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1.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(4): e567, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156454

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El baloncesto es objeto de múltiples estudios que incluye la valoración mediante tecnologías actuales como la bioimpedancia. Objetivo: Comparar los índices de asimetría (IA) de las extremidades superiores e inferiores en jugadores de baloncesto universitario por nivel deportivo. Método: Se evaluaron 24 jugadores de baloncesto de diferente nivel competitivo, representativo 1) universitario (n = 12) y 2) facultad (n = 12). Se determinó la circunferencia de brazos y piernas, además de masa magra y grasa por bioimpedancia. Se determinó el índice de asimetría de los miembros inferiores y superiores y se compararon por nivel deportivo. Resultados: La comparación de los índices de asimetría entre brazos y piernas en el grupo total identificó diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05) en lo referente a la masa grasa, con mayor adiposidad en extremidades superiores, y un índice de asimetría de -10,8. Cuando se compararon las mismas variables en función del nivel deportivo, los jugadores representantes de la universidad mostraron mayores valores (p < 0,05) en el índice de asimetría de la masa total, circunferencias, masa magra y masa grasa. Las comparaciones intergrupales señalan diferencias en los índices de asimetría del brazo vs. la pierna en masa magra para ambos grupos (p < 0,05) mientras que los de la facultad mostraron diferencia también para grasa con índice de asimetría de 18,3 (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: Indistintamente del nivel deportivo, existen diferentes niveles del índice de asimetría entre extremidades superiores e inferiores en el componente de masa grasa, aunque menores valores del índice de asimetría fueron característicos de los individuos de mayor nivel deportivo(AU)


Introduction: Basketball has been the object of many studies, including assessments based on current technologies such as bioimpedance. Objective: Compare the asymmetry indices (AI) for upper and lower limbs in university basketball players. Methods: An evaluation was conducted of 24 basketball players from different competitive levels, representing 1) the university (n = 12) and 2) the school (n = 12). Determination was made of arm and leg circumference, as well as lean mass and fat by bioimpedance. The lower and upper limb asymmetry index was estimated and compared between the competitive levels. Results: Comparison of the arms and legs asymmetry indices in the total group revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) as to fat mass, with greater adiposity in the upper limbs and an asymmetry index of 10.8. Comparison of the same variables between the sports levels found that players representing the university displayed higher values (p < 0.05) in the asymmetry index for total mass, circumferences, lean mass and fat mass. Comparison between the groups found differences in the arm vs. leg asymmetry indices for lean mass in both groups (p < 0.05), whereas the school players also showed differences for fat, with an asymmetry index of 18.3 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Regardless of the sports level, different asymmetry indices are found between upper and lower limbs as to fat mass, though smaller asymmetry index values were characteristic of individuals from a higher sports level(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Basketball/physiology , Electric Impedance , Lower Extremity/physiology , Upper Extremity/physiology , Universities/ethics
2.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(3): e645, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138943

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Actualmente existen pocos estudios que relacionen la masa muscular de miembros inferiores y el salto vertical. Objetivo: Describir la asociación entre la masa muscular de miembros inferiores y el salto vertical en sujetos que practican musculación. Método: Estudio correlacional-exploratorio, con enfoque cuantitativo y una muestra a conveniencia de diez hombres (edad de 17,40±2,32 años, talla de 172,10 ± 5,76 cm y un peso corporal de 79,13 ± 19,54 Kg) practicantes de musculación participaron voluntariamente. Para estimar la masa muscular de miembros inferiores se utilizó una ecuación validada y se aplicó el salto con contramovimiento (countermovement jump, CMJ) y sentadilla con salto (squat jump, SJ). El análisis estadístico se efectuó en PSPP para Windows 7 para aplicar la prueba de normalidad de Shapiro-Wilk y el coeficiente correlacional de Pearson. Resultados: Los datos obtenidos presentaron distribución normal (p > 0,05), así mismo la masa muscular de miembros inferiores evidenció una relación negativa y significativa con salto con contramovimiento (countermovement jump, CMJ) (r = -0,73; p = 0,02), e igualmente con sentadilla con salto (squat jump, SJ) (r = -0,73; p = 0,02). Conclusión: La masa muscular de miembros inferiores no es un buen predictor del rendimiento en el salto vertical(AU)


Introduction: Few studies are currently available relating lower limb muscle mass and vertical jump. Objective: Describe the association between lower limb muscle mass and vertical jump in subjects who practice weight training. Method: A quantitative correlational-exploratory study was conducted of a convenience sample of ten men (age 17.40 ± 2.32 years, height 172.10 ± 5.76 cm and body weight 79.13 ± 19.54 kg) who practice weight training. Participation was voluntary. Lower limb muscle mass was estimated with a validated equation, and countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) were considered. Statistical analysis was based on the software PSPP for Windows 7 to apply the Shapiro-Wilk normality test and Pearson's correlational coefficient. Results: The data obtained displayed a normal distribution (p > 0.05), with lower limb muscle mass exhibiting a negative significant relationship to countermovement jump (CMJ) (r = -0.73; p = 0.02) and squat jump (SJ) (r = -0.73; p = 0.02). Conclusion: Lower limb muscle mass is not a good predictor of vertical jump performance(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Sports/physiology , Lower Extremity/physiology , Resistance Training , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Evaluation Studies as Topic
3.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(1): e364, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126579

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La fuerza explosiva es la capacidad física de generar una mayor fuerza muscular en un menor tiempo sin pérdida de eficacia, lo que es un componente determinante de la preparación deportiva y un indicador indirecto del rendimiento en lucha deportiva. Objetivo: Mejorar la fuerza explosiva en miembros inferiores a través de ejercicios pliométricos en luchadores libres, categoría senior. Métodos: Estudio cuasi-experimental de corte correlativo, para el cual se aplicó un programa pliométrico de tres fases, en miembros inferiores, conformado por una población de 15 luchadores (sexo masculino, sub-21 años), y fue evaluado el estímulo en la capacidad fuerza explosiva. Resultados: Se estableció mejoras significativas en la prueba de salto vertical (SV: p = 0,000), salto horizontal (SH: p = 0,000), carrera en 20 m (C20m: p = 0,000) y el test de salto 8 (S8: p = 0,001), y en todos los casos se favoreció al postest. Se determinó una correlación lineal positiva moderada entre SV y SH (0,50), una correlación negativa moderada entre SH y C20m (-0,58), una correlación negativa muy baja entre SV y C20m (-0,03), una correlación positiva moderada entre SV y S8 (0,61), una correlación positiva muy baja entre SH y S8 (0,16) y una correlación positiva moderada entre C20m y S8 (0,59). Conclusiones: Con la intervención pliométrica se demuestra una mejora significativa en la fuerza explosiva de miembros inferiores, lo que resulta en una alternativa eficaz para mejorar indirectamente el rendimiento deportivo. De las 6 correlaciones lineales realizadas, 4 fueron de índole moderada, esto evidencia que la potenciación pliométrica de un plano muscular específico puede mejorar consecutivamente otros planos musculares relacionados con la rapidez y la fuerza explosiva.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Explosive strength is the physical capacity to generate greater muscular strength in a shorter time without losing effectiveness. This is a crucial component of sports training and an indirect indicator of yield in wrestling. Objective: Improve the explosive strength of the lower limbs through plyometric exercises performed by senior freestyle wrestlers. Methods: A correlational quasi-experimental study was conducted based on a three-stage plyometric program for the lower limbs. The study population was 15 wrestlers (male sex, age under 21 years) who were evaluated for explosive strength capacity. Results: Significant improvement was established in the following tests: vertical jump (VJ: p = 0.000), horizontal jump (HJ: p = 0.000), 20-meter dash (D20m: p = 0.000) and jump 8 (J8: p = 0.001). In all cases the post-test obtained better results. Determination was made of a moderate positive linear correlation between VJ and HJ (0.50), a moderate negative correlation between HJ and C20m (-0.58), a very low negative correlation between VJ and C20m (-0.03), a moderate positive correlation between VJ and J8 (0.61), a very low positive correlation between HJ and J8 (0.16) and a moderate positive correlation between C20m and J8 (0.59). Conclusions: The plyometric intervention was found to significantly improve the explosive strength of lower limbs, thus becoming an effective alternative to indirectly enhance sport yield. Of the six linear correlations performed, four were moderate, which shows that plyometric strengthening of a specific muscular plane may consecutively improve other muscular planes related to speed and explosive strength.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Lower Extremity/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Athletic Performance , Plyometric Exercise , Wrestling/standards , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 42: e48114, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370991

