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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While procarbazine, CCNU (lomustine), and vincristine (PCV) has been an alternative chemotherapy option for malignant gliomas, it is worth investigating whether the combination of only procarbazine and CCNU is comparable because vincristine adds toxicity with uncertain benefit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of procarbazine and CCNU chemotherapy for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation. METHODS: Eight patients with recurrent GBM following concurrent chemoradiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ) adjuvant therapy were enrolled in this trial; they received no other chemotherapeutic agents or target therapy. They received CCNU (75 mg/m²) on day 1 and procarbazine (60 mg/m²) through days 11 and 24 every 4 weeks. The median cycle of CCNU and procarbazine was 3.5 (range: 2–6). RESULTS: One patient achieved stable disease. The median progression-free survival (PFS) with procarbazine and CCNU chemotherapy was eight weeks (range: 5–73), and the PFS rates were 25% and 12.5% at 16 and 30 weeks, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) from the initial diagnosis to death was 40 months, and the median OS from the administration of procarbazine and CCNU chemotherapy to death was 9.7 months (95% confidence interval: 6.7–12.7). Serious adverse events were found at six visits, and two cases were considered to be grade 3 toxicities. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of procarbazine and CCNU chemotherapy is not satisfactory. This study suggests the need to develop other treatment strategies for recurrent and TMZ-refractory GBM. Trial registry at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT017337346.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Lomustine , Methylation , Procarbazine , Vincristine
3.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(3): 147-154, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117304

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare entity associated with high morbidity and mortality. It includes a broad spectrum of clinical patterns, from acute hepatitis to cirrhosis. Among the common associated drugs are antimicrobial like anti-TBC, antineoplastic, CNS agents and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Establishing causality between DILI and a certain drug is a challenge. Some scoring systems have been evaluated, considering RUCAM score as the gold standard. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman with a history of a high-grade glioma treated with surgery and chemotherapy with lomustine, procarbazine and vincristine. She evolved with altered liver tests, predominantly cholestatic pattern, but asymptomatic. Etiologic study negative and abdominal imaging were normal. The liver biopsy was compatible with 40% ductopenia, without inflammatory elements. We consider DILI associated with the use of lomustine, with RUCAM score suggesting. After discontinuing chemotherapy and using ursodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of cholestasis there was an improvement in liver tests. There is limited evidence in the literature regarding hepatotoxicity associated with lomustine, mainly in experimental animal models. Cases of cholestatic hepatotoxicity have been described with the use of other similar nitrosureas. In relation to procarbazine and vincristine, DILI is reported mainly reversible and predominantly with hepatocellular pattern, not consistent with our case. We find it interesting to communicate with review of the literature about it.


El daño hepático inducido por drogas (DILI) es una entidad poco frecuente, con alta morbimortalidad asociada. Incluye un amplio espectro de patrones clínicos, desde hepatitis aguda a cirrosis. Dentro de los fármacos frecuentemente asociados se encuentran antibióticos como anti-TBC, agentes antineoplásicos, de acción en el SNC y anti-inflamatorios no esteroidales. Establecer una causalidad entre DILI y una determinada droga constituye un desafío. Para ello, se han evaluado diversos sistemas de puntuación, considerándose gold estándar el RUCAM score. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 35 años de edad con antecedentes de glioma de alto grado operado y en quimioterapia con lomustina, procarbazina y vincristina. En su evolución presenta alteración de pruebas hepáticas de predominio colestásico de manera asintomática, con estudio etiológico causal negativo e imagenológico normal. La biopsia hepática fue compatible con ductopenia de 40% sin elementos inflamatorios. Se plantea DILI asociado al uso de lomustina con un score de RUCAM sugerente, decidiéndose interrumpir sus ciclos de quimioterapia e inicia tratamiento con ácido ursodesoxicólico, presentando mejoría progresiva de pruebas hepáticas. Existe evidencia limitada en la literatura en relación a hepatotoxicidad asociada a este fármaco, principalmente en modelos experimentales, y con el uso de otras nitrosureas similares se han descrito casos de hepatotoxicidad de predominio colestásico. En relación con procarbazina y vincristina existen reportes de DILI principalmente reversible y con patrón de predominio hepatocelular, lo que no es concordante con nuestro caso, por lo cual nos parece de interés comunicarlo con revisión de la literatura al respecto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Cholestasis/chemically induced , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Lomustine/adverse effects , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(6): 1426-1436, nov.-dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-909833

