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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2713-2724, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981374

ABSTRACT

The grey correlation-TOPSIS method was used to evaluate the quality of the origin herbs of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, and the Fourier transform near-infrared(NIR) and mid-infrared(MIR) spectroscopy was applied to establish the identification model of origin herbs of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos by combining chemometrics and spectral fusion strategies. The content of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, secoxyloganin, isoquercitrin, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, and isochlorogenic acid C in six origin herbs of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and their quality was evaluated by the grey correlation-TOPSIS method. The Fourier transform NIR and MIR spectra of six origin herbs of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos(Lonicera japonica, L. macranthoides, L. hypoglauca, L. fulvotomentosa, L. confuse, and L. similis) were collected. At the same time, principal component analysis(PCA), support vector machine(SVM), and spectral data fusion technology were combined to determine the optimal identification method for the origin herbs of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. There were differences in the quality of the origin herbs of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. Specifically, there were significant differences between L. japonica and the other five origin herbs(P<0.01). The quality of L. similis was significantly different from that of L. fulvotomentosa, L. macranthoides, and L. hypoglauca(P=0.008, 0.027, 0.01), and there were also significant differences in the quality of L. hypoglauca and L. confuse(P=0.001). The PCA and SVM 2D models based on a single spectrum could not be used for the effective identification of the origin herbs of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. The data fusion combined with the SVM model further improved the identification accuracy, and the identification accuracy of the mid-level data fusion reached 100%. Therefore, the grey correlation-TOPSIS method can be used to evaluate the quality of the origin herbs of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. Based on the infrared spectral data fusion strategy and SVM chemometric model, it can accurately identify the origin herbs of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, which can provide a new method for the origin identification of medicinal materials of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Quality Control , Lonicera/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2103-2115, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981342

ABSTRACT

As a large family of transcription factors, the MYB family plays a vital role in regulating flower development. We studied the MYB family members in Lonicera macranthoides for the first time and identified three sequences of 1R-MYB, 47 sequences of R2R3-MYB, two sequences of 3R-MYB, and one sequence of 4R-MYB from the transcriptome data. Further, their physicochemical properties, conserved domains, phylogenetic relationship, protein structure, functional information, and expression were analyzed. The results show that the 53 MYB transcription factors had different conserved motifs, physicochemical properties, structures, and functions in wild type and 'Xianglei' cultivar of L. macranthoides, indicating their conservation and diversity in evolution. The transcript level of LmMYB was significantly different between the wild type and 'Xianglei' cultivar as well as between flowers and leaves, and some genes were specifically expressed. Forty-three out of 53 LmMYB sequences were expressed in both flowers and leaves, and 9 of the LmMYB members showed significantly different transcript levels between the wild type and 'Xianglei' cultivar, which were up-regulated in the wild type. The results provide a theoretical basis for further studying the specific functional mechanism of the MYB family.


Subject(s)
Transcription Factors/metabolism , Lonicera/metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1730-1738, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928170

ABSTRACT

Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, as common Chinese medicine, has been used for thousands of years in the treatment of inflammation and infectious diseases with definite efficacies. The complex composition of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos results in its extensive pharmacological effects, so the assessment of its quality by only a few index components is not comprehensive. Guided by the quality marker(Q-marker), the present study comprehensively analyzed and predicted the quality connotation of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos based on the chemical composition and component transfer, the phylogenetic relationship, chemical composition effectiveness, measurability, and specificity. Chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acids A, B, and C, luteoloside, rutin, sweroside, and secoxyloganin were predicted as candidate Q-markers of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Lonicera/chemistry , Phylogeny , Quality Control
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2148-2157, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928154

