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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 555-558, ago. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346506

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of preservation fluids (PF) bacterial positive cultures, identify the germs involved, determine their correlation with infections in recipients during the postoperative period and compare outcomes in terms of morbidity, hospital stay and both patient and graft survival. We describe incidence and etiology of germs developed in PF cultures in our series and evaluate its impact on recipients. A prospective study in deceased donor liver transplants (LT) recipients was carried out from January 2014 to December 2017. Back table PF cultures were analized considering positive the development of any germs and negative to no signs of growth after 5 days. PF were classified as contamination or pathogens. Targeted antibiotic therapy was administered in the last ones. Recipients were divided in: PF (-) and PF(+). Recipients infections related to positive PF were analyzed. These were identified as "direct correlation" when the same germ grew up in PF. Hospital stay and 30 days follow up were compared. Eighty-eight patients PFs were included, 38% (33) had positive cultures, 28 (85%) of these were considered contamination and only 5 as pathogens. We found no differences in postoperative infections (p 0.840), ICU and total hospital stay (p 0.374 and 0.427) between both groups. Postoperative infections and hospital stay seem not to be influenced by PF cultures positivity. Treatment of isolated pathogens could have prevented infections, therefore, those groups that perform PF cultures should consider treatment in these cases and conclude prophylaxis when PF is negative or contaminated.


Resumen Las infecciones bacterianas son frecuentes en pacientes sometidos a trasplante hepático. Describimos la incidencia y etiología de los cultivos de líquidos de preservación (LP) positivos en nuestra serie y analizamos su importancia clínica. Se trata de un trabajo prospectivo de pacientes trasplantados hepáticos, entre enero 2014 a diciembre 2017. Se analizaron muestras de LP tomadas al finalizar la mesa de banco, considerándose positivo el desarrollo de cualquier germen y negativo la ausencia del mismo luego de 5 días. Los LP positivos se clasificaron en: con contaminantes y con patógenos. Los pacientes con LP patógenos recibieron tratamiento antibiótico de acuerdo al antibiograma. Los pacientes fueron divididos en dos grupos: con LP + y LP-. Las infecciones relacionadas a los LP fueron analizadas. Se consideró "correlación directa" cuando el mismo germen desarrolló en el LP y en el recipiente. Se comparó estadía hospitalaria en ambos grupos. Se incluyeron 88 pacientes, 38% (33) presentaron LP+, de los que el 85% (28) fueron por contaminación y 5 por pa tógenos. No se hallaron diferencias significativas en infecciones postoperatorias (p 0.840) y estadía hospitalaria (p 0.427) entre ellos. No hubo casos de "correlación directa". Las infecciones postoperatorias y la estadía hospitalaria de los pacientes no parecen estar influidas por la positividad de los cultivos de LP. El tratamiento dirigido a los gérmenes aislados como patógenos pudo prevenir infecciones, por lo tanto, los grupos que realizan cultivos de rutina deberían considerar el tratamiento en estos casos y finalizar la profilaxis cuando el LP sea negativo o contaminado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Preservation Solutions , Drug Contamination , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Living Donors
2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 10-16, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248987

