visa diminuir a necessidade de biópsia hepática, um procedimento invasivo e não raro associado a complicações. OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho do índice triglicerídeo-glicose (TyG Index) para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da DHGNA em pacientes obesos. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal retrospectivo. Foram analisados todos os prontuários de pacientes candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica em um hospital de referência do Sul do Brasil e calculado o TyG Index, um escore composto por dois exames laboratoriais (triglicerídeos e glicose de jejum), realizados previamente à cirurgia. O desempenho do TyG Index em relação aos achados anatomopatológicos hepáticos foi avaliado, e calculada a curva ROC para avaliação de esteatose simples, EHNA e fibrose hepática. O NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS) também foi avaliado. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 423 pacientes. O melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index para a exclusão de esteatose simples significativa (grau 2-3) foi de 8,76, com sensibilidade 67,6%, especificidade 65,1%, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) 46,3%, valor preditivo negativo (VPN) 81,8%, acurácia 65,8% e AUROC 0,66 (P=0,005). Na avaliação de EHNA significativa (grau 2-3), o melhor ponto de corte foi de 8,82 com sensibilidade 57,3%, especificidade 58,6%, VPP 33,7%, VPN 78,8%, acurácia 58,8% e AUROC 0,58 (P=0,022). Em relação à fibrose avançada (grau 3-4), o melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index foi de 8,91 com sensibilidade 61,8%, especificidade 62,5%, VPP 13,8%, VPN 94,4%, acurácia 62,4% e AUROC 0,69 (P<0,001). Ao analisarmos o desempenho do NFS no diagnóstico de fibrose avançada, o ponto de corte de <-1,455 excluiu fibrose avançada com sensibilidade 59,4%, especificidade 51%, VPP 11%, VPN 92,4% e acurácia 51,7%. Entretanto, o ponto de corte de 0,676 para fibrose avançada apresentou sensibilidade de 21,9%, especificidade 83%, VPP 11,7%, VPN 91,2% e acurácia 77,3%. A AUROC foi de 0,54 (P=0,480). CONCLUSÃO: O TyG Index não apresentou bom desempenho para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da esteatose simples e da EHNA. Entretanto, foi capaz de excluir fibrose avançada em pacientes obesos candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica.

Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Triglycerides , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Glucose , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Obesity
Acta méd. costarric ; 63(1)mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1383351


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar los resultados y evolución del programa de trasplante hepático del Hospital "Dr. Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia", así como las complicaciones más frecuentes y características de las hepatopatías que llevaron a trasplante hepático. Métodos: Esta es una investigación retrospectiva que involucra la revisión de expedientes clínicos de los pacientes que recibieron un trasplante de hígado entre los años 2009 y 2018 en el Hospital "Dr. Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia" en San José, Costa Rica. Se consideraron las siguientes variables categóricas o discontinuas: edad, sexo, nacionalidad, lugar de procedencia, manifestaciones de la hepatopatía, motivo del trasplante, curso clínico postrasplante, comorbilidades, medicamentos empleados, complicaciones, resultados relevantes de exámenes de gabinete y biopsias. Los cálculos estadísticos se llevaron a cabo con paquetes estadísticos STATA, empleando como umbral de significancia estadística un valor de p menor de 0,05. Resultados: La muestra estuvo compuesta de un total de 45 cirugías de trasplante hepático y 44 pacientes que requirieron trasplante de hígado entre abril de 2009 y agosto de 2018, provenientes principalmente de la provincia de San José. El promedio de edad al momento del trasplante para la muestra total fue de 51 años. La hepatopatía que más frecuentemente llevó a trasplante fue la cirrosis etílica, seguida por esteatohepatitis no alcohólica y cirrosis criptogénica. Las complicaciones de la hepatopatía documentadas previo al trasplante: várices esofágicas, sangrado digestivo alto y síndrome hepatorenal. De los pacientes incluidos en el estudio fallecieron 10 en total, lo cual equivale a 22.7%. Conclusiones: La mortalidad observada en los casos de trasplante hepático analizados fue de 22,7%, la mayoría de los casos fueron llevados a trasplante por hepatopatía relacionada con cirrosis etílica, esteatohepatitis y cirrosis criptogénica.

Abstract Objective. To analyze the outcomes, most frequent complications and characteristics of the patients enrolled in the Liver Transplant Program from the Hospital "Dr. Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia". Methods: This is a retrospective investigation that involves the revision of clinical records from the patients that received a liver transplant between the years 2009 and 2018 in the Hospital "Dr. Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia". The following variables were considered: age, gender, nationality, city of residence, manifestations of the liver disease, reason for the liver transplant, clinical outcomes after transplant, comorbidities, medication received, important laboratory results and biopsies. The data analysis was performed with STATA, using a statistic significance threshold of a p < 0.05. Results: The sample was composed of a total of 45 liver transplant surgeries and 44 patients who received a liver transplant between the years 2009 and 2018. The patients mostly came from the city of San José. The average age at the time of the surgery was 51 years. The most common liver disease that led to transplant was alcoholic cirrhosis, followed by NASH and cryptogenic cirrhosis. The most common complications of the liver disease documented prior to transplant where esophageal varices, gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatic-renal syndrome. 10 of the patients included in the study died, which corresponds to 22.7% of the sample. Conclusions: The mortality observed in the liver transplant cases analyzed was 22.7%, most of the cases were taken to transplantation due to liver disease related to alcoholic cirrhosis, steatohepatitis and cryptogenic cirrhosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Liver/pathology , Costa Rica