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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1330-1335, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521023

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The study will provide information on the morphometrics of the vertebrae, which can be used to guide clinicians on the appropriate size of transpedicular screws to use in spine interventions among the Jordanian population and for comparative studies with other races. A retrospective analysis of normal CT scans of the lumbar and thoracolumbar areas was done. Linear and angular measurements of 336 vertebrae were collected for 25 males and 23 females. The results were compared between right and left and between both sexes. The L5 has the longest AVBH and the shortest PVBH in both sexes, it also, had the shortest and widest pedicle in both males and females. ratio of the AVBH to PVBH showed progressive increase in both sexes from T11 to L5. Similarly, the VBW increased progressively from the top to the bottom in both sexes, but it was significantly different between both sexes. The L1 was the most cranially oriented vertebrae in males while the L2 showed the most cranial orientation in females. Both sexes L5 was the most caudally oriented vertebrae. This study provides a database for vertebral morphometrics in the Jordanian population, there are slight differences between the right and left side in the upper studied vertebrae (T11-L2) and some measurement showed significant differences between males and females. These findings need to be taken into consideration when inserting pedicle screws.


Este estudio proporciona información sobre la morfometría de las vértebras, la cual puede ser utilizada por los médicos oara determinar el tamaño adecuado de los tornillos transpediculares a utilizar en intervenciones de columna en la población jordana y para estudios comparativos con otras grupos. Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de tomografías computarizadas normales de las áreas lumbar y toracolumbar. Se recogieron medidas lineales y angulares de 336 vértebras de 25 hombres y 23 mujeres. Los resultados se compararon entre vértebras derechas e izquierdas y entre ambos sexos. La L5 tiene el AVBH más largo y el PVBH más corto en ambos sexos, también tenía el pedículo más corto y más ancho tanto en hombres como en mujeres. La relación de AVBH a PVBH mostró un aumento progresivo en ambos sexos de T11 a L5. De manera similar, el VBW aumentó progresivamente de arriba hacia abajo en ambos sexos, pero fue significativamente diferente entre ambos sexos. La L1 fue la vértebra más orientada cranealmente en los hombres, mientras que la L2 mostró la orientación más craneal en las mujeres. En ambos sexos L5 fue la vértebra más orientada caudalmente. Este estudio proporciona una base de datos para la morfometría vertebral en la población jordana, donde existen ligeras diferencias entre el lado derecho e izquierdo en las vértebras superiores estudiadas (T11-L2). Algunas mediciones mostraron diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres. Estos hallazgos deben tenerse en cuenta al insertar tornillos pediculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Jordan , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1651-1656, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134493

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Although molecular techniques evolved considerably in last years, anthropological methods of assessing skeletal remains, continues to be an important tool in the identification process in medico legal investigations. The objective of this study was to develop a discriminant function equation for estimating sex and stature using several measurements of lumbar vertebrae in a Thai population. We studied 150 lumbar columns (75 male and 75 female) age range of 22 to 89 years from the Forensic Osteology Research Center, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The quantitative variables with sex were analyzed by the discriminant function analysis and that with stature were calculated using linear regression. The pixel density of the major axis of the trabecular surface of superior endplate of the first lumbar vertebra had the most accuracy in sex determination. The regression equation with quantitative variables in stature estimation described 32.3 % of the total variance with standard error of estimate of 7.736 cm. Lumbar vertebrae can be used as part of the stature and sex quantitatively and qualitatively estimating in Thais incomplete skeletal remains.


RESUMEN: Los métodos antropológicos de evaluación del esqueleto siguen siendo una herramienta importante en el proceso de identificación en las investigaciones médico-legales. El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar una ecuación de función discriminante para estimar el sexo y la estatura utilizando varias medidas de las vértebras lumbares en una población tailandesa. Se estudiaron 150 columnas lumbares (75 hombres y 75 mujeres) con un rango etario de 22 a 89 años del Centro de Investigación de Osteología Forense, Universidad de Chiang Mai, Tailandia. Las variables cuantitativas de sexo se analizaron mediante el análisis de función discriminante y la estatura fue calculada mediante regresión lineal. En cuanto a la determinación de sexo, la densidad de píxeles del eje mayor de superficie trabecular de la placa terminal superior de la primera vértebra lumbar fue de mayor precisión. La ecuación de regresión con variables cuantitativas en la estimación de la estatura describió el 32,3 % de la varianza total con el error estándar de estimación de 7,736 cm. Las vértebras lumbares se pueden utilizar como parte de la estatura y el sexo, estimando cuantitativa y cualitativamente los restos esqueléticos incompletos en sujetos tailandeses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Body Height , Sex Determination by Skeleton/methods , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Thailand , Discriminant Analysis , Linear Models , Forensic Anthropology , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1078-1086, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973488

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To validate the porcine spine as a model for learning and practicing transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar procedures (TF-PELP). Methods: TF-PELP was performed in three porcine cadaver lumbar spine levels. Anatomical features of the current cadaver were compared to human and porcine spines. Performance and documentation of endoscopic procedures were described. Results: This study shows that this representative animal model reflects anatomical characteristics of the human spine. Transforaminal approaches were successfully completed. Although lower disc heights make disc puncture more difficult, the outside-in technique is feasible and more useful to identify anatomical parameters and to practice different surgical steps and maneuvers. Conclusion: This is an effective and representative model for learning and practicing this procedure. Difficulties of the procedure, as well as the differences compared to the human spine, were described.


Subject(s)
Animals , Models, Animal , Endoscopy/education , Endoscopy/methods , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Swine , Cadaver , Reproducibility of Results , Diskectomy, Percutaneous/education , Diskectomy, Percutaneous/methods , Endoscopy/instrumentation , Anatomic Landmarks , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Needles
4.
Actual. osteol ; 14(3): 184-189, sept. - dic. 2018. graf., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052406

ABSTRACT

Las fracturas vertebrales osteoporóticas son más frecuentes en la mujer. El segmento toracolumbar es el preferentemente comprometido, en especial las vértebras D11 a L2, mientras que L4 contribuye en una proporción mínima a este evento. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar si el menor tamaño de las vértebras lumbares en las mujeres con respecto a los varones, involucra a todas las vértebras por igual o solamente a las que con más frecuencia se fracturan. Se analizaron en forma aleatoria las densitometrías óseas (DXA) de la región lumbar de 48 mujeres y 45 varones adultos. Se consideró el ancho del segmento L1-L2 (S L1-L2) y de L4 como un subrogado del área de sus cuerpos vertebrales. Resultados: ancho S L1-L2 Hombres: 4,32 ± 0,33 cm; Mujeres: 3,78 ± 0,23 cm, p < 0,001. Ancho L4 Hombres: 5 ± 0,37 cm; Mujeres: 4,66 ± 0,38 cm, p < 0,001. Diferencia de L4 menos S L1-L2: Hombres: 0,69 ± 0,25 cm, Mujeres: 0,88 ± 0,27 cm p < 0,001. Ancho relativo (S L1-L2/L4): Hombres: 0,86 ± 0,04, Mujeres 0,81 ± 0,04 p <0,001. Conclusiones: en el presente estudio observamos, en consonancia con lo ya conocido, que las mujeres tienen en promedio vértebras más pequeñas que los hombres. La diferencia de tamaño no es uniforme en las vértebras lumbares, siendo el segmento L1-L2 particularmente menor comparado con L4. Estas diferencias estructurales entre mujeres y hombres deben ser consideradas para explicar, dentro del contexto multifactorial de las fracturas vertebrales, la mayor incidencia de éstas en el sexo femenino, en particular de L1 y L2. (AU)