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Receptors of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have higher rate of postoperative biliary and vascular complications that may reduce posttransplant quality of life (QOL) due to the need of invasive and repetitive treatments. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study is to assess the various aspects of QOL of receptors undergoing LDLT after 10 years of transplantation and to identify potential factors that might be associated with impaired QOL. METHODS: Data of all patients with more than 10 years of LDLT were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were interviewed through a quality of life questionnaire (SF-36). RESULTS: From a total of 440 LT performed in 17 years (from September 1991 through December 2008), 78 patients underwent LDLT, of which 27 were alive and 25 answered completely the questionnaire. There were 17 (68%) men and 8 (32%) women, with a mean age of 38.6±18.5 years at the time of transplantation and mean follow up time of 15.1±1.9 years. The average MELD was 16.4±4.9 and the main indication for LT was hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus (32%). When compared to the general po­pulation, LDLT patients had lower mental health score (66.4 vs 74.5, P=0.0093) and higher vitality score (87.8 vs 71.9, P<0.001), functional aspects (94.6 vs 75.5, P=0.002), social aspects (93 vs 83.9, P=0.005), physical aspects (92 vs 77.5, P=0.006), and emotional aspects (97.33 vs 81.7, P<0.001). General health status (73.28 vs 70.2, P=0.074) and pain (78.72 vs 76.7, P=0.672) scores were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the various aspects LDLT recipients' QOF are similar to those of the general population more than a decade after the transplant, except for the mental health domain which is lower.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Receptores de transplante hepático inter-vivo (THIV) apresentam elevada taxa de complicações biliares e vasculares pós-operatórias que podem reduzir a qualidade de vida (QV) devido à necessidade de tratamentos invasivos e repetitivos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os vários aspectos da qualidade de vida dos pacientes submetidos a THIV após 10 anos de transplante e identificar possíveis fatores que possam estar associados à diminuição da QV. MÉTODOS: Os dados de todos os pacientes com mais de 10 anos de THIV foram avaliados retrospectivamente. Os pacientes foram entrevistados por meio de um questionário de qualidade de vida (SF-36). RESULTADOS: Do total de 440 transplantes hepáticos realizados em 17 anos (setembro de 1991 a dezembro de 2008), 78 pacientes foram submetidos a THIV, dos quais 27 estavam vivos e 25 responderam completamente ao questionário. Destes, 17 (68%) homens e 8 (32%) mulheres, com idade média de 38,6±18,5 anos no momento do transplante e tempo médio de acompanhamento de 15,1±1,9 anos. O MELD médio foi de 16,4±4,9 e a principal indicação para o transplante hepático foi cirrose hepática causada pelo vírus da hepatite B, 32%. Quando comparado com a população geral, os pacientes submetidos a THIV apresentaram menor escore de saúde mental (66,4 vs 74,5; P=0,0093) e escores mais altos de vitalidade (87,8 vs 71,9; P<0,001), aspectos funcionais (94,6 vs 75,5; P=0,002), aspectos sociais (93 vs 83,9; P=0,005), aspectos físicos (92 vs 77,5; P=0,006), e aspectos emocionais (97,33 vs 81,7; P<0,001). Os escores do estado geral de saúde (73,28 vs 70,2; P=0,074) e de dor (78,72 vs 76,7; P=0,672) eram similares nos dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os vários aspectos da QV dos receptores de transplante hepático inter-vivo são semelhantes aos da população geral mais de uma década após o transplante, exceto o domínio da saúde mental que é menor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Liver Transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Living Donors , Liver Cirrhosis , Middle Aged
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887557

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Hepatic artery reconstruction is a critical aspect of liver transplantation. The microsurgeon faces several challenges when reconstructing the hepatic artery-the donor hepatic artery stalk is short and often a poor match for the usually hypertrophic recipient vessels. Previous inflammation impedes vessel dissection, and recipient vessels have a tendency to delaminate with manipulation. We review 51 consecutive liver transplantations to highlight these problems and propose strategies for a successful reconstruction of the hepatic artery.@*METHODS@#A prospective study involving all adult patients undergoing liver transplantation at the Singapore General Hospital from January 2015 to December 2018 was undertaken. All hepatic artery anastomoses were performed by 2 microsurgeons at 10x magnification. Patients were started on a standard immunosuppressive regimen. Postoperative ultrasound scans on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 14 were used to confirm arterial patency.@*RESULTS@#There were 51 patients who underwent liver transplantation during the study period. Of this number, 31 patients received deceased donor grafts and 20 received living donor grafts. A total of 61 anastomoses were performed (5 dual anastomosis, 4 radial artery interposition grafts) with 1 case of hepatic artery thrombosis that was successfully salvaged. The mean (range) postoperative resistive index and hepatic artery peak systolic velocity were 0.69 (0.68-0.69) and 1.0m/s (0.88-1.10m/s), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Hepatic artery thrombosis after liver transplantation is poorly tolerated. The challenges of hepatic artery reconstruction in liver transplantation are related to vessel quality and length. The use of microsurgical technique, appropriate recipient vessel selection, minimisation of vessel manipulation with modified instruments, variation in anastomosis techniques, and use of radial artery interpositional grafts are useful strategies to maximise the chances of success.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anastomosis, Surgical , Hepatic Artery/surgery , Humans , Liver Transplantation , Living Donors , Prospective Studies
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880419