ABSTRACT

In spite of the many available protocols, the use of chemotherapy for the management of canine mast cell tumours (MCT) remains empirical, and there is lack of criteria for the choice of protocol and definition of patients who may benefit from treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of dogs with MCT after adjuvant chemotherapy according to the risk of recurrence or metastasis proposed on the literature. This prospective study included 89 followed up dogs with prognosis assesment including clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and genetic features of canine MCT. Patients were grouped according to risk of recurrence and metastasis and recommended treatment with lomustine followed by chlorambucil if considered at high-risk, or vinblastine followed by chlorambucil if a patient was at intermediate risk. Outcome was defined by disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS) estimated by Kaplan-Meier curve. Adjuvant lomustine was useful for control of canine MCT of high-risk of recurrence or metastasis, but only when sequentially associated to chlorambucil with a DFI of 686 days and not reached OS. There was no difference in outcome in the intermediate-risk group despite choosen treatment. Patients at intermediate-to-low risk may not require adjuvant treatments, even in the absence of free surgical margins.(AU)


Apesar dos inúmeros protocolos disponíveis, o uso da quimioterapia permanece empírico para o mastocitoma canino e faltam critérios para escolha do protocolo e da definição dos pacientes que poderiam se beneficiar do tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o resultado de cães com mastocitoma após a quimioterapia adjuvante, de acordo com o risco de recorrência ou metástase proposto na literatura. Este estudo prospectivo incluiu 89 cães com acompanhamento clínico e avaliação prognóstica, incluindo características clínicas, histológicas, imuno-histoquímicas e genéticas dos mastocitomas. Os pacientes foram agrupados segundo o risco de recorrência ou metástase, sendo recomendado tratamento com lomustina seguida de clorambucila, se considerados sob alto risco, ou vimblastina seguida de clorambucila, se estivessem sob risco intermediário. O resultado final foi definido pelo intervalo livre de doença (ILD) e pela sobrevida global (SG), estimados pela curva de Kaplan-Meier. Na adjuvância, a lomustina foi útil no controle do mastocitoma canino de alto risco, mas apenas quando associada ao clorambucila, com um ILD de 686 dias, sem atingir a mediana para SG. Não houve diferença no grupo de risco intermediário, independentemente do tratamento escolhido. Pacientes de risco intermediário podem não necessitar de tratamentos adjuvantes, mesmo na ausência de margens cirúrgicas livres.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/veterinary , Chlorambucil/administration & dosage , Ki-67 Antigen , Lomustine/administration & dosage , Mastocytoma/drug therapy , Mastocytoma/veterinary , Vinblastine/administration & dosage
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(4): 913-918, jul.-ago. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-792465

ABSTRACT

Metronomic chemotherapy consists of an anticancer modality treatment. It is applicable in patients at an advanced stage, with the objective of increasing overall survival. The aim of this study was to report an anal sac apocrine carcinoma case in a dog with lymph node metastasis treated with metronomic chemotherapy sequential to surgery and conventional chemotherapy using gemcitabine and carboplatin. Metronomic chemotherapy was associated with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, due to strong tumor COX-2 immunohistochemistry expression. Metronomic chemotherapy was initiated with cyclophosphamide, but it was replaced by lomustine, also in metronomic dosage, due to adverse effects. Treatment showed effectiveness, since the patient's overall survival exceeded 1095 days (36 months), considerably higher than the mean overall survival expected for this pathology.(AU)