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop an HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of 11 components(6 phenolic acids and 5 iridoids) in Lonicera japonica flowers(LjF) and leaves(LjL), and compare the content differences of LjF at different development stages, LjL at different maturity levels, and between LjF and LjL. One-way ANOVA, principal component analysis(PCA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were employed to compare the content of the 11 components. The content of total phenolic acids, total iridoid glycosides, and total 11 components in LjF showed an overall downward trend with the development of flowers. The content of total phenolic acids, total iridoid glycosides, and total 11 components in young leaves were higher than those in mature leaves. The results of PCA showed that the samples at different flowering stages had distinguishable differences in component content. The VIP value of OPLS-DA showed that isochlorogenic acid A, chlorogenic acid, and secologanic acid were the main differential components of LjF at different development stages or LjL with different maturity levels. LjF and LjL have certain similarities in chemical composition while significant differences in component content. The content of total phenolic acids in young leaves was significantly higher than that in LjF at various development stages. The content of total iridoid glycosides in young leaves was similar to that in LjF before white flower bud stage. The total content of 11 components in young leaves was significantly higher than that in LjF at green flower bud stage, before and during completely white flower bud stage. LjL have great potential for development. Follow-up research on the pharmacodynamic equivalence of LjF and LjL(especially young leaves) should be carried out to speed up the development and application of LjL.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flowers/chemistry , Iridoid Glycosides/analysis , Lonicera/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2419-2429, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928121

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the functions of genes of key rate-limiting enzymes chalcone isomerase(CHI) and chalcone synthase(CHS) in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in Lonicera macranthoides, this study screened and cloned the cDNA sequences of CHI and CHS genes from the transcriptome data of conventional variety and 'Xianglei' of L. macranthoides. Online bioinformatics analysis software was used to analyze the characteristics of the encoded proteins, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR) to detect the expression of CHI and CHS in different parts of the varieties at different flowering stages. The content of luteo-loside was determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and the correlation with the expression of the two genes was analyzed. The results showed that the CHI and CHS of the two varieties contained a 627 bp and 1170 bp open reading frame(ORF), respectively, and the CHI protein and CHS protein were stable, hydrophilic, and non-secretory. qRT-PCR results demonstrated that CHI and CHS of the two varieties were differentially expressed in stems and leaves at different flowering stages, particularly the key stages. Based on HPLC data, luteoloside content was in negative correlation with the relative expression of the genes. Thus, CHI and CHS might regulate the accumulation of flavonoids in L. macranthoides, and the specific functions should be further studied. This study cloned CHI and CHS in L. macranthoides and analyzed their expression for the first time, which laid a basis for investigating the molecular mechanism of the differences in flavonoids such as luteoloside in L. macranthoides and variety breeding.


Subject(s)
Acyltransferases/metabolism , Chalcone , Cloning, Molecular , Intramolecular Lyases , Lonicera/metabolism , Plant Breeding
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1453-1458, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928074

ABSTRACT

Lonicera Japonica Flos is the dried bud or nascent flower of Lonicera japonica(Caprifoliaceae). The plant suffers from various diseases and pests in the growth period and thus pesticides are often used. As a result, the resultant pesticide residues in Lonicera Japonica Flos have aroused great concern. This review summarized the investigation, detection methods, content analysis, and risk assessment of pesticide residues in Lonicera Japonica Flos since 1996, and compared the maximum residue limits among different countries and regions. The results showed that the pesticide residues were detected in Lonicera Japonica Flos from different production areas, and only some exceeded the limits. The residual pesticides have changed from organochlorines to new types such as tebuconazole and nitenpyram. The detection method has upgraded from chromatography to chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most pesticide residues will not cause health risks, except carbofuran. Pesticide residues limit the development of Lonicera Japonica Flos industry in China. In practice, we should improve the drug registration of Lonicera Japonica Flos, promote ecological prevention and control technology, and formulate and promote pesticide residue limit standard of Lonicera Japonica Flos.