ABSTRACT

This paper introduced a liver normothermic machine perfusion repair and assessment system. This system consists of a liver normothermic machine perfusion device, a fluorescence imaging system and a tissue oxygen detector. The normothermic machine perfusion device can continuously perfuse the donor liver and monitor and control the perfusion parameters in real time. The fluorescence imaging system can detect the indocyanine green metabolized by the liver to evaluate the microcirculation and the metabolism function of hepatocytes. The tissue oxygen detector can monitor the change of oxygen partial pressure of liver tissue in real time to evaluate the state of cell oxygen consumption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver , Liver Transplantation , Living Donors , Organ Preservation , Perfusion
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 347-353, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142344

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Biliary complications remain one of the most important causes of morbidity and graft loss after liver transplant (LT). Endoscopic therapy of biliary complications has proven to be effective over time, leaving surgical treatment restricted to only very few cases. However, we cannot yet predict which patients will have the greatest potential to benefit from endoscopic treatment. OBJECTIVE On this premise we decide to conduct this study to evaluate the role and safety of single operator cholangioscopy (SOC) in the endoscopic treatment of post-LT biliary anastomotic strictures (AS). METHODS: Between March/2016 and June/2017, 20 consecutive patients referred for endoscopic treatment for biliary anastomotic stricture were included in this prospective observational cohort study. Inclusion criteria were age over 18 years old, and a deceased LT performed within at least 30 days. Exclusion criteria were non-anastomotic biliary stricture, biliary leakage, cast syndrome, any previous endoscopic therapy, pregnancy and inability to provide informed consent. All patients underwent SOC before endoscopic therapy with fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) and after stent removal. RESULTS: At pre-treatment SOC, stricture orifice and fibrotic changes could be visualized in all patients, vascular changes and surgical sutures in 60% and acute inflammatory changes in 30%. SOC was essential for guidewire placement in five cases. FCSEMS was successfully deployed in all patients. Stricture resolution rate was 44.4% (median stent indwelling 372 days). Stricture recurrence was 12.5% (median follow-up of 543 days). Adverse events were distal (66.6%) and proximal (5.5%) stent migration, stent occlusion (16.6%), severe abdominal pain (10%) and mild acute pancreatitis (10%). SOC was repeated after FCSEMS removal. Post-treatment SOC showed fibrotic changes in all but one patient; vascular and acute inflammatory changes were less frequent in comparison to index procedure. The disappearance of suture material was remarkable. None of the cholangioscopic findings were statistically correlated to treatment outcome or stricture recurrence. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with SOC is feasible in post-LT patients with AS. Cholangioscopic findings can be classified into fibrotic, vascular and acute inflammatory changes. Cholangioscopy may be helpful to assist guidewire passage, but Its overall role for changing management is post-LT patients was not demonstrated.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: As complicações biliares continuam sendo uma das principais causas de morbidade e perda do enxerto após o transplante hepático. O tratamento endoscópico das complicações biliares provou ser eficaz ao longo do tempo, deixando o tratamento cirúrgico restrito a casos de exceção. No entanto, ainda não podemos prever quais pacientes terão maior potencial de se beneficiar da terapia endoscópica. OBJETIVO: Nesta premissa, decidimos realizar este estudo para avaliar o papel e a segurança da colangioscopia peroral de operador único (CPO) no tratamento endoscópico das estenoses anastomóticas biliares (EA) pós-transplante hepático. MÉTODOS: Entre março de 2016 e junho de 2017, 20 pacientes consecutivos encaminhados para tratamento endoscópico da EA biliar foram incluídos neste estudo prospectivo de coorte observacional. Os critérios de inclusão foram idade superior a 18 anos e um transplante hepático de doador falecido realizado há pelo menos 30 dias. Pacientes com estenose biliar não anastomótica, fístula biliar, "cast" síndrome, qualquer terapia endoscópica prévia, gravidez e incapacidade de fornecer consentimento informado foram excluídos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à CPO antes da terapia endoscópica com prótese metálica autoexpansível totalmente coberta (PMAEC) e após a sua remoção. RESULTADOS: Na CPO realizada antes do tratamento endoscópico, o orifício de estenose e alterações fibróticas foram visualizadas em todos os pacientes, alterações vasculares e a presença de suturas cirúrgicas em 60%, enquanto alterações inflamatórias agudas em 30%. A CPO foi determinante para a transposição do fio-guia através da estenose em cinco casos. Uma PMAEC foi implantada com sucesso em todos os pacientes. A taxa de resolução da estenose foi de 44,4% (tempo médio de permanência de 372 dias). A recorrência da EA foi de 12,5% (acompanhamento médio de 543 dias). Os eventos adversos foram migração distal (66,6%) e proximal (5,5%) da prótese metálica, oclusão da PMAEC (16,6%), dor abdominal intensa (10%) e pancreatite aguda leve (10%). A CPO foi repetida após a remoção da PMAEC. A colangioscopia realizada após o tratamento endoscópico mostrou alterações fibróticas em todos, exceto em um paciente; alterações vasculares e inflamatórias agudas foram menos frequentes em comparação à CPO inicial. O desaparecimento do material de sutura, observado em todos os casos, foi notável. Nenhum dos achados colangioscópicos foram estatisticamente correlacionados ao resultado do tratamento ou à recorrência de estenose. CONCLUSÃO: A colangioscopia peroral é viável nos pacientes pós-transplante hepático com estenose biliar anastomótica. Os achados colangioscópicos podem ser classificados em alterações inflamatórias agudas, fibróticas e vasculares. A colangioscopia pode ser útil para auxiliar na passagem do fio-guia, mas seu papel geral na mudança de tratamento nos pacientes pós-transplante hepático não foi demonstrado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Bile Ducts/surgery , Bile Ducts/pathology , Cholestasis/surgery , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/methods , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Constriction, Pathologic , Living Donors
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 271-277, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137178