Vertebral fractures occur most frequently in thoracolumbar region, especially D11- L2, while L4 contributes minimally to this event. That cannot be explained by differences in loading during daily activities or bone quality between vertebrae. Differences exist in vertebral size. The aim of the study was to evaluate in female lumbar spines if vertebrae which most frequently fracture are smaller than L4. We analyzed BMD (DXA) of 48 women (W) and 45 men (M). The width of the segment L1-L2 (S L1-L2) and of L4 was considered a surrogate of vertebral bodies Results: Width S L1-L2: Men: 4,32 ± 0,33 cm; Women: 3,78 ± 0,23 cm, p < 0,001. Width L4: Men: 5 ± 0.37; Women: 4,66 ± 0,38 cm, p < 0,001. Difference between L4 and S L1-L2: Men: 0,69 ± 0,25cm, Women: 0,88 ± 0,27 cm p < 0,001. Relative width (S L1-L2/L4) Men: 0,86 ± 0,04 Women: 0,81 ± 0,04 p <0,001. Conclusions: the study shows, as already known, that women have smaller vertebrae than men. The differences are not uniform in the lumbar spine, L1 and L2 being particularly smaller compared to L4. These structural differences between women and men should be considered to explain, within the multifactorial context of vertebral fractures, the greater incidence in female, particularly L1 and L2. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Anthropometry/methods , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Menopause , Sex Factors , Spinal Fractures/physiopathology , Spinal Fractures/epidemiology , Sex Characteristics , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1553-1559, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893168

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study represents a morphometric assessment of the anterior segment of the lumbar spine, focused on the vertebral body - intervertebral disk assembly, calculating some specific indicators and then completing direct morphometry data with the data resulting from the imaging interpretation and subsequently correlating the same to map an anatomic-imaging model. The study was carried out with anatomic items from personal archive and images obtained from Computer Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) assessment. The morphometric assessment was carried out for intervertebral disks, the disk height in the anterior and posterior sections and correlated with the disk angle degree. Direct morphometric data was compared and correlated with the data resulting from the imaging interpretation. Direct morphometric assessment was carried out for 11 vertebral blocks; the vertebral blocks were sectioned and turned into 22 vertebral semi-blocks allowing easy access to absolutely all dimensional values pursued, including the ones covered by the posterior arc. The assessment of imaging data was made with CT, CT 3D and MRI investigations from the 120 subjects in the study. The disk sizes were assessed by direct measurements on the anatomic items and directly measured by means of the software for modern imaging examination. In case of significant differences between the vertebral bodies, the calculation of disk sizes was made indirectly, on grounds of the geometric interpretation of the vertebral body face sizes. The vertebral body / intervertebral disk (IVD) assembly represents a dynamic structure, permanently subject to changes and adaptation, IVD being capable of incurring changes for the entire life time, including growth changes; the growth, however, is not lineal, but a succession of thickening and getting thinner, in full concordance with the structural stresses and changes occurring inside.


RESUMEN: El estudio representa una evaluación morfométrica del segmento anterior de la columna lumbar, centrado en el conjunto del cuerpo vertebral - disco intervertebral, calculando algunos indicadores específicos y completando los datos morfométricos directos. El objetivo del trabajo fue mapear un modelo de imagen anatómica con los datos de la interpretación de la imagen, posteriormente correlacionando los datos. El estudio se llevó a cabo con artículos anatómicos de archivos personales y de las imágenes obtenidas de tomografía computarizada (TC) y resonancia magnética (RM) de evaluación. La evaluación morfométrica se realizó en los discos intervertebrales, la altura del disco en las secciones anterior y posterior y se correlacionó con el grado del ángulo del disco. Se compararon los datos morfométricos directos y se correlacionaron con los datos resultantes de la interpretación de la imagen. Se realizó una evaluación morfométrica directa de 11 bloques vertebrales; Los bloques vertebrales se seccionaron y se convirtieron en 22 semibloques vertebrales permitiendo el fácil acceso a todos los valores dimensionales, incluyendo aquellos cubiertos por el arco posterior. La evaluación de los datos de imagen se realizó en 120 sujetos con CT, CT 3D y MRI. Los tamaños de los discos se evaluaron mediante medidas directas de los elementos anatómicos y se midieron con el software para la examinación de imágenes. En caso de diferencias significativas entre los cuerpos vertebrales, el cálculo de los tamaños de los discos se realizó indirectamente, debido a la interpretación geométrica de los tamaños de la cara del cuerpo vertebral. El conjunto cuerpo vertebral / disco intervertebral (CVDV) representa una estructura dinámica, permanentemente sujeta a transformaciones y adaptación, siendo (CVDV) capaz de incurrir en cambios durante toda la vida, incluyendo aquellos relacionados con crecimiento. El crecimiento, sin embargo, no es lineal, sino una sucesión de engrosamiento y adelgazamiento, en plena concordancia con las tensiones estructurales y los cambios que se producen en su interior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intervertebral Disc/anatomy & histology , Intervertebral Disc/diagnostic imaging , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(4): 401-407, Apr. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895426