Subject(s)
Flowers/chemistry , Lonicera/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5877-5886, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921709

ABSTRACT

The present study optimized the extraction of flavonoids from Lonicera rupicola Hook. f. et Thoms(LRH) and explored its pharmacological effects, such as resisting inflammation, relieving pain, enhancing immunity, and inhibiting pyroptosis, aiming to provide data support and scientific basis for the development and utilization of LRH. Response surface methodology(RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction of flavonoids from LRH based on the results of single-factor experiments. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of LRH flavonoids were evaluated via inflammation and pain models in mice, such as xylene-induced ear swelling, carrageenan-induced footpad swelling, writhing caused by acetic acid, and paw licking. The effect of LRH flavonoids on the carbon clearance index of monocytes and serum immunoglobulin A(IgA) and IgM levels was analyzed on the immunosuppression model induced by cyclophosphamide in mice. The anti-oxidative effect in vivo of LRH flavonoids on liver superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), and malondialdehyde(MDA) levels was determined based on the chronic/subacute aging model in mice induced by D-galactose. The levels of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1(caspase-1), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and IL-18 in the supernatant of J774 A.1 mononuclear phagocytes were detected to evaluate the effect of LRH flavonoids on the pyroptosis of mononuclear phagocytes in mice induced by the combination of lipopolysaccharide(LPS) and adenosine triphosphate(ATP). Meanwhile, the effect of LRH flavonoids on the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway was also explored. The optimum conditions for the extraction of LRH flavonoids are listed below: extraction temperature of 65 ℃, the ethanol concentration of 50%, extraction time of 60 min, a material-liquid ratio at 1∶25, and the yield of LRH flavonoids of 0.553%. RSM determined the multiple quadratic regression equation model of response value and variables as follows: the yield of LRH flavonoids=0.61-0.48A+0.1B+0.029C-0.014D+0.32AB+0.04AC-0.012AD-0.02BC+0.037BD-0.031CD-0.058A~2-0.068B~2-0.069C~2-0.057D~2. LRH flavonoids could effectively inhibit ear swelling and footpad swelling, reduced acetic acid-induced writhing, and delayed the paw licking response time in mice. Additionally, LRH flavonoids could improve the carbon clearance index in immunosuppressed mice, potentiate the activities of SOD and CAT and reduce MDA levels in the liver of aging mice induced by D-galactose, and effectively inhibit macrophage pyroptosis by decreasing the levels of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18. The results reveal that LRH flavonoids possess excellent pharmacological activities such as resisting inflammation and oxidation, relieving pain, and enhancing immunity. They can inhibit pyroptosis by enhancing the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. The results of this study can underpin the pharmacological research, development, and utilization of LRH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Edema/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lonicera , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pain/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pyroptosis
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2220-2228, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879181

ABSTRACT

A new method of MS/MS~(ALL) was designed to sequentially record a MS~2 spectrum at each unit mass window through gas phase fractionation concept, so as to offer an opportunity for universal MS~2 spectral recording with direct infusion(DI). As a proof-of-concept, DI-MS/MS~(ALL) was applied for rapid chemome profiling of a famous herbal medicine named Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. After each MS~2 spectrum was correlated to its precursor ion, the structural annotation was conducted by applying well-defined mass cracking rules, matching the mass spectral data with literatures and referring to those accessible databases. As a result, a total of 54 components were identified from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract, including 21 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, 12 iridoids, 4 triterpenoids and 4 other compounds. Therefore, DI-MS/MS~(ALL) is a powerful tool for comprehensive, rapid qualitative analysis of chemical profiles of traditional Chinese medicine and other chemical components of complex systems.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Lonicera , Plant Extracts , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2798-2805, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887952

ABSTRACT

In order to study the regulation mechanism of secondary metabolites biosynthesis in Lonicera macranthoides, the key genes involved in the regulation of biosynthesis and the mechanism of differential metabolites were explored. In this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was used for transcriptome sequencing of L. macranthoides at different development stages. By using Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) technology, the laws of qualitative, quantitative and synthetic accumulation of its metabolites were studied, and the key enzyme genes for the biosynthesis of phenolic acid and flavonoids were screened out according to the differentially expressed genes. A total of 111 differentially accumulate metabolites(DAM) and 6 653 differentially expressed genes(DGE) were obtained by metabonomics and transcriptomics analysis. The metabolites and key enzyme genes in the Erqing(KE) were significantly different from those in the Dabai(KD) and Yinhua(KY) stages. In the phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway, the ion abundance of chlorogenic acid, naringin, quercetin, rutin, coniferol and other metabolites decreased with the development of flowers, while the ion abundance of ferulic acid, coumarin and syringoside increased with the development of flowers. Key enzyme genes such as CHS, HCT, CCR, FLS and COMT positively regulate the downstream metabolites, while PAL, C4H and 4CL negatively regulate the downstream metabolites. This study provides candidate genes and theoretical basis for the further exploration of key enzymes in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and for the regulation of the accumulation of secondary metabolites in L. macranthoides by molecular biological methods.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Flowers/genetics , Lonicera/genetics , Metabolomics , Proteomics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2746-2752, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887945

