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1.
Univ. salud ; 23(3): 179-188, sep.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341764

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El Bajo Peso al Nacer (BPN) tiene múltiples causas y continúa siendo un problema que afecta diferentes regiones de Colombia. Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados con BPN en el Hospital Universitario Departamental de Nariño. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de casos y controles que incluyó madres y recién nacidos, cuyo parto fue atendido entre noviembre de 2014 y junio de 2015. Resultados: El riesgo de BPN fue mayor en mujeres con edad entre 10-19 años (OR=7,79, IC95%=2,61-23,23), con antecedente de infección vaginal durante el embarazo (OR=4, IC95%=1,26-12,66), nivel educativo primaria incompleta (OR=10,93, IC95%=1,51-79,13) o primaria completa (OR=2,94, IC95%=1,06-8,13), afiliadas al régimen de salud subsidiado (OR=4,96, IC95%=1,71-14,41). El riesgo de tener un recién nacido con BPN se redujo un 10% (OR=0,90, IC95%=0,84-0,96) por cada incremento en una unidad de Índice de Masa Corporal y un 76% (OR=0,23, IC95%=0,16-0,34) por cada incremento en una semana de gestación. Conclusiones: La mayoría de factores de riesgo identificados pueden ser prevenidos o intervenidos precozmente desde un enfoque de salud pública.


Abstract Introduction: Low Birth Weight (LBW) has multiple causes and continues to be a problem that affects different regions of Colombia. Objective: To determine factors associated with LBW in the Departmental University Hospital of Nariño (Colombia). Materials and methods: A case-control study that included newborns and mothers whose delivery took place between November 2014 and June 2015. Results: Risk of LBW was higher in: women aged between 10-19 years (OR=7.79, 95%CI=2.61-23.23); with history of vaginal infection during pregnancy (OR=4, 95%CI=1.26-12.66); and those affiliated with the subsidized health regimen (OR=4.96, 95%CI=1.71-14.41). The risk of having a newborn with LBW was reduced by 10% (OR=0.90, 95%CI=0.84-0.96) for each one unit increase in Body Mass index, and by 76% (OR=0.23, 95%CI=0.16-0.34) for each increase in one week of gestation. Conclusions: Most of the identified risk factors can be prevented or intervened with through an early public health approach.


Subject(s)
Infant, Low Birth Weight , Risk Factors , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy , Logistic Models
2.
Edumecentro ; 13(3): 217-236, jul.-sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286263

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: la deserción escolar debe ser analizada en un contexto multivariado para identificar sus causas y efectos, de ningún modo debe ser atribuida a una sola causa. Objetivo: determinar la capacidad predictiva de algunos factores sobre la deserción escolar de estudiantes de Medicina, a través de un modelo de regresión logística múltiple. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico, predictivo en 87 estudiantes de Medicina matriculados en el curso 2015-2016. Se aplicaron métodos teóricos y empíricos y se realizó en dos etapas: en la primera se identificaron las variables más asociadas a la deserción escolar a través de un análisis bivariado; y en la segunda, se analizó la capacidad de estas variables para predecir la deserción a través de la regresión logística (análisis multivariado). Resultados: en el análisis bivariado, nueve variables mostraron relación significativa con la deserción escolar; al someterlas al análisis multivariado (correlación y regresión logística), solo cuatro mantuvieron la significación estadística, por lo que finalmente fueron las escogidas como variables predictoras. Conclusiones: la deserción escolar en estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina puede predecirse por la combinación sinérgica de los cuatro predictores: dedicarle al estudio menos de 15 horas por semana, el sexo femenino, la repitencia escolar y el bajo rendimiento académico en Morfofisiología.


ABSTRACT Background: school dropout should be analyzed in a multivariate context to identify its causes and effects; in no way, it should be attributed to a single cause. Objective: to determine the predictive capacity of some factors on the school dropout of medical students, through a multiple logistic regression model. Methods: an analytical, predictive study was carried out in 87 medical students enrolled in the 2015-2016 academic year. Theoretical and empirical methods were applied and it was carried out in two stages: in the first, the variables most associated with school dropout were identified through a bivariate analysis; and in the second, the ability of these variables to predict dropout was analyzed through logistic regression (multivariate analysis). Results: in the bivariate analysis, nine variables showed a significant relationship with school dropout; when subjected to multivariate analysis (correlation and logistic regression), only four maintained statistical significance, that´s why they were finally chosen as predictor variables. Conclusions: school dropout in Medicine students can be predicted by the synergistic combination of the four predictors: dedicating less than 15 hours per week to study, female sex, school repetition and low academic performance in Morphology-physiology.


Subject(s)
Student Dropouts , Underachievement , Logistic Models , Forecasting
3.
Univ. salud ; 23(2): 120-128, mayo-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1252315

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El Síndrome de Desgaste Laboral o Burnout, es entendido como una baja resiliencia para afrontar el estrés laboral. Objetivo: Identificar factores asociados al Burnout y la prevalencia global y de cada uno de sus constructos, entre auxiliares de enfermería en un hospital de referencia de mediana y alta complejidad, en Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de casos y controles, con 183 auxiliares registradas en un hospital. Se utilizó el instrumento de Maslach y se identificaron los factores asociados utilizando la regresión Log-Binomial determinando los Odds Ratio (OR). Resultados: Los factores encontrados asociados con Burnout que aumentan la probabilidad de ocurrencia son: trabajar más de 48 horas por semana, OR=1,02 (1,01-1.05) al 90% de confianza; sentirse mal con el trabajo que se realiza OR=3,87 (1,18-10,71); el dormir siete horas o más al día OR=0,70 (0,53-0,91), disminuye la probabilidad. La prevalencia total de Burnout fue 44,7%, siendo 11,8% para agotamiento personal, 14,9% despersonalización y 47,81% pobre realización personal. Conclusiones: Los factores asociados: no dormir suficiente y sentirse mal con la tarea que se realiza, aumentan la probabilidad de desarrollar Burnout, mientras que dormir 7 o más horas diarias la disminuye. Estos hallazgos facilitarán la aplicación de medidas de control institucional.