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: It is suggested that 38-45% of patients experience preoperative anxiety. We observe that patients undergoing living donor nephrectomy suffer from anxiety. Preoperative anxiety may complicate a patient's recovery from anesthesia and postoperative pain control. This study investigates the preoperative anxiety rate and its effect on anesthetic recovery and postoperative pain in patients undergoing donor nephrectomy. Methods: Forty-eight individuals undergoing living-related renal donor nephrectomy were included in this analytic prospective observational cohort study. Their preoperative anxiety was measured with the STAI-I and STAI-II inventories. The relationships between anxiety scores with data regarding demographics, recovery from anesthesia, and postoperative pain scores were investigated. Results: The findings were remarkable in that the anxiety scores of living renal donors were significantly correlated with their recovery variables, which are spontaneous respiration time, sufficient respiration time, extubation time, and PACU discharge time (p < 0.01). Anxiety scores were significantly positively correlated with the pain scores of the 30th minute, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th hours, and the total amounts of analgesic administered in 24 hours (p < 0.05). A significantly negative correlation was also determined between anxiety scores and patients' satisfaction. Conclusion: Our study showed that patients undergoing living-related donor nephrectomy with high anxiety levels had late recovery times and high postoperative pain scores. Thus, determining those patients with high preoperative anxiety level is crucial to providing patients with satisfactory emerging from anesthesia and the control of their postoperative pain during donor nephrectomy.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Estima-se que 38-45% dos pacientes apresentem ansiedade pré-operatória. Observamos que doadores vivos submetidos à nefrectomia para doação apresentam ansiedade. A ansiedade pré-operatória pode complicar a recuperação anestésica e controle pós-operatório de dor do paciente. O presente estudo mediu as taxas de ansiedade no pré-operatório e seus efeitos na recuperação anestésica e dor pós-operatória em pacientes doadores submetidos a nefrectomia. Método: Quarenta e oito doadores vivos submetidos a nefrectomia para doação de rim foram incluídos neste estudo de coorte prospectivo observacional. A ansiedade pré-operatória foi medida usando os inventários IDATE-I e IDATE-II. As relações entre os escores de ansiedade e dados relacionados a demografia, recuperação da anestesia e escores de dor no pós-operatório foram estudadas. Resultados: Os achados foram notáveis porque os escores de ansiedade de doadores renais vivos se correlacionaram de maneira significante com as variáveis de recuperação, a saber, tempo para respiração espontânea, tempo para respiração adequada, tempo para extubação e tempo para alta da RPA (p < 0,01). Os escores de ansiedade apresentaram correlação significantemente positiva com os escores de dor do 30o minuto e horas 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 e 24, e a quantidade total de analgésicos administrada nas 24 horas (p < 0,05). Foi observada também correlação significantemente negativa entre os escores de ansiedade e satisfação dos pacientes. Conclusão: Nosso estudo mostrou que doadores vivos submetidos a nefrectomia para doação com altos níveis de ansiedade apresentaram tempos de recuperação tardios e altos escores de dor no pós-operatório. Assim, a identificação dos pacientes com alto nível de ansiedade no pré-operatório é crucial para propiciar recuperação da anestesia e controle da dor no pós-operatório satisfatórios durante a nefrectomia para doação de órgão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anxiety/complications , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/epidemiology , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Living Donors/psychology , Nephrectomy , Prospective Studies , Preoperative Period , Middle Aged
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 193-193, Jan.-Feb. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040052