ABSTRACT

As a traditional Chinese medicinal material, Lonicera japonica has a long medicinal history. The chemical constituents of Lonicera japonica are complex, mainly including iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, triterpenes, organic acids and volatile oil. Iridoid glycosides account for a higher proportion. In addition, modern pharmacological studies have shown that the iridoid glycosides have many pharmacological activities such as antivirus, anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, liver protection and lowering blood sugar. This review intends to systematically summarize the iridoid glycosides identified from Lonicera japonica and their pharmacological activities by searc-hing Chinese and English databases, in order to provide a reference for the further development and utilization of Lonicera japonica and for the improvement of quality standards of medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Flavonoids , Glycosides/pharmacology , Iridoid Glycosides/pharmacology , Lonicera , Plant Extracts
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1070-1075, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008474

ABSTRACT

The application of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) formula granules in clinical practice is gradually extensive. However, TCM formula granules is still lacking rapid and simple quality control standards. In this study, allele-specific PCR and enzyme-linked immunoassay(ELISA) was used for rapid detection of the quality of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos formula granules. The authenticity of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos formula granules was identified by allele-specific PCR and index component was detected by ELISA. Thus, it lays a foundation for the establishment of rapid quality detection standard for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos formula granules, and also provides reference for other studies on the quality standard of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Lonicera/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Quality Control
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3275-3281, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828447

ABSTRACT

Lonicerae Japonicae Flos has a long history of heat-clearing and detoxifying effect. The description of its efficacy in Chinese Pharmacopoeia of past dynasties is relatively stable, and it is an excellent carrier for the study of efficacy markers. Guided by the theory of systematic traditional Chinese medicine, heat-clearing and detoxifying effect efficacy system of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos was taken as an example in this study to clarify the elements(active ingredients) of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos in heat-clearing and detoxifying efficacy system, determine the boundary(signal pathway), establish the structure(system dynamics model), identify the system functions corresponding to pharmacology, efficacy and effects(heat-clearing and detoxifying effect), and explore the application of system dynamics model in the discovery of efficacy markers of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the dynamic models of interleukin 1(IL-1) and interleukin 6(IL-6) in vivo were established to predict the expression of related factors in IL-1 and IL-6 signaling pathways of different components and their combinations in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos by dynamic network, so as to find the effective markers of heat-clearing and detoxification of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. The results showed that the lower the concentration of chlorogenic acid, the higher the inhibition rate of Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK) at downstream of IL-1 by the combination of chlorogenic acid and linalool; the higher the concentration of luteolin in IL-6 pathway, the higher the inhibition rate of C-reactive protein(CRP) at downstream of IL-6 by the combination of chlorogenic acid and luteolin. It revealed that the potential efficacy markers of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos in heat-clearing and detoxifying effect based on IL-1 signaling pathway were chlorogenic acid and linalool, and the potential efficacy markers of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos in heat-clearing and detoxifying effect based on IL-6 signaling pathway were chlorogenic acid and luteolin. This study provided methodological guidance for the discovery of efficacy markers of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hot Temperature , Lonicera , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3938-3944, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828364

