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1.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 80(1): 1-6, jan.-mar.2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-784836

ABSTRACT

A mastite bovina é uma doença importante na exploração leiteira, não apenas pelas perdas econômicas diretas que promove, mas também pelas perdas indiretas e o potencial risco à saúde pública. Dentre as principais causas de infecções intramamárias, destacam-se as bactérias do gênero Staphylococcus spp., sendo que Staphylococcus aureus é o agente etiológico predominante em mastite subclínica. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar a frequência de mastite subclínica em oito rebanhos localizados na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) e a relação da enfermidade com a presença de S. aureus. Adicionalmente, pesquisou-se a presença de S. intermedius e S. hyicus nas amostras de leite obtidas. Para identificação da doença, utilizou-se o California Mastitis Test (CMT). A identificação da espécie de Staphylococcus spp. foi feita em meio de cultura ágar Baird-Parker, com posterior confirmação das colônias suspeitas em coloração de gram, prova de catalase, pesquisa de coagulase livre e pesquisa de termonuclease. A mastite subclínica foi constatada em 53,6% dos animais testados. A presença de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva foi identificada em 12,6% dos animais com mastite subclínica. Nesses mesmos animais, a bactéria identificada como S. aureus foi o agente etiológico presente em 17,6% dos casos. Adicionalmente, pode-se perceber que, dentre o grupo identificado como coagulase positiva, 85,7% corresponderam a S. aureus, enquanto8,5% mostraram características bioquímicas compatíveis com S. intermedius e 5,8% foram consideradas S. hyicus...


Bovine mastitis is an important disease in dairy farming, not only by promoting direct economic losses, but also for indirect losses and the potential risk to public health. The main causes of intramammary infections include the bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus being the predominant etiologic agent in subclinical mastitis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of subclinical mastitis in eight herds from southern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and the relationship of the disease with the presence of S. aureus. In addition, we checked for the presence of S. intermedius and S. hyicus in the milk samples obtained. For identification of the disease, we used the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Identification of Staphylococcus spp. species was made in Barid-Parker agar culture medium, with subsequent confirmation of suspected colonies by way of Gram stain and catalase test along with free-coagulase and thermonuclease research. Subclinical mastitis was identified in 53.6% of animals tested. The presence of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was identified in 12.6% of animals with subclinical mastitis. In these same animals, bacteria identified as S. aureus were the etiologic agent present in 17.6% of cases. Additionally, it was revealed that among the group identified as coagulase positive, 85.7% corresponded to S. aureus, while 8.5% had biochemical characteristics consistent with S. intermedius and 5.8% were considered S. hyicus...


Subject(s)
Animals , Coagulase/chemistry , Livestock Industry/statistics & numerical data , Mastitis, Bovine/pathology , Public Health , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 63(1): 180-187, Feb. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-582342

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se o desempenho de 48 cordeiros Ile de France submetidos aos modelos de produção orgânico e convencional desde o nascimento até o abate, aos 32kg de peso corporal. Foi observado que peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, peso corporal, peso corporal ao abate, idade do nascimento ao desmame, ingestão de matéria seca e ganhos de peso corporal do nascimento ao desmame e do desmame ao abate não foram influenciados (P>0,05) pelos modelos de produção estudados. Idade do desmame ao abate e idade do nascimento ao abate foram influenciados (P<0,05) pelos modelos de produção. Peso corporal, peso corporal ao abate, peso do corpo vazio, pesos da carcaça quente e fria, rendimentos verdadeiros de carcaça quente e fria e perdas ao resfriamento e ao jejum não foram influenciados (P>0,05) pelos modelos de produção estudados. Cordeiros submetidos ao modelo de produção convencional atingiram peso de abate em menor tempo, fato que, dos pontos de vista zootécnico e econômico, é mais propício e vantajoso ao produtor.


The performance of 48 Ile de France lambs, averaging 32kg body weight, raised on organic and conventional models from birth to slaughter age, was evaluated. Birth weight, weaning weight, body weight, slaughter body weight, birth to weaning age, dry matter intake, and body weight gain were not influenced by the (P>0.05) by the production models. However, weaning to slaughter age and birth to slaughter age were influenced (P<0.05) by the production models. Body weight, slaughter body weight, empty body weight, hot and cold weights, hot and cold carcass dressing percentages, and cooling and fasting losses were not influenced (P>0.05) by the production models. Lambs raised under conventional model reached slaughter weight in shorter time, so their performance and economical parameters would be more favorable and advantageous for the producer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Livestock Industry/statistics & numerical data , Sheep/classification , Organic Agriculture/methods , Weight Gain/physiology
4.
Bol. Acad. Nac. Med. B.Aires ; 88(2): 359-371, jul.-dic. 2010. mapas, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-645946