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe the number of thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae in tridactyla through radiographic examinations associated with gross anatomy determination. For this purpose, 12 adult specimens of M. tridactyla were analyzed, assigned to the Screening Center of Wild Animals (CETAS), IBAMA-GO, and approved by the Ethics Committee on the Use of Animals (Process CEUA-UFG nr 018/2014). In the radiographic examinations the following numbers of thoracic (T) and lumbar (L) vertebrae were observed: 16Tx2L (n=7), 15Tx2L (n=3), and 15Tx3L (n=2). In contrast, the numbers of vertebrae identified by anatomical dissection were as follows: 16Tx2L (n=4), 15Tx2L (n=3), and 15Tx3L (n=5). This difference occurred in cases of lumbarization of thoracic vertebrae, as seen in three specimens, and was explained by changes in regional innervations identified by anatomical dissection and the presence of floating ribs (right unilateral=1, left unilateral=1 and bilateral=1), which were not identified by radiographic exams. Regarding the sacral vertebrae there was no variation depending on the methods used, which allowed the identification of 4 (n=1) or 5 (n=11) vertebrae. Thus, we concluded that there is variation in the number of thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae, in addition to lumbarization, which must be considered based on the presence of floating ribs, in this species.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever o número de vértebras torácicas, lombares e sacrais em Myrmecophaga tridactyla por meio de exames radiográficos e por contagem anatômica. Foram analisados ​​doze espécimes adultos de M. tridactyla oriundos do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (CETAS), IBAMA-GO, após aprovação pela Comissão de Ética no Uso de Animais (Processo CEUA-UFG no. 018/2014). Nos exames radiográficos, foram observados os seguintes números de vertebras torácicas (T) e lombares (L): 16Tx2L (n=7), 15Tx2L (n=3), e 15Tx3L (n=2). Em contraste, o número de vértebras identificados através de dissecção anatómica foram como se segue: 16Tx2L (n=4), 15Tx2L (n=3), e 15Tx3L (n=5). Essa diferença ocorreu em casos de lombarização da vertebra torácica, como visto em três exemplares e, foi explicada por mudanças nas inervações regionais identificadas por meio de dissecção anatômica e a presença de costelas flutuantes (unilateral direita=1, unilateral esquerda=1 e bilateral=1) que não foram identificados por meio de exame radiográfico. Em relação ao número de vértebras sacrais não houve variação dos métodos utilizados, sendo que ambos permitiram a identificação de quatro (n=1) ou 5 (n=11) vértebras. Assim, concluiu-se que há variação no número de vértebras torácicas, lombares e sacrais, devido à lombarização, que devem ser consideradas com base na presença de costelas flutuantes nesta espécie.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sacrococcygeal Region/anatomy & histology , Thoracic Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Xenarthra/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Radiography/veterinary
7.
Coluna/Columna ; 15(4): 287-289, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828612

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the morphological parameters of magnetic resonance in patients with congenital narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal with patients with low back pain. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective, observational study was conducted with measurements in the axial and sagittal magnetic resonance sections of the vertebral body and canal of the lumbar spine of 64 patients with diagnosis of low back pain, which were compared with resonance images taken from 31 Mexican patients with congenital narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal. Results: The results show that patients with congenital narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal in the axial sections have a difference in diameters, being L2<13.9 mm, L3<13.3 mm, L4<12.9 mm, L5<13.1 mm, compared with controls L2<20.5 mm, L3<20.5 mm, L4<19.3 mm, L5<18.1 mm with p = 0.000. Conclusions: We found different measurements in the Mexican population compared to those found by similar studies. With the parameters obtained, it would be possible to make the proper diagnosis, surgical planning, and treatment.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os parâmetros morfológicos de ressonância magnética de pacientes com estreitamento congênito do canal lombar com os pacientes com lombalgia. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, observacional, com medições nos cortes axiais e sagitais de ressonância magnética do corpo e do canal vertebral da coluna lombar de 64 pacientes com diagnóstico de lombalgia, os quais foram comparados com ressonâncias feitas em 31 pacientes com diagnóstico de estreitamento congênito de canal vertebral lombar na população mexicana. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos mostram que os pacientes com estreitamento congênito do canal vertebral lombar apresentam, nos cortes axiais, uma diferença com relação aos diâmetros, sendo em L2 < 13,9 mm, L3 < 13,3 mm, L4 < 12,9 mm, L5 < 13,1 mm, em comparação com os controles L2 < 20,5 mm, L3 < 20,5 mm, L4 < 19,3 mm, L5 < 18,1 mm com p = 0,000. Conclusões: Foram encontradas distintas medições na população mexicana em comparação com outros estudos similares. Com os parâmetros obtidos será possível realizar o diagnóstico adequado, planejamento cirúrgico e tratamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Comparar parámetros morfológicos en resonancia magnética nuclear de pacientes con estrechamiento congénito del conducto lumbar con pacientes con lumbalgia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, observacional, con mediciones en cortes axiales y sagitales del cuerpo y conducto vertebral en resonancias magnéticas de columna lumbar de 64 pacientes con diagnóstico de lumbalgia y se comparó con resonancias magnéticas de 31 pacientes diagnosticados con estrechamiento congénito del conducto lumbar en población mexicana. Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que los pacientes con estenosis lumbar congénita presentan, en cortes axiales, una diferencia en cuanto a los diámetros, siendo en L2 < 13,9 mm, L3 < 13,3 mm, L4 < 12,9 mm, L5 < 13,1 mm en comparación a los controles L2 < 20,5 mm, L3 < 20,5 mm, L4 < 19,3 mm, L5 < 18,1 mm con una p = 0,000. Conclusiones: Encontramos distintas mediciones en población mexicana comparado a otros estudios similares. Con estos parámetros obtenidos se podrá realizar un adecuado diagnóstico, planeación quirúrgica y tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Spinal Canal/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Anthropometry , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(4): 1345-1351, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840891

ABSTRACT

Lumbar vertebral dimensions provide vital clinical information of immense diagnostic benefits to medical experts. The present study provides data for lumbar vertebral dimensions of a cohort of specimens of South African females and males. Measurements were obtained from lumbar vertebrae from the osteological collections in the Discipline of Clinical Anatomy, Nelson Mandela School of Medicine using a digital caliper. The antero-posterior body diameter (APD), interpedicular distance (IPD), midsagittal diameter (MSD) and pedicle length (PL) were measured while ratio of MSD to APD was calculated. Results showed gradual increase from L1 to L5 for mean APD and IPD, and a decrease for mean PL from L1 to L5. Mean MSD was observed to present a "U" curve pattern from L1 to L5, while MSD/APD ratio decreased from L2 downwards. We report that certain lumbar dimensions also showed significant correlation with age at distinct lumbar levels. The present data provides a baseline of lumbar vertebral morphology for the South African adult cohort and requires further investigations with larger cohort.