ABSTRACT

The purposeof this study was to analyze skin temperature(Tsk)responses after a short-term maximum effort test in middle-distance runners.Aquasi-experimental study was conducted with ten men (age 23.5±5.10 years)who trained 5 days per week, 2 to 3 hours per day,and were submitted to thermographic evaluationbefore and after Cooper's 12-minute run test (CRT). The mean temperature of the anterior-superior,posterior-superior,anterior-inferior,and posterior-inferiorregionswas compared between the sides(i.e., left and right)before and after CRT.The paired t-testshowed asignificantdecrease in Tskafter CRT in thefollowingregions:right pectoralis major (-3.4%), left pectoralis major (-3.4%),and abdomen (-5%) in the anterior-superior view (p<0.01); and in the upper right trunk (-1.9%),upper lefttrunk(-1.9%) and lower back (-2.9%) in the posterior-superior view (p<0.05). In the lower limbs,asignificantincreaseintemperature of the left knee (1.6%),and right (3.6%) and left ankles (2.9%) in the anteriorview (p<0.05),as well as in theright (4.3%) and left ankles (3.7%) in the posteriorview (p<0.05)wereobserved. There was no difference in temperature between the right and left sides. In conclusion, the Tskchange of middle-distance runners wassymmetricalbetween sides,decreasing in upper limbs and trunk and increasing in lower limbs after a short-term maximum effort test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Running/physiology , Skin Temperature/physiology , Athletes , Thermography/instrumentation , Lower Extremity/physiology , Upper Extremity/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology
5.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 26(2): 137-144, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012143

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o pico de torque e flexibilidade dos membros inferiores de indivíduos com e sem diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). O método foi o estudo com grupos expostos e não expostos ao DM2. Foram incluídos indivíduos com diagnóstico médico de DM2, encaminhados para eletroneuromiografia, e não expostos ao DM2. Foram excluídos da pesquisa indivíduos com idade superior a 70 anos ou que, por algum motivo, não conseguiram realizar um ou dois dos testes. A amostra foi não probabilística, composta por 64 indivíduos: 34 (53,1%) expostos ao DM2 e 30 não expostos; 50 (78,1%) eram do sexo feminino, a idade média era de 60,7±7,1 anos, e o membro inferior dominante era o direito em 57 (89,1%) dos indivíduos. Comparando indivíduos com e sem diagnóstico de DM2, observou-se redução do torque de flexão à esquerda, em velocidade angular de 120° (25,94±2,26 vs. 33,79±2,4nm, p=0,027, respectivamente). Relatou-se menor valor do torque de dorsiflexão à direita, em velocidade angular de 60°, dos diabéticos em relação aos não diabéticos (10,95±0,89 vs. 13,95±0,96nm, p=0,033, respectivamente). Ao comparar indivíduos com DM2, com e sem diagnóstico de neuropatia diabética periférica (NDP), notou-se maior déficit de flexão entre os indivíduos neuropatas em comparação com não neuropatas (46,57±9,47 vs. 11,63±13,85nm, p=0,049, respectivamente). Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas ao comparar os grupos de expostos e não expostos ao DM2 e diabéticos neuropatas e não neuropatas.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar el pico de torque y la flexibilidad de los miembros inferiores de individuos con y sin diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). El método fue el estudio con grupos expuestos y no expuestos al DM2. Se incluyeron individuos con diagnóstico médico de DM2, encaminados para electroneuromiografía, y no expuestos al DM2. Se excluyeron de la investigación a individuos mayores de 70 años o que, por algún motivo, no pudieron realizar una o dos de las pruebas. La muestra fue no probabilística, compuesta por 64 individuos: 34 (53,1%) expuestos al DM2 y 30 no expuestos; 50 (78,1%) eran de sexo femenino, la edad media era de 60,7±7,1 años, y el miembro inferior dominante era el derecho en 57 (89,1%) de los individuos. En comparación con individuos con y sin diagnóstico de DM2, se observó reducción del torque de flexión a la izquierda, en velocidad angular de 120° (25,94±2,26 frente a 33,79±2,4nm, p=0,027, respectivamente). Se ha reportado un menor valor del torque de dorsiflexión a la derecha, en velocidad angular de 60°, de los diabéticos con relación a los no diabéticos (10,95±0,89 frente a 13,95±0,96nm, p=0,033, respectivamente). Al comparar individuos con DM2, con y sin diagnóstico de neuropatía diabética periférica (NDP), se notó mayor déficit de flexión entre los individuos neuropáticos en comparación con no neuropáticos (46,57±9,47 vs. 11,63±13,85nm, p=0,049, respectivamente). No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas al comparar los grupos de expuestos y no expuestos al DM2 y los diabéticos neuropáticos y no neuropáticos.