Quimioterapia metronômica consiste em uma modalidade de tratamento anticancerígeno, aplicável a pacientes em estadiamento avançado, com o objetivo de aumentar a sobrevida global. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar um caso de carcinoma apócrino do saco anal, em uma cadela, com metástase em linfonodo tratado com quimioterapia metronômica sequencial à cirurgia e quimioterapia convencional utilizando-se gencitabina e carboplatina. O tratamento metronômico foi associado ao uso de inibidores de ciclo-oxigenase-2 (COX-2), baseando-se na constatação de sua expressão tumoral. A terapia metronômica iniciou-se com ciclofosfamida, mas houve necessidade de substituição pela lomustina, também em dose metronômica, devido à ocorrência de efeitos adversos. O tratamento mostrou ser eficaz, pois a sobrevida do paciente ultrapassa 1095 dias (36 meses) desde a cirurgia, sendo consideravelmente maior que a média relatada para essa patologia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Apocrine Glands/ultrastructure , Carcinoma/drug therapy , Carcinoma/veterinary , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Lomustine/therapeutic use , Lymphatic Metastasis
6.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 53(1): 39-47, 2016. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-784039

ABSTRACT

The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical response of dogs with cutaneous lymphoma treated with lomustine (CCNU) and to identify possible adverse effects and toxicity during treatment. Fifteen dogs, seven females and eight males aged between five and 17 years old, diagnosed with cutaneous lymphoma by histopathological analysis were selected and treated with lomustine at 90 mg/m² every three weeks. Monitoring was carried out and consisted of the assessment of laboratory hematology and serum chemistry before and during treatment. Partial response was observed in 53.3% of the animals. None of the animals achieved a complete response and seven dogs (46.6%) had progressive disease. The median survival time was 22 days. The major hematological and biochemical changes found after therapy were leukopenia (73.3%), thrombocytopenia (60%) and anemia (46.1%). Renal and liver toxicity was observed in 40% and 73.3% of dogs, respectively. Hematocrit, total protein, leukocyte count, neutrophil count, serum creatinine, ALT, GGT, alkaline phosphatase and urine specific gravity were affected during therapy. The use of lomustine as a monotherapy in the treatment of canine cutaneous lymphoma was effective; however, adverse effects occurred and compromised the quality of life of the majority of dogs in this study. Therefore, lower doses of lomustine should be considered in future studies...


O objetivo deste estudo prospectivo foi avaliar a resposta clínica de cães com linfoma cutâneo tratados com lomustina (CCNU) e identificar possíveis efeitos adversos e toxicidade durante o tratamento. Quinze cães, sendo 7 fêmeas e 8 machos, com idades entre 5 e 17 anos diagnosticados com linfoma cutâneo por avaliação histopatológica foram selecionados e tratados com lomustina na dose de 90 mg/m2 a cada três semanas. Os cães foram monitorados por avaliação hematológica e bioquímica sérica antes e durante o tratamento. A resposta parcial foi observada em 53,3% dos animais. Nenhum dos animais apresentou resposta completa e sete animais (46,6%) apresentaram progressão da doença. O tempo médio de sobrevida foi de 22 dias. As principais alterações hematológicas e bioquímicas observadas após o tratamento foram leucopenia (73,3%), trombocitopenia (60%) e anemia (46,1%). Sinais de toxicidade renal e hepática foram observados em 40% e 73,3% dos cães, respectivamente. Durante o tratamento foram afetados os parâmetros hematócrito, proteínas séricas totais, contagem de leucócitos, contagem de neutrófilos, creatinina sérica, ALT, GGT, fosfatase alcalina e densidade urinária. O uso de lomustina como monoterapia no tratamento do linfoma cutâneo canino foi efetivo; entretanto, efeitos adversos ocorreram e comprometeram a qualidade de vida da maioria dos animais neste estudo. Assim, sugere-se que doses mais baixas de lomustina sejam consideradas em estudos futuros...