Introduction: The Burnout syndrome is understood as a low resilience to face work stress. Objective: To identify factors and constructs associated with Burnout and its overall prevalence in nursing assistants in a reference hospital of medium and high complexity level from Colombia. Materials and methods: A case-control study was conducted on 183 nursing assistants from a hospital. The Maslach instrument and Log-Binomial regression were used to identify associated factors, determining their Odds Ratio (OR). Results: The factors found associated with Burnout that increase its probability of occurrence are: working more than 48 hours a week (OR=1.02 (1.01-1.05) 90% CI) and feeling negatively about the work being done (OR=3.87 (1.18-10.71)). However, sleeping 7 or more hours a day reduces such probability (OR=0.70 (0.53-0.91)). The total Burnout prevalence was 44.7%, the main causes being personal fatigue (11.8%), depersonalization (14.9%), and poor personal fulfillment (47.81%). Conclusions: Associated factors, such as not getting enough sleep and feeling negatively about the work being done, increase the probability to develop Burnout, while this probability decreases by sleeping 7 or more hours a day. These findings will facilitate the implementation of institutional control measures.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Psychological , Nursing Assistants , Case-Control Studies , Logistic Models
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 451-459, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1248940

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos das estações do parto e da inseminação, da retenção de placenta, da natimortalidade e da ordem de parto sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas leiteiras. Utilizou-se a regressão logística, em que as variáveis dependentes foram concepção à primeira inseminação pós-parto e percentual de vacas prenhes no rebanho aos 100, 150 ou 200 DEL e as variáveis independentes foram a estação do parto e a estação da inseminação, a retenção de placenta, a natimortalidade e a ordem de parto. A estação do parto e a estação da inseminação influenciaram o desempenho reprodutivo, reduzindo a fertilidade das vacas nas estações quentes do ano. O atraso na primeira inseminação aumentou a concepção na primeira inseminação, mas reduziu o percentual de vacas prenhes ao longo da lactação. O desempenho reprodutivo da vaca leiteira foi afetado por vários fatores, relacionados à vaca, ao ambiente e ao manejo a ela imposto.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the calving season, insemination, placenta retention, stillbirth and birth order on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Logistic regression was used, where the dependent variables were conception at the first postpartum insemination and the percentage of cows pregnant in the herd at 100, 150 and 200 DEL. The independent variables were delivery season and insemination season, placenta retention, stillbirth and delivery order. The calving season and the insemination season influenced reproductive performance, and in the hot seasons of the year the fertility of the cows was reduced. The delay in the first insemination increased conception in the first insemination but reduced the percentage of pregnant cows during lactation. The reproductive performance of the dairy cow was affected by several factors, related to the cow, the environment and the management imposed on it.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Reproduction/physiology , Pregnancy, Animal , Abiotic Factors , Logistic Models
5.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.1): 157-165, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155301

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to analyze the lethality and clinical characteristics in Pernambuco women with neoplasia that were infected by SARS-CoV-2. Methods: a cross-sectional, retrospective study with female patients with neoplasm sin the state of Pernambuco registered and made available by the Secretariat of Planning and Management of the State of Pernambuco (SEPLAG PE). Secondary data from public domain notifications and the independent factors associated with death were analyzed through logistic regression. The value ofp<0.25 was considered significant in the bivariate analysis and for a multivariate analysis, the value ofp<0.05 was considered significant. Results: forty-nine women died. The mean age and standard deviation were 58.75 ± 20.93 years. 55.86% of the patients were 60 years old or more. The overall lethality rate was 72.06% (CI95%=59.8 - 82.2). The most prevalent symptoms were fever (70.59%), cough (58.82%), dyspnea (57.35%) and O2 saturation less than 95% (48.53%). Conclusions: female patients, with cancer and infected by SARS-CoV-2 are particularly susceptible to death, regardless of the presence of comorbidities or age, with peripheral O2 saturation <95% being the only independent factor associated with death in this group.


Resumo Objetivos: analisar a letalidade e características clínicas em mulheres pernambucanas portadoras de neoplasia que apresentaram infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: estudo de corte transversal, retrospectivo com pacientes do sexo feminino, portadoras de neoplasias no estado de Pernambuco com registros disponibilizados pela Secretaria de Planejamento e Gestão do Estado de Pernambuco. Analisou-se dados secundários de notificações de domínio público e os fatores independentes associados ao óbito através de regressão logística. Foi considerado significativo o valor de p<0,25 na análise bivariada e para a análise multivariada foi considerado significativo o valor de p<0,05. Resultados: quarenta e nove mulheres vieram a óbito. A média da idade e desvio padrão foram 58, 75 ± 20,93 anos. 55,86% das pacientes tinham 60 anos ou mais. A taxa de letalidade global foi de 72,06% (IC95%= 59,8 - 82,2). Os sintomas mais prevalentes foram febre (70,59%), tosse (58,82%), dispneia (57,35%) e saturação de O2 <95% (48,53%). Conclusão: pacientes do sexo feminino, com câncer e infectadas pelo SARS-CoV-2 são particularmente suscetíveis a óbito, independentemente da presença de comorbidades ou da idade, sendo a saturação periférica de O2 <95% o único fator independente associado ao óbito nesse grupo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Mortality
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878333

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aims to investigate the correlation of an ultrasonic scoring system with intraoperative blood loss (IBL) in placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders.@*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2015 and November 2019. Clinical data for patients with PAS have been obtained from medical records. Generalized additive models were used to explore the nonlinear relationships between ultrasonic scores and IBL. Logistic regressions were used to determine the differences in the risk of IBL ≥ 1,500 mL among groups with different ultrasonic scores.@*Results@#A total of 332 patients participated in the analysis. Generalized additive models showed a significant positive correlation between score and blood loss. The amount of IBL was increased due to the rise in the ultrasonic score. All cases were divided into three groups according to the scores (low score group: ≤ 6 points, @*Conclusions@#The risk of blood loss equal to or greater than 1,500 mL increases further when ultrasonic score greater than or equal to 10 points, the preparation for transfusion and referral mechanism should be considered.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Loss, Surgical/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Logistic Models , Placenta Accreta/surgery , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/statistics & numerical data
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877761

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at risk of psychological distress. This study evaluates the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on HCWs in a national paediatric referral centre.@*METHODS@#This was a survey-based study that collected demographic, work environment and mental health data from paediatric HCWs in the emergency, intensive care and infectious disease units. Psychological impact was measured using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with psychological distress.@*RESULTS@#The survey achieved a response rate of 93.9% (430 of 458). Of the 430 respondents, symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress were reported in 168 (39.1%), 205 (47.7%) and 106 (24.7%), respectively. Depression was reported in the mild (47, 10.9%), moderate (76, 17.7%), severe (23, 5.3%) and extremely severe (22, 5.1%) categories. Anxiety (205, 47.7%) and stress (106, 24.7%) were reported in the mild category only. Collectively, regression analysis identified female sex, a perceived lack of choice in work scope/environment, lack of protection from COVID-19, lack of access to physical activities and rest, the need to perform additional tasks, and the experience of stigma from the community as risk factors for poor psychological outcome.@*CONCLUSION@#A high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was reported among frontline paediatric HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Personal psychoneuroimmunity and organisational prevention measures can be implemented to lessen psychiatric symptoms. At the national level, involving mental health professionals to plan and coordinate psychological intervention for the country should be considered.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Female , Health Surveys , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Singapore/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880671