ABSTRACT To compare the muscle strength and flexibility of the lower limbs of individuals with and without T2DM. The method was a study of the types exposed and unexposed to T2DM. Individuals diagnosed with T2DM, individuals referred to electromyography, and those unexposed to T2DM were included. The exclusion criteria were: individuals over 70 years old; those who for some reason failed to complete one or both tests. The study population consisted of 64 individuals; 34 (53.1%) exposed to DM and 30 unexposed, 50 (78.1%) were female, the mean age was 60.7±7.1 and the dominant lower limb was right in 57 (89.1%) individuals. Comparing individuals with and without a diagnosis of DM, one observed a reduction in the flexion torque on the left at a 120 ° angular velocity in diabetics individuals compared with nondiabetic patients, 25.94±2.26 vs 33.79±2, 4nm, p=0.027, respectively. The reduction in dorsiflexion torque on the right, at a 60 ° angular velocity was observed in diabetics compared with nondiabetic patients, 10.95±0.89 vs. 13.95±0.96nm, p=0.033, respectively. When comparing diabetic individuals with and without a diagnosis of PDN, one observed a greater flexion deficit among neuropathic individuals when compared with non-neuropathic individuals, 46.57±9.47 vs 11.63±13.85nm, p=0.049, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found when comparing groups exposed and unexposed to T2DM, and neuropathic and non-neuropathic diabetics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Range of Motion, Articular/physiology , Torque , Lower Extremity/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology , Diabetic Neuropathies/physiopathology , Muscle Strength Dynamometer
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4419, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011996

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare tissue composition, total and regional bone mineral content and bone mineral density, static hand grip and knee joint isokinetic strength between amateur soccer players and Control Group. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Air displacement plethysmography was used to estimate body volume and, in turn, density. Body composition, bone mineral content and bone mineral density were assessed for the whole body and at standardized regions using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Static grip strength was assessed with an adjustable dynamometer, and peak torque derived from isokinetic strength dynamometer (concentric muscular knee actions at 60°/s). Magnitude of the differences between groups was examined using d-Cohen. Results: Compared to healthy active adults, soccer players showed larger values of whole body bone mineral content (+651g; d=1.60; p<0.01). In addition, differences between groups were large for whole body bone mineral density (d=1.20 to 1.90; p<0.01): lumbar spine, i.e. L1-L4 (+19.4%), upper limbs (+8.6%) and lower limbs (+16.8%). Soccer players attained larger mean values in strength test given by static hand grip protocol (+5.6kg, d=0.99; p<0.01). Conclusion: Soccer adequately regulates body composition and is associated better bone health parameters (bone mineral content and density at whole-body and at particular sites exposed to mechanical loadings).


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a composição de tecidos, o conteúdo mineral ósseo e a densidade mineral óssea totais e por regiões do corpo, a força de preensão manual estática, e força isocinética da articulação do joelho, entre um grupo de jogadores de futebol amadores e um Grupo Controle. Métodos: Estudo transversal utilizando pletismografia de ar deslocado para estimar o volume corporal, para subsequente cálculo da densidade corporal. A composição de tecidos, o conteúdo mineral ósseo e a densidade mineral óssea foram avaliados para o corpo todo e regiões padronizadas através da absorciometria de raios-X de dupla energia. A força de preensão manual estática foi avaliada por um dinamômetro ajustável. Os momentos máximos de força das ações musculares concêntricas para os extensores e flexores do joelho foram avaliados pela dinamometria isocinética (60°/s). Foi calculado o valor d-Cohen para apreciar a magnitude do efeito das diferenças entre grupos. Resultados: Os futebolistas apresentaram níveis superiores de conteúdo mineral ósseo em comparação com os adultos ativos do Grupo Controle (+651g; d=1,60; p<0,01) e obtiveram valores superiores de densidade mineral óssea (d: 1,20 a 1,90; p<0,01) para a coluna lombar, L1-L4 (+19,4%), membros superiores (+8,6%) e membros inferiores (+16,8%). Para a força de preensão (estática) a diferença foi moderada (d=0,99; p<0,01) com valores mais elevados apresentados pelo futebolistas (+5,6kg; d=0,99; p<0,01). Conclusão: A prática de futebol promove uma regulação adequada da composição corporal (tecidos magro e gordo) e ganhos na densidade mineral óssea, mais acentuada em partes do corpo com maior exposição aos impactos mecânicos da atividade motora.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Soccer/physiology , Body Composition/physiology , Bone Density/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Knee Joint/physiology , Plethysmography/methods , Reference Values , Absorptiometry, Photon , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hand Strength/physiology , Lower Extremity/physiology , Upper Extremity/physiology , Muscle Strength Dynamometer , Athletes
7.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121939

ABSTRACT

A pliometria utiliza a capacidade reativa do sistema neuromuscular para aumentar a potência do movimento partindo de uma contração excêntrica para uma concêntrica. A isometria referese a uma modalidade estática de treinamento, ou seja, não há alteração no comprimento da fibra muscular. O handebol é uma modalidade esportiva coletiva que envolve uma grande quantidade e variedade de movimentação associada à manipulação de bola e interação com outros atletas. Em termos de movimentação, o handebol pode ser considerado um esporte completo, pois utiliza uma rica combinação das habilidades motoras fundamentais e "naturais" do repertório motor do ser humano. O objetivo da pesquisa é analisar a influência de 4 semanas de treinamento pliométrico e isométrico na força explosiva de jovens atletas de handebol. A amostra contou com 10 mulheres, com média de idade de 16,1 ± 0,56 anos, praticantes de handebol há pelo menos três meses. O protocolo de avaliação utilizado foi: salto horizontal (SH) para mensurar força explosiva de membro inferior. As meninas foram divididas em dois grupos estatisticamente iguais, o grupo pliométrico (GP) e o isométrico (GI). Os dados foram analisados através de testet pareado e Effect Size (magnitude de efeito), além do manual Proesp. Inicialmente os testes apresentaram os seguintes resultados: o GP mostrou 1,32 ± 0,13m no SH e o GI 1,41 ± 0,10m. Após quatro semanas de treinamento foram refeitos os testes e o GP evidenciou 1,37 ± 0,08m no SH e o GI 1,43 ± 0,09m. Estatisticamente as mudanças não se apresentaram significativas, a magnitude do efeito os resultados de força explosiva de membros inferiores mostraramse superficiais. Concluise então que apesar de estatisticamente insignificantes, ambos os métodos apresentam pequena evolução na força explosiva de membros inferiores, e cabe analisar maior tempo dos métodos nesses ganhos e também analisar uma proposta concomitante entre ambos os métodos


Plyometrics uses the reactive capacity of the neuromuscular system to increase the power of movement from an eccentric to a concentric contraction. Isometry refers to a static mode of training, ie there is no change in muscle fiber length. Handball is a collective sport that involves a large amount and variety of movement associated with ball manipulation and interaction with other athletes. In terms of movement, handball can be considered a complete sport because it uses a rich combination of fundamental and "natural" motor skills of the human motor repertoire. The aim of this research is to analyze the influence of a 4 week plyometric and isometric training on the explosive strength of young handball athletes. The sample consisted of 10 women, with an average age of 16.1 ± 0.56 years, who had been practicing handball for at least three months. The evaluation protocol used was: horizontal jump (HS) to measure lower limb explosive strength. The girls were divided into two statistically equal groups, the plyometric group (GP) and the isometric group (GI). Data were analyzed using paired ttest and Effect Size, as well as the Proesp manual. Initially the tests presented the following results: GP showed 1.32 ± 0.13m in HS and GI 1.41 ± 0.10m. After four weeks of training, the tests were redone and the GP showed 1.37 ± 0.08m in HS and the GI 1.43 ± 0.09m. Statistically the changes were not significant, the magnitude of the effect and the lower explosive strength results were superficial. It is concluded that, although statistically insignificant, both methods present little evolution in the explosive force of lower limbs, and it is necessary to further analyze the methods in these gains and also to analyze the concurrent proposal between both methods.