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Lomustine/adverse effects , Lomustine/toxicity , Lomustine/therapeutic use , Skin Neoplasms/therapy , Clinical Diagnosis/veterinary , Skin Neoplasms/veterinary
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for recurrent primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) has not been defined yet and there is no general consensus about the salvage chemotherapy after high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy for recurrent PCNSLs. METHODS: We reviewed eight immunocompetent patients (five males/three females, mean age: 56 years) who received salvage PCV chemotherapy (procarbazine 60 mg/m2, days 8 through 21: CCNU 110 mg/m2, day 1: vincristine 2 mg, days 8 and 28) for recurrent PCNSL and two patients switched to PCV chemotherapy due to severe adverse effects of HD-MTX chemotherapy. Radiologic responses, survival, and adverse effects were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the eight recurrent PCNSLs, three patients (37.5%) showed radiologic complete response, one patient (12.5%) showed partial response, and four patients (50%) showed progressive disease after PCV chemotherapy. Median progression free survival (PFS) from the first administration of PCV to relapse or last follow-up was 7 months (range 5-32 months) and median overall survival was 8 months (range 2-41 months). The two patients who switched to PCV chemotherapy showed PFS of 9 and 5 months from the beginning of PCV to relapse. The common side effects were thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and peripheral neuropathy. There were 4 grade III or IV myelo-suppression, but no fatal complications, including severe hemorrhage or infection, were observed. CONCLUSION: Salvage PCV chemotherapy has a moderate anti-lymphoma activity for recurrent PCNSLs after the HD-MTX-based chemotherapy with tolerable toxicity.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Consensus , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Lomustine , Lymphoma , Methotrexate , Neutropenia , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Procarbazine , Recurrence , Salvage Therapy , Thrombocytopenia , Vincristine
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23820

ABSTRACT

A 49-year-old female patient was admitted due to memory disturbances. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging suggested gliomatosis cerebri (GC), which had spread to both insular lobes, both frontal and basal ganglia and the brain stem. A stereotactic biopsy was performed at the high signal intensity area of the T2-weighted MR image, and the revealed a diffuse astrocytoma. Radiation therapy was judged not to be an appropriate treatment for the patient because of her cognitive impairment. A combinatorial chemotherapy regiment consisting of Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine (PCV) was agreed upon after discussion. The patient underwent six cycles of PCV chemotherapy (a full dose was applied until the 3rd cycle, and dose then was reduced to 75% for the remaining cycles). Although the patient exhibited side effects such as bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal symptoms, these were managed by medication. Over the 28 months following initiation of treatment, the high signal area in the right frontal and temporal lobes in the T2-weighted MR image decreased, and the patient's cognitive function [global deterioration scale (GDS) 4 points, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) 25 point] also improved (GDS 1 points, MMSE 29 points). PCV chemotherapy can therefore be an alternative therapeutic option for patients with GC who cannot be treated with radiation therapy or other chemotherapies.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Basal Ganglia , Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Brain Stem , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Lomustine , Memory , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial , Procarbazine , Temporal Lobe , Vincristine
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54655

ABSTRACT

A 37-year-old male presented with a mass measuring 2.5 cm in size in the midbrain and obstructive hydrocephalus, which had manifested as a headache and dizziness. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain showed intermediate enhancement on T1-weighted MR imaging and a high intensity of enhancement on T2-weighted MR. Neurosurgeons performed an occipital craniotomy with partial removal of the tumor and the postoperative diagnosis was a pineal parenchymal tumor with intermediate differentiation. He had undergone irradiation with 54 Gy of radiation on 27 fractions for removal of the remaining tumor approximately one month after surgery. However, in follow-up imaging performed four months after radiotherapy, a remnant mass in the superoposterior aspect of the midbrain was found to have extended to the hypothalamus and the third ventricle. He was treated with six cycles of procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine chemotherapy. At five months since the completion of chemotherapy, the brain MR imaging showed no evidence of any remaining tumor and he no longer displayed any of his initial symptoms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Craniotomy , Dizziness , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hypothalamus , Lomustine , Magnetics , Magnets , Male , Mesencephalon , Pinealoma , Procarbazine , Third Ventricle , Vincristine
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118487