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the standard of care and popular among most of the transplant centres across the globe. Objective of this video is to report different vascular injuries, their management during LDNs and propose risk reduction strategies. Patient and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of all the LDNs performed between January 2011 and March 2016. All donor nephrectomies were performed laparoscopically by transperitoneal route, under ideal operative conditions by expert laparoscopic surgeons and by novice surgeons. Results: 858 LDNs (left, n = 797; right, n = 61) were performed during the study period with 5 cases of vascular injuries. Mean (SD) donor age was 45.5 (± 10.76) years and the operative time was 165 (± 44.4) min. Of these five cases, two had renal vein injury, while the three others had renal artery, inferior vena cava and aortic injury (one each). Four injuries occurred during left LDN and only one during a right LDN. Vascular injuries were managed using the Rescue stitch or metallic clips as indicated. Risk reduction strategy was developed to avoid vascular injuries during LDN, which include - meticulous attention to port placement, addition of fourth port, complete dissection of upper pole and pedicle before clipping, and judicious use of ultrasonic diathermy. Conclusions: Careful evaluation of computed tomography angiography just before surgery will act like a global positioning system (GPS) for the operating surgeon. Rescue stitch is a saviour. Not to panic and being well versed with the risk reduction strategies of laparoscopy and rescue measures is of paramount importance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Vascular System Injuries/etiology , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Living Donors , Risk Reduction Behavior , Computed Tomography Angiography , Middle Aged , Nephrectomy/methods
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765799

ABSTRACT

Liver transplantation from living donors is a potential treatment for end-stage liver disease. With advancement of laparoscopic techniques and development of surgical devices, laparoscopic liver resection is becoming increasingly popular because of the minimal invasiveness and excellent cosmetic outcomes. However, owing to technical difficulties, pure laparoscopic donor hepatectomy develops relatively slowly. Pure laparoscopic donor hepatectomy has the great advantage of reducing morbidity, minimizing tissue trauma, and improving postoperative pain and cosmetic outcome. However, pure laparoscopic donor hepatectomy may result in a longer operation time and increased risk of bile duct injury. With continuous technical development and building experience for standardization of the technique, pure laparoscopic donor hepatectomy is expected to be further expanded in the future.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts , Hepatectomy , Humans , Laparoscopy , Liver , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , Living Donors , Pain, Postoperative , Tissue Donors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765795