La pliometría utiliza la capacidad reactiva del sistema neuromuscular para aumentar el poder de movimiento de una contracción excéntrica a una concéntrica. La isometría se refiere a un modo estático de entrenamiento, es decir, no hay cambios en la longitud de la fibra muscular. El balonmano es un deporte colectivo que involucra una gran cantidad y variedad de movimientos asociados con la manipulación del balón y la interacción con otros atletas. En términos de movimiento, el balonmano puede considerarse un deporte completo porque utiliza una rica combinación de las habilidades motoras fundamentales y "naturales" del repertorio motor humano. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la influencia de 4 semanas de entrenamiento pliométrico e isométrico en la fuerza explosiva de los jóvenes atletas de balonmano. La muestra consistió en 10 mujeres, con una edad promedio de 16.1 ± 0.56 años, que habían practicado balonmano durante al menos tres meses. El protocolo de evaluación utilizado fue: salto horizontal (HS) para medir la fuerza explosiva de la extremidad inferior. Las niñas se dividieron en dos grupos estadísticamente iguales, el grupo pliométrico (GP) y el grupo isométrico (GI). Los datos se analizaron usando la prueba t pareada y el Tamaño del efecto, así como el manual Proesp. Inicialmente, las pruebas presentaron los siguientes resultados: GP mostró 1.32 ± 0.13m en HS y GI 1.41 ± 0.10m. Después de cuatro semanas de entrenamiento, las pruebas se rehicieron y el GP mostró 1.37 ± 0.08m en HS y el GI 1.43 ± 0.09m. Estadísticamente, los cambios no fueron significativos, la magnitud del efecto y los resultados de menor fuerza explosiva fueron superficiales. Se concluye que, aunque estadísticamente insignificante, ambos métodos presentan poca evolución en la fuerza explosiva de las extremidades inferiores, y es necesario analizar un mayor tiempo de los métodos en estas ganancias y también analizar una propuesta concurrente entre ambos métodos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Sports , Exercise/physiology , Lower Extremity/physiology , Plyometric Exercise/methods , Muscle Strength/physiology
8.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 24(5): 361-365, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977828

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obesity in adolescents has increased worldwide, and is generally associated with poor eating habits and physical inactivity. OBJECTIVE: To compare absolute and relative muscle strength with body mass (BM), fat-free mass (FFM) and localized FFM of upper and lower limbs among obese and non-obese adolescents. METHODS: BM, height and body mass index (BMI) were verified in 39 male adolescents (aged 13-17 years). Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and maximal strength of upper and lower limbs was estimated by a one-repetition maximum (1RM) test. Participants were divided into three groups: eutrophic (normal weight) (n=11), overweight (n=14), and obese (n=14). One-way ANOVA was used to compare the variables, followed by a Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for relevant correlations and multiple linear regression to verify the influence of anthropometric variables, body composition and muscle strength of upper and lower limbs. RESULTS: Obese and overweight adolescents had absolute muscle strength values similar to those of the eutrophic adolescents, which were lower when corrected by BM (p<0.001). However, muscle strength related to FFM and localized FFM were similar between groups in both upper and lower limbs. Linear regression showed that BMI explained 59% of the variation in absolute muscle strength of the lower limbs (ß=0.59, p<0.05), FFM explained 84% of the variation in absolute muscle strength of the upper limbs (ß=0.84, p<0.01) and 68% of the lower limbs (ß=0.68; p<0.01), while localized FM was inversely associated in the lower limbs (ß=−0.53, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Muscle strength of lower and upper limbs, when corrected by localized FFM, does not distinguish between overweight and normal weight adolescents, indicating that obesity does not have a negative effect on generation of muscle strength in obese boys. Level of Evidence III; Case-control study.


INTRODUÇÃO: A obesidade em adolescentes tem aumentado em todo o mundo, geralmente associada a hábitos alimentares inadequados e inatividade física. OBJETIVO: Comparar a força muscular absoluta e relativa com a massa corporal (MC), massa livre de gordura (MLG) e MLG localizada dos membros superiores e inferiores entre adolescentes obesos e não obesos. MÉTODOS: Em 39 adolescentes do sexo masculino (entre 13 e 17 anos) foram verificados MC, estatura e índice de massa corporal (IMC). A composição corporal foi medida por absorciometria de raios-x de dupla energia (DXA) e a força máxima de membros superiores e inferiores foi estimada por um teste de repetição máxima (1RM). Os participantes foram divididos em três grupos: eutrófico (n = 11), sobrepeso (n = 14) e obeso (n = 14). Utilizou-se o teste One-way ANOVA para comparar as variáveis, seguido de teste post hoc de Bonferroni para comparações múltiplas, para as correlações relevantes, usou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e a regressão linear múltipla foi usada para verificar a influência das variáveis antropométricas, composição corporal e a força muscular dos membros superiores e inferiores. RESULTADOS: Os adolescentes obesos e com sobrepeso tinham força muscular absoluta similar aos dos eutróficos, sendo menores quando corrigidas pela MC (p < 0,001). Porém, a força muscular relacionada com a MLG e a MLG localizada foi semelhante entre os grupos, tanto em membros superiores como inferiores. A regressão linear mostrou que o IMC explicou 59% da variação da força muscular absoluta dos membros inferiores (ß = 0,59, p < 0,05), a MLG explicou 84% da variação da força muscular absoluta dos membros superiores (ß = 0,84, p < 0,01) e 68% dos membros inferiores (ß = 0,68; p < 0,01), enquanto a massa gorda localizada foi inversamente associada nos membros inferiores (ß = −0,53; p < 0,05). CONCLUSÃO: A força muscular dos membros superiores e inferiores, quando corrigida pela MLG localizada, não diferencia adolescentes com sobrepeso e eutróficos, indicando que a obesidade não afeta negativamente a geração de força muscular em rapazes obesos. Nível de Evidência III; Estudo de caso-controle.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La obesidad en adolescentes ha aumentado en todo el mundo, generalmente asociada a malos hábitos alimenticios y falta de actividad física. OBJETIVO: Comparar fuerza muscular absoluta y relativa de la masa corporal (MC), MLG y MLG localizada en miembros inferiores y superiores entre adolescentes obesos y no obesos. MÉTODOS: Se verificó en 39 adolescentes hombres (entre 13 y 17 años) sus MC, estaturas e índices de masa corporal (IMC). La composición corporal fue mensurada por absorciometría de rayos-x de doble energía (DXA) y el test de repetición máxima para estimar la fuerza máxima de miembros superiores e inferiores, divididos en tres grupos: 11 eutróficos, 14 con sobrepeso y 14 obesos. Se usó ANOVA (one way) para comparación de variables, seguido de Post Hoc de Bonferroni para comparaciones múltiples, correlaciones por el coeficiente de correlación Pearson y Regresión Lineal Múltiple para la influencia de variables antropométricas, composición corporal y fuerza muscular de miembros inferiores y superiores. RESULTADOS: Obesos y con sobrepeso presentaron valores de fuerza muscular absoluta similares a los eutróficos, pero menor si se corrigen por MC (p<0,001). Sin embargo, la fuerza muscular relativa a MLG y MLG localizada fue semejante. En regresión lineal, el IMC explicó el 59% de variación de fuerza muscular absoluta en miembros inferiores (ß=0,59, p<0,05), MLG 84% de variación de fuerza muscular absoluta en miembros superiores (ß=0,84, p<0,01) y 68% en miembros inferiores (ß=0,68; p<0,01), mientras que la MG localizada fue inversamente asociada a los superiores (ß=−0,53; p<0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: La fuerza muscular de miembros superiores e inferiores, cuando es corregida por la MLG localizada, no se diferencia en adolescentes con sobrepeso y eutróficos, indicando que la obesidad no afecta negativamente la generación de fuerza muscular en jóvenes obesos. Nivel de Evidencia III; Estudio caso-control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Body Composition , Physical Fitness , Muscle Strength/physiology , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Lower Extremity/physiology , Upper Extremity/physiology
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(6): 1202-1209, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828935