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy for recurrent anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA). METHODS: A multi-center retrospective trial enrolled seventy-two patients with histologically proven AO/AOA who underwent TMZ chemotherapy for their recurrent tumors from 2006 to 2010. TMZ was administered orally (150 to 200 mg/m2/day) for 5 days per 28 days until unacceptable toxicity occurred or tumor progression was observed. RESULTS: TMZ chemotherapy cycles administered was median 5.3 (range, 1-41). The objective response rate was 24% including 8 cases (11%) of complete response and another 23 patients (32%) were remained as stable disease. Severe side effects (> or =grade 3) occurred only in 9 patients (13%). Progression-free survival (PFS) of all patients was a median 8.0 months (95% confidence interval, 6.0-10.0). The time to recurrence of a year or after was a favorable prognostic factor for PFS (p<0.05). Overall survival (OS) was apparently differed by the patient's histology, as AOA patients survived a median OS of 18.0 months while AO patients did not reach median OS at median follow-up of 11.5 months (range 2.7-65 months). Good performance status of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0 and 1 showed prolonged OS (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: For recurrent AO/AOA after surgery followed by radiation therapy, TMZ could be recommended as a salvage therapy at the estimated efficacy equal to procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy at first relapse. For patients previously treated with PCV, TMZ is a favorable therapeutic option as 2nd line salvage chemotherapy with an acceptable toxicity rate.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Procarbazine , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy , Vincristine
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the role of chemotherapy in the management of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). METHODS: We compared the survival outcome among the 3 different treatment protocol groups in a single institution. A total of 86 patients (39 men and 47 women) with newly diagnosed AA after surgery were analyzed. Among them, 31 patients (36.0%) were treated with radiotherapy only (RT Group), 30 patients (34.9%) were treated with nimustine-cisplatin chemotherapy before RT (ACNU-CDDP group), and 25 patients (29.1%) were treated with procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy after radiotherapy (PCV group). RESULTS: The median survival was 14.0, 30.0 and 72.0 months in RT, ACNU-CDDP, and PCV group, respectively and showed significant differences (RT vs. ACNU-CDDP; p=0.039, RT vs. PCV; 0.002, ACNU-CDDP vs. PCV; 0.045). PCV group showed less toxicity rate (5 patients; 20%) than ACNU-CDDP group (12 patients; 40%), while only 3 patients (9.6%) in RT group experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicities. CONCLUSION: An application of chemotherapy before or after radiotherapy is beneficial in prolonging the survival of patients with AA. Adjuvant PCV chemotherapy after radiotherapy is recommendable.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Clinical Protocols , Humans , Lomustine , Male , Procarbazine , Retrospective Studies , Vincristine
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the role of chemotherapy in the management of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). METHODS: We compared the survival outcome among the 3 different treatment protocol groups in a single institution. A total of 86 patients (39 men and 47 women) with newly diagnosed AA after surgery were analyzed. Among them, 31 patients (36.0%) were treated with radiotherapy only (RT Group), 30 patients (34.9%) were treated with nimustine-cisplatin chemotherapy before RT (ACNU-CDDP group), and 25 patients (29.1%) were treated with procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy after radiotherapy (PCV group). RESULTS: The median survival was 14.0, 30.0 and 72.0 months in RT, ACNU-CDDP, and PCV group, respectively and showed significant differences (RT vs. ACNU-CDDP; p=0.039, RT vs. PCV; 0.002, ACNU-CDDP vs. PCV; 0.045). PCV group showed less toxicity rate (5 patients; 20%) than ACNU-CDDP group (12 patients; 40%), while only 3 patients (9.6%) in RT group experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicities. CONCLUSION: An application of chemotherapy before or after radiotherapy is beneficial in prolonging the survival of patients with AA. Adjuvant PCV chemotherapy after radiotherapy is recommendable.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Clinical Protocols , Humans , Lomustine , Male , Procarbazine , Retrospective Studies , Vincristine
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341962