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Donor safety is the most important problem of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Although laparoscopic liver resection has gained popularity with increased surgical experience and the development of laparoscopes and specialized instruments, a totally laparoscopic living donor right hepatectomy (LDRH) technique has not been investigated for efficacy and feasibility. We describe the experiences and outcomes associated with LDRH in adult-to-adult LDLT in order to assess the safety of the totally laparoscopic technique in donors. METHODS: Between May 2016 and July 2017, we performed hepatectomies in 22 living donors using a totally laparoscopic approach. Among them, 20 donors underwent LDRH. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records to ascertain donor safety and the reproducibility of LDRH; intra-operative and post-operative results including complications were demonstrated after performing LDRH. RESULTS: The median donor age was 29 years old and the median body mass index was 22.6 kg/m2. The actual graft weight was 710 g and graft weight/body weight (GRWR) was 1.125. No donors required blood transfusion, conversion to open surgery, or reoperation. The postoperative mortality was nil and postoperative complications were identified in two donors. One had fluid collection in the supra-pubic incision site for graft retrieval and the second had a minor bile leakage from the cutting edge of the right hepatic duct stump. All the liver function tests returned to normal ranges within one month. CONCLUSION: LDRH is a feasible operation owing to low blood loss and few complications. However, LDRH can be initially attempted after attaining sufficient experience in laparoscopic hepatectomy and LDLT techniques.


Subject(s)
Bile , Blood Transfusion , Body Mass Index , Conversion to Open Surgery , Hepatectomy , Hepatic Duct, Common , Humans , Laparoscopes , Liver , Liver Function Tests , Liver Transplantation , Living Donors , Medical Records , Mortality , Postoperative Complications , Reference Values , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Tissue Donors , Transplants
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759585

ABSTRACT

In terminally ill patients, organ transplantation could be recommended as the treatment of choice. In Korea, living donor liver or kidney transplantation is much more frequent than deceased donor transplantation due to organ shortages from deceased donors. ABO or HLA incompatibility in transplantation can be a major barrier in living donor transplantation. Currently, the rate of ABO incompatible organ transplantation accompanied by desensitization is 20~25% of living donor transplantation, and the blood bank laboratory plays an active role by plasmapheresis. The desensitization of HLA incompatible transplantation in highly sensitized patients is more difficult than that of ABO incompatible transplantation. The HLA antibody is not easy to remove and it is difficult to prevent sensitization. In addition, setting the target treatment goals and predicting the treatment outcomes based on the HLA antibody results are problematic. Therefore, a range of desensitization protocols have been attempted and various therapeutic goals have been introduced. This article reviews the various desensitization methods for antibody removal focusing on HLA incompatible kidney transplantation, and discusses the prognosis of desensitization methods for antibody removal based on the literature.


Subject(s)
Blood Banks , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Korea , Liver , Living Donors , Organ Transplantation , Plasmapheresis , Prognosis , Terminally Ill , Tissue Donors , Transplantation , Transplants
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761496

ABSTRACT

Pediatric liver transplantation has evolved into an effective treatment for a variety of liver diseases in the pediatric population. Over the past 25 years, pediatric liver transplantation results in Korea have matched international standards, and Korea has become one of the most important leaders in living donor liver transplantation. This review presents the cumulative outcomes of pediatric liver transplants in Korea and highlights other concerns related to pediatric liver transplantation, particularly pediatric liver allocation policy and split liver transplantation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Korea , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Living Donors
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a life-saving therapy for patients with terminal liver disease. Many studies have focused on recipients rather than donors. The aim of this study was to assess the emotional status and personality characteristics of LDLT donors. METHODS: We evaluated 218 subjects (126 male, 92 female) who visited Daegu Catholic University Medical Center from August 2012 to July 2018. A retrospective review of their preoperative psychological evaluation was done. We investigated epidemiological data and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 questionnaire. Subanalysis was done depending on whether subjects actually underwent surgery, relationship with the recipient, and their gender. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 32.19±10.91 years. 187 subjects received LDLT surgery (actual donors) while 31 subjects didn't (potential donors). Donor-recipient relationship included husband-wife, parent-children, brother-sister etc. Subjects had statistical significance on validity scale L, F, K and all clinical scales compared to the control group. Potential donors had significant difference in F(b), F(p), K, S, Pa, AGGR, PSYC, DISC and NEGE scales compared to actual donors. F, D and NEGE scales were found to be predictive for actual donation. Subanalysis on donor-recipient relationship and gender also showed significant difference in certain scales. CONCLUSIONS: Under-reporting of psychological problems should be considered when evaluating living-liver donors. Information about the donor's overall psychosocial background, mental status and donation process should also be acquired.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Donor Selection , Humans , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Living Donors , Male , Minnesota , MMPI , Retrospective Studies , Tissue Donors , Weights and Measures
17.
Acta bioeth ; 24(2): 219-225, Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973426