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To understand the clinical relationship between lower limbs functions and the recovery of spontaneous voiding after an acute urinary retention (AUR) in older patients admitted to hospitals for non-urological causes using clinical parameters. Materials and Methods 56 adult patients (32 men; mean age: 77.9 ± 8.3 and 24 women; mean age 82.1 ± 4.6) with AUR were prospectively followed with validated Physical Performance Mobility Exam (PPME) instrument to evaluate the relationship between the recovery of mobility capacity and spontaneous voiding. After a short period of permanent bladder drainage patients started CIC along evaluation by PPME during hospitalization and at 7, 15, 30 60, 90, and 180 days of discharge. Mann-Whitney U, chi-square test and ANOVA tests were used. Results All patients were hospitalized for at least 15 days (Median 26.3 ± 4.1 days). Progressive improvement on mobility scale measured by PPME was observed after leaving ICU and along the initial 7 days of hospitalization but with a deterioration if hospitalization extends beyond 15 days (p<0.03). Prolonged hospital stay impairs mobility in all domains (p<0.05) except step-up and transfer skills (p<0.02) although a recovery rate on spontaneous voiding persistented. Restoration of spontaneous voiding was accompanied by improvement on mobility scale (p<0.02). Recovery of spontaneous voiding was markedly observed after discharging the hospital. All patients recovered spontaneous voiding until 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions Recovery to spontaneous voiding after acute urinary retention in the hospital setting may be anticipated by evaluation of lower limbs function measured by validated instruments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bed Rest , Urinary Bladder/physiology , Urinary Retention/physiopathology , Lower Extremity/physiology , Hospitalization , Patient Discharge , Urinary Catheterization , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Length of Stay
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(5): 279-285, Oct. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841594

ABSTRACT

El Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) es un cuestionario autoadministrado, creado para evaluar el estado funcional en pacientes con una amplia variedad de condiciones musculoesqueléticas del miembro inferior. No existe una versión argentina validada. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron traducir, adaptar transculturalmente el LEFS para su uso en la población argentina y validarlo en nuestro país determinando sus propiedades psicométricas en pacientes mayores de 18 años con afecciones musculoesqueléticas del miembro inferior, comparándolo con el SF-36 y los test funcionales timed up and go y step test. Se incluyeron 133 pacientes desde julio de 2010 hasta enero de 2012. La fiabilidad test-retest fue alta, con un CCI 0.91 (95% IC 0.85 - 0.94). La correlación del LEFS con la subescala de función física y el resumen del componente físico del SF-36 fue alta (p < 0.001) y con el step test y el timed up and go, moderada al inicio (p < 0.001). Esta versión del LEFS es una herramienta válida y confiable para evaluar el estado funcional de pacientes con condiciones musculoesqueléticas del miembro inferior, en la Argentina. Se recomienda su uso para la práctica clínica y para futuras investigaciones.


The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) is a self-report questionnaire created to evaluate a patient's functional status in a wide spectrum of lower extremity musculoskeletal conditions. Thus far, there is no valid version in Argentina. The aims of this study were to translate the LEFS, cross-culturally adapt it for use in the Argentine population, and validate it in our country by determining its psychometric properties in patients over the age of 18 with lower extremity musculoskeletal conditions, comparing it with the SF-36 and the following functional tests: step test and timed up and go. One hundred and thirty three patients were included between July 2010 and January 2012. The test-retest reliability was high, with an ICC of 0.91 (95% CI 0.85 - 0.94). The correlation of the LEFS with the physical functioning subscale and the physical component summary score of the SF-36 was high (p < 0.001) and showed moderate response with the timed up and go and step test at the baseline (p < 0.001). This version of the LEFS is a valid, reliable tool used in Argentina to measure functional status in patients with lower extremity musculoskeletal conditions that we recommend for future clinical research projects and daily clinical use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Translations , Musculoskeletal Diseases/physiopathology , Lower Extremity/physiology , Disability Evaluation , Self Report/standards , Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena , Argentina , Psychometrics , Reference Values , Time and Motion Studies , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric
11.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 132(5): 282-289, 08/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-721016

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Muscle strength and functional independence are considered to be determinants of frailty levels among elderly people. The aim here was to compare lower-limb muscle strength (LLMS) with functional independence in relation to sex, age and number of frailty criteria, and to ascertain the influence of these variables on elderly outpatients' independence. DESIGN AND SETTING: Quantitative cross-sectional study, in a tertiary hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted on 150 elderly outpatients of both sexes who were in a cognitive condition allowing oral communication, between October 2005 and October 2007. The following instruments were used: five-times sit-to-stand test (FTSST), Functional Independence Measurement (FIM) and Lawton's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL). Descriptive, comparative, multivariate, univariate and Cronbach alpha analyses were performed. RESULTS: The mean time taken in the FTSST was 21.7 seconds; the mean score for FIM was 82.2 and for IADL was 21.2; 44.7% of the subjects presented 1-2 frailty criteria and 55.3% > 3 criteria. There was a significant association between LLMS and functional independence in relation to the number of frailty criteria, without homogeneity regarding sex and age. Functional independence showed significant influence from sex and LLMS. CONCLUSION: Elderly individuals with 1 or 2 frailty criteria presented greater independence in all FTSST scores. The subjects with higher LLMS presented better functional independence. .