Las dimensiones lumbares vertebrales proporcionan información vital en la clínica para alcanzar un diagnóstico correcto. El presente estudio proporciona datos de las dimensiones vertebrales lumbares en una cohorte de hombres y mujeres de Sudáfrica. Las mediciones de las vértebras lumbares se obtuvieron de colecciones osteológicas correspondientes a la Cátedra de Anatomía Clínica, de la Escuela de Medicina Nelson Mandela. Se utilizó un calibrador digital. Se midieron el diámetro antero-posterior del cuerpo vertebral (DPA), la distancia interpedicular (DIP), el diámetro sagital mediano (DSM) y la longitud del pedículo (LP); y se calculó la relación de DSM con DPA. Los resultados mostraron un aumento gradual de L1 a L5 para la mediana de DPA y DIP, y una disminución de la media de LP de L1 a L5. La media de DSM presentó un patrón de curva en "U" de L1 a L5, mientras que el índice DSM / DPA disminuyó de L2 hacia inferior. Ciertas dimensiones lumbares también mostraron una correlación significativa con la edad en los distintos niveles lumbares. El presente estudio proporciona datos acerca de la morfología vertebral lumbar para una cohorte de adultos de Sudáfrica, y consideramos que se requieren de más investigaciones con una cohorte más amplia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Sex Factors , South Africa
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(2): 620-627, June 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787046

ABSTRACT

Vascular structures are in greater danger during lumbar surgery. The purpose of this study is to describe the morphology of the inferior vena cava (IVC) related to the lumbar vertebra and aortic bifurcation (AB) and assessing the role of demographic values in these relations to decrease the risk of complications in the surgical interventions. The study was performed on Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) images of 100 male and 100 female cases with an age range from 50 to 84 years. The morphometric values of the IVC obtained from the coronal, sagittal and the axial reformatted images were measured and compared with the demographic values. The distance from the IVC to the 1st lumbar vertebra (L1) and 2nd lumbar vertebra (L2) were measured as (26.5 mm and 18.1 mm) in males and (21.1 mm and 14.2 mm) in females with a high level of significance between genders; the distance from the IVC to the iliocaval confluence (IC), 3rd lumbar vertebra (L3) and 4rd lumbar vertebra (L4) were measured as (6.5 mm, 10.5 mm and 6.9 mm) in males and (4.9 mm, 9.1 mm and 5.5 mm) in females with significance between genders. The level of the IC was detected 46 % of males, 39 % of females at the level of lower third of L4. The vertical distance between the IC and the AB was measured and negative correlation between genders based on age was detected. Demographic values are important to consider the relationship of the IVC, the lumbar vertebra and the AB. The IVC was located further from the lumbar vertebra in males compared to females. Age increase played role in the approaching of the AB and the IC to each other in both gender and the IC to the promontory level in males.


Las estructuras vasculares corren gran peligro durante la cirugía lumbar. El propósito de este estudio fue describir la morfología de la vena cava inferior (VCI) en relación con las vértebras lumbares y la bifurcación aórtica (BA), junto con evaluar los valores demográficos de estas relaciones para disminuir el riesgo de complicaciones en las intervenciones quirúrgicas. Se utilizaron tomografías computadorizadas multidetector (TCMD) de 100 casos de hombres y mujeres entre 50 a 84 años de edad. Los valores morfométricos de la VCI se obtuvieron desde imágenes coronales y sagitales reformateadas, medidas y comparadas con los valores demográficos. Se midió la distancia de la VCI a la 1a (L1) y 2a vértebra lumbar (L2), en hombres de 26,5 mm y 18,1 mm respectivamente, y en mujeres de 21,1 mm y 14,2 mm, respectivamente, con un alto nivel de significancia entre el sexos. La distancia desde la VCI a la confluencia iliocava (CI), 3a (L3) y 4a vértebra lumbar (L4) fue para los hombres de 6,5 mm, 10,5 mm y 6,9 mm, respectivamente, y en mujeres de 4,9 mm, 9,1 mm y 5,5 mm respectivamente, con significancia entre los sexos. El nivel de la IC se detectó en 46 % de los varones y en el 39 % de las mujeres, a nivel de tercio inferior de L4. La distancia vertical entre la CI y la BA se tuvo una correlación negativa entre sexos en base a la edad. Los valores demográficos son importantes al considerar la relación de la VCI, las vértebras lumbares y la BA. La VCI se encuentra a una distancia mayor de las vértebras lumbares en hombres que en mujeres. El incremento de la edad jugó un papel importante en la aproximación de la BA y la IC, tanto entre sí como según sexo, con la CI a nivel del promontorio en los hombres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta, Abdominal/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Vena Cava, Inferior/anatomy & histology , Aorta, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging
10.
J. vasc. bras ; 14(1): 10-15, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744455

ABSTRACT

There is a growing demand for invasive procedures involving the inferior vena cava, in particular for placement of vena cava filters. It is not always easy to identify the more distal renal vein with cavography, for safe release of filters. OBJECTIVES: To determine parameters for the relationships between the renal veins and the infrarenal vena cava and their corresponding vertebral bodies, their relationships with biotype and the occurrence of anatomic variations, the relationships between vertebral bodies and the bifurcation of the common iliac veins and the distance from this bifurcation to the outflow of the more distal renal vein, with reference to placement of vena cava filters. METHODS: A total of 150 abdominal computed tomography scans conducted from October to November 2011 were analyzed and classified according to the biotype exhibited (using Charpy's angle). Scans were performed at MEDIMAGEM and analyzed at the Integrated Vascular Surgery Service, both part of Hospital da Beneficência Portuguesa in São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: In 127 of the 150 scans analyzed (84.66%), the more distal renal vein emerged between the first lumbar intervertebral space (L1-L2) and the body of L2, irrespective of patient biotype. Just 23 patients (15.33%) exhibited a more distal renal vein with outflow below the body of L2, i.e. in the projection of the space between L2 and L3. CONCLUSIONS: The radiological correlation between the confluence of the more distal renal vein and vertebral bodies exhibits little variation, irrespective of the biotype of the patient...


Há uma demanda crescente por procedimentos invasivos que abordam a veia cava inferior, especialmente o implante de filtros de veia cava. A identificação da veia renal mais caudal para a liberação segura do filtro nem sempre é fácil durante a cavografia. OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer parâmetros da relação das veias renais e da cava infrarrenal com o corpo vertebral correspondente, sua relação com a biotipologia, presença de variações anatômicas, relação dos corpos vertebrais com a bifurcação das veias ilíacas comuns para a veia cava e distância desta bifurcação até a desembocadura da veia renal mais caudal, visando à implantação de filtro de veia cava. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 150 tomografias computadorizadas de abdome no período entre outubro e novembro de 2011, tendo sido agrupadas de acordo com o biotipo apresentado (ângulo de Charpy). As tomografias forem realizadas na MEDIMAGEM e analisadas no Serviço de Cirurgia Vascular Integrada, ambas da Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo. RESULTADOS: Dos 150 exames analisados, 127 (84,66%) apresentaram a emergência da veia renal mais caudal desde a projeção do primeiro espaço intervertebral lombar (L1-L2) até o corpo de L2, independentemente do biotipo do paciente. Somente 23 pacientes (15,33%) apresentaram a desembocadura da veia renal mais caudal abaixo do corpo de L2, ou seja, na projeção do espaço entre L2 e L3. CONCLUSÕES: A correlação radiológica da confluência da veia renal mais distal em relação aos corpos vertebrais apresenta pouca variação, independentemente do biotipo do paciente...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vena Cava Filters/adverse effects , Vena Cava, Superior , Renal Veins , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 258-266, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187063