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In this study, we examine the ethical issues concerning living organ transplant in China. We attempt to review and analyze the ethical disputes that the living organ transplant faces in China and try to find applicable solutions to these disputes. Design: Ethical Analysis. Setting: Living organ transplant in China. Results: The ideal approaches to solving the ethical disputes involve (1) preventing disease, strengthening physical fitness, and improving the health of the national citizen; (2) encouraging the citizens to donate their organs after death; and (3) developing new technologies for organ transplant. Realistic approaches to addressing the ethical disputes over the living organ transplant include choosing the lesser of two evils, reducing the harm to the donor as much as possible and improving the transplant quality. Conclusions: The living organ transplant in China is an expedient measure instead of an ideal option and should be conducted under strict laws and regulations.


Objetivos: Neste estudo, examinamos as questões éticas relativas ao transplante de órgãos vivos na China. Vamos tentar rever e analisar os conflitos éticos que o transplante de órgãos vivos enfrenta na China e tentar encontrar soluções aplicáveis a estas disputas. Projeto: Análise ética. Configuração: Transplante de órgão vivo na China. Resultados: As abordagens ideais para resolver os conflitos éticos envolvem (1) prevenção de doenças, fortalecimento da aptidão física e melhora da saúde do cidadão nacional; (2) incentivar os cidadãos a doar seus órgãos após a morte; e (3) desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias para transplante de órgão. Abordagens realistas para enfrentar as disputas éticas sobre o transplante de órgão vivos incluem escolher o menor de dois males, reduzindo o dano ao doador o máximo possível e melhorar a qualidade do transplante. Conclusões: Transplantes de órgãos vivos na China é uma medida conveniente ao invés de uma opção ideal e deve ser conduzida sob estritas leis e regulamentos.


O artigo traz à discussão a compreensão atual do comportamento ecológico do ser humano, a partir de uma relação de dominação utilitária do ambiente em contraste com a sua compreensão do ponto de vista ecológico, a qual responde a um modelo natural que faz parte de relações de seu funcionamento no ecossistema. A este respeito, é colocado em discussão o paradigma de crise ambiental, em que tal comportamento supõe um problema grave da sociedade. Para os autores, a questão está intimamente ligada ao sistema produtivo e econômico que promove a artificialização do ser humano, criando falsas necessidades que, por meio de seu consumo, garantam a sustentabilidade do modelo econômico. É realizada uma reflexão crítica a partir da educação, no sentido de uma nova compreensão do comportamento humano, cuja perspectiva ecológica impulsiona novas relações ecossistêmicas baseadas na cooperação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Organ Transplantation/ethics , Living Donors/ethics , China
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(12): 1061-1068, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976822

ABSTRACT

The Guidelines Project, an initiative of the Brazilian Medical Association, aims to combine information from the medical field in order to standardize producers to assist the reasoning and decision-making of doctors. The information provided through this project must be assessed and criticized by the physician responsible for the conduct that will be adopted, depending on the conditions and the clinical status of each patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Living Donors , Nephrectomy/methods , Evidence-Based Medicine , Nephrectomy/standards
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1071-1080, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975660