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A força muscular e a independência funcional são consideradas indicadores de níveis de fragilidade em idosos. O objetivo foi comparar a força muscular de membros inferiores (FM de MMII) com a independência funcional em função de sexo, idade e número de critérios de fragilidade e verificar a influência dessas variáveis na independência em idosos ambulatoriais. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal quantitativo, em hospital terciário. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado entre outubro de 2005 e outubro de 2007 com 150 idosos ambulatoriais de ambos os sexos, com condições cognitivas suficientes para comunicação oral, sendo utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: teste de levantar e sentar da cadeira cinco vezes consecutivas, Medida de Independência Funcional (MIFm) e Escala de Atividades Instrumentais (AIVDt) de Lawton. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, de comparação, multivariadas, univariadas e de alfa de Cronbach. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio no teste de levantar e sentar da cadeira foi de 21,7 segundos, a pontuação média da MIFm de 82,2 e da AIVDt de 21,2; 44,7% dos sujeitos apresentaram 1-2 critérios de fragilidade e 55,3% > 3 critérios. Houve associação significativa entre FM de MMII e independência funcional em função do número de critérios de fragilidade, sem homogeneidade em relação ao sexo e idade. A independência funcional sofreu influência significativa de sexo e FM de MMII. CONCLUSÕES: Os idosos com um ou dois critérios de fragilidade apresentaram melhor independência em todos os escores do teste de levantar e sentar da cadeira. Os sujeitos com maior FM de MMII apresentaram melhor independência funcional. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Frail Elderly , Independent Living , Lower Extremity/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Activities of Daily Living , Age Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Factors
12.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 18(2): 183-190, 16/05/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709562

ABSTRACT

Background: Aging is a multifactorial process that leads to changes in the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle and contributes to decreased levels of muscle strength. Objective: This study sought to investigate whether the isometric muscle strength, fat-free mass (FFM) and power of the electromyographic (EMG) signal of the upper and lower limbs of women are similarly affected by aging. Method: The sample consisted of 63 women, who were subdivided into three groups (young (YO) n=33, 24.7±3.5 years; middle age (MA) n=15, 58.6±4.2 years; and older adults (OA). n=15, 72.0±4.2 years). Isometric strength was recorded simultaneously with the capture of the electrical activity of the flexor muscles of the fingers and the vastus lateralis during handgrip and knee extension tests, respectively. FFM was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: The handgrip strength measurements were similar among groups (p=0.523), whereas the FFM of the upper limbs was lower in group OA compared to group YO (p=0.108). The RMSn values of the hand flexors were similar among groups (p=0.754). However, the strength of the knee extensors, the FFM of the lower limbs and the RMSn values of the vastus lateralis were lower in groups MA (p=0.014, p=0.006 and p=0.013, respectively) and OA (p=0.000, p=0.000 and p<0.000, respectively) compared to group YO. Conclusions : The results of this study demonstrate that changes in isometric muscle strength in MLG and electromyographic activity of the lower limbs are more pronounced with the aging process of the upper limb. .


Contextualização: O envelhecimento é um processo multifatorial que provoca mudanças na quantidade e na qualidade da musculatura esquelética, ambas contribuindo para a diminuição dos níveis de força muscular. Objetivo: Investigar se a força muscular isométrica, a massa livre de gordura (MLG) e a potência do sinal eletromiográfico dos membros superiores e inferiores de mulheres são afetadas na mesma magnitude pelo envelhecimento. Método: A amostra foi constituída por 63 mulheres subdividas em três grupos (JO, n=33 jovens, 24,7±3,5 anos; MI, n=15, 58,6±4,2 anos; ID, n=15, 72,0±4,2 anos). A força isométrica foi registrada simultaneamente à captação da atividade elétrica dos músculos flexores dos dedos e vasto lateral durante os testes de preensão manual e de extensão do joelho, respectivamente. A MLG foi avaliada por meio da absortometria radiológica de dupla energia. Resultados: A força de preensão manual foi semelhante entre os grupos (p=0,523), a MLG do membro superior foi menor no grupo ID em relação ao JO (p=0,108), e os valores da variável root mean square normalizados pela MLG do membro dominante (RMSn) foram semelhantes entre os grupos (p=0,754). Entretanto, a força dos extensores do joelho, a MLG do membro inferior e os valores RMSn foram menores nos grupos MI (p=0,014, p=0,006 e p=0,013, respectivamente) e ID (p=0,000, p=0,000 e p<0,000, respectivamente). Conclusões: Os resultados deste estudo demonstram que as alterações na força muscular isométrica, na MLG e na atividade eletromiográfica dos membros inferiores são mais pronunciadas com o processo de envelhecimento do que a dos membros superiores. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adipose Tissue , Electromyography , Lower Extremity/physiology , Muscle Strength , Upper Extremity/physiology , Age Factors , Aging , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 18(1): 9-18, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704628

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE) at different loads in healthy older men. Method: Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years) underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test to determine the maximum load for the bench press and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR) and R-R interval were recorded at rest and for 4 minutes at each load applied. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed in 5-min segments at rest and at each load in the most stable 2-min signal. Results: Parasympathetic indices decreased significantly in both exercises from 30%1RM compared to rest (rMSSD: 20±2 to 11±3 and 29±5 to 12±2 ms; SD1: 15±2 to 8±1 and 23±4 to 7±1 ms, for upper and lower limb exercise respectively) and HR increased (69±4 to 90±4 bpm for upper and 66±2 to 89±1 bpm for lower). RMSM increased for upper limb exercise, but decreased for lower limb exercise (28±3 to 45±9 and 34±5 to 14±3 ms, respectively). In the frequency domain, the sympathetic (LF) and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) indices were higher and the parasympathetic index (HF) was lower for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise from 35% of 1RM. Conclusions: Cardiac autonomic change occurred from 30% of 1RM regardless of RE limb. However, there was more pronounced sympathetic increase and vagal decrease for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise. These results provide a basis for more effective prescription of RE to promote health in this population. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Heart Rate , Heart/physiology , Lower Extremity/physiology , Upper Extremity/physiology
14.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 18(1): 93-97, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy has been associated with a significant decrease in nerve conduction velocity and muscle contraction with possible effects on exercise and physical training. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the electromyographic response of the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, rectus femoris and gluteus medius to ankle inversion following cold water immersion. METHOD: The peak values of the root mean square (RMS) were obtained from 35 healthy and active university subjects after the use of a tilt platform to force the ankle into 30° of inversion before, immediately after, and 10, 20, and 30 minutes after water immersion at 4±2°C, for 20 minutes. The Shapiro-Wilk test, repeated measures analysis, Bonferroni's post-hoc, and linear regression analysis provided the results. RESULTS: Peak RMS was significantly lower at all times after cold water immersion, with residual effect of up to 30 minutes, when compared to pre-immersion for all muscles, except for immediate post-immersion for the gluteus medius. CONCLUSIONS: After cold water immersion of the ankle, special care should be taken in activities that require greater neuromuscular control. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Ankle , Cold Temperature , Electromyography , Lower Extremity/physiology , Movement , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Water
15.
Rev. bras. ciênc. saúde ; 17(4): 401-406, 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-786761

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Este estudo propõe um levantamento sobre os métodos de avaliação de força de membros inferiores utilizados por fisioterapeutas na atualidade. Material e Métodos: Foi realizada uma busca bibliográfica nas basesde dados: Google Scholar e Scielo com as palavras: força muscular, avaliação de força, fisioterapia, muscle strength, phisiotherapy. Resultados: Foram encontrados nove métodos de avaliação, sendo eles: Dinamômetro isocinético, Teste de1RM, Teste muscular manual, Dinamômetro isométrico modificado, Dinamômetro Manual Adaptado para MMII, Salto horizontal unipodal, Cirtometria de coxa, Teste de ponta dopé. Dentre os métodos utilizados, o mais frequente foi o Dinamômetro isocinético (55%), seguindo do Teste de 1RM eTeste muscular manual (9% cada). Conclusões: A partir desse estudo, foi verificado que são utilizados diversos métodos para a avaliação de força de membros inferiores,dentre os quais o dinamômetro isocinético foi o mais utilizado.