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación tiene por objeto examinar y analizar la compleja y diversa problemática en el actual paradigma epidemiológico de la Enfermedad de Chagas-Mazza, relacionando tanto los cambios ambientales (climáticos-ecológicos) en la región de las llanuras pampeanas, como asimismo en el campo de los estudios sociales de la ciencia, la tecnología de alta complejidad y la sociedad, con una serie de transformaciones progresivas en el estado de las condiciones habitacionales en ámbitos rurales, condiciones bioclimáticas, uso del suelo (forestación y deforestación de recursos renovables) implicando a la población afectada por la enfermedad endémica. En este sentido se confecciona un pormenorizado estudio, presentando un cuadro comparativo-descriptivo de investigación clínica biomédica a partir de la segunda mitad del siglo XX en el contexto nacional, con el propósito de ilustrar un nuevo modelo epidemiológico circunscripto en poblaciones de escasa y media densidad demográfica en concordancia con la producción agropecuaria.


This paper discusses variations suffered by the classic epidemiological model of Chagas disease due to changes in the ecology of the Argentine Plains and specially by dissemination of the extensive mechanized and high-tech production model. The changes analyzed are rural housing, cycles, climatic, uses of soil and population. A new epidemiological model located on the periphery of small and medium sized populations linked to farming is proposed.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Environmental Change , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Argentina , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Livestock Industry/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics , Rural Population , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity
5.
Rev. cient. (Maracaibo) ; 17(6): 606-613, nov.-dic. 2007. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-548561

ABSTRACT

Considerando la importancia de la producción y el consumo de carne bovina en Chile, se estudió el comportamiento de los márgenes de comercialización y su efecto en el precio pagado al productor y el impacto que los cambios en los precios pagados al productor y en la magnitud de la demanda ejercen sobrela dinámica temporal de los márgenes comerciales de la carne bovina en Chile, entre 1990 y 2005. Se determinó un aumento de los márgenes comerciales de la carne bovina junto a una disminución de la participación del productor en el precio final del producto. La mayor proporción del margen comercial total corresponde a los agentes minoristas, pero son los mayoristas quienes han aumentado relativamente más su participación. Utilizando series mensuales de precios y márgenes de comercialización, entre 1990 y 2005, se estimó la ecuación de regresión múltiple que relaciona los precios pagados al productor como variable dependiente y los márgenes mayorista y minorista, como variables explicativas. Se obtuvo un efecto negativo de ambos márgenes, expresados en valor absoluto y relativo, en los precios pagados al productor de carne bovina. Mediante la estimación de un modelo dinámico de márgenes comerciales, utilizando series mensuales de precios y cantidades producidas de carne en vara entre 1998 y 2005, se comprobó la relación inversa entre los cambios en los precios pagados al productor y la evolución de los márgenes comerciales en los canales de distribución de carne bovina. No se encontró evidencia que respalde que incrementos temporales en lascantidades demandadas de carne provoquen reducciones en los márgenes comerciales de este producto alimenticio.


Considering the importance of the production and the consumption of cattle meat in Chile, there was studied the behavior of the margins of marketing and its effect in the price paid to the producer and, the impact that the changes in the prices paid to the producer and in the magnitude of the demand exercise on the temporary dynamics of the commercial margins of cattle meat in Chile between 1990 and 2005. There decided an increase of the commercial margins of the cattle meat close to a decrease of the participation of the producer in the final price of the product. The major proportion of the commercial total margin corresponds to the agents retailers, but they are the wholesalers whom have increased relatively more its participation. Using monthly series of prices and margins of marketing between 1990 and 2005, there was thought the equation of multiple regression that relates the prices paid to the producer as dependent variable and the margins wholesaler and retailer as explanatory variables. There was obtained a negative effect of both margins, expressed in absolute and relative value, in the prices paid to the producer of bovine meat. By means of the estimation of a dynamical model of commercial margins using monthly series of prices and quantities produced of meat in rod between 1998 and 2005, there was verified the inverse relationship between the changes in the prices paid to the producer and the evolution of the commercial margins in the distributions channels of bovine meat. There is not evidence that endorses that temporary increases in the quantities demanded of meat provoke reductions in the commercial margins of this food product.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Animals , Commerce/economics , Food Production , Livestock Industry/statistics & numerical data , Meat Industry
6.
Rio de Janeiro; Fundo de Conservação Ambiental; 2000. 104 p. tab, graf.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-505210

ABSTRACT

Os resultados desse estudo apresentam as emissões de dióxido de carbono e metano, de responsabilidade do município, provenientes dos setores de energia, indústria, tratamento de resíduos, transporte, uso do solo e, florestas e agricultura.


Subject(s)
Gas Exhaust , Greenhouse Effect , /statistics & numerical data , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Waste Water/analysis , Forests , Energy Consumption/statistics & numerical data , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/toxicity , Environmental Health , Livestock Industry/statistics & numerical data , Methane/analysis , Methane/toxicity , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Solid Waste
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