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to observe the anti-inflammatory action and mechanism of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract in xylene-induced ear swelling experiment and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cell inflammatory model. In vivo, xylene-induced mouse auricle swelling model was used to detect the auricle swelling degree and swelling inhibition rate of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract; the pathological changes of mice auricle were observed by hematoxylin eosin(HE) staining. In vitro, RAW264.7 inflammatory cell model was induced by LPS, where the cytotoxic effects of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract on RAW264.7 cells were detected by CCK-8 method; Griess method was used to detect the effect of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract on nitric oxide(NO) production, and ELISA method was used to detect the content of inflammatory factors interleukin-6(IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). At last, Western blot was used to detect the protein changes of cyclooxygenase 1(COX1), COX2 and inducible nitric oxide synthetase(iNOS) for RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that both Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract could significantly inhibit the degree of auricle swelling caused by xylene in mice and the inhibition rate was positively correlated with the drug dose. Furthermore, both of them could reduce the infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils in mouse ear tissues. For in vitro experiments, both Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract inhibited NO secretion in RAW264.7 cells, down-regulated the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, and down-regulated iNOS protein and COX2, NF-κB p65 protein content. In conclusion, both Lonicerae Japonicae Flos extract and Lonicerae Flos extract have good anti-inflammatory effect, and the mechanism may be related with the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Lipopolysaccharides , Lonicera , Plant Extracts
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5658-5662, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878826

ABSTRACT

Identification of Chinese medicinal materials is a fundamental part and an important premise of the modern Chinese medicinal materials industry. As for the traditional Chinese medicinal materials that imitate wild cultivation, due to their scattered, irregular, and fine-grained planting characteristics, the fine classification using traditional classification methods is not accurate. Therefore, a deep convolution neural network model is used for imitating wild planting. Identification of Chinese herbal medicines. This study takes Lonicera japonica remote sensing recognition as an example, and proposes a method for fine classification of L. japonica based on a deep convolutional neural network model. The GoogLeNet network model is used to learn a large number of training samples to extract L. japonica characteristics from drone remote sensing images. Parameters, further optimize the network structure, and obtain a L. japonica recognition model. The research results show that the deep convolutional neural network based on GoogLeNet can effectively extract the L. japonica information that is relatively fragmented in the image, and realize the fine classification of L. japonica. After training and optimization, the overall classification accuracy of L. japonica can reach 97.5%, and total area accuracy is 94.6%, which can provide a reference for the application of deep convolutional neural network method in remote sensing classification of Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Lonicera , Neural Networks, Computer , Remote Sensing Technology
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2091-2102, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827975

ABSTRACT

Taking Lonicerae Japonicae Flos as an example, the method of "expert consensus of different regions" was used to screen the representative samples and evaluate their commodity grades. The correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) of "commodity grade-appearance characteristic-component content" were carried out to reveal the scientificity of traditional commodity grade of Chinese medicinal material. By referring to the existing literature and the grade investigation from the sample collection regions, 78 "initial grade" samples were screened out from 118 collected samples. Authoritative experts from four regions(n=4) including Linyi(Shangdong province), Bozhou(Anhui province), Anguo(Hebei province) and Beijing were organized to evaluate their commodity grades, separately. Based on the grade consistency rate(R_i≥70%), 69 "local grade" samples were screened out from the "initial grade" samples. Based on the average grade consistency rate ■ "authoritative grade" samples were screened out from the "local grade" samples, including15 first-grade samples, 9 second-grade samples, 11 third-grade samples and 17 fourth-grade samples. For these "authoritative grade" samples, the main appea-rance characteristics were quantified and the contents of 13 components were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography(UPLC). Furthermore, the total contents of 6 phenolic acids, 4 flavonoids and 3 iridoids were calculated, respectively. The results of correlation analysis showed that 4 appearance characteristics indices were correlated with the commodity grades: color, rate of yellow bars(including blooming flowers), rate of black heads(including black bars), and rate of stems and leaves(including bud debris). Five component content indices were correlated with the commodity grades: chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid C, sweroside, loganin and the total contents of six phenolic acids. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid, loganin and the total contents of six phenolic acids showed significantly negative correlation with the main appearance characteristics, indicating that the appearance characteristics of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos can reflect its internal quality, and these 3 indices can be used as quality markers(Q-markers). The results of hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the samples of four grades were classified into four categories, and the samples with the same grades and the same categories accounted for 80.8% of the total samples, while the samples with the different grades were obviously classified into different categories. The results of PLS-DA analysis showed that the samples of different grades showed obvious intragroup aggregation and intergroup dispersion. The above results indicated that it was feasible to evaluate the traditional commodity grade of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos by the method of "expert consensus of different regions". For the evaluation of traditional commodity grade of Chinese medicinal material, the samples should be representative, expert conclusions should have enough consensuses, and grade determination should be authoritative. As the crystallization of clinical experience, traditional commodity grade can scientifically reflect the internal quality of Chinese medicinal material.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flowers , Lonicera , Quality Control
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1272-1278, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008567