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Glioma is the most common intracranial primary tumor in central nervous system. Glioma grading possesses important guiding significance for the selection of clinical treatment and follow-up plan, and the assessment of prognosis. This study aims to explore the feasibility of logistic regression model based on radiomics to predict glioma grading.@*METHODS@#Retrospective analysis was performed on 146 glioma patients with confirmed pathological diagnosis from January, 2012 to December, 2018. A total of 41 radiomics features were extracted from contrast-enhanced T@*RESULTS@#A total of 5 imaging features selected by LASSO were used to establish a logistic regression model for predicting glioma grading. The model showed good discrimination with AUC value of 0.919. Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed no significant difference between the calibration curve and the ideal curve (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The logistic regression model using radiomics exhibits a relatively high accuracy for predicting glioma grading, which may serve as a complementary tool for preoperative prediction of giloma grading.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Glioma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Logistic Models , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#We aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms as well as suicide-related ideation among Japanese university students during the stay-home order necessitated by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Japan, and offer evidence in support of future intervention to depression and suicide prevention strategies among college and university students.@*METHODS@#The data for this cross-sectional study were derived from the Student Mental Health Survey conducted from May 20 to June 16, 2020 at a national university in Akita prefecture. Among the 5111 students recruited, 2712 participated in this study (response rate, 53%; mean age ± standard deviation, 20.5 ±3.5 years; men, 53.8%). Depressive symptoms were identified by using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9).@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of moderate depressive symptoms based on a PHQ-9 score ≥10 and suicide-related ideation based on question 9 of PHQ-9 ≥1, which encompasses thoughts of both suicide and self-harm, was 11.7% and 6.7%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that risk factors for depression included being a woman, smoking, alcohol consumption, and social network communication using either video or voice. For suicide-related ideation, alcohol consumption was the only risk factor. Exercise and having someone to consult about worries were associated with decreased risk of both depressive symptoms and suicide-related ideation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Negative lifestyles of smoking and drinking, and being a woman, may be important risk factors for depressive symptoms, whereas exercise and having someone to consult about worries may be protective factors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Smoking , Students/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e74, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280510

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To identify patient- and provider-related factors associated with the success of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment in the six municipalities of Colombia with the highest number of MDR-TB cases. Methods. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze the association between treatment success (cure or treatment completion) and characteristics of the patients and physicians, nursing professionals, and psychologists involved in their treatment. The importance of knowledge in the management of MDR-TB cases was explored through focus groups with these providers. Results. Of 128 cases of TB-MDR, 63 (49.2%) experienced treatment success. Only 52.9% of the physicians and nursing professionals had satisfactory knowledge about MDR-TB. Logistic regression showed that being HIV negative, being affiliated with the contributory health insurance scheme, being cared for by a male physician, and being cared for by nursing professionals with sufficient knowledge were associated with a successful treatment outcome (p ≤ 0.05). Qualitative analysis showed the need for in-depth, systematic training of health personnel who care for patients with MDR-TB. Conclusions. Some characteristics of patients and healthcare providers influence treatment success in MDR-TB cases. Physicians' and nurses' knowledge about MDR-TB must be improved, and follow-up of MDR-TB patients who are living with HIV and of those affiliated with the subsidized health insurance scheme in Colombia must be strengthened, as these patients have a lower likelihood of a successful treatment outcome.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Identificar los factores asociados con el éxito del tratamiento de tuberculosis multidrogorresistente (TB-MDR) relacionados con los pacientes y el personal sanitario en seis municipios de Colombia con mayor número de casos. Métodos. Mediante regresiones logísticas bifactorial y multifactorial se analizó la asociación entre el tratamiento exitoso (curación o cumplimiento del tratamiento) y las características de los pacientes, y de los médicos, profesionales de enfermería y psicólogos vinculados al tratamiento. Se exploró la importancia del conocimiento en el manejo de los casos de TB-MDR mediante grupos focales con esos profesionales. Resultados. De los 128 casos con TB-MDR, 63 (49,2%) tuvieron un tratamiento exitoso. Solo 52,9% de los médicos y profesionales de enfermería tenía conocimientos satisfactorios sobre TB-MDR. La regresión logística mostró que ser negativo al VIH, estar afiliado al régimen de aseguramiento de salud contributivo, estar atendido por un médico del sexo masculino y por profesionales de enfermería con conocimientos suficientes se asociaron con un desenlace exitoso del tratamiento (p ≤ 0,05). El análisis cualitativo mostró la necesidad de profundizar y sistematizar la capacitación del personal sanitario que atiende los casos de TB-MDR. Conclusiones. En el éxito del tratamiento de los casos de TB-MDR influyen algunas características de los pacientes y el personal sanitario. Se requiere fortalecer los conocimientos sobre TB-MDR de médicos y enfermeros, y reforzar el seguimiento de los pacientes con TB-MDR positivos al VIH y de los que pertenecen al régimen subsidiado, dada su menor probabilidad de éxito al tratamiento.


RESUMO Objetivo. Identificar os fatores associados ao êxito do tratamento da tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR) relacionados ao paciente e à equipe de saúde nos seis municípios da Colômbia com o maior número de casos. Métodos. Mediante regressão logística bifatorial e multifatorial, analisou-se a associação entre o êxito do tratamento (cura ou completude do tratamento) e as características dos pacientes e dos médicos, profissionais de enfermagem e psicólogos envolvidos neste. Explorou-se a importância do conhecimento no manejo de casos de TBMR mediante grupos focais com os mesmos profissionais. Resultados. Dos 128 casos de TBMR, 63 (49.2%) lograram êxito no tratamento. Somente 52.9% dos médicos e profissionais de enfermagem tinham conhecimentos satisfatórios sobre TBMR. A regressão logística demonstrou que soronegatividade para o HIV, cobertura pelo sistema de saúde sob o regime de contribuinte, atendimento por um médico do sexo masculino e atendimento por profissionais de enfermagem com conhecimento suficiente foram fatores associados ao êxito do tratamento (p ≤ 0,05). A análise qualitativa demonstrou necessidade de aprofundar e sistematizar a capacitação do pessoal de saúde que atende casos de TBMR. Conclusões. Algumas características do paciente e da equipe de saúde influenciam no êxito do tratamento de casos de TBMR. É preciso fortalecer os conhecimentos dos médicos e profissionais de enfermagem sobre a TBMR e reforçar o seguimento dos pacientes com TBMR que vivem com HIV e os filiados ao sistema de saúde colombiano pelo regime subsidiado, os quais têm menor probabilidade de êxito do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Attitude of Health Personnel , Clinical Competence , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/therapy , Remission Induction , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Treatment Outcome , Colombia
11.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3399, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1150015

ABSTRACT

Objective: to identify the predictors of functional decline in hospitalized individuals aged 70 or over, between: baseline and discharge; discharge and follow-up, and baseline and three-month follow-up. Method: a prospective cohort study conducted in internal medicine services. A questionnaire was applied (clinical and demographic variables, and predictors of functional decline) at three moments. The predictors were determined using the binary logistic regression model. Results: the sample included 101 patients, 53.3% female, mean age of 82.47 ± 6.57 years old. The predictors that most contributed to decline in hospitalization were the following: previous hospitalization (OR=1.8), access to social support (OR=4.86), cognitive deficit (OR=6.35), mechanical restraint (OR=7.82), and not having a partner (OR=4.34). Age (OR=1.18) and medical diagnosis (OR=0.10) were the predictors between discharge and follow-up. Being older, delirium during hospitalization (OR=5.92), and presenting risk of functional decline (OR=5.53) were predictors of decline between the baseline and follow-up. Conclusion: the most relevant predictors were age, previous hospitalization, cognitive deficit, restraint, social support, not having a partner, and delirium. Carrying out interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of these predictors can be an important contribution in the prevention of functional decline.