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Kidney transplantation for end-stage renal disease remains the preferred solution due to its survival advantage, enhanced quality of life and cost-effectiveness. The main obstacle worldwide with this modality of treatment is the scarcity of organs. The demand has always exceeded the supply resulting in different types of donations. Kidney donation includes pure living related donors, deceased donors, living unrelated donors (altruistic), paired kidney donation and more recently compensated kidney donation. Ethical considerations in live donor kidney transplantation have always created a debate especially when rewarding unrelated donors. In this paper, we examine the problems of financially driven kidney transplantation, the ethical legitimacy of this practice, and propose some innovative methods and policies that could be adopted to ensure a better practice with accepted ethical guidelines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tissue and Organ Procurement/economics , Kidney Transplantation/ethics , Living Donors/ethics , Gift Giving/ethics , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation/methods
20.
Rev. argent. urol. (1990) ; 83(1): 12-17, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-910901

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Realizar un análisis comparativo de los resultados funcionales y complicaciones en trasplantados renales y sus respectivos donantes vivos con arteria renal única versus múltiple. Materiales y métodos: Trabajo retrospectivo analítico de una base de datos confeccionada prospectivamente de pacientes sometidos a trasplantes renales con donante vivo en nuestra institución entre mayo de 2010 y julio de 2014. Según el número de arterias presentes en la angiotomografía preoperatoria se confeccionaron dos grupos: grupo 1 (arteria renal única) y grupo 2 (arteria renal múltiple). Resultados: De los 91 pacientes incluidos, el 37% (n=34) presentaba arterias renales múltiples. Se realizó una nefrectomía laparoscópica al 63% (n=36) y el 41% (n=14) de los donantes del grupo 1 y el grupo 2, respectivamente (p=0,05). Tiempos promedio de isquemia total (grupo 1: 55,6 min; grupo 2: 56 min; p=0,931), de anastomosis (grupo 1: 29,6 min; grupo 2: 29,7 min; p=0,982) y de "cirugía de banco" (grupo 1: 23,5 min; grupo 2: 23,8 min; p=0,948). Transfusión de glóbulos rojos en los receptores (grupo 1: 7%; grupo 2: 14%; p=0,23). Porcentaje de hemodiálisis en la primera semana (grupo 1: 5,2%; grupo 2: 5,8%; p=1). No se hallaron diferencias significativas entre grupos a nivel de tasa de complicaciones y días de internación. Ambos grupos presentaron una sobrevida del injerto del 100% a los 35,6 meses de seguimiento promedio. Conclusiones: La presencia de multiplicidad arterial no debe ser considerada una contraindicación para el donante vivo, ya que el implante de estos injertos logra resultados funcionales similares a los injertos renales con arteria única, sin aumentar la morbilidad del procedimiento. (AU)


Objectives: TTo compare functional outcomes and complications in patients with a single artery versus multiple arteries undergoing living donor nephrectomy. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of a prospective collected database of living donor kidney transplantations performed at our institution between May 2010 and July 2014. According to the number of arteries present in preoperative angiotomography, two groups of patients were organized: group 1 (single artery) and group 2 (multiple arteries). Results: TNinety-one living donor kidney transplantations were performed during this period. A total of 34 patients (37%) had multiple renal arteries. Mean total ischemia time (single: 55.6 min; multiple: 56 min; p=0.931), anastomosis time (single: 29.6 min; multiple: 29.7 min; p=0.982), bench surgery time (single: 23.5 min; multiple: 23.8 min; p=0.948). Blood transfusion rate was 7% and 14% for group 1 and group 2, respectively (p=0.23). Three patients in group 1 (5.2%) and two patients in group 2 (5.8%) needed dialysis during the first postoperative week (p=1). Overall, recipient complication rate and hospital stay were similar between group 1 and 2. Both groups had a 100% graft survival with a mean follow-up of 35.6 months. Conclusions: The presence of multiple renal arteries should not be considered a contraindication for the living donor nephrectomy, since these grafts achieve similar functional results to single artery renal grafts, without increasing the morbidity of the procedure. (AU)


Subject(s)
Adult , Graft Survival , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Laparoscopy , Living Donors , Nephrectomy , Postoperative Complications , Renal Artery , Renal Artery/anatomy & histology , Renal Artery/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies
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