Introduction:The analysis of human movement allows determining the relationships between functional limitationsand capabilities. Assessment methods enable carrying outstudies aimed to improve rehabilitation strategies, and allow for a greater discretion in the choice of treatment technique. Objective: This study sought to survey the current lowerlimbs assessment methods used by physiotherapists. Material and Methods: We performed literature searches inthe databases: Google Scholar and SciELO using the keywords: strength, strength assessment, physical therapy,muscle strength, physiotherapy. Results: A total of nine methods have been found, namely: isokinetic dynamometer,1RM testing, manual muscle test, modified isometric dynamometer, Dynamometer Manual Adapted for lower limbs, leg horizontal jump, thigh cirtometry, tip toe test. Among the methods used, the most frequent was isokinetic dynamometer (55%), followed by 1RM testing and manual muscle testing (9% each). Conclusion: Based on this study, it was found that different methods are used for the assessment of lower limb strength, among which the isokinetic dynamo meter wasused more often.


Subject(s)
Humans , /methods , Lower Extremity/physiology , Physical Therapy Modalities/methods , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle Strength Dynamometer , Review Literature as Topic
16.
Motriz rev. educ. fís. (Impr.) ; 18(1): 153-164, jan.-mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-645724

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desempenho e as respostas eletromiográficas dos músculos Reto Femoral, Bíceps Femoral e Gastrocnêmio Medial durante protocolo de saltos verticais. Participaram 13 voleibolistas do sexo feminino (15,6 ± 0,9 anos). Inicialmente foi realizado um protocolo de potência máxima (três saltos máximos), seguido do protocolo de resistência de saltos (ciclos de três saltos máximos em aproximadamente 10 segundos (s) – um salto a cada três s, com recuperação de 15 s). O tempo de duração do protocolo de resistência foi de 20 minutos. Foi usada a técnica do salto com contramovimento sem ajuda dos braços, sobre tapete de contato. Para tratamento dos dados os saltos foram divididos em quatro períodos com 12 ciclos cada um. Os resultados mostraram queda na altura dos saltos de aproximadamente 1,3cm entre os períodos de 1 a 4, sendo que, essa queda foi mais significativa nos 3º e 4º períodos em comparação ao 1º e 2º. Entretanto, com relação às variáveis RMS e FM, não ocorreu alteração nas respostas eletromiográficas entre músculos e períodos. Concluiu-se, assim, que a fadiga pode depender de variáveis psicofisiológicas, ao nível do SNC, que também influem no desempenho.


The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance and the electromyographic responses of the muscles Rectus Femoris, Biceps Femoris and Gastrocnemius Medialis during vertical jumping protocol. Participated 13 female volleyball players (15,6 ± 0,9 years). Initially was performed a protocol of maximum power (three maximum jumps), followed by resistance jumps protocol (cycles of three maximum jumps in about 10 seconds (s) – one jump every three s, with recovery of 15s. The duration of resistance protocol was 20 minutes. Technique used was countermovement jump without the aid of arms on a mat of contact. The data collected during the jumps were divided into four periods containing 12 cycles each. The results showed a decrease in the height of the jumps of about 1,3cm between the periods from 1 to 4, and this decrease was more significant in the 3rd and 4th periods compared with the 1st and 2nd. However, with respect to the variables RMS and FM, a change did not occur in the electromyographic responses between muscles and periods. It was concluded that fatigue may depend of the psychophysiological variables, the level of the CNS, which also influence the performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Athletic Performance/physiology , Lower Extremity/physiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Volleyball/physiology , Electromyography/methods
17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 130(2): 102-108, 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-625337

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia is the main factor involved in the development of frailty syndrome. The aims here were to investigate relationships between lower-limb muscle strength and the variables of sex, age and frailty criteria; compare lower-limb muscle strength with each frailty criterion; and assess the power of each criterion for estimating the risk of frailty among elderly outpatients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the Geriatrics Outpatient Clinic of a university hospital in Campinas. METHOD: A non-probabilistic convenience sample of 150 elderly people of both sexes who were followed up as outpatients was assessed. Sociodemographic data (sex and age) and physical health data (frailty criteria and the five-times sit-to-stand test) were gathered. Descriptive, comparative and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The majority of the elderly people (77.3%) were 70 years of age or over, with predominance of females (64.2%) and had a low score for the five-times sit-to-stand test (81.4% scored 0 or 1); 55.3% of the elderly people presented three or more frailty criteria. A significant association was found between lower-limb muscle strength and the variables of age and number of frailty criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Lower levels of lower-limb muscle strength were associated with advanced age and greater presence of signs of frailty. Moreover, lower-limb muscle strength was also associated with the criteria of reduced walking speed criteria and hand-grip strength.


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A sarcopenia é o principal fator envolvido no desenvolvimento da síndrome de fragilidade. O objetivo foi investigar a relação entre força muscular de membros inferiores e as variáveis sexo, idade e critérios de fragilidade; comparar a força muscular de membros inferiores com cada critério de fragilidade e verificar seu poder de estimativa do risco para fragilidade em idosos ambulatoriais. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal no Ambulatório de Geriatria de um hospital universitário de Campinas. MÉTODO: Foi avaliada uma amostra de conveniência não-probabilística de 150 idosos de ambos os sexos em acompanhamento ambulatorial, com coleta de dados sócio-demográficos (sexo e idade) e de saúde física (critérios de fragilidade e teste de levantar e sentar da cadeira cinco vezes consecutivamente). Foram realizadas análises descritivas, de comparação e de regressão logística multivariada. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos idosos (77,3%) apresentou idade igual ou superior a 70 anos, com predomínio do sexo feminino (64,0%) e baixo escore no teste de levantar e sentar da cadeira cinco vezes consecutivas (81,4% escore 0 ou 1), 55,3% dos idosos apresentaram três ou mais critérios de fragilidade. Verificou-se associação significativa entre a força muscular de membros inferiores e as variáveis idade e número de critérios de fragilidade. CONCLUSÕES: Menores níveis de força muscular de membros inferiores estão associados a idade avançada e maior presença de sinais de fragilidade. Além disso, a força muscular de membros inferiores também está associada com os critérios redução da velocidade de marcha e da força de preensão palmar.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Exercise Test/standards , Frail Elderly , Lower Extremity/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Exercise Test/methods , Hand Strength/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Walking/physiology
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(2): 521-525, June 2011. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597485

ABSTRACT

Los cambios producidos durante el envejecimiento predisponen al adulto mayor a las caídas frecuentes, en el ambiente clínico el riesgo de caída es valorado mediante pruebas clínicas que muchas veces carecen de poder analítico, por lo cual es necesario describir cual de dichas pruebas puede tener mayor relación con parámetros biomecánicos analíticos con la finalidad de conferirle a dichas pruebas funcionales tales características. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la existencia de correlación entre los puntajes obtenidos en la prueba funcional "Timed up and go" (TUG) y momentos articulares del miembro inferior obtenidos durante la ejecución de la transferencia de sedente a bípedo (TSB) en sujetos adultos mayores con antecedentes de caídas frecuentes. Se obtuvo una muestra de 30 voluntarios, todos adultos mayores con antecedentes de caídas frecuentes, los que fueron evaluados con la prueba funcional de TUG. También se evaluó mediante un sistema de análisis de movimiento la TSB donde se registraron los parámetros biomecánicos necesarios para determinar los momentos articulares del miembro inferior. Existió una correlación significativa (r=-0,39; p=0,03) entre el puntaje obtenido en el TUG y el momento articular máximo de rodilla. Para la muestra evaluada, el tiempo de ejecución de la prueba "Timed up and go" fue indicador de la capacidad de generar momento articular por parte de los músculos flexo-extensores de rodilla en sujetos con antecedentes de caídas frecuentes.