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on cytotoxicity of Lomustine (CCNU) in vitro.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>CCNU was used to treat human glioma cell line BT-325 with different concentration of cytokines or NO donors, NO levels was measured by Griess assay and cell survival was evaluated by MTT assay.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>(1) Pretreatment with IL-1 beta and LPS markedly suppressed CCNU cytotoxicity in BT-325 cells with a significant increase in NO production (P<0.05). This function could be inhibited by L-NAME. (2) DETA NONOate suppressed cytotoxicity of CCNU to BT -325 cells in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). (3) CCNU co-cultured with SNAP for 24 h showed higher cytotoxic to BT-325 cells(P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>NO partly suppresses cytotoxicity of Lomustine, which might be associated with chemoresistance of BT-325 cells against CCNU in vitro. NO can also slow the degradation of CCNU in water solution.</p>


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Glioma , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Humans , Interleukin-1 , Pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Lomustine , Pharmacology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Pharmacology , Nitric Oxide , Physiology
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 129(8): 911-916, ago. 2001. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-300152

ABSTRACT

Cholangiocarcinoma is a biliary tree cancer of unknown etiology, whose symptoms are unspecific and is usually detected in advanced stages. Surgery continues to be the only curative therapy. Median survival in patients with inoperable tumors ranges between 5 and 8 months. There are few studies on the effects of chemotherapy, with a very small response. We report four patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma, treated with gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2, weekly for 3 weeks every 28 days. There was a stabilization of tumor size and symptoms were alleviated. Toxicity was low and there was a probable prolongation of survival


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Bile Duct Neoplasms , Cholangiocarcinoma , Deoxycytidine , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Deoxycytidine , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fluorouracil , Leucovorin , Lomustine , Quality of Life , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145243

ABSTRACT

Oligodendrogiomas account for about 4 per cent of intracranial gliomas and surgery is known to be an essential first step to establish an accurate diagnosis and when oligodendrogliomas recur with or without anaplastic features after initial resection, radiation and chemotherapy consisting of the administration of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine are usually indicated. We report our experience of an excellent result with intraventricular methotrexate chemotherapy for a patient with disseminated anaplastic oligodendroglioma. A 29-year-old male patient presented with diplopia and headache for two months. MRI showed a irregular, faintly enhanced mass in the posterior fossa. The hisotological diagnosis was an anaplaplastic oligodendroglioma and he was treated with chemotherapy of PCV regimen and radiotherapy followed by surgery. CSF dissemination was revealed by a follow-up MRI during the period. Intraventricular methotrexate(0.175mg/kg) was given twice a week for 4 weeks through ommaya reservoir and the size of the multiple tumors was decreased significantly on follow-up MRI. This case report suggests that an aggressive treatment involving intravent-ricular chemotherapy may be helpful even when anaplastic oligodendrogliomas disseminates to leptomeninges.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diagnosis , Diplopia , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Glioma , Headache , Humans , Lomustine , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methotrexate , Oligodendroglioma , Procarbazine , Radiotherapy , Vincristine
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-64219

ABSTRACT

AIM: To induce intrahepatic cholestasis in rats using lomustine 1(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-l-nitrosourea (CCNU). METHODS: Doses of 10 mg, 20 mg and 30 mg/Kg body weight of CCNU were injected intraperitoneally in separate groups of animals. RESULTS: With 10 mg/Kg body weight of CCNU, serum bilirubin levels increased for up to 72 hours and then slowly returned to normal. With a dose of 20 mg/Kg body weight of CCNU, serum bilirubin, AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase levels increased for 72 hours and then returned to normal over 4-5 weeks. With a dose of 30 mg/Kg body weight peak levels of serum bilirubin were reached on day 17. Pathological studies were carried out after injection of 30 mg/Kg body weight of CCNU. After 72 hours hepatocytes were normal, with minimal nonspecific inflammation and bile duct proliferation. After 16 days, triaditis was observed with deposition of collagen. Focal fibrosis was also noticed. There was no significant abnormality of hepatocytes. After 75 days, hepatocytes showed focal ballooning. Bile duct proliferation was seen invading the parenchyma. Nodules of hepatocytes separated by irregular fibrous bands indicated cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: An animal model of intrahepatic cholestasis has been developed using CCNU; this model may be used to assess the utility of hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic/chemically induced , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/drug effects , Lomustine/pharmacology , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar
18.
Oncol. clín ; 3(3): 84-90, sept. 1998. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-318460