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of spinal and paraspinal anatomic markers in both the diagnosis of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTVs) and identification of vertebral levels on lumbar MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lumbar MRI from 1049 adult patients were studied. By comparing with the whole-spine localizer, the diagnostic errors in numbering vertebral segments on lumbar MRI were evaluated. The morphology of S1-2 disc, L5 and S1 body, and lumbar spinous processes (SPs) were evaluated by using sagittal MRI. The positions of right renal artery (RRA), superior mesenteric artery, aortic bifurcation (AB) and conus medullaris (CM) were described. RESULTS: The diagnostic error for evaluation of vertebral segmentation on lumbar MRI alone was 14.1%. In lumbarization, all patients revealed a well-formed S1-2 disc with squared S1 body. A rhombus-shaped L5 body in sacralization and a rectangular-shaped S1 body in lumbarization were found. The L3 had the longest SP. The most common sites of spinal and paraspinal structures were: RRA at L1 body (53.6%) and L1-2 disc (34.1%), superior mesenteric artery at L1 body (55.1%) and T12-L1 disc (31.6%), and AB at L4 body (71.1%). CM had variable locations, changing from the T12-L1 disc to L2 body. They were located at higher sacralization and lower lumbarization. CONCLUSION: The spinal morphologic features and locations of the spinal and paraspinal structures on lumbar MRI are not completely reliable for the diagnosis of LSTVs and identification on the vertebral levels.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anatomic Landmarks/anatomy & histology , Aorta, Abdominal/anatomy & histology , Diagnostic Errors , Intervertebral Disc/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Lumbosacral Region , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/anatomy & histology , Renal Artery/anatomy & histology , Reproducibility of Results , Sacrum/anatomy & histology , Spinal Cord/anatomy & histology , Spine
12.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 63(3): 245-248, maio-jun. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-675839

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A palpação foi demonstrada não ser muito precisa para identificar espaços interespinhosos lombares em anestesia neuroaxial. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a precisão para determinar os espaços interespinhosos lombares pela palpação por anestesiologistas com o uso de radiografias pós-operatórias em pacientes obstétricas. MÉTODOS: Revisamos os registros anestésicos e as radiografias abdominais pós-operatórias de cesarianas. Inserimos o cateter epidural para analgesia pós-operatória com dose única. Incluímos casos de anestesia combinada raqui-peridural e comparamos o nível interespinhoso registrado pelo anestesiologista e o nível de inserção do cateter peridural confirmado pela radiografia abdominal de cada caso. Também avaliamos os fatores (idade, peso, altura, Índice de Massa Corporal, idade gestacional e tipo de cirurgia [programada/emergência]) que levaram à identificação errônea do nível interespinhoso. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 835 cesarianas de 967 feitas. Os níveis das punções documentados pelos anestesiologistas estavam de acordo com os níveis reais de inserção dos cateteres em 563 casos (67%). Quando os anestesiologistas objetivaram identificar o nível L2-3, descobrimos que a inserção do cateter foi em L1-2 em cinco casos (4,9%), dos quais nenhum apresentou qualquer déficit neurológico pós-operatório. Nenhuma das variáveis avaliadas estava significativamente associada à identificação errônea do nível interespinhoso pelos anestesiologistas. CONCLUSÃO: Houve uma discrepância entre o nível estimado pela palpação dos anestesiologistas e o nível real de inserção do cateter mostrado nas radiografias. Parece ser mais seguro escolher o nível interespinhoso L3-4, ou mais baixo, em raquianestesia.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Palpation has been shown to be rather inaccurate at identifying lumbar interspinous spaces in neuraxial anesthesia. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of the determination of the lumbar interspinous spaces by anesthesiologist's palpation using post-operative X-rays in obstetric patients. METHODS: We reviewed the anesthetic record and the post-operative abdominal X-rays of the cesarean sections. We indwelled the epidural catheter for post-operative one-shot analgesia. We included combined spinal and epidural anesthesia cases and compared the interspinous level which the anesthesiologist recorded and the epidural catheter insertion level confirmed by abdominal X-ray for each case. We also evaluated the factors (age, body weight, height, Body Mass Index, gestational age, and the type of surgery [planned / emergency]) leading to misidentification of interspinous level. RESULTS: Nine hundred and sixty seven cesarean sections were performed and a total of 835 cases were evaluated. The levels of the puncture documented by the anesthesiologists were in agreement with the actual catheter insertion levels in 563 (67%) cases. When the anesthesiologists aimed at L2-3 level, we found the catheter insertion at L1-2 in 5 cases (4.9%), none of which had any post-operative neurological deficits. No variables evaluated were significantly associated with misidentification of interspinous level by the anesthesiologists. CONCLUSIONS: There was a discrepancy between the anesthesiologists' estimation by palpation and the actual catheter insertion level shown in X-rays. It seems to be safer to choose the interspinous level L3-4 or lower in spinal anesthesia.


JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Está comprobado que la palpación no es muy exacta para identificar los espacios interespinosos lumbares en la anestesia neuroaxial. El objetivo de este estudio, fue evaluar la precisión para determinar los espacios interespinosos lumbares a través de la palpación por anestesiólogos con el uso de radiografías postoperatorias de pacientes obstétricas. MÉTODOS: Revisamos los registros anestésicos y las radiografías abdominales postoperatorias de cesáreas. Insertamos el catéter epidural para la analgesia postoperatoria con una dosis única. Incluimos casos de anestesia combinada raqui-epidural y comparamos el nivel interespinoso registrado por el anestesiólogo y el nivel de inserción del catéter epidural confirmado por la radiografía abdominal de cada caso. También evaluamos los factores (edad, peso, altura, Índice de Masa Corporal, edad gestacional y tipo de cirugía [programada/emergencia]), que que levaram à identifi cação errônea do nível interespinhoso. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 835 cesáreas de las 967 que se hicieron. Los niveles de las punciones documentados por los anestesiólogos estaban a tono con los niveles reales de inserción de los catéteres en 563 casos (67%). Cuando los anestesiólogos quisieron identificar el nivel L2-3, descubrimos que la inserción del catéter fue en L1-2 en cinco casos (4,9%), de los cuales ninguno tuvo ningún déficit neurológico postoperatorio. Ninguna de las variables evaluadas estaba significativamente asociada con la identificación equivocada del nivel interespinoso por los anestesiólogos. CONCLUSIONES: Hubo una discrepancia entre el nivel estimado por la palpación de los anestesiólogos y el nivel real de inserción del catéter mostrado en las radiografías. Parece ser más seguro escoger el nivel interespinoso L3-4, o más bajo, en raquianestesia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Anesthesia, Obstetrical , Cesarean Section , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae , Palpation , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(1): 351-355, mar. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676179