ABSTRACT

Molecular biology is a new subject that clarifies the phenomena and nature of life at the molecular level. Its development provides new biotechnology and methods for the study of traditional pharmacognosy. The formation of molecular biology has brought the development of pharmacognosy into a new era of gene research. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is a classical Chinese medicine. Many scholars of home and abroad have carried out relevant studies on its molecular biology on the basis of the in-depth study with traditional methods, and have achieved certain results. In order to provide references on the method, technical for promoting the modernization of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, and the development, protection, and utilization of other traditional Chinese medicine resources. This article summarized the application status of molecular biology methods and techniques on the identification, biosynthesis of active constituents, and molecular mechanism of secondary metabolite under stress conditions of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos in recent years. In hybridization technology of tag(RFLP), molecular markers based on PCR(RAPD, AFLP, SSR and ISSR), based on DNA sequence analysis of SNP and DNA barcode for the variety identification, diagnosis, identification of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, and so forth in detail. At the same time, it is proposed that multi-omics technology can be used to build systems biology technology and platforms, and establish related models of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, so as to deepen acknowledge the molecular mechanism of the active component biosynthesis of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and the accumulation of metabolites, life activities of other medicinal plants under adverse environment, then to regulate them.


Subject(s)
Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Lonicera/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Microsatellite Repeats , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Secondary Metabolism
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5129-5133, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008375

ABSTRACT

The quality of honeysuckle has always been an important factor in industrial development. Flowering is one of the elements for the variation of the effective components in honeysuckle. We can conveniently recognize whether the commodity is mixed with blossomed honeysuckle in the form of medicinal material. However,it is hard to identify whether the products are mixed with blossomed honeysuckle in the form of powdersince visual identification traits are missing. Therefore,this study aims to seek an effective method of odor-based distinguish for identifying the quality of honeysuckle powder in different ratios by using Heracles Ⅱ ultra-fast gas phase electronic nose.The powdered samples were prepared with flower buds and fully blooming flowers in different proportion. Gas chromatograms of the powder were obtained by HeraclesⅡ ultra-fast gas phase electronic nose. Through analyzing the data of chromatograms,we have concluded that the qualitative results of the prepared powder were almost the same,and there existed differences in the components content. Meanwhile,the hexanal odor appeared to be the critical factor in identifying honeysuckle powder quality among the flavor of all possible compounds. Also,we have applied PCA,DFA and CQ to identify and classify the variety of the powder based on the chromatogram data. Finally,it is realized that the powder was rapidly identified and classified into three grades based on the proportion of flowering honeysuckle. The predicted concentration value for the first class is less than 3,the value of is not less than 3 and less than 5 for the second class,and more than 5 for the third class. In summary,the results obtained by the study suggest that Heracles Ⅱ ultra-fast gas phase electronic nose analysis can be used as a rapid identification method for the quality of honeysuckle powder. At the same time,it can provide a reference for the quality classification of honeysuckle based on flowering degrees.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nose , Flowers/chemistry , Lonicera/chemistry , Odorants/analysis , Plant Preparations/analysis , Powders/analysis , Quality Control
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3935-3941, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008308