Objetivo: identificar os preditores do declínio funcional em pessoas hospitalizadas com 70 ou mais anos, entre: baseline e alta; alta e follow-up e baseline e follow-up de três meses. Método: estudo de coorte prospectivo realizado em serviços de medicina interna. Aplicado um questionário (variáveis demográficas, clínicas e preditores do declínio funcional) em três momentos. Os preditores foram determinados utilizando o modelo de regressão logística binária. Resultados: a amostra incluiu 101 pacientes, 53.3% do sexo feminino, idade média de 82,47 ± 6,57 anos. Os preditores que mais contribuíram para o declínio na hospitalização foram: internação prévia (RC=1,8), acesso a apoio social (RC=4,86), déficit cognitivo (RC=6,35), contenção mecânica (RC=7,82) e não ter parceiro(a) (RC=4,34). A idade (RC=1,18) e o diagnóstico médico (RC=0,10) foram os preditores entre a alta e o follow-up. Ser mais velho, delirium durante a hospitalização (RC=5,92) e ter risco de declínio funcional (RC=5,53), foram preditores de declinio entre a baseline e o follow-up. Conclusão: os preditores mais relevantes foram idade, internação prévia, déficit cognitivo, contenção, apoio social, não ter parceiro(a) e delirium. Executar intervenções orientadas para minimizar o impacto destes preditores pode ser um importante contributo na prevenção do declínio funcional.


Objetivo: identificar los predictores del deterioro funcional en personas internadas de al menos 70 años de edad, entre: baseline y alta; alta y follow-up, y baseline y follow-up a los tres meses. Método: estudio de cohorte prospectivo realizado en servicios de Medicina Interna. Se aplicó un cuestionario (variables clínicas y demográficas, y predictores del deterioro funcional) en tres momentos. Los predictores se determinaron por medio del modelo de regresión logística binaria. Resultados: la muestra incluyó a 101 pacientes, 53,3% del sexo femenino, con una media de edad de 82,47 ± 6,57 años. Los predictores que más contribuyeron al deterioro durante la internación fueron los siguientes: internación anterior (OR=1,8), acceso a apoyo social (OR=4,86), déficit cognitivo (OR=6,35), restricción mecánica del movimiento (OR=7,82) y no tener pareja (OR=4,34). La edad (OR=1,18) y el diagnóstico médico (OR=0,10) fueron los predictores entre el alta y el follow-up. Tener edad avanzada, padecer delirium durante la internación (OR=5,92), y presentar riesgo de deterioro funcional (OR=5,53) fueron predictores del deterioro entre la baseline y el follow-up. Conclusión: los predictores más relevantes fueron edad, internación anterior, déficit cognitivo, restricción del movimiento, apoyo social, no tener pareja y delirium. Realizar intervenciones destinadas a minimizar el efecto de estos predictores puede ser un importante aporte para prevenir el deterioro funcional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Social Support , Logistic Models , Health of the Elderly , Risk , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cohort Studies , Nursing , Delirium , Disease Prevention , Hospitalization
12.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e14, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252001

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Comparar las propiedades diagnósticas de cinco definiciones de caso sospechoso de COVID-19 utilizadas o propuestas en Chile durante los primeros ocho meses de la pandemia. Métodos. Se analizaron las propiedades diagnósticas (sensibilidad, especificidad, y valores predictivos positivo y negativo) de tres definiciones de caso sospechoso de COVID-19 utilizadas en Chile entre marzo y octubre del 2020, y dos propuestas de definición alternativas. La muestra fue de 2 019 personas con resultados conocidos a la prueba de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) para SARS-CoV-2. Para elaborar el criterio 5 se aplicó una regresión logística escalonada (stepwise) optimizando los valores de sensibilidad y especificidad. Se exploró la asociación de variables demográficas, síntomas y signos con la positividad a la PCR mediante regresión logística multifactorial. Se analizaron diferentes escenarios de positividad y se compararon las curvas ROC. Resultados. La presencia de anosmia (OR = 8,00; IC95%: 5,34-11,99) y fiebre (OR = 2,15; IC95%: 1,28-3,59) y el haber tenido contacto estrecho previo con una persona enferma de COVID-19 (OR = 2,89; IC95%: 2,16-3,87) se asociaron con un resultado positivo de la PCR. Según el análisis de las curvas ROC, el criterio 5 tuvo la mayor capacidad de discriminación, aunque sin diferencias significativas con los otros cuatro criterios. Conclusiones. El criterio 5 —basado en la anosmia, el contacto estrecho con personas enfermas de COVID-19 y la fiebre como elementos únicos suficientes— tuvo la mayor sensibilidad para identificar los casos sospechosos de COVID-19, aspecto fundamental para controlar la propagación de la pandemia.


ABSTRACT Objective. Compare the diagnostic properties of five case definitions of suspected COVID-19 that were used or proposed in Chile during the first eight months of the pandemic. Methods. An analysis was done of the diagnostic properties (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of three case definitions of suspected COVID-19 used in Chile between March and October 2020, as well as two alternative proposed definitions. The sample was 2,019 people with known results for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2. Stepwise logistic regression was used to develop criterion 5, optimizing sensitivity and specificity values. Multifactor logistic regression was used to explore the association between demographic variables, symptoms and signs, and PCR positivity. Different positivity scenarios were analyzed and ROC curves were compared. Results. The presence of anosmia (OR = 8.00; CI95%: 5.34-11.99), fever (OR = 2.15; CI95%: 1.28-3.59), and having been in close contact with a person sick with COVID-19 (OR = 2.89; CI95%: 2.16-3.87) were associated with a positive PCR result. According to the analysis of the ROC curve, criterion 5 had the highest capacity for discrimination, although there were no significant differences with the other four criteria. Conclusions. Criterion 5—based on anosmia, close contact with people with COVID-19, and fever as sufficient unique elements—was the most sensitive in identifying suspected cases of COVID-19, a key aspect in controlling the spread of the pandemic.