The changes that take place during aging predispose the elder adult to frequent falls. In clinical practice fall risk is assessed by clinical tests that many times lack analytical power, therefore making it necessary to describe which of the clinical tests are related to the analytical biomechanical parameters in order to assign such characteristics to these functional tests. The objective of this work was to describe the existence of a correlation between the score of the functional test "Timed up and go" (TUG) and the joint moments of lower limb obtained during the execution of the sit to stand (STS) transfer in elderly subjects with a history of frequent falls. A sample of 30 volunteers was obtained; all were elders with a history of frequent falls. They were assessed with the functional test of TUG. Also assessed were the joint moments of the lower limb with motion analysis system. There is significant correlation (r=0.39; p=0.03) between the score obtained in the TUG and the maximum joint moment of the knee. For the sample assessed, the time of execution of the test "Timed up and go" was indicative of the capacity to generate a joint moment by the flexion-extensor muscles of the knee in subjects with a history of frequent falls.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Lower Extremity/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Biomechanical Phenomena , Accidental Falls , Standing Position , Joints/physiology , Movement/physiology
19.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 27(2): 104-109, jun. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597553

ABSTRACT

Several studies have shown that poor exercise tolerance in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients is multifactorial in origin. However, a major exercise-limiting factor in COPD is peripheral muscle dysfunction, particularly the muscles of the lower extremities, characterized by atrophic muscles and reduced fatigue resistance due to morphological and metabolic alterations of peripheral muscles. This chapter therefore evaluated the scientific evidence regarding the beneficial effect of lower extremities exercise in the pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD patients. The technical characteristics of this exercise training were also reviewed. Exercise training of lower limbs was recommended in respiratory rehabilitation of COPD patients. The lower extremities muscle exercise training provides significant benefits to patients with COPD in terms of reduction of dyspnea and improvemet in exercise capacity and in quality of life (quality level of evidence = A, strong recommendation). Higher-intensity exercise training and with interval exercise of the lower extrmities produces greater physiological benefits.


Diversos estudios han demostrado que la pobre tolerancia al ejercicio de los pacientes con Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC) es de origen multifactorial. Sin embargo, un importante factor limitante del ejercicio en los pacientes con EPOC es la disfunción muscular periférica, sobre todo de los músculos de las extremidades inferiores, que se caracteriza por atrofia muscular y reducida resistencia a la fatiga dado por alteraciones morfológicas y metabólicas de los músculos periféricos. En este capitulo se evaluó la evidencia científica que existe en cuanto a los beneficios del entrenamiento muscular de extremidades inferiores (EEII) en la rehabilitación respiratoria en pacientes con EPOC. También se revisan las características técnicas de dicho entrenamiento. Se recomienda la realización de entrenamiento muscular de EEII en rehabilitación respiratoria de pacientes con EPOC. El entrenamiento muscular de extremidades inferiores otorga significativos beneficios a los pacientes con EPOC en cuanto a disminuir la disnea, mejorar la capacidad de ejercicio y la calidad de vida (calidad de la evidencia A, recomendación fuerte). El entrenamiento de EEII de alta intensidad y con intervalos produce significativos beneficios fisiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise Therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/rehabilitation , Lower Extremity/physiology , Chile , Consensus , Dyspnea/therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine , Quality of Life
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(1): 100-104, Mar. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591958

ABSTRACT

A morphometric study was undertaken on the long bones in the two predominant breeds of small ruminant in Northern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria, to determine their anatomical differences and thus, provide a means of differentiating the remains of these two species during zooarchaeological studies and gross anatomy practical session. The pelvic and pectoral limbs from thirty animals (15 Yankasa sheep and 15 Red Sokoto goats) of both sexes were used for this study. The long bones of the pectoral limbs considered were the humerus, radius, ulna and metacarpal III while those of the pelvic limbs were the femur, tibia and metatarsal III. The parameters considered were the mean weights, lengths and diameters of the proximal extremity, mid-shaft and distal extremities of these bones. The result of this study showed that there is a very high statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) in the length of long bones between the two species, with that of the Yankasa sheep being significantly longer than the Red Sokoto goat. Also, the differences in weights as well as diameters of the proximal, middle and distal shafts of the tibia between the two species are of a very high statistical importance (p < 0.001). Conversely, the differences in the proximal and distal diameters of the femur between the two species are not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Factors that may be responsible for these differences were discussed. It is concluded that the bones of the Yankasa sheep and Red Sokoto goat can be differentiated by the disparity in the length of these long bones or the disparity in the entire morphometry of the tibia bone.


Se realizó un estudio morfométrico en los huesos largos en las dos razas predominantes de pequeños rumiantes del norte de Guinea, zona de Sabana de Nigeria, para determinar sus diferencias anatómicas y proporcionar un medio de que permita diferenciar los restos, de estas dos especies, durante los estudios zooarqueológico y en además en práctica de anatómica. Se utilizaron los miembros pélvicos y pectorales de treinta animales (15 ovejas Yankasa y 15 cabras rojas de Sokoto) de ambos sexos. Los huesos largos de los miembros pectorales considerados fueron: húmero, radio, ulna y III metacarpiano, mientras que en los miembros pélvicos fueron: fémur, fíbula y el III metatarso. Los parámetros considerados fueron los pesos medios, longitudes y diámetros de la extremidad proximal y tercios medio y distal de estos huesos. Los resultados mostraron que existe una diferencia altamente significativa (p <0,001) en la longitud de los huesos largos entre las dos especies. Los huesos en las ovejas Yankasa son significativamente más largos que los de la cabra roja de Sokoto. Además, de las diferencias en el peso, así como los diámetros de los ejes proximal, media y distal de la fíbula entre las dos especies son estadísticamente significativos (p <0,001). Por el contrario, las diferencias en los diámetros proximal y distal del fémur entre las dos especies no son estadísticamente significativas (p> 0,05). Fueron discutidos los factores que pueden ser responsables de estas diferencias. Se concluye que los huesos de las ovejas y cabras Yankasa Red Sokoto, se pueden diferenciar por la disparidad en la longitud de los huesos largos o en la morfometría de la tibia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Goats/anatomy & histology , Goats/physiology , Sheep/anatomy & histology , Sheep/physiology , Lower Extremity/anatomy & histology , Lower Extremity/growth & development , Lower Extremity/physiology , Femur/anatomy & histology , Femur/physiology , Tibia/anatomy & histology , Tibia/innervation , Tibia/ultrastructure
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