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed to explore the effects of stress at different temperatures( 35,45,55 ℃) on membrane permeability,active oxygen metabolism and accumulation of effective substances in Lonicera japonica,and provide theoretical basis for reducing deterioration and revealing browning mechanism during postharvest processing of L. japonica. The cell membrane permeability( relative conductivity,MDA content),active oxygen metabolism( SOD,POD,PPO,CAT activity) and the accumulation of effective substances( chlorogenic acid,luteolin,neochlorogenic acid,cryptochlorogenic acid,3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid,3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) of L. japonica were all studied by constant temperature drying method,and the results were analyzed by the SPSS 17. 0 statistical software. The results showed that MDA content in L. japonica was increased by 151. 14% at 35 ℃,SOD,POD,PPO and CAT activity were 29. 73%,42. 86%,105. 02% and 10. 74% higher than at 45 ℃,respectively. The order of effective substance content in L. japonica was 35 ℃ >45 ℃ >55 ℃. The changes of membrane permeability,activity of active oxygen metabolizing enzyme and accumulation of active components were significantly affected by different temperature stress. The indexes showed that physiological and active oxygen metabolizing enzyme activity of L. japonica was the highest under 35 ℃ stress,chlorogenic acid and luteolin were effectively accumulated,which provides basic data for solving browning problem in the postharvest processing of L. japonica.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane Permeability , Chlorogenic Acid/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Lonicera/physiology , Luteolin/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Stress, Physiological
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 100-105, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771511

ABSTRACT

This present study aims to establish a UPLC method for simultaneously determining eleven components such as new chlorogenic acid,chlorogenic acid,caffeic acid,cryptochlorogenic acid,artichoke,isochlorogenic acid A,isochlorogenic acid B,isochlorogenic acid C,rutin,hibisin and loganin in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos,Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis and leaves of Lonicera japonica and comparing the differences in the contents of phenolic acids,flavonoids and iridoid glycosides of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos,Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis and leaves of Lonicera japonica.The method was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18column(2.1 mm×100 mm,1.7 μm) by a gradient elution using acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid.The flow rate was 0.3 mL·min-1.The column temperature was maintained at 30 ℃.The sample room temperature was 8 ℃.The wavelength was set at 326 nm for new chlorogenic acid,chlorogenic acid,caffeic acid,cryptochlorogenic acid,artichoke,isochlorogenic acid A,isochlorogenic acid B and isochlorogenic acid C,352 nm for rutin and lignin,and 238 nm for loganin.The injection volume was 1 μL.The eleven components has good resolution and was separated to baseline.Each component had a wide linear range and a good linear relationship(r≥0.999 6),the average recovery rate(n=9) was 98.96%,100.7%,97.24%,97.06%,99.53%,96.78%,98.12%,95.20%,95.12%,100.2%,98.61%and with RSD was 2.5%,1.4%,1.9%,2.1%,1.7%,1.9%,1.6%,2.0%,1.4%,2.2%,2.0%,respectively.Based on the results of the content determination,the chemometric methods such as cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to compare the Lonicerae Japonicae Flos,Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis and leaves of Lonicera japonica.The results showed that Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and leaves of Lonicera japonica were similar in the chemical constituents,but both showed chemical constituents difference compored to Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis.The established multi-component quantitative analysis method can provide a reference for the quality control of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos,Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis and leaves of Lonicera japonica.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Flowers , Chemistry , Hydroxybenzoates , Iridoid Glycosides , Lonicera , Chemistry , Phytochemicals , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Quality Control
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1531-1536, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774525

ABSTRACT

Exogenous calcium can enhance the resistance of certain plants to abiotic stress. However,the role of calcium insaltstressed honeysuckle is unclear. The study is aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous calcium on the biomass,chlorophyll content,gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence of honeysuckle under salt stress. The results showed that the calcium-treated honeysuckle had better photochemical properties than the salt-stressed honeysuckle,such as PIABS,PItotal,which represents the overall activity of photosystemⅡ(PSⅡ),and related parameters for characterizing electron transport efficiency φP0,ψE0,φE0,σR,and φR are significantly improved. At the same time,the gas exchange parameters Gs,Ci,Trare also maintained at a high level. In summary,exogenous calcium protects the activity of PSⅡ,promotes the transmission of photosynthetic electrons,and maintains a high Ci,therefore enhances the resistance of honeysuckle under salt stress.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Pharmacology , Chlorophyll , Lonicera , Physiology , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Salt Stress
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