RESUMO Objetivo. Comparar as características diagnósticas de cinco critérios das definições de caso suspeito de COVID-19 usados ou propostos no Chile nos oito primeiros meses de pandemia. Métodos. Foram avaliadas as características diagnósticas (sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos positivo e negativo) de três critérios das definições de caso suspeito de COVID-19 usados no Chile entre março e outubro de 2020 e de duas alternativas propostas para definição de caso. A amostra do estudo consistiu 2 019 pessoas com resultados conhecidos no exame de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para SARS-CoV-2. Para elaborar o critério 5, uma regressão logística com método stepwise foi realizada otimizando os valores de sensibilidade e especificidade. A associação entre variáveis demográficas, sintomas e sinais e resultado positivo no exame de PCR foi testada em um modelo de regressão logística multifatorial. Situações diferentes de resultado positivo foram testadas com uma análise comparativa das curvas ROC. Resultados. Presença de anosmia (OR 8,00; IC95% 5,34-11,99), febre (OR 2,15; IC95% 1,28-3,59) e contato próximo anterior com uma pessoa com COVID-19 (OR 2,89; IC95% 2,16-3,87) foram associados a um resultado positivo no exame de PCR. De acordo com a análise das curvas ROC, o critério 5 demonstrou maior capacidade discriminatória, apesar de não existir diferença significativa com os outros quatro critérios. Conclusão. O critério 5 - presença de anosmia, febre e contato próximo com uma pessoa com COVID-19 como elementos únicos e suficientes - demonstrou maior sensibilidade para identificar casos suspeitos de COVID-19, o que é fundamental para controlar a disseminação da pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Logistic Models , Chile , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 23: 1-10, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146863

ABSTRACT

Objetivou descrever o perfil de problemas associados ao uso de substâncias entre adolescentes, estudantes de ensino fundamental de uma escola situada em território de intensa circulação de drogas, e verificar as relações com uso e características sociodemográficas. Estudo transversal e correlacional preditivo, com 109 estudantes do nono ano, que responderam ao questionário contendo informações sociodemográficas e o Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). Os dados foram analisados por estatísticas descritivas, testes de associação e cálculo de densidades de problemas investigadas pelo DUSI. Houve maior densidade de problemas para todas as áreas de vida investigadas dentre os escolares que já haviam feito uso de substâncias psicoativas. "Praticar a religião" foi identificado como fator de proteção para o uso de substâncias psicoativas e "trabalhar" como fator de risco para o uso de álcool. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de estratégias preventivas direcionadas ao uso de substâncias e orientadas a esse público.


It aimed to describe the profile of problems associated with substance use among adolescents, elementary school students from a school located in a territory with a high circulation of drugs, and to verify the relationships between use and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and predictive correlational study, with 109 ninth-year students, who answered the questionnaire containing sociodemographic information and the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, association tests, and calculation of problem densities investigated by the DUSI. There was a greater density of problems for all areas of life investigated among students who had already used psychoactive substances. "Practice religion" was identified as a protective factor for the use of psychoactive substances and "work" as a risk factor for the use of alcohol. The need for preventive strategies directed to the use of substances and directed to this public was evidenced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Students , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Underage Drinking , Religion , Socioeconomic Factors , Work , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(10): e00293920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339528

ABSTRACT

Neste estudo, estimou-se a proporção e os fatores associados à subnotificação da tuberculose multirresistente (TB-MDR) no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, assim como a proporção de óbitos nesse grupo. Realizou-se um estudo de coorte retrospectiva, utilizando a técnica de relacionamento probabilístico entre sistemas de informação. Os casos com resultado do teste de sensibilidade às drogas (TSA) com padrão TB-MDR registrados no Sistema Gerenciador de Ambiente Laboratorial (GAL), no período 2010 a 2017, foram relacionados com casos notificados no Sistema de Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose (SITETB). Regressões logísticas simples e múltipla foram realizadas para estimar os fatores associados à subnotificação. Para verificar o óbito, foi realizada a busca dos casos no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM) e no portal do Tribunal de Justiça do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Dos 651 casos TB-MDR no GAL, 165 não haviam sido notificados no SITETB, perfazendo uma subnotificação de 25,4% na amostra. Entre os casos subnotificados, 61 (37%) foram encontrados nos registros de óbito. Na análise múltipla, ter o exame solicitado por um hospital (OR = 2,86; IC95%: 1,72-4,73) esteve associado à subnotificação. No geral, o tempo médio entre a solicitação do exame e a liberação do resultado foi de 113 dias. Entre os casos notificados, o tempo médio entre a solicitação do exame e o início do tratamento foi de 169 dias. Diante disso, é urgente fortalecer as ações de vigilância epidemiológica na TB-MDR, estabelecer e monitorar núcleos de vigilância hospitalar e as rotinas de notificação de TB nos hospitais, rever etapas operacionais, além de unificar os diversos sistemas de informação tornando-os mais ágeis e integrados.


This study estimated the proportion of underreporting of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and associated factors in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as well as the proportion of deaths in this group. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using probabilistic database linkage. Cases with the results of the drug sensitivity test (DST) with MDR-TB pattern recorded in the Laboratory Environment Management System (GAL) from 2010 to 2017 were linked to cases reported to the Special TB Treatments System (SITETB). Simple and multiple logistic regressions were performed to estimate factors associated with underreporting. Death was verified by search for cases in the Mortality Information System (SIM) and in the portal of the Rio de Janeiro State Court of Justice. Of the 651 cases of MDR-TB in the GAL, 165 had not been reported to the SITETB, meaning an underreporting rate of 25.4% in the sample. Among the unreported cases, 61 (37%) were identified in the death records. In the multiple analysis, the fact that the test was ordered by a hospital (OR = 2.86; 95%CI: 1.72-4.73) was associated with underreporting. Overall, the mean turnaround time between ordering the test and releasing the result was 113 days. Among reported cases, the mean time between ordering the test and initiating treatment was 169 days. The results underline the urgent need to strengthen epidemiological surveillance activities for MDR-TB, establish and monitor hospital surveillance centers and routine TB reporting in hospitals, review operational stages, and integrate various information systems to make them more agile and integrated.


En este estudio se estimó la proporción y los factores asociados a la subnotificación de la tuberculosis resistente a múltiples fármacos (TB-MDR) en el Estado de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, así como la proporción de óbitos en ese grupo. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectiva, utilizando la técnica de relación probabilística entre sistemas de información. Los casos con resultado del test de sensibilidad a las drogas (TSA) con patrón TB-MDR, registrados en el Sistema Gerenciador de Ambiente Laboratorial (GAL), en el período 2010 a 2017, se relacionaron con casos notificados en el Sistema de Tratamientos Especiales de Tuberculosis (SITETB). Se realizaron regresiones logísticas simples y múltiples para estimar los factores asociados a la subnotificación. Para verificar el óbito, se realizó la búsqueda de los casos en el Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad (SIM) y en el portal del Tribunal de Justicia del Estado de Río de Janeiro. De los 651 casos TB-MDR en el GAL, 165 no habían sido notificados en el SITETB, lo que equivale a una subnotificación de un 25,4% en la muestra. Entre los casos subnotificados, 61 (37%) se encontraron en los registros de óbito. En el análisis múltiple, que el examen haya sido solicitado por un hospital (OR = 2,86; IC95%: 1,72-4,73) estuvo asociado a la subnotificación. En general, el tiempo medio entre la solicitud del examen y la llegada del resultado fue de 113 días. Entre los casos notificados, el tiempo medio entre la solicitud del examen y el inicio del tratamiento fue de 169 días. Ante esto, es urgente fortalecer las acciones de vigilancia epidemiológica en la TB-MDR, establecer y supervisar núcleos de vigilancia hospitalaria y las rutinas de notificación de TB en los hospitales, revisar etapas operacionales, además de unificar los diversos sistemas de información haciéndolos más ágiles e integrados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e5, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252038

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Identificar los factores asociados con el éxito del tratamiento de tuberculosis multidrogorresistente (TB-MDR) relacionados con los pacientes y el personal sanitario en seis municipios de Colombia con mayor número de casos. Métodos. Mediante regresiones logísticas bifactorial y multifactorial se analizó la asociación entre el tratamiento exitoso (curación o cumplimiento del tratamiento) y las características de los pacientes, y de los médicos, profesionales de enfermería y psicólogos vinculados al tratamiento. Se exploró la importancia del conocimiento en el manejo de los casos de TB-MDR mediante grupos focales con esos profesionales. Resultados. De los 128 casos con TB-MDR, 63 (49,2%) tuvieron un tratamiento exitoso. Solo 52,9% de los médicos y profesionales de enfermería tenía conocimientos satisfactorios sobre TB-MDR. La regresión logística mostró que ser negativo al VIH, estar afiliado al régimen de aseguramiento de salud contributivo, estar atendido por un médico del sexo masculino y por profesionales de enfermería con conocimientos suficientes se asociaron con un desenlace exitoso del tratamiento (p ≤ 0,05). El análisis cualitativo mostró la necesidad de profundizar y sistematizar la capacitación del personal sanitario que atiende los casos de TB-MDR. Conclusiones. En el éxito del tratamiento de los casos de TB-MDR influyen algunas características de los pacientes y el personal sanitario. Se requiere fortalecer los conocimientos sobre TB-MDR de médicos y enfermeros, y reforzar el seguimiento de los pacientes con TB-MDR positivos al VIH y de los que pertenecen al régimen subsidiado, dada su menor probabilidad de éxito al tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Objective. To identify patient- and provider-related factors associated with the success of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment in the six municipalities of Colombia with the highest number of MDR-TB cases. Methods. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze the association between treatment success (cure or treatment completion) and characteristics of the patients and physicians, nursing professionals, and psychologists involved in their treatment. The importance of knowledge in the management of MDR-TB cases was explored through focus groups with these providers. Results. Of 128 cases of TB-MDR, 63 (49.2%) experienced treatment success. Only 52.9% of the physicians and nursing professionals had satisfactory knowledge about MDR-TB. Logistic regression showed that being HIV negative, being affiliated with the contributory health insurance scheme, being cared for by a male physician, and being cared for by nursing professionals with sufficient knowledge were associated with a successful treatment outcome (p ≤ 0.05). Qualitative analysis showed the need for in-depth, systematic training of health personnel who care for patients with MDR-TB. Conclusions. Some characteristics of patients and healthcare providers influence treatment success in MDR-TB cases. Physicians' and nurses' knowledge about MDR-TB must be improved, and follow-up of MDR-TB patients who are living with HIV and of those affiliated with the subsidized health insurance scheme in Colombia must be strengthened, as these patients have a lower likelihood of a successful treatment outcome.


RESUMO Objetivo. Identificar os fatores associados ao êxito do tratamento da tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR) relacionados ao paciente e à equipe de saúde nos seis municípios da Colômbia com o maior número de casos. Métodos. Mediante regressão logística bifatorial e multifatorial, analisou-se a associação entre o êxito do tratamento (cura ou completude do tratamento) e as características dos pacientes e dos médicos, profissionais de enfermagem e psicólogos envolvidos neste. Explorou-se a importância do conhecimento no manejo de casos de TBMR mediante grupos focais com os mesmos profissionais. Resultados. Dos 128 casos de TBMR, 63 (49.2%) lograram êxito no tratamento. Somente 52.9% dos médicos e profissionais de enfermagem tinham conhecimentos satisfatórios sobre TBMR. A regressão logística demonstrou que soronegatividade para o HIV, cobertura pelo sistema de saúde sob o regime de contribuinte, atendimento por um médico do sexo masculino e atendimento por profissionais de enfermagem com conhecimento suficiente foram fatores associados ao êxito do tratamento (p ≤ 0,05). A análise qualitativa demonstrou necessidade de aprofundar e sistematizar a capacitação do pessoal de saúde que atende casos de TBMR. Conclusões. Algumas características do paciente e da equipe de saúde influenciam no êxito do tratamento de casos de TBMR. É preciso fortalecer os conhecimentos dos médicos e profissionais de enfermagem sobre a TBMR e reforçar o seguimento dos pacientes com TBMR que vivem com HIV e os filiados ao sistema de saúde colombiano pelo regime subsidiado, os quais têm menor probabilidade de êxito do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Personnel , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/therapy , Logistic Models , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Clinical Competence , Focus Groups , Colombia , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e18, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252014

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Caracterizar la relación entre la inequidad por la condición étnico-racial y el tipo de aseguramiento de salud en Colombia. Métodos. Estudio de corte transversal basado en datos de la Encuesta de Calidad de Vida 2019. Se analizó el tipo de aseguramiento de salud (contributivo, subsidiado o ninguno) y su relación con la condición étnico-racial y variables predisponentes (sexo, edad, estado civil), demográficas (zona y región de residencia) y socioeconómicas (educación, tipo de empleo, ingresos y necesidades básicas insatisfechas) mediante análisis de regresión simple y multifactorial. La asociación entre la condición étnico-racial y el tipo de aseguramiento de salud fue estimada utilizando razones de posibilidades (OR) y sus intervalos de confianza de 95%, mediante un modelo logístico multinomial. Resultados. Se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la condición étnico-racial y el tipo de aseguramiento de salud. En comparación con el régimen contributivo, las probabilidades de estar afiliado al régimen subsidiado fueron 1,8 y 1,4 veces mayores en los indígenas (OR = 1,891; IC95%: 1,600-2,236) y afrodescendientes (OR = 1,415; IC95%: 1,236-1,620), respectivamente (p < 0,01), que el grupo de la población que no se reconoció como perteneciente a uno de esos grupos étnico-raciales. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación entre la condición étnico-racial y el tipo de aseguramiento en el régimen contributivo y subsidiado de salud en Colombia. La condición étnico-racial se manifiesta como un componente estructural de la inequidad en el acceso a los servicios de salud y profundiza las desventajas de las personas y grupos poblacionales con un bajo estatus socioeconómico.


ABSTRACT Objective. Characterize the relationship between ethnic-racial inequity and type of health insurance in Colombia. Methods. Cross-sectional study based on data from the 2019 Quality of Life Survey. We analyzed the type of health insurance (contributory, subsidized, or none) and its relationship to ethnic-racial status and predisposing variables (sex, age, marital status), demographic variables (area and region of residence), and socioeconomic variables (education, type of employment, income, and unmet basic needs) through simple and multivariate regression analyses. Association between ethnic-racial status and type of health insurance was estimated using odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals, through a multinomial logistic model. Results. A statistically significant association was found between ethnic-racial status and type of health insurance. In comparison with the contributory system, the probabilities of being a member of the subsidized system were 1.8 and 1.4 times greater in the indigenous population (OR = 1.891; 95%CI: 1.600-2.236) and people of African descent (OR = 1.415; 95%CI: 1.236-1.620), respectively (p <0.01) than in the population group that did not identify as belonging to one of those ethnic-racial groups. Conclusions. There is an association between ethnic-racial status and type of insurance in the contributory and subsidized health systems in Colombia. Ethnic-racial status is a structural component of inequity in access to health services and heightens the disadvantages of people and population groups with low socioeconomic status.


RESUMO Objetivo. Caracterizar a relação entre as iniquidades étnico-raciais e o tipo de seguro de saúde na Colômbia. Métodos. Estudo transversal realizado com dados da Pesquisa de Qualidade de Vida 2019. Analisou-se o tipo de seguro de saúde (contributivo, subsidiado ou inexistente) e sua relação entre a condição étnico-racial e variáveis predisponentes (gênero, idade, estado civil), demográficas (zona e região de residência) e socioeconômicas (nível de escolaridade, tipo de emprego, renda e necessidades básicas não atendidas) por regressão simples e multifatorial. Estimou-se a associação entre a condição étnico-racial e o tipo de seguro de saúde em um modelo de regressão logística multinomial com razão de possibilidades (OR) e os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%. Resultados. Observou-se uma associação estatisticamente significativa entre a condição étnico-racial e o tipo de seguro de saúde. Em comparação ao esquema contributivo, a probabilidade de um indivíduo ser associado ao esquema subsidiado foi 1,8 e 1,4 vez maior entre indígenas (OR = 1,891; IC95%: 1,600-2,236) e afrodescendentes (OR = 1,415; IC95%: 1,236-1,620), respectivamente (p < 0,01) que no grupo populacional que não se declarou pertencer a um destes grupos étnicos-raciais. Conclusões. Existe uma associação entre a condição étnico-racial e o tipo de seguro de saúde nos esquemas contributivo e subsidiado na Colômbia. A condição étnico-racial constitui um componente estrutural da iniquidade no acesso aos serviços de saúde aprofundando as desvantagens das pessoas e grupos populacionais com nível socioeconômico baixo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Status Disparities , Health of Ethnic Minorities , Ethnic Inequality , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
17.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5565, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154094

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the factors associated with the high complexity of medication regimen in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a multiprofessional cardiology outpatient clinic, in the Secondary Care of the Unified Health System, where sociodemographic (age, sex, and education), clinical (number of health conditions, cardiovascular diagnoses, and comorbidities) and pharmacotherapeutic (adherence, polypharmacy, and cardiovascular polypharmacy) characteristics were collected. These were related to complexity of medication regimen, measured through the medication regimen complexity index. The classification of high complexity of medication regimen was carried out using standardization for the older adults and stratification for adult patients, as suggested in the literature. Results: The total complexity medication regimen of 148 patients had a median of 17.0 (interquartile range of 10.5). In the univariate analysis, the factors associated with high complexity were heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, five or more diseases, and non-adherence to treatment. In the final model, after logistic regression, there was a statistically significant association (p<0.05) with the variables diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and non-adherence. Conclusion: The high complexity of medication regimen in patients with coronary artery disease was associated with the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and reports of non-adherence to treatment.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar os fatores associados à complexidade alta da farmacoterapia em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo transversal em um ambulatório multiprofissional de cardiologia na Atenção Secundária do Sistema Único de Saúde, de onde foram coletadas características sociodemográficas (idade, sexo e escolaridade), clínicas (número de condições de saúde, diagnósticos cardiovasculares e comorbidades) e farmacoterápicas (adesão, polifarmácia e polifarmácia cardiovascular). Essas características foram relacionadas com a complexidade da farmacoterapia, mensurada por meio do Índice de Complexidade da Farmacoterapia. A classificação em complexidade alta da farmacoterapia foi realizada empregando a normatização para idosos e a estratificação para pacientes adultos, sugeridas na literatura. Resultados: A complexidade da farmacoterapia total dos 148 pacientes apresentou mediana igual a 17,0 (amplitude interquartílica de 10,5). Na análise univariada, os fatores associados à complexidade alta foram insuficiência cardíaca, diabetes mellitus, hipertensão arterial, cinco ou mais doenças e não adesão. No modelo final, após regressão logística, houve associação estatisticamente significante (p<0,05) com as variáveis diabetes mellitus, hipertensão arterial e não adesão. Conclusão: A complexidade alta da farmacoterapia em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana foi associada à presença de diabetes mellitus, hipertensão arterial e relato de não adesão a medicamentos


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Polypharmacy , Medication Adherence , Comorbidity , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension
18.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 36(83): 27-33, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342881

ABSTRACT

El desarrollo de los dientes representa el criterio más utilizado para estimar la edad en niños y adultos jóvenes. El método de Cameriere et al., aceptado y validado internacionalmente, evalúa radiográficamente la edad dental a través de mediciones de dientes con el ápice abierto y la aplicación de ecuaciones de regresión específicas. En el presente estudio se analizaron 7 dientes mandibulares (excepto los terceros molares) en 122 radiografías panorámicas digitales mediante el programa ImageJ, de una muestra de ciudadanos argentinos de 5 a 19 años (63 masculinos y 54 femeninas) con el objetivo de evaluar la precisión del método propuesto por Cameriere et al. Se registraron los datos de sexo y edad de las ortopantomografías en forma ciega de la base de datos. Se desarrollaron modelos de regresión lineal para la estimación de la edad. Los resultados demostraron que el sistema es confiable para la estimación de la edad en la población estudiada, con un error absoluto medio de 0.014 años entre edades cronológicas y estimadas (p=0,603). Hubo una ligera tendencia a sobreestimar las edades de 5 a 10 años y a subestimar las edades de 11 a 16 años. Se considera apropiado efectuar nuevas investigaciones para obtener mayores conclusiones y contribuir a la estandarización del método Cameriere con fines forenses en Argentina (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Age Determination by Teeth , Forensic Dentistry , Argentina/epidemiology , Reference Standards , Radiography, Panoramic , Logistic Models , Dental Service, Hospital , Age and Sex Distribution
19.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 50: e20210018, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1341587

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Orofacial pain is a critical TMD symptom that can influence physical and social capacity. Objective To evaluate the association of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) symptoms with affective relationships and demographic variables in young adults. Material and method A cross-sectional study involving 395 young adults was developed. Diagnostic Criteria for TMD, anxiety, and depression were collected from questionnaires. The Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need measures the orthodontic treatment need. Questionnaires also contained questions related to the previous orthodontic treatment. Logistic regression models were adjusted, estimating crude odds ratio with the 95% confidence intervals. The variables with p<0.20 in the analyses were assessed in a multiple logistic regression model, remaining with p≤0.10. Result There was no significant association of TMD symptoms with sex, age, medication use for pain, previous orthodontic treatment, orthodontic treatment need, anxiety, and depression (p>0.05). Individuals without an affective relationship are 1.78 (95%CI: 0.99-3.17) times more likely to report TMD symptoms. Conclusion Affective relationships showed an association with TMD symptoms in young adults.


Resumo Introdução A dor orofacial é um sintoma crítico da DTM que pode influenciar a capacidade física e social. Objetivo Avaliar a associação dos sintomas das desordens têmporomandibulares (DTM) com as relações afetivas e variáveis demográficas em adultos jovens. Material e método Estudo transversal envolvendo 395 adultos jovens foi realizado. Os critérios diagnósticos para DTM, ansiedade e depressão foram coletados a partir de questionários. O Componente de Saúde Bucal do Índice de Necessidade de Tratamento Ortodôntico mensurou a necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico. Os questionários também continham questões relacionadas ao tratamento ortodôntico anterior. Modelos de regressão logística foram ajustados, estimando odds ratio bruto com os intervalos de confiança de 95%. As variáveis com p<0.20 nas análises foram avaliadas em modelo de regressão logística múltipla, permanecendo as variáveis com p≤0.10. Resultado Não houve associação significativa dos sintomas de DTM com sexo, idade, uso de medicamentos para dor, tratamento ortodôntico prévio, necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico, ansiedade e depressão (p>0.05). Indivíduos sem relacionamento afetivo têm 1.78 (IC95%:0.99-3.17) vezes mais chance de relatar sintomas de DTM. Conclusão Os relacionamentos afetivos mostraram associação com os sintomas de DTM em adultos jovens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/prevention & control , Affective Symptoms , Young Adult , Anxiety , Facial Pain , Logistic Models , Demography , Oral Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression , Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need , Malocclusion
20.
Actual. osteol ; 17(1): 8-17, 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1291888

ABSTRACT

Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and its association with in"ammatory markers in patients with rheumatologic diseases (RD). Methods: A cross-sectional study in 154 women with RD (rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and other connective tissue diseases) and 112 healthy individuals as a control group (CG) was carried out. Results: No differences in serum and urine calcium, serum phosphate, and urinary deoxypyridinoline were found. RD group had lower 25OHD and higher PTH compared to CG. RD group had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) compared to CG. The overall mean level of 25OHD (ng/ml) was 26.3±12.0 in the CG and 19.4±6.8 in the RD group (p<0.0001). Moreover, CG had lower percentage of individuals with 25OHD de!ciency compared to RD (29.9% vs 53.2%). The femoral neck BMD was signi!cantly lower in postmenopausal RD women compared to CG. 25OHD levels signi!cantly correlated with ESR and CRP as in"ammatory markers. Age, BMI, presence of RD, and CRP were signi!cantly and negatively associated with 25OHD levels through linear regression analysis. According to univariate logistic regression analysis for 25OHD deficiency (<20 ng/ml), a significant and negative association with BMI, presence of RD, ESR and CRP were found. Conclusion: Patients with RD had lower 25OHD levels than controls and the presence of a RD increases by 2.66 the risk of vitamin D de!ciency. In addition, 25OHD has a negative correlation with ESR and CRP as in"ammatory markers. (AU)


Objetivo El objetivo principal de este estudio fue evaluar los niveles séricos de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25OHD) y su asociación con marcadores inflamatorios en enfermedades reumatológicas. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 154 mujeres con enfermedades reumatológicas (artritis reumatoide, espondiloartritis y otras enfermedades del tejido conectivo) y 112 individuos sanos como grupo control (GC). Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias en el calcio sérico y urinario, el fosfato sérico y la desoxipiridinolina urinaria entre el GC y los sujetos con enfermedades reumatológicas. El grupo de pacientes con enfermedades reumatológicas tenía 25OHD más bajo y PTH más alto en comparación con el GC. Asimismo, el grupo de individuos con enfermedades reumatológicas tenía proteína C reactiva (PCR) y velocidad de eritrosedimentación (VES) más altas en comparación con el GC. El nivel de 25OHD (ng/ml) fue 26,3±12,0 en el GC y 19,4±6,8 en el grupo con enfermedades reumatológicas (p<0,0001). Además, el GC presentó un porcentaje menor de deficiencia de 25OHD en comparación con el grupo con enfermedades reumatológicas (29,9% vs 53,2%). La DMO del cuello femoral fue significativamente menor en las mujeres posmenopáusicas con enfermedades reumatológicas en comparación con el GC. La 25OHD correlacionó significativamente con la VES y la PCR como marcadores inflamatorios. El análisis de regresión lineal mostró que la edad, el IMC, la presencia de una enfermedad reumatológica y la PCR se asociaron significativa y negativamente con los niveles de 25OHD. Mientras que el análisis de regresión logística univariada mostró que la deficiencia de 25OHD (<20 ng/ml), se asoció significativa y negativamente con el IMC, la presencia de una enfermedad reumatológica, la VES y los niveles de PCR. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con enfermedades reumatológicas tenían niveles de 25OHD más bajos que los controles y la presencia de una enfermedad reumatológica aumenta en 2.66 el riesgo de deficiencia de vitamina D. Además, la 25OHD mostró correlación negativa con la VES y la PCR como marcadores inflamatorios. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/etiology , Biomarkers , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Inflammation/blood , Phosphates/blood , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Logistic Models , Calcium/urine , Calcium/blood , Rheumatic Diseases/blood , Risk , Cross-Sectional Studies , Postmenopause , Amino Acids/urine
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