ABSTRACT

Literature related to the study of interspinous ligament in the lumbar region is sparse. Very few studies have elucidated the fibre orientation of this ligament at different lumbar levels. Male (19) and female (6) cadavers were dissected to expose the interspinous ligaments beneath all the lumbar vertebrae. Fibre attachments and directions were observed at all lumbar interspinous spaces. Thicknesses of the ligaments were measured at all levels. Interspinous ligament fibres were found to be oriented differently in the lumbar inter-spinous spaces. In the upper spaces the fibres were more horizontal. In the spaces beneath L3 and L4, fibres were curved and extended postero-superiorly. Fibres were thicker in the ligaments at the lower spaces in comparison to the upper ones. The mean thicknesses presented as: Upper (0.22 mm); Middle (0.37 mm) and L5-S1 (0.72 mm). Ligaments in the females were slightly thinner in comparison to the males. Fibres of inter-spinous ligaments were also found to attach to the inner aspects of the supraspinous ligament. Ligaments at L5-S1 junction were relatively vertical and stronger. None of the specimen demonstrated absence or cavitations of these ligaments except in a case with bi-laminar ligament at the L3-L4 level. The anatomy of the interspinous ligaments points to their probable role in graded restricting of acute flexion at the lumbar spine.


La literatura relacionada con el estudio del ligamento interespinoso en la región lumbar es escasa. Pocos estudios han permitido comprender la orientación de las fibras de este ligamento en diferentes niveles lumbares. Fueron disecados cadáveres de 19 hombres 6 y mujeres para exponer los ligamentos interespinosos debajo de las vértebras lumbares. La unión de las fibras y su dirección se observó en todos los espacios interespinosos lumbares. El grosor de los ligamentos se midieron en todos los niveles. Las fibras del ligamento interespinoso se encontró orientada de manera diferente en los espacios lumbares interespinosos. En los dos espacios superiores las fibras eran más horizontales. En los dos espacios centrales (por debajo de L3 y L4) las fibras se curvaban y extendían postero-superiormente. Las fibras eran más gruesas en los ligamentos de los espacios inferiores en comparación con los superiores. La media de espesor presentada por región fue: Alta (0,22 mm), Medio (0,37 mm) y L5-S1 (0,72 mm). Los ligamentos en mujeres fueron ligeramente más delgados. También se observó que las fibras de los ligamentos interespinosas se adhieren a las superficies internas del ligamento supraespinoso. La unión de los ligamentos en L5-S1 eran relativamente más verticales y robustas. En ningún caso se observó ausencia o cavitaciones de los ligamentos, excepto en un caso con ligamento bilaminar a nivel L3-L4. La anatomía de los ligamentos interespinosos señala su probable rol en la restricción de la flexión aguda en la columna lumbar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Ligaments/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Biomechanical Phenomena , Cadaver , Lumbosacral Region
14.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 44-48, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Selective lumbar nerve root block (SNRB) is generally accepted as an effective treatment method for back pain with sciatica. However, it requires devices producing radioactive materials such as C-arm fluoroscopy. This study evaluated the usefulness of the longitudinal view of transverse process and needles for medial branch block as landmarks under ultrasonography. METHODS: We performed selective nerve root block for 96 nerve roots in 61 patients under the guidance of ultrasound. A curved probe was used to identify the facet joints and transverse processes. Identifying the lumbar nerve roots under the skin surface and ultrasound landmarks, the cephalad and caudal medial branch blocks were undertaken under the transverse view of sonogram first. A needle for nerve root block was inserted between the two transverse processes under longitudinal view, while estimating the depth with the needle for medial branch block. We then injected 1.0 mL of contrast medium and checked the distribution of the nerve root with C-arm fluoroscopy to evaluate the accuracy. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to access the clinical results. RESULTS: Seven SNRBs were performed for the L2 nerve root, 15 for L3, 49 for L4, and 25 for L5, respectively. Eighty-six SNRBs (89.5%) showed successful positioning of the needles. We failed in the following cases: 1 case for the L2 nerve root; 2 for L3; 3 for L4; and 4 for L5. The failed needles were positioned at wrong leveled segments in 4 cases and inappropriate place in 6 cases. VAS was improved from 7.6 +/- 0.6 to 3.5 +/- 1.3 after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: For SNRB in lumbar spine, the transverse processes under longitudinal view as the ultrasound landmark and the needles of medial branch block to the facet joint can be a promising guidance.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Chronic Disease , Low Back Pain/etiology , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Nerve Block/methods , Sciatica/etiology , Spinal Stenosis/complications , Zygapophyseal Joint/anatomy & histology
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1498-1504, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100947

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: All structures of the spine, including the spinal canal, change continuously with age. The purpose of this study was to determine how the spinal canal of the lumbar spine changes with age. The L4/5 is the most common site of spinal stenosis and has the largest flexion-extension motion, whereas the T5/6 has the least motion. Therefore, we measured the spinal canal diameter and vertebral body height at T5, T6, L4, and L5 with age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of aged 40 to 77 years. We reviewed whole spine sagittal MRIs of 370 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (Group 2) and 166 herniated cervical disc (HCD) (Group 1). Each group was divided into four age groups, and demographic parameters (age, gender, height, weight, BMI), the mid-spinal canal diameter, and mid-vertebrae height at T5, T6, L4, L5 were compared. Within- and between-group comparisons were made to evaluate changes by age and correlations were carried out to evaluate the relationships between all parameters. RESULTS: Height, weight, and all radiologic parameters were significantly lower in Group 2 than Group 1. Group 1 did not show any differences, when based on age, but in Group 2, height, weight, and T6, L4, and L5 height were significantly decreased in patients in their 70's than patients in their 40's, except for spinal canal diameter. Age was associated with all parameters except spinal canal diameter. CONCLUSION: Vertebral height decreased with age, but spinal canal diameter did not change in patients with either LSS or HCD. Mid-spinal canal diameter was not affected by aging.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Age Factors , Cervical Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/pathology , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Canal/anatomy & histology , Spinal Stenosis/pathology
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 31(supl.1): 84-88, dez. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-613497

ABSTRACT

O mocó (Kerodon rupestris Wied,1820), um mamífero roedor da família Cavidae, que se assemelha bastante ao preá, é um animal altamente adaptado às condições de calor e de escassez de água e de alimento, principalmente nos períodos das grandes secas que assolam periodicamente a região do semi-árido nordestino. Verifiica-se que na literatura há escassez de dados referentes à anatomia funcional dos mocós, em especial de trabalhos envolvendo a anatomia do sistema nervoso. Visando conhecer a origem do nervo femoral junto aos forames intervertebrais, sua localização e distribuição pelo membro pélvico, a musculatura envolvida em seu trajeto, a importância desse estudo para clínica de animais silvestres e contribuir para o desenvolvimento da neuroanatomia comparada, procedeu-se esta pesquisa, na qual foram utilizados dez animais adultos de diferentes idades (4 machos e 6 fêmeas) que vieram a óbito no Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres (Cemas) da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (Ufersa). Os animais foram fiixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10 por cento e posteriormente tiveram a cavidade abdominal dissecada até a completa visualização do nervo femoral. Foram verifiicadas variações no número de vértebras lombares nos animais, entre seis (30 por cento) e sete (70 por cento) vértebras, alterando, conseqüentemente, a origem do nervo. No antímero direito, verifiicou-se que em 40 por cento dos animais o nervo femoral originava-se de ramos ventrais de L5L6, em 40 por cento de L5L6L7 e em 20 por cento de L4L5L6. Já no esquerdo 50 por cento dos exemplares o nervo femoral foi formado de raízes ventrais de L5L6, em 30 por cento de L5L6L7 e em 20 por cento de L4L5L6.


Rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris Wied, 1820), a rodent mammal from the Cavidae family is highly adapted to conditions of heat and shortage of water and food, mainly in the periods of great drought that periodically devastate the semi-arid of Northeast Brazil. In the literature, few data are found regarding the functional anatomy of the rock cavy, especially involving the anatomy of the nervous system. We aimed to investigate the origin of the femoral nerve close to the intervertebral foramina, its location and distribution for the musculature of the legs, to verify its importance to support further studies for wild animal clinics, and to contribute for the comparative neuro-anatomy. Ten adult rock cavies of different ages were used (4 males and 6 females), that had died in the Wild Animal Multiplication Center (Cemas) of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-Arid, Mossoró. After the fixation in aqueous solution of 10 percent formalin, the dissection of the abdominal cavity of the animals was accomplished for complete visualization of the femoral nerve. Variations were verified in the number of lumbar vertebrae, as seven animals (70 percent) had seven lumbar vertebrae, and three (30 percent) only six, altering the origin of the nerve. On the right side, in four animals (40 percent) the femoral nerve originated from ventral branches of L5 to L6, four (40 percent) from L5 to L7, and in two (20 percent) from L4 to L6. On the left side, in five animals (50 percent) the femoral nerve originated from the ventral branches of L5 to L6, in three (30 percent) from L5 to L7, and two (20 percent) also from L4 to L6.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild/physiology , Neuroanatomy , Rodentia/physiology , Femoral Nerve/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(3): 727-732, Sept. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-608650

ABSTRACT

El objetivo principal del estudio fue valorar la disposición sagital del raquis torácico y lumbar en bipedestación y sobre la bicicleta, en ciclistas de la categoría máster 40. Un total de 50 ciclistas máster 40 (media de edad: 44,02 +/- 2,51 años) fueron evaluados mediante el sistema Spinal Mouse en bipedestación y sobre la bicicleta en tres agarres del manillar: transversal, de manetas y bajo. En bipedestación, los valores angulares medios para el raquis torácico y lumbar fueron de 49,42 +/- 9,00 y -22,74 +/- 9,38, respectivamente. Un elevado porcentaje de los ciclistas (68 por ciento) presentaron una hipercifosis torácica, mientras que la mayoría tenían valores normales en la lordosis lumbar. Sobre la bicicleta, los ciclistas mostraron una reducción significativa de la cifosis torácica con respecto a la bipedestación, mientras que el raquis lumbar se disponía en una postura de inversión. En conclusión, la frecuente hipercifosis torácica en bipedestación de los ciclistas de la categoría máster 40 no está relacionada directamente con la postura adoptada sobre la bicicleta.


The aim of this study was to determine the sagittal spinal morphology of thoracic and lumbar spine in relaxed standing and sitting on the bycicle in master 40 cyclists. A total of 50 master 40 male cyclists (mean age: 44.02 +/- 2.51 years) were evaluated. The Spinal Mouse system was used to measure the sagittal thoracic and lumbar curve in standing and sitting on the bicycle at three different handlebar-hand positions (high, medium, and low). The values for thoracic and lumbar curvatures in standing were 49.42 +/- 9.00 and -22.74 +/- 9.38, respectively. A high frecuency of thoracic hyperkyphosis in standing was observed (68 percent). When sitting on the bicycle the thoracic curve showed lower angles in the three handlebar.hand positions that in standing. The lumbar curve adopted a kyphotic posture. The standing thoracic hyperkyphosis in master 40 cyclists may be related to other factors than the posture adopted on the bicycle.


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Bicycling/injuries , Spine/innervation , Spine/metabolism , Spine/pathology , Superior Sagittal Sinus/anatomy & histology , Superior Sagittal Sinus/physiopathology , Kyphosis/etiology , Kyphosis/physiopathology , Posture/physiology , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae/physiopathology
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 28(3): 841-847, Sept. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-577194

ABSTRACT

Anterior access to the L1-L5 vertebrae and disc spaces can be technically challenging, frequently requiring the use of an approach to a surgeon for an adequate exposure. The technique is used for lesion excision, corpectomy, vertebral body reconstruction with cages, realignment, and/or plating or screwing. For a successful anterior approach and a suitable instrumental design via screw, adequate morphometric knowledge about body of lumbar vertebrae and disc spaces and standardized volumetric data are also required for neurosurgeons. We aimed morphometric and volumetric evaluation of lumbar bodies and discs to contribute to a safe anterior approach during surgery. We evaluated vertebral body and disc morphometry using stereology in right-handed 25 adult subjects on MRI in the same population with no history of vertebral fractures and degenerative spinal disease. The shape, defining concavity index and volumetric measurements of the body L1-L5 vertebrae, morphometric parameters such as length, height, width of the vertebral body were measured. Also morphometric and volumetric analysis of discs between L1 and L5 were evaluated selected axial and sagittal slices. As expected, the average dimensions of male vertebrae are greater than those of females, but most of them do not differ statistically. Only three dimensions, the mean difference between anterior and central heights of L3, L4 and L5 showed statistically significant difference, indicating smaller central height in both males and females.The transverse and anterior-posterior diameters of the vertebral body, intervertebral disc height and volume displayed no sexual dimorphism (p>0.05). But, the intervertebral disc height and volume increased from L1 to L5 (p <0.01). Concavity indexes for all lumbar vertebrae for both sexes did not differ statistically. The method is important to estimate applying implant size and amount in decompression operations for neurosurgeons.