ABSTRACT

Se analiza la evolución de 157 pacientes (97 varones) con diagnóstico histológico de astrocitoma anaplásico (AA, N=53), astrocitoma de bajo grado (ABG, N=31) y glioblastoma (GB, N=73) sometidos a tratamiento multidisciplinario. Los pacientes con AA, GB y ABG con resecciones parciales (RP) o recidiva realizaron cirugía, radioterapia y/o quimioterapia (lomustina, vincristina y procarbazina). Los ABG con resección completa (RC) efectuaron sólo cirugía. La edad X ñ ES fue 49,71 ñ 1,9 para AA; 39,19 ñ 2,4 para ABG y 59,13 ñ 1,3 para GB (p < 0,0001). Un Karnofsky > 70 por ciento se observó en el 84,90 por ciento AA; 90,32 por ciento ABG y 38,35 por ciento GB. El número de RC fue: 64,15 por ciento para AA; 61,29 por ciento ABG y 23,28 por ciento GB. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la edad, Karnofsky y tipos de cirugía de los distintos tipos histológicos. La sobrevida media SV para AA fue 30,02 meses (IC 95 por ciento 25,99-34,05); 43,32 meses (IC 95 por ciento 36,82-49,83) para ABG y 10,20 meses (IC 95 por ciento 9,28-11,12) para GB. La sobrevida se correlacionó con edad, Karnofsky y tipo de cirugía (p<0,0001) en pacientes AA y con Karnofsky en pacientes GB (p<0,0001). Cuando se analizó la sobrevida de los diferentes tipos histológicos en función de la cirugía y del Karnofsky se observó mayor sobrevida en los pacientes con RC y Karnofsky > 70 por ciento (p<0,0001, Log rank test). Sólo en 10 pacientes la toxicidad correspondió al grado 3 de la OMS y ningún caso requirió modificación de la dosis. En concordancia con otras comunicaciones la evolución de los AA fue mejor que la de los GB. La mayor frecuencia de resecciones completas, el mejor Karnofsky y la menor edad pueden contribuir con éstos resultados. La mejor evolución de los pacientes con ABG dependería más del tipo histológico que de las otras variables consideradas


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Astrocytoma , Glioblastoma , Astrocytoma , Brain Neoplasms , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Karnofsky Performance Status , Lomustine , Procarbazine , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Vincristine
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205994

ABSTRACT

The authors analyzed preliminary outcome of 10 patients with mixed glioma(3 patients with low-grade oligoastrocytoma and 7 patients with anaplastic oligoastrocytoma) who underwent surgical resection and were treated or are in treatment with or without adjuvant therapy at our institute since May 1993. In the low-grade oligoastrocytoma group, gross total tumor resection was done in all three cases and postoperative radiation therapy was performed in 2 cases. In the anaplastic oligoastrocytoma group, all seven cases were divided as to the amount of tumor removal(gross total resection; 4 cases, subtotal resection; 1 case, partial resection; 2 cases) and clinical course and prognosis were analyzed as to performing postoperative radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. In the low-grade oligoastrocytoma group, one patient who didn't undergo postoperative radiation therapy suffered from tumor recurrence that showed histopathologically malignant transformation. In the anaplastic oligoastrocytoma group, 2 patients who underwent subtotal tumor resection and partial tumor resection with postoperative radiation therapy showed tumor progression and histopathologically more malignant transformation. The authors propose that gross total tumor resection with postoperative radiation therapy in low-grade oligoastrocytoma and adding chemotherapy(especially with procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine; PCV regimen) in anaplastic oligoastrocytoma appear to be associated with more prolongation of patient's survival.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy , Glioma , Humans , Lomustine , Procarbazine , Prognosis , Recurrence , Vincristine
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