El acceso anterior a las vértebras L1-L5 y espacios entre los discos puede ser técnicamente difícil, con frecuencia requiere la participación de un cirujano para una exposición adecuada. La técnica se utiliza para la extirpación de la lesión, corpectomía, la reconstrucción del cuerpo vertebral con jaulas, realineamiento y / o placas o tornillos. Para un enfoque exitoso anterior y un diseño adecuado instrumental a través de tornillo, un acabado conocimiento sobre la morfometría del cuerpo de las vértebras lumbares y de los espacios entre los discos y la evaluación volumétrica son necesarias para el neurocirujano. El objetivo fue la evaluación morfométrica y volumétrica de los cuerpos lumbares y los discos, para contribuir al abordaje seguro durante la cirugía. Se evaluó en 25 sujetos adultos, diestros, sin antecedentes de fracturas vertebrales y de enfermedad degenerativa espinal, el cuerpo vertebral y la morfometría del disco mediante estereología con RM. La forma de las vértebras, el índice de concavidad y la definición de las medidas volumétricas de los cuerpos L1-L5. Además, se midieron los parámetros morfométricos como longitud, altura, ancho del cuerpo vertebral. Se efectuó un análisis morfométrico y volumétrico de loss cortes axiales y sagitales de los discos entre L1 y L5. Como era de esperar, las dimensiones promedio de las vértebras en los hombres fueron mayores que en las mujeres, pero la mayoría de ellos no son estadísticamente significativas. Sólo tres dimensiones, la diferencia promedio entre la altura anterior y central de las vertebras L3, L4 y L5 mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas, indicando menor altura central tanto en los hombres como en las mujeres. Los diámetros transversal y anteroposterior del cuerpo vertebral, la altura del disco intervertebral y el volumen no mostraron dimorfismo sexual (p> 0,05). Sin embargo, aumentaron la altura del disco intervertebral y el volumen de L1 a L5 (p< 0,01). Los índices de concavidad...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Intervertebral Disc/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Anthropometry , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 27(4): 1299-1303, dic. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-582087

ABSTRACT

It is necessary to have precise anatomical knowledge of lumbar pedicles for the safe placement of screws. There are not reports about the morphometry of lumbar pedicles in a Mexican population exist. A descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was done in 60 cadavers from the dissection lab of the Human Anatomy Department of the Medicine School. The aim of the study was to quantify the morphometric characteristics of the pedicles of the lumbar spine in a Mexican population. A total of 60 cadavers were evaluated by fluoroscopy and CT from L1 to L5, in the age range of 40 to 78 years. Each vertebral pedicle was measured in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. The measurements included the minimum pedicle width, the pedicle angle, the distance to anterior cortex, and anteroposterior and interpedicular spinal canal diameters. CT evaluation showed a progressive and gradual increase in the width of the pedicles from L1 (7.81 +/- 1.30 mm) to L5 (14.36 +/- 14.36 mm). A progressive and gradual decrease of pedicle length from L1 (20.92 +/- 2.62 mm) to L5 (17.23 +/- 1.35 mm). When fluoroscopy was used there was the same relationship, but the values were higher than those obtained by CT. The values for widths and lengths are slightly higher in males than in females, but do not reveal any significant difference (p<0.05). The data in this study indicates that pedicle screws (5.5-6.5mm) may be used in the lumbar region.


Es necesario tener un conocimiento anatómico preciso de la morfología de los pedículos en la region lumbar para la colocación segura de tornillos intrapediculares. No existen reportes de la morfometría de los pedículos lumbares en la población Mexicana. Se desarrolló un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal en 60 cadaveres en el laboratorio del Departamento de Anatomía Humana de la Facultad de Medicina. El objetivo del estudio fue determinr las características morfométricas de los pedículos de la region lumbar en una muestra de población Mexicana. Se evaluaron las regiones lumbares (L1-L5) de un total de 60 cadaveres por fluroscopía y TC en un rango de edad entre 40 y 78 años. Cada pedículo fue medido en los planos axial, sagital y coronal. La evaluacion por TC muestra un aumento progresivo y gradual de la anchura de los pedículos de L1 (7,81 +/- 1,30 mm) a L5 (14,36 +/- 14,36 mm). También se observó una disminución gradul de la longitud del pedículo de L1 (14,36 +/- 14,36 mm) a L5 (17,23 +/- 1,35 mm). Al realizar las mediciones por fluroscopia se observaron las mismas condiciones, pero los valores fueron proporcionalmente mayores que los obtenidos por TC. La anchura y longitud pedicular fueron ligeramente mayores en hombres que en mujeres, pero no revelan significancia estadística (p<0,05). Los datos obtenidos del estudio indican que los tornillos intrapediculares (5,5- 6,5mm) pueden ser utilizados en la region lumbar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Bone Screws , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae , Cadaver , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluoroscopy , Mexico , Spinal Fusion , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 27(4): 1335-1338, dic. 2009. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-582092

ABSTRACT

Durante el abordaje anterior de la región lumbosacra de la columna vertebral es necesario considerar la disposición de los vasos relacionados, evitando así cualquier lesión en ellos. La información sobre la bifurcación de la aorta referida en los textos de anatomía señalan que ésta se realiza a nivel de la cuarta vértebra lumbar. Con el propósito de identificar el nivel de bifurcación de la aorta, realizamos un estudio de registros angiotomográficos obtenidos a través de tomografia axial computarizada de 74 pacientes chilenos, adultos, de ambos sexos, 40 hombres y 34 mujeres. El nivel de bifurcación fue relacionado con los componentes de la columna vertebral, dividiendo las vértebras en tercios. En 10 pacientes (13,5 por ciento) la bifurcación se observó a nivel de la parte inferior de L3; en 17 (23 por ciento) en la parte superior de L4; en 8 (10,8 por ciento) en la parte media de L4; en 26 (35,1) en la parte inferior de L4; en 9 (12,2 por ciento) en la parte superior de L5 y en 4 (5,4 por ciento) en la parte inferior de L5.Los resultados obtenidos muestran que en la mayoría de los individuos estudiados la bifurcación de la aorta se produce a nivel de L4, existiendo menores porcentajes hacia la parte cefálica o caudal de la vértebra mencionada. Esta relación es un aporte al conocimiento anatómico de los vasos abdominales de nuestra población.


During the anterior approach of the lumbosacral spine is necessary considerate the relationships with the vascular system to prevent injuries. The classic anatomy texts describe the aortic bifurcation to level of fourth lumbar vertebra. The objective of this research was determine this level in Chilean individuals. We studied the aortic bifurcation by axial computed tomography in 74 patients, Chilean, adults, of both sexes, 40 men and 34 women. The mentioned level was related with the lumbar vertebras, dividing its body in third parts. We observed the bifurcation at level of inferior third of L3 in 10 patients (13.5 percent); in the superior third of L4 in 17 (23 percent); in the middle third of L4 in 8 (10.8 percent); in the inferior third of L4 in 26 (35.1 percent); in the superior third of L5 in 9 (12.2 percent) and in the inferior third of L5 in 4 (5.4 percent). The results shown that in 2/3 of the cases the aortic bifurcation was to L4 level, being less frequent in proximal or distal vertebras. These relationships are important for the anatomical knowledge of the abdominal vascular system of our people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aorta, Abdominal/anatomy & histology , Aorta, Abdominal , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae , Chile , Sex Characteristics , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Lumbar Vertebrae/